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Spray Dryer type Asparition Pump Actual Temperature Outlet Temperature

BUCHI Mini Spray Dryer B-191 100% 20 % 180 120

Figure 1: Mini Spray Dryer B-191

Figure 2: Ginger Solution

Figure 3: Ginger Powder

Spray drying is one of the methods of producing a dry powder from a liquid or slurry form by rapidly drying with a hot gas. A consistent particle size distribution is a reason for spray drying some industrial products such as catalyst. Spray drying often is used as an encapsulation technique by the food and pharmaceutical industries. The purpose is to determine the weight of the ginger after spray dried besides is to calculate the percentage weight loss of the ginger. The mini spray dryer was use to dehydrate and crystallized the ginger solution to become powder. The solution was extracted from fresh ginger by grinding and filtering. 450 grams of ginger solution had been used during this experiment. By referring to the theory, if the samples are used in larger amount it will form of higher percentage of product. From the result, it shows that the ginger powder produce after dried is 321.6 gram from 450 gram. So the percentage of a weight lost is about 16.64% of dried ginger. From the theory of spray dry, the particles size of the ginger had been reduce because of high pressure of a hot gas were reduce the particle size and the moisture content of the ginger itself. The colours of the ginger also change into colourless, the greenish colour were turned into smooth yellow colour.

The processes occurred during the drying process while the feed was inserted; feed was finely atomized and was introduced in the drying chamber along with hot air. The mixture of atomized feed and hot air moves towards the air exhaust of drying chamber. The time taken by this mixture to travel up to air exhaust was called as residence time of drying. During this residence time, the feed droplets lose its moisture to the hot air and were converted into dry powder particles. Hot air absorbed this moisture, so its absolute humidity increases while its temperature was reduced. The feed droplets while losing its moisture to hot air remain at temperatures much below the hot air temperature and it was exposed to hot air for a very short time. Hence spray drying was essentially known as "Low Temperature Drying". The temperature of feed droplet is the wet bulb temperature at the prevailing relative humidity. This yield can increase by decreasing the air inlet temperature.

The dry powder falling on to the conical portion of drying chamber slides down to bottom of drying chamber with the assistance of vibrators/knockers and is collected in collection bag/bottle through the rotary valve located at the bottom of drying chamber. The air leaving the drying chamber entrains some of the dry powder which is recovered in the cyclone separator and collected through rotary airlock. The air leaving the cyclone separator still has traces of dry powder, which is further recovered by scrubbing in wet scrubber or passing it through bag filter.

In wet scrubber the dry powder particle are wetted by water and the resultant mixture is separated in straight cyclone. The air coming out of the straight cyclone is dust free and absolutely clean, which is exhausted to atmosphere through induced draft fan. In the bag house the exhaust air is filtered in fabric filter bags. Dust laden bags are cleaned during normal running cycle by compressed air pulse jet or vibrators or shakers.

Air from scrubber cyclone or bag house is sucked by induced draft fan. The forced draft fan at entry point of air circuit and induced draft fan at exhaust point of air circuit operate the air handling system on push-pull principle which avoids extreme pressures (either positive or vacuum) in the drying chamber, cyclone, scrubber/filter.

Spray drying is most widely used in industrial process for particle formation and drying and the product produce is in bigger capacity compared with laboratory scale. The process in the laboratory spray dryer was optimized to achieve the desired product quality. Spray drying plant comprises of a large cylindrical and vertical chamber in which large volumes of hot air is gushed continuously. This hot air supplies the required heat needed for the evaporation of liquids, which then dries the small droplets of raw materials. High quality dryers have been specially designed using standard modules that incorporate all the required features necessary for varied products and industries. There was an effect temperature inlet n outlet in the spray dryer. The inlet temperature was the temperature of the heated drying air. The drying air was sucked or blower in over a heater by the aspirator. The heated air temperature was measured prior to flowing into the drying chamber when spray drying a solution, emulsion or dispersion the solvent is removed by vaporization. The temperature of the air flow does not have to be higher than the boiling point of water to evaporate the individual drops during the short residence time. The gradient between wet surface and not saturated gas leads to an evaporation at low temperatures. The final product was separated and has no further thermal load. Meanwhile, the outlet temperature was the temperature of the air with the solid particles before entering the cyclone. This temperature was the resulting temperature of the heat and mass balance in the drying cylinder and thus cannot be regulated. Due to the intense

heat and mass transfer and the loss of humidity, the particles can be regarded to have the same temperature as the gas. Thus, as a rule of thumb is: outlet temperature = maximum product temperature. The outlet temperature will result the following parameters including Inlet temperature; Aspirator flow rate (quantity of air); Peristaltic pump setting also Concentration of the material being sprayed. In this experiment, the aspirator value is 100%. This is good for the process because the lower aspirator causing instability of the system. So, it will disturb the linear form of relationship between aspirator and outlet temperature. The higher aspirator value will cause more stable condition and results in better powder production. There are others factor that may influence the dehydration and formation of ginger powder. The concentration of the solution may affect the purity of the product. The solution that has high concentration will produce high purity of the powder with low moisture content. Lower solids concentration typically results in smaller particle size while higher solids concentration or viscosity will produce a larger particle. These factors also influence throughput which dictates capacity. The low concentration of the solution usually has higher amount of the solvent. In this experiment, water is use as solvents. Different type of solvents will affected the yield of the product such as benzene. Spray-dryers are sized based on their evaporative capacity for a given solvent under a specific set of conditions. Lower boiling solvents are easier to evaporate and result in higher throughputs and production capacity. Similar results are achieved with higher solids concentration in the feed solution which results in less solvent to evaporate. Some of the solvents was not suitable to use for the solvent depend on the purpose of the powder. Certain solvents may dangerous to human being that has the toxic characteristics especially when used for food products.

The factors that have an influence on spray drying performance are not specific only one or two factors, but it seem to be the combined factors. Thus, to obtain the good results in spray drying operation, it needs skill and experienced operators for reaching the perfect goal. So, there are some precaution must be highlighted when running this experiment. The solution must be filtered will before sucked in to the spray dryer. Any big particles can clog the valve and tube in the spray dryer. Make sure the spray dryer in the good condition before proceed the process. To ensure high yield and good quality of the product it needs to do the series of the experiment to identify the optimum condition of the process. When running the experiment, please make sure the safety is always the top priority. The container used in this experiment was very hot due to high temperature to evaporate the water. Do not touch the container when the process running. Always wear laboratory coat and proper attire to avoid any serious injuries when doing the experiment.

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http://www.ttplpune.com/tech_information/spray%20dryer/What-spray%20dryer.htm 4. Atticlebase, Free Online Articles Directory , Accessed on 18th October, 2009 at: http://www.articlesbase.com/home-and-family-articles/what-is-spray-dried-coffee440963.html 5. Principle and It's Application, Accessed on 23rd October, 2009 at:

http://www.engdrying.co.jp/Principle.htm 6. Reineccius, G.A. (1988). Spray-Drying of Food Flavors. Flavor Encapsulation, Washington: Am. Chem. Soc. 55-66. 7. Roger G. Harrison, Paul Todd, Scott R. Rudge, Demetri P. Petrides, Bioseparations Science and Engineering(2003). New York: Oxford University Press.pg 307 8. Milk Powder: New Zealand Institute of Chemistry. [Online]. [Accessed on 15th Sept 2012]. Available From World Wide Web Site: http://nzic.org.nz/ChemProcesses/dairy/3C.pdf 9. Preparing of Milk and Spray Drying: Technology of Dairy Products (Book). [Online]. [Accessed on 15th Sept 2012]. Available From World Wide Web Site: http://books.google.com.my/books=theproduction+of+milk+powder+using+spray+dr yer 10. Milk Powder Production: Dairy Consultant. [Online]. [Accessed on 22th Sept 2012]. Available From World Wide Web Site: www.dairyconsultant.co.uk/pdf/milk_powder_production.pdf