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SPLIT- kingdom of Isreal/Judah(Jeroboam/Rehoboam) Jerusalem-mid of hills, near desert, stony ground, no sea Samaria-valley, sea ECON-samaria (Amos) prosperous,

Tirzah RELIG-Isreal Yahweh and Baal PROPHETS OF ISRAEL-turned to pegan gods PROPHET WRITINGS PATTERN 1.reminder of the election or Israel, exodus and covenant 2. sondemnation of the peoples rebellion against god 3.A warning on impending punishment 4.affirmation of Gods faithful love and compassion 5.promise of redemption and restoration PREVAILING THEMES 1.jsutice for the poor and oppressed 2.Faithfulness to the covenant 3.Messainsim (that god choosing someone to bring salvation) PROPHETS OF THE NOTHERN KINGDOM Elijah Whose name means YHWH is God appeared during time of king Ahab Struggled against monarchs, baal and priests Elisah Succeeded Elijah when the latter was taken into heaver aboard flaming chariot Hosea Reign of Jeroboam Very strong msg that because of peoples sins Israel will be devastated by war Compared YHWHs love for Israel like his love for his unfaithful wife YHWHs great love for Israel, never giving up despite sinfulness Amos Shepherd from Judah who traveled to the North to minister there Great scandalous and unjust divided between poor/rich Warned them, to be just KINGDOM OF JUDAH Egypt and Assyria were weak, military activity was concentrate on Canaan Damascus and Israel were attack by Assyria, force Judah to join them King of Judah, ahaz, appealed to the kinf of Assyria for help, Damascus and Israel fell King ahaz who splitted the kingdom up remained loyal to Assyria Hezekiah, his son, made an aliiance with Egypt and Babylon and rebelled against Assyria Babylonian general, Nebuchadnessar, attack Egypt. King Josiah, god king, bar against Paraoh Babylon victory opened way to Palestine, captured Jerusalem Nebuchadnezzar put a vassal king in Jerusalem, but he made an alliance with Egypt, but he found out so he captured the city and deported them . End of Judah

PROPHET OF SOUTHERN KINGDOM `kingdom of Judah composed of two tribes remained loyal to the Davidic throne They were no less sinful than the people of Israel, many kings were corrupt and idol Prophets of South: Isaiah, Micah, Zephaniah, Nahum, Habakuk, Jeremiah PROPHETS OF THE NOTHERN KINGDOM Isaiah Saw Jerusalem as a wealthy city, rich oppressed poor. Spoke strongly against the rich YAWH is not pleased with Israels agreement with other pegan gods Babylonians activity as consequence of the people idolatry Micah Preached countryside, religion of Judah was tainted by pegan influence YHWHs desire werent sacrificial/empty worships, bu treat neighbors w/mercy Prophesied about the coming of the great king of Israel from Bethlehem Zepaniah Minister to Judah during king Josiah Jadah = violence, injustice, and idolatry Coming Day of the Lord the day of Gods judgement and punishment Jeremiah King Josiah tried to restore the Israelites religion, but was killed Babylonians rise to power = YHWHs punishment Was treated as a traitor Spiritually free, serving in God Nahum and Nabakkuk Assyrian rule Nahum rejoiced fall of Naneveh end of Assyrian empire Habakkuk defeat of Assyrian oppressors by Babylon DIVIDED MONARCHY 1. No human instirution could survive without morality and justice 2. One the one true worship of YHWH and faithfulness to the covenant could bring good 3. YHWH was truly honored, the nation was truly blessed a. The defeats of North and South were interpreted as YHWH judgement BABYLONIAN EXILE Under Nebuchanezzar, Babylon conquered Assyria Jerusalem and temple were destroyed Israel lost land temple and king EXILE TO BABYLON Israelites were treated fairly in Babylon Polytheism and political faith were also threat to the Jewish faith YHWH was just another god MIRACLE OF THE EXILE

Temple and sacrifices were the thing of the past, but it was possible to meet on the Sabbath to worship god and to mediate on his word The kind was no more, but was not God the only true king of Israel The land was lost, but circumcision in the flesh could mark out the bounds of a kingdom with spiritual dimensions What we call JUDAISM came to being PROPHETS OF THE EXILE Ezekiel, temple preist, not lose hope and faith to YHWH Daniel, rose to key position in the royal court Daniel remained faithful to YHWH, apolyptical literature Obidiah fall of Edom, shortest book of te bible

The Dispora Jews who were allowed to go back to Israel did not return, but went to different places 3 MAIN CENTERS - Egypt, Babylon, Palestine PORT EXILIC PROPHETS Haggai Rebuild temple of Jerusalem instead of their homes Zechariah Destruction of enemies, Gods favor of Jerusalem New Jerusalm new temple and messaiah Joel Un stoppable wrath of YHWH and coming of judgenment Malachi When the temple has already been finished and life was more normalized. Things settled and people returning to their sinful ways Criticized improper conduct of worship (intermarriage w/foreigners) EZRA AND NEHEMIAH Two book pointed the desertion of the laf of YHWH brings disaster GREEK RULE Persian rule ended when Alexander the great rose to power. Greek influenced Jew = Hasidim people dint not reform Maccabean revolt = reconquest of Jerusalem. It resulted to 100 yeas of quasi self-rule under jewish dynasty known as Hasmonean. Jewish sects = Sadduces, Pharisses, Essenes and Zealots Hanukkah Festical of lights, 8 days ROMANS Hasmonean dynasty was ended by romans, under pompey, invaded Palestine Romans appointed Idumean Herod the Great (Edom, half jew) New testament began

SOCIETY- used to denote full communal lidfe of a given group, including its religion, culture, political, kinship and economy RELIGION- was not conceived as an entity of independent of the other aspects of society, religion was a set of symbols beliefs practices and social structures thought to be devine AGRARIAN EMPIRES- Israel was an agrarian society. People were capable of producing more than they can consume. Peasant surplus were usually taken by rish landowners, preist and governments ANCIENT SOCIETY-serve the needs of the rulig nclass, center of political economic religious and education UPPERCLASS- ruler, ruling class, retainer class(military,educ,finance,religion)merchants,preists LOWER CALSS-peasants,artisans,unclean class(mining tanning)the expendable class(bandits) DYADIC PERSONALITY-refers to a peson who defines himself/herself primarily in relation to one or more groups DIRT-out of place PURIFICATION-putting back matter in its proper place or taking where it belongs HOLINESS-amythign tht belongs to Holy god PURE-mean free of any offence to God TEMPLE-holy of holies or the most holy place ARC OF COVENANT symbol of gods presence among and covenant relationship with the people PREISHOOF AND LEVITES- those who carried out the sacrifices and entered the temple to minister ot god. Hereditary TITHING- practice of giving a tenth of agricultural products to the preists aside from the first fruits of the land SACRIFICE-practice of making it holy to give it to god ACCEPTABLE OFFERIGNS-one could offer to God what was acceptable sweet-smelling food BLOOD-used for the expiation of sins ATONEMENT-to wipe off to purge