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Kayla Muschong 3rd hour 1.

The three obstacles listed below have made it difficult for Congress to enact significant campaign finance reform. a. Buckley v. Valeo (1976) In Buckley v. Valeo, the Supreme Court ruled that a certain provision established about campaign finance reform violated free speech. The rule was that if a candidate takes money from the government to fund their campaign, then they have a limit as to how much of their own money they can use additionally. It was found that this violated free speech, as whoever is running for president has a right to exercise their rights. It was argued that campaigning to the United States is the same thing as expressing ones beliefs. Therefore, limits on how much money a presidential candidate can spend are limited by events like this that say they are unconstitutional. b. Soft money Soft money is a loop hole many supporters found in any sort of campaign finance reform, preventing the goals of these acts to be enacted. Soft money are unregulated donations by people to a candidates party, rather than the candidate. This technically does not count as a donation to a candidates campaign as it is just going to their party. Of course, however, the party will allow the candidate to use the money as that is what they want to happen too. So, since soft money is basically a tricky way to get more money to candidates, they have more influence in their campaign and they avoided the laws established in an attempt to reform campaign finance. This is because they went over their limit, and used more money than was allowed by simply getting it a different way. Because of this, campaigns are allowed to spend more money than the government wants, so soft money prevents campaign finance reform. 2. The concept of divided government in the United States means that one political party can control the executive branch while another controls the legislative branch. This poses problems for the President in making appointments to federal offices. a. Describe two problems that divided government poses for the President in making federal appointments. A divided government can prevent things from getting things done in government in many ways. First of all, when a president wants to appoint Supreme Court Justices to be appointed, Congress has to vote on it. Of course, if there are different parties in power between the executive and legislative branches, then it will be difficult for both sides to agree. Usually, since they are from different parties, congressmen from the opposite party will not agree with what the President wants since they may not have the same principles as him or whoever he is nominating. Therefore, since they are the party that occupies Congress, Congress as a whole will not agree with the President and there will be much dispute over what to do. Also, when the President wants to appoint members of his cabinet, Congress will similarly not agree. b. Identify and explain two ways presidents try to overcome the problems described in (a). 2002 The President may try to compromise with the other party, like not appointing as many Justices or cabinet members. This way, if previous cabinet members and justices were of the other party, then they can remain in power. Or, the President could try to change some of the

Kayla Muschong 3rd hour congressmens minds by waiting for a time, or arguing his choices. For example, if a party doesnt agree with another partys mindset on a particular issue, then the President could wait until that issue is settled before trying to appoint Justices or cabinet members.