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Mar 08, 2014

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Fluid Mechanics

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Fluid Mechanics

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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These presentations are prepared by Dr. Cneyt Sert Mechanical Engineering Department Middle East Technical University

Ankara, Turkey

csert@metu.edu.tr

Please ask for permission before using them. You are NOT allowed to modify them. 1-1

Three most common phases of matter are solid, liquid and gas.

Liquids and gases are together called fluids.

Intermolecular Attraction Forces Solid Liquid Gas Strong Medium Weak Molecules Relative positions are rather fixed Free to change their relative positions Practically unrestricted Volume and Space Definite volume Definite shape Definite volume Indefinite shape Indefinite volume Indefinite shape

Later well give another definition for fluid, based on its behavior under shear forces.

Exercise : What is the difference between gases and vapors, from a technical point of view?

Exercise : What are the fourth and fifth phases of matter? Do a research on them.

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Mechanics deals with both stationary and moving bodies under the influence of forces. Statics is the branch of mechanics that deals with bodies at rest.

Fluid mechanics deals with the behavior of fluids at rest (fluid statics) and in motion (fluid dynamics). Hydrodynamics studies liquids (incompressible flow) in motion. Hydraulics studies liquids flowing in pipes, ducts and open channels.

Gas dynamics studies compressible flow of gases with high density changes.

Aerodynamics is similar to gas dynamics, but also covers low speed flows. It focuses on air flow.

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Too many to list all of them. Some examples are Household appliances : refrigerator, vacuum cleaner, dish washer, washing machine, water meter, natural gas meter, air conditioner, radiator, etc.

Military : Missile, aircraft, ship, underwater vehicle, dispersion of chemical agents, etc.

Medicine : Heart assist device, artificial heart valve, Lab-on-a-Chip device, glucose monitor, controlled drug delivery, etc. Electronics : Convective cooling of generated heat. Energy : Combuster, burner, boiler, gas, hydro and wind turbine, etc. Oil and Gas : Pipeline, pump, valve, offshore rig, oil spill cleanup, etc.

Almost everything in our world is either in contact with a fluid or is itself a fluid.

1-4

At the microscopic scale, fluids are composed of molecules.

m3

air

~ 2 x 1025 molecules

Answer : Practically impossible and not necessary for most engineering problems.

Rather, we study most engineering problems at the macroscopic scale. That is we treat fluids as continuum and do not concern with the behavior of individual molecules.

1-5

Microscopic level: Each fluid molecule shown below moves at a different speed in a different direction.

Macroscopic level: The speed at point A is 60 km/hr. The direction of air flow at point A is as shown below.

60 km/hr is the average speed of molecules in the small volume surrounding point A. We can say that the fluid particle located at point A is moving with a speed of 60 km/hr.

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Continuum (contd)

Continuum assumes that fluid and flow properties, such as density, velocity, pressure, temperature, etc. vary continuously throughout the fluid.

In continuum, the smallest element of a fluid is NOT a fluid molecule, but rather a fluid particle, which contains enough number of molecules to make meaningful statistical averages. Question: Is continuum a reasonable assumption? Practical answer: Yes, in many engineering problems.

( ) =

Continuum is known to be valid for < 0.01. In this course we will always treat fluids as continuum.

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Continuum (contd)

Exercise : Is it easier to break the continuum assumption for a gas or a liquid?

Exercise : Air at standard atmospheric conditions has a mean free path of 8 x 10 8 m. What will be the limiting characteristing length that will break the validity of the continuum assumption for an application using standard atmospheric air ? Search on the web for micro and nano scale flows to see if there are applications at such small scales. ( Ans : 8 microns ) Exercise : How much the mean free path of air should be increased so that we can start questioning the validity of continuum for flow around a missile with a characteristing length of 10 m ? Is it possible to have such high mean free path values at the outermost regions of the atmosphere ? ( Ans : 0.1 m ) Exercise : Do a research on rarefied gas dynamics. Give examples of applications where it is encountered. Exercise : Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) is a numerical method that can be used to study high flows. Do a research on general Monte Carlo methods and DSMC is specific.

1-8

Common thermodynamic properties of a fluid are

Pressure

Density Temperature Internal energy Enthaply

kg/m3 K or oC J/kg J/kg

Entropy

Specific heat Viscosity Thermal conductivity

J/(kg K)

J/(kg K) Pa s , poise W/(m K)

It is common to use and to fix the thermodynamic state. Then all other properties can be expressed as a function of these two = (, ) , = (, ) , = (, ) , etc.

1-9

Density

( ) [ kg/m3 ]

Density determines the inertia of a unit volume of fluid and hence its acceleration when subjected to a given force. Gases are easier to accelerate than liquids.

Density also determines the amount of gravitational force (weight) acting on a fluid body. Weight of gases are neglected more often than that of liquids.

Fluids have a very wide range of density.

Hydrogen Gas

Density [kg/m3] 0.084

0.67

Air

1.2

Water

998

Mercury

13600

1-10

Density

Density in general is a function of and , i.e. = (, ) If a fluids density is a function of pressure only (not temperature) it is called a barotropic fluid, a simplification mostly used in meteorology. Following processes demonstrate how density of an ideal gas ( = ) changes with temperature and pressure Push down

: increases : decreases

: increases : increases

1-11

Density (contd)

Density variation of water (blue) and air (green) with temperature at 1 atm

1.4 1000 1008

1010

Adapted from engineeringtoolbox.com

990

1.2

1006

1004 1002

980 1.0

970

1000

998

960

0 20 40 60 80 0.8 100

996 0

10

15

20

25

30

1-12

Temperature [oC]

Temperature [oC]

Density (contd)

Changes in and results in changes in , which can be formulated as

= +

1 = Reciprocal of bulk modulus of elasticity ( Ev )

1 +

Exercise : As can be read from the 2nd graph of the previous page, at 20 oC density of water changes from 998.2 kg/m3 at 1 atm to 1002.7 kg/m3 at 100 atm, a change of 0.5 %. Calculate the bulk modulus of elasticity of water at 20 oC. ( Ans: 2.2 x 104 atm or 2.2 GPa )

1-13

Density (contd)

Exercise : At 1 atm density of water changes from 998 kg/m3 at 20 oC to 975 kg/m3 at 75 oC, a change of 2.3 %. Calculate the coefficient of thermal expansion of water at 1 atm. ( Ans: 4.2 x 10-4 K-1 ) Exercise: Bulk modulus of solids is too high. For iron it is about 160 GPa. How much pressure is required to decrease the volume of an iron block by 0.5 % ? ( Ans: 0.8 GPa or 8000 atm ) As seen in previous examples water (and in general all liquids) compress a little, but in many engineering problems changes in their density can be neglected. Incompressible fluid is an idealization used mostly for liquids that have a constant density over the range of working conditions.

In this course well consider all liquids to be incompressible (constant density) unless otherwise mentioned.

In this course well take = 1000 kg/m3 (constant) unless otherwise mentioned.

1-14

Density (contd)

Exercise : Although density changes in liquid flows are small, they may result in an interesting phenomena called water hammer. Do a research on this subject. What is it? When does it happen? Exercise : Gases are much more compressible than liquids. First show that for an ideal gas bulk modulus of elasticity is equal to the pressure of the gas. Compare the bulk modulus of air with that of water found previously ( Ans: Air is about 20000 times more compressible than water). Although gases are much more compressible than liquids they can also be safely treated as incompressible (constant density) in many engineering applications. In this course well take = 1.2 kg/m3 unless otherwise mentioned. Mach number () is the nondimensional parameter that can be used to check the importance of compressibility in gas flows. It is the ratio of fluid speed to the speed of sound. Flows with < 0.3 can safely be studied as incompressible.

1-15

Density (contd)

Exercise : In a wind tunnel test air is blown around a car at a speed of 120 km/hr. Calculate Mach number of the flow and decide if compressibility affects are negligible or not. ( Ans: Ma = 0.1, air can be treated as incompressible ) Hydrometer is a device used to measure density of a fluid based on Archimedes principle. Its working principle will be studied in Fluid Statics chapter and youll use it in the first experiment of ME 305. Specific gravity (Relative density): ( ) [ unitless ]

Ratio of density of a substance to the reference density of water at 4 oC. Specific weight: ( ) [ N/m3 ] Weight per unit volume of a substance.

1-16

2 (at 4 )

1000 /3

=

Velocity Field

Fluid velocity: ( ) [ m/s ]

Cartesian : Cylindrical : = = + + + +

In general velocity field of a flowing fluid is too complicated to be expressed as an equation of space and time.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gmSKGMSfOcs&NR=1

http://www.ecourses.ou.edu

1-17

There are also simpler flows with easy to express velocity fields.

www.ecourses.ou.edu

Velocity profile at a cross section of fully developed, laminar, steady, uni-directional pipe flow.

No-slip boundary condition is an important feature of fluid flows that affects the velocity field. Its an experimental observation that says A fluid in contact with a solid surface does not slip it has the same velocity as the surface. If the solid surface is not moving, than the velocity of fluid particles adjacent to the surface are zero. No temperature jump boundary condition is similar to no-slip BC. It says that Temperature of fluid particles adjacent to a solid wall is the same as the temperature of the wall.

1-18

Force: ( ) [ N = kg m/s2 ] Body forces are distributed over the volume of a fluid. They arise from action at a distance. They result when a fluid is placed in a gravitational, magnetic, electrostatic or electromagnetic force field. In this course well consider only gravitational force.

1-19

Forces (contd)

Surface forces act on the boundaries of a fluid body by the surroundings through direct contact. Fluids also apply a surface force to their surroundings.

A surface force can be decomposed into a normal force acting perpendicular to the surface and tangential (shear) force acting parallel to the surface.

: Force acting by the fluid on the wing at point P : Surface normal at point P

1-20

( , ) [ Pa = N/m2 ] Normal stress at point P : Shear stress at point P : = =

lim 0 lim 0

Stress field at a point is a tensor quantity. Complete definition of it requires nine components. y

z Stresses acting on the top surface of a fluid element

Direction of force

1-21

Pressure

( ) [ Pa = N/m2 ] is the normal component of the force acting on an area divided by that area.

Pressure always acts as a compressive force perpendicular to the surface. For a fluid at rest pressure at a point is independent of direction. This will be proved in Fluid Statics chapter. Atmospheric pressure : 1 atm = 101.3 kPa = 14.7 psi = 760 mmHg 1 bar Exercise : On a size 7 basketball ball it says Inflate to 8 psi, but this is lower than the atmospheric pressure. What should you do ? Exercise : To visualize how large atmospheric pressure is, watch interesting experiments at http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/kinetic/patm.html#atm

1-22

Pressure (contd)

Exercise : Water is flowing up inside a pipe against gravity as shown below. Show all the forces acting on the fluid inside the dashed lines.

1-23

Viscosity

( ) [Pa s]

It is about the fluidity of a fluid. It shows a fluids resistance to change shape.

B A B

Fixed plate

Shear stress Angular deformation If the force is increased the block will break apart at some point.

1-24

Viscosity (contd)

Perform a similar experiment with a layer of fluid between two parallel plates.

Vertical fluid element AB will deform continuously as long as the shear force is applied by moving the top plate. F

Movie : Shear deformation

B t0 A

B t1

t2

0 First observation: After an initial transition, velocity of the top plate will be constant (0 ) and the velocity profile within the fluid will be linear. = 0

= 0

1-25

Viscosity (contd)

B B 0 0 + A

,

= = 0

Second obervation: Shear stress acting on a surface parallel to the flow (such as the surface of the top plate) will be proportional to deformation rate

or

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Viscosity (contd)

or

For Newtonian fluids, shear stress on a surface tangent to the flow direction is proportional to the rate of shear strain or to the velocity gradient on the surface (change of velocity in a direction normal to the surface). This is known as Newtons Law of Viscosity. Proportionality constant of the above relations is known as viscosity.

= =

1-27

Viscosity (contd)

Exercise : What is the sign convention for stress ? Are the stresses shown in the previous figure negative or positive ? How did we decide on the arrows of the stresses ?

Exercise : For the problem shown on the right, is the shear stress negative or positive on the lower and upper fluids ? Show the direction of shear forces acting by the fluids on the plates ?

y x

Exercise : Consider two concentric cylinders with fluid in between. Inner cylinder is fixed and outer one is rotating. Write the proper form of Newtons law of viscosity for the stress acting on the inner cylinder. You need to think about the correct indices and velocity components to be used in the equation.

r

1-28

Viscosity (contd)

Exercise : A concentric cylinder viscometer may be formed by rotating the inner cylinder of a pair or closely fitting cylinders. A torque of 15 Nm is required to turn the inner cylinder at 10 rad/s while keeping the outer cylinder fixed. Determine the viscosity of the Newtonian fluid in the clerance gap of the viscometer. Assume that the fluid pressure is constant and velocity distribution is linear.

0.5 mm

0.2 m

0.5 mm 0.1 m

1-29

Viscosity (contd)

Definition of fluid : A fluid deforms continuously under the application of a shear (tangential) force, no matter how small the force is. It is more difficult to deform highly viscous fluids. Air Water 50 SAE 30 oil 15,000 Glycerin 75,000 Thick Molasses 375,000

concentric cylinder viscometer Saybolt viscometer that youll be using in the first experiment of ME 305 Kinematic viscosity: ( ) [m2/s] =

1-30

Viscosity (contd)

Exercise : Laminar, fully developed, pressure driven flow inside a constant diameter pipe has the shown paraboloic velocity profile. For the flow of a Newtonian fluid with viscosity and centerline velocity of , calculate the force exterted by the fluid on the pipe wall over a pipe section of length L .

= (1 2 /2 )

1-31

Fluids Inviscid (ideal) Newtonian Time independent Pseudoplatic (shear thinning)

Newtonian

Thixotropic

Rheopetic

Bingham plastic

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=f2XQ97XHjVw

Dialatant

1

Pseudoplastic

1-32

Newtonian behavior simple (it is linear). Common fluids such as water, air, oil

behave as Newtonian.

Inviscid (ideal) fluids do not exist in real world. They have m = 0. This might be a useful simplification for analytical analyses. Dialatant fluids become thicker under increased shear stress. (printing ink). Bingham plastics do not flow below a certain amount of shear stress. (toothpaste).

Pseudoplastics become thinner under increased shear stress. (wall paint, blood).

For thixotropic fluids viscosity decreases with time (lipstick). For rheopetic fluids viscosity increases with time (betonite solution).

1-33

Viscosity (contd)

Affect of pressure on viscoity is small and often neglected. Viscosity of liquids decrease with increasing temperature.

General formula for liquids: Andrades equation =

1.5 +

Exercise : As mentioned above, viscosities of liquids and gases change with temperature in different ways due to two different mechanisms that affect their viscosities. What are these mechanisms ?

1-34

Surface Tension

( ) [N/m]

Surface tension is due to the asymmetric cohesive forces acting on the molecules of a free surface (interface between a liquid and a gas).

This asymmetry will result in a hypothetical skin (membrane) all around the surface

Surface tension exists whenever there is a density discontinuity between a liquid and another liquid, gas or solid.

1-35

Exercise : Surface tension is known to create a pressure difference across a curved interface of two fluids. Consider a spherical liquid droplet in a gas. Compute the pressure difference in terms of the uniform surface tension () on droplets surface and the diameter of the droplet ( ). Liquid Gas

Glass tube Capillary rise (or drop) observed when an open-end tube is immersed into a liquid is also related to surface tension. Itll be studied in Fluid Statics chapter.

water

mercury

Exercise : Search for the following two surface tension related research papers on Google Scholar and read them. Surface-Tension-Dominant Powerless Nano/Micro Fluidic Systems Characterization of the Surface Tension and Viscosity Effects on the Formation of Nano-Liter Droplet Arrays by an Instant Protein Micro Stamper

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