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Concept Teaching Workshop

Plants 1: Basic Structure and Function: Leaves, Stems, and Roots (11U)
By: Mr. Buttery

Intermediate Senior Biology II CURS4101-001

Curriculum Expectations
S1B3U: Grade 11, University Preparation

Strand: F. Plants: Anatomy, Growth, and Function

F2.1 use appropriate terminology related to plants, including, but not

limited to: mesophyll, palisade, aerenchyma, epidermal tissue, stomata, root hair, pistil, stamen, venation, auxin, and gibberellin
F3.1 describe the structures of the various types of tissues in

vascular plants, and explain the mechanisms of transport involved in the process by which materials are distributed throughout a plant (e.g., transpiration, translocation, osmosis)
F3.2 Compare and contrast monocot and dicot plants in terms of

their structures (e.g., seeds, stem, flower, root) and their evolutionary processes (i.e., how one type evolved from the other)

Learning Outcomes
By the end of this lesson, you should be able to

accomplish the following:

Describe the function and organization of plant tissue Describe the function and structure of specific plant organs Describe the three mechanisms of transport Contrast the structure of monocots and dicots

Introduction to plants
Plant Growth

Stems Leaves

Plant Review
Plants are: Multicellular Eukaryotic Autotrophic Some Simple - Mosses and ferns Some Complex Trees, flowers, etc.

Brainstorm Why should we care about plants?

How Many Plants Does it Take to Make a Fast-Food Burger?

The Typical Plant

The typical plant that we will discuss is the type of plant you are probably most familiar with: a flowering plant. This type of plant possesses four distinct organs: roots, stems, leaves and flowers.

Each part has distinct functions and is composed of tissue. Together, these parts reflect the evolutionary processes plants

underwent to solve problems associated with land based living.

How do Plants Grow?

Most plants show indeterminate growth Growing regions of plants (meristems) continue until death


Animals and some plant organs show determinate growth Their cells divide a limited number of times then stop


Annual and Perennial

Annual: A plant that completes one life cycle, from seed to reproduction Completes this life cycle over the course of one year Perennial: A plant that grows and reproduces repeatedly Lives longer then one year

Annual - Geraniums

Perennial Mint

Plant Tissue
Plant tissue is specialized for a specific function, such as

transport, storage, photosynthesis and reproduction.

The typical plant is composed of four tissues types:
Dermal tissue Meristematic tissue
Stem Apical Meristem

Vascular tissue
Ground tissue
Root Apical Meristem

Dermal Tissue
Dermal tissue makes up the outer layer of the plant, protecting

it from cuts, herbivores, infection and water loss.

Specifically the epidermis is the outermost protective layer,

like our skin.

Onion epidermal cells

In roots, certain epidermal cells are modified into root hairs

that increase the surface area of the root.

Meristematic Tissue
Unlike animal cells, plant cells divide by mitosis only in

specific regions called meristems.

Meristems give rise to all other tissues and cell types through

the process of differentiation.

Differentiation: a change in the form cell to allow it to carry out

a specialized function.

Stem Apical Meristem

Root Apical Meristem

Onion root tip mitosis



Meristematic Tissue Apical Meristems

Apical meristems are found at the tips of roots and shoots.
Encourage primary growth, increasing the length of a plant.

All flowering plants have primary growth.

Can give rise to new leaves, stems or roots through differentiation.

Meristematic Tissue Lateral Meristems

Some flowering plants possess a vascular cambium which is

responsible for lateral meristems

Growth from lateral meristems is called secondary growth Secondary growth accounts for thickening the diameter of

roots and stems (Produces wood and bark!)


REMEMBER! Structure impacts function!

Roots are structured to absorb water and minerals from the soil,

while also supporting and anchoring the plant within the soil
Roots may also possess a food storage system

(carrots, sweet potatoes etc.) Root hairs aids the acquisition of water and nutrients Roots show continuous growth at the apical meristem
Onion Grass

Root Meristematic Tissue

The root cap is produced by the root apical meristem (RAM)

and acts to protect the meristematic region of the root

Primary and Secondary Roots

Primary root: The first root developed from the seed
Secondary root: Smaller root branches growing sideways from a

primary root (also known as lateral roots)

Types of Roots - Taproots

In a taproot system, the primary root remains predominant,

although very small secondary roots may be present

Strong anchoring system and ability to store food and water
May be found in evergreen trees,

carrots, beets and turnips


Types of Roots Fibrous Roots

In a fibrous root system, the primary roots have been replaced

by many smaller, branching roots

Increases surface area, so better nutrient and water absorption Poor anchorage compared to taproots May be found in peas, beans and lettuce

Pea Root

Bean Root

Types of Roots Adventitious Roots

Each plant has a root system, some are above ground! In a adventitious root system, roots develop from a part of the

plant other then the root (unexpected)

Roots may originate from the stem, branches or leaves

There is no main root, but many small secondary branching roots

Clover plants

Time Lapse of Pea Shoot / Root Growth


Matching Roots Minigame

Carrot plant

Willow tree

Tomato plant




Root Hairs
Formed from individual epidermal cells Branch off root hairs Increase the surface area available for water and mineral absorption

2012 by M.Olaveson-UTSC

Mechanisms of Transport: Osmosis

Osmosis is responsible for a plants ability to draw water from the soil Osmosis is the spontaneous movement of water through a

semi-permeable membrane, to an area of higher solute concentration

Root hair cells are selective in the substances they uptake

(semi-permeable) and contain a higher concentration of solutes, compared to the surrounding soil (so osmosis occurs)
Through the root, water is transported upwards

Stems provide the plant with above ground support and allow

the transport of the products of photosynthesis (e.g., sucrose), water and nutrients between organs
Vascular tissue bundles are found within the stem. Like roots, stem structure relates to stem function


Snake Grass