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VI.

ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY The Lungs Structure The lungs are paired (left and right), cone-shaped elastic organs take up most of the space in our chests along with the heart. role is to take oxygen into the body and to help us get rid of carbon dioxide Responsible for ventilation, which requires movement of the walls of the thoracic walls and its floor.

PLEURAE

Serous membrane lining the wall of the thorax and the lungs. Visceral pleura covers the lungs Parietal Pleura covers the wall of the thorax Both pleurae secrete pleural fluid in order to prevent friction rub between the thorax and the lungs. Allows smooth motion of the lungs in the thorax. LOBES The right lung has three lobes Upper Middle Lower The left lung has only two Upper Lower -Each lobe is further subdivided into 2 5 segments. -Separated by fissures and are extensions of the plurae BRONCHI -Several divisions in the lung Lobar Bronchi Divided into segmental bronchi (10 on the right and 8 in the left.) Chosen for the best positions in postural drainage position for the patient. Segmental Bronchi divide into subsegmental bronchi. Surrounded by connective tissue that contain arteries lymphatics and nerves. Sub Segmental Bronchi Divide into bronchioles which contain no cartilage. Bronchioles contain submucosal glands which produce mucus . Covers the inside of the airways to trap dust and debris. Bronchi and Bronchioles are lined with cilia.

Cilia functions as a whip, to get rid of foreign substances up to the larynx and out of the lungs.

ALVEOLI Lungs contain 30 million alveoli. Arranged in clusters of 15 20. 3 Types 1) Type 1 Epithelial cells that form the alveoli walls 2) Type 2 Produce Surfactant 3) Type 3 Macrophages. Blood Supply of The Lungs The lungs are very vascular organs, meaning they receive a very large blood supply. This is because the pulmonary arteries, which supply the lungs, come directly from the right side of your heart. They carry blood which is low in oxygen and high in carbon dioxide into your lungs so that the carbon dioxide can be blown out of your lungs. 2 Types of circulations involving the lungs:

Pulmonary Circulation Deoxygenated blood coming from the different systems of the body enters the right side of your heart, it is then pumped into the left and right lungs by the pulmonary arteries to be filled with oxygen. The oxygenated blood then travels to the left side of the heart by the pulmonary veins and gests ready for the systemic circulation. Systemic Circulation Oxygenated blood from the left side of the heart is then pumped into the aorta to supply nutrients and oxygen to the systems, which then makes the oxygenated blood deoxygenated. It is then drained back to the right side of the heart by the superior and inferior vena cava to once again start its circuit.

Function Of the Lungs Air enters your lungs through a system of pipes called the bronchi. start from the bottom of the trachea as the left and right bronchi and later on throughout the lungs turn into bronchioles., eventually form the little thin-walled air sacs or bubbles, known as the alveoli. The alveoli are where the important work of gas exchange takes place between the air and your blood. Covering each alveolus is a whole network of little blood vessel called capillaries: -small branches of the pulmonary arteries.

It is important that the air in the alveoli and the blood in the capillaries are very close together, so that oxygen and carbon dioxide can move (or diffuse) between them. So, when you breathe in, air comes down the trachea and through the bronchi into the alveoli. The oxygen, other gasses will travel across the walls of the alveoli into your bloodstream. Traveling in the opposite direction is carbon dioxide, which crosses from the blood in the capillaries into the air in the alveoli and is then breathed out. In this way, you bring in to your body the oxygen that you need to live, and get rid of the waste product carbon dioxide. The Diaphragm and Intercostal Muscles When you breathe in (inspiration), the diaphragm, a large, sheet-like muscle which stretches across your chest under the ribcage, does much of this work. At rest, it is shaped like a dome curving up into your chest. When you breathe in, the diaphragm contracts and flattens out, expanding the space in your chest and drawing air into your lungs. Other muscles, including the muscles between your ribs (the intercostal muscles) also help by moving your ribcage in and out. Breathing out (expiration) does not normally require your muscles to work. This is because your lungs are very elastic, and when your muscles relax at the end of inspiration your lungs simply recoil back into their resting position, pushing the air out as they go.