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Natural Resource Management Hand book

Soil Bio-engineering techniques for Slope protection and Stabilization

Improving preparedness and response abilities to natural disasters in Central Financed by The Humanitarian Aid and Civil Protection Department of the European Commission (ECHO).

Natural Resource Management


Hand book
Soil Bio-engineering techniques for Slope protection and Stabilization

Published 2013 by Cesvi, Kujand, Tajikistan Production team Giuseppe Bonati (Editor Supervisor) Irene Marongiu (Editor) Irene Marongiu (Layout and design) Cover picture: Tommaso Cencetti Annexes to this publication Soil Bio-engineering Techniques for slope protection and stabilization: 6 leaflets with description, function and construction guidelines. Editor: Irene Marongiu Leaflet number 1: Live Palisades; Leaflet number 2: Brush Layering; Leaflet number 3: Contour Line Fascines; Leaflet number 4: Drainage Fascine; Leaflet number 5: Live Wattling; Leaflet number 6: Vegetated Gabions Gravity Retaining Wall. Note This publication may be reproduced in whole or in part and in any form for educational or non-profit purposes provided acknowledgement of the source is made. For further dissemination you can contact Cesvi at dushanbe@cesvioverseas.org.

Natural Resource Management

Table of contents

CHAPTER 1 EROSION CONTROL AND SLOPE PROTECTIONERROR! BOOKMARK NOT DEFINE SOIL EROSION ........................................................................................................... 6

SLOPE PROTECTION AND STABILIZATION........................................................................... 6 Nonliving approaches (Civil engineering techniques) ......................................................... 7 Living approach (Bioengineering and Bio technical techniques) ........................................ 7 Categories of techniques and evolution over the time ...................................................... 8 CHAPTER 2 PLANT FUNCTION .................................................................................... 11 MAIN FUNCTION OF PLANT.....................................................................................12 Habitat and biodiversity .................................................................................................... 12 Positive Influence on soil structure ................................................................................... 12 Plant regulation of water balance and reduction of surface erosion ............................... 13 ENGINEERING FUNCTION OF VEGETATION- TECHNICAL CAPACITY .....................................16 Drain Function - application .............................................................................................. 16 Armour Function: - application ........................................................................................ 17 Catch Function - application ............................................................................................. 18 Support Function - application.......................................................................................... 18 Reinforce Function - application ....................................................................................... 18 Anchor Function - application ........................................................................................... 19 HOW TO CHOOSE THE RIGHT SPECIES .........................................................................20 Autochthonous Material ................................................................................................... 20 Biological Properties ......................................................................................................... 20 Stress Resistance: .............................................................................................................. 21 Nitrogen fixation ............................................................................................................... 22 Root development ............................................................................................................ 22 CHAPTER 3 DESIGN CONSIDERATION AND TECHNIQUES ................................ 25 CONSIDERATION ..................................................................................................26 Topography and exposure ................................................................................................ 26 Geology and soils .............................................................................................................. 26 Hydrology .......................................................................................................................... 27 Design considerations ....................................................................................................... 27

Soil Bio-engineering for Slope protection and Stabilization

HOW TO PREPARE CUTTING FOR SOIL-BIO-ENGINEERING ................................................ 28 Best planting seasons ........................................................................................................ 28 Cutting preparation ........................................................................................................... 28 Storage .............................................................................................................................. 29 Layering ............................................................................................................................. 29 SOIL BIO-ENGINEERING TECHNIQUES DESCRIPTION ...................................................... 31 Check dams ....................................................................................................................... 31 Palisade Leaflet number 1 ............................................................................................... 33 Brush layering Leaflet number 2 .............................................................. 33 Fascines ............................................................................................................................. 34 Contour line fascines Leaflet number 3........................................................................... 34 Drainage with fascines - Leaflet number 4 ........................................................................ 35 Wattling Leaflet number 5 .............................................................................................. 35 Gabions Leaflet number 6 .............................................................................................. 36 Riprap ................................................................................................................................ 39 Pole or Live stake planting ................................................................................................ 39 Trees and cutting protection ............................................................................................. 41

The best time to plant a tree is twenty years ago The second best time is NOW!

Chapter 1: Erosion control and Slope Stabilization

SOIL EROSION What is Soil Erosion? Its a displace of soil by water and wind. Its water the first erosion agent. There are different level of soil erosion: sheet erosion and rill erosion. Rill erosion can be easily fixed. Without control rill erosion can develop to the more severe gully erosion. SLOPE PROTECTION AND STABILIZATION The protection and stabilization of slope area con be reach by applying difference between Nonliving approaches (Civil engineering techniques) and Living approach (Bioengineering and Bio technical techniques).Categories of Soil-bioengineering techniques and evolution of the intervention over the time.

Soil Bio-engineering for Slope protection and Stabilization

Soil Erosion
Soil is the most basic resource, providing the medium for plant growth and water retention. Soil erosion is defined as the displacement of soil material by erosive agents such as water and wind. The erosion process consists of detachment of individual soil particles from land's surface of one place, their transport to another place by erosive agents such as running water and wind, and finally their deposition when sufficient energy is no longer available to transport them further1.Water is the first soil erosion agent, erosion occurs whenever water meets land with enough power to move soil2. Run-off (figure 5), which is also called surface flow or overland flow, is the rain water that, instead of infiltrate in the soil remains on the soil surface. As runoff water moves down a slope, it increases in velocity and increases the potential for erosion. Sheet erosion3occurs when the run-off move in a thin surface flow along the ground, it transports detached soil particles and removes more or less uniform thin layer of soil from the smooth and uniform sloping land surface. Sheet erosion removes only the top layer. In fact, run-off seldom occurs as sheet flow because land surface is almost always irregular. Irregularities of surface force the flowing water to accumulate in depressions and result in concentrated water flow that remove soil particles from small well-defined channels, forming so called rills. Rills are small enough (<30 cm) to be easily smoothened by tillage operation. The energy of flowing water detaches soil particles and transport them resulting in rill erosion. If rilling is not corrected immediately, it will develop into gully erosion. More concentrated flow result in more erosion as well as more transportation. Rills allowed going unchecked develop in gullies. Gullies are advanced stage of rills. Gully erosion is channel erosion that cuts so deeply into the soil that the ground cannot be smoothed out by ordinary tillage operation. It occurs, either where run-off from a slope increases sufficiently in volume or velocity to cut deep incisions or where the concentrated water flows long enough in same channel to develop deep incisions.

Slope protection and stabilization


Soil erosion and landslides are a potential risk throughout the world and especially on the mountainous areas this risk leads to a considerable concern for living, farming and maintaining infrastructures.

Better land husbandry. From soil conservation to holistic land management. Science Publishers, Hellin, J. USA, 2006. 2 Bioengineering for Hillslope, Streambank and Lakeshore Erosion Control, Thomas G. Franti 3 Resource Manual on Flash Flood Risk Management Module 3: Structural Measures, Arun Bhakta Shrestha Ezee GC, Rajendra Prasad Adhikary and Sundar Kumar Rai. International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development, Nepal, 2012

Chapter 1 Erosion control and slope protection

Reducing erosion is a critical first step to the conservation of the productive capacity of the land and of the safety of the communities. This publication deal with slope protection and stabilization The reduction of the downward movement of slope material can be reach by applying different approaches: Nonliving approaches (Civil engineering techniques) Living approach

Nonliving approaches (Civil engineering techniques)


This approach uses rigid constructions, such as surface armouring, gravity retaining walls, rock buttresses. Combining nonliving structures with vegetation it is possible to create vegetated structures (e.g.: low walls or revetments at the foot of a slope with plant on the interposed benches figure 1). In this case vegetation enhances the structures Figure 1 Civil engineering: toe wall. and helps to reduce the surface erosion but usually does not provide any major reinforcement benefits. Vegetated structure, compared with traditional civil engineering techniques, increases the ecological and aesthetically pleasing integration into the landscape. Vegetated gabions (gabion with insert cutting of rooted plants - leaflets number 6) are soilbioengineering structure because the plants became, over time, the major structural component.

Living approach (Bioengineering and Bio technical techniques)


The living approach is based on Soil bio-engineering techniques (Soil B.E.). Soil Bioengineering uses combinations of live vegetation and structural practices: plant are seen from functional point of view, as an effective living construction material and used to create a protective structure. The live material can be use alone or combined with locally found materials (such as rocks, soil, etc) and/or technical building materials (net, iron rod, concrete, etc).

Figure 2 : Strict sense bio-engineering techniques only plants are used as structural component.

Soil Bio-engineering for Slope protection and Stabilization

It is the use of plants that characterize the Soil bio-engineering! The aims of Soil B.E. are mainly four: Technical and functional, Economic: they are competitive and alternative structures to traditional civil engineering structures (e.g.: cement retain walls replaced by vegetated gabions wall). Naturalistic: re-establishment or initiation of natural ecosystems using native species; Landscaping; It merge mechanical, biological, and ecological concept to produce living, functioning systems for stabilization, consolidation, erosion prevention, sediment control and renaturization4 of hill slopes, stream banks and lakeshores. ATTENTION! Remember that vegetation cannot perform its engineering function in its initial stage. Soil bioengineering has unique requirements and is not appropriate for all sites and situations. Soil bioengineering interventions are not the solution for all slope failure and surface erosion problems. In certain cases, a conventional vegetative treatment (e.g., grass seeding and hydro mulching) works satisfactorily. In other cases, the more appropriate and most effective solution is a structural retaining system alone or in combination with soil bioengineering. Soil B.E. is sometimes useful to repair and stabilize shallow slope failures but it is always recommended to consult an engineer or geotechnical engineer before attempting to repair a deep slope failures.

Categories of techniques and evolution over the time


In soil bioengineering systems, the living material may play the major structural roles immediately or may become the major structural component over the time. Soil bio-engineering can be divided, for didactic reason, into trees categories: Vegetative plantings; Bio-engineering in the strict sense5; Bio Technical Techniques Vegetative plantings are conventional plantings of grasses, forbs, shrubs in order to prevent surface erosion. The living material is not used with structural meaning. If seed or cuttings are used, the erosion prevention function is carry out only once the vegetation is established.
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Definition of Renaturization: The retransformation of a landscape modified by human intervention into a state close to nature. Federal Office for Water Management. 5 Schiechtl, H.M. 1980. Bioengineering for land reclamation and conservation. University of Alberta Press, Alberta.

Chapter 1 Erosion control and slope protection

Maintaining and restoring vegetative cover is an effective means of reducing erosion. Strict sense Bio-Engineering, as vegetative planting, uses live materials only as plants or part of plants (seeds, seedlings, cuttings, branches, pieces of natural stand, natural turf or sod slabs, etc.). The plant materials itself provide both the vegetative and structural components of the design. Live staking, brush layers, wattling, live palisades, live contour line , fascines and live gully repair use cutting or branch parts as initial and primary soil reinforcing and stabilizing material, absolving from the beginning the functions of horizontal drains, barriers to earth movement, and hydraulic pumps6. These live materials placed in the ground during the growing season develop roots and sprouts foliage. The resulting vegetation becomes a major structural component of the bioengineering system and the structure grows stronger with time (see figure 3). Bio-Technical Techniques use living materials which are combined or integrated with non living or structural materials. In this category of interventions vegetative and structural components work together in mutually reinforcing and has complimentary roles7. Live cribwalls8, vegetated gabions (leaflets number 6), vegetated rock walls are techniques that use porous structures with openings through which vegetative material (cutting, seedling or seeds) are inserted and established. The inert structural elements provide immediate resistance to sliding, erosion, and wash out :as vegetation becomes established, roots invade and permeate the slope, binding it together into a unified, coherent mass9. Over time, the structural elements undergo to a progressive loss of strength (decomposition of wood, breaking of wire mesh10, etc), at the same time diminishes the importance of the no-living elements because the vegetation increases in strength and functionality. Once vegetation is well established on a soil bioengineering project, usually within one growing season, it generally becomes self-repairing by regeneration and growth and requires little maintenance.

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Biotechnical Stabilization Of Steepened Slopes, Donald H. Gray and Robbin B. Sotir Biotechnical Slope Protection and Erosion Control, Gray D.H. and Leiser A.T., New York, 1982. 8 A live cribwall consists of a hollow, box-like interlocking arrangement of timber members. The structure is filled with suitable backfill material and layers of live branch cuttings which root inside the crib structure and extend into the slope. 9 Soil Bioengineering for Upland Slope Protection and Erosion Reduction, Engineering Field Handbook, October 1992, United States Department of Agriculture Natural Resources Conservation Service. 10 The life expectancy of gabions, for example, depends on the lifespan of the wire. The structure will fail when the wire fails. PVC-coated galvanized gabions have been estimated to survive for 60 years. Some gabion manufacturers guarantee a structural consistency of 50 years (Wikipedia, February 2013).

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Soil Bio-engineering for Slope protection and Stabilization

However, a newly installed soil bioengineering project will require careful periodic inspections until it is established. Established vegetation is vulnerable to trampling, drought, grazing, nutrient deficiencies, toxins, and pests, and may require special management measures at times. It has been shown in slope reconstruction projects that soil bioengineering systems can withstand heavy rainfalls immediately after installation. Even if established vegetation dies, the plant roots and surface residue may continue to play an important protective role during reestablishment.

Figure 3: Life span of small civil engineering and bioengineering structures

Chapter 1 Erosion control and slope protection

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Chapter 2: Plant function

MAIN PLANTS FUNCTION Soil bio-engineering intervention use plant for soil erosion control and slope stabilization. The live component have important biological functions: plants create habitat and sustain biodiversity, have a positive influence on soil structure. Also plant regulate the soil water balance and reduce the surface erosion. ENGINEERING FUNCTION OF VEGETATION- TECHNICAL CAPACITY Plants are considered like live construction material with have structural and engineering function. For this is important to know to use plant capacity for drain, armour, catch, support, reinforce and anchor the soil to avoid erosions and landslides. HOW TO CHOOSE THE RIGHT SPECIES To have better result its important use autochthonous material. Different species have different technical and biological characteristics: its important to consider plant capacity to choose the right species for an intervention. Its important to know biological properties, stress resistance, the root development and if the plants do the nitrogen fixation.

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Soil Bio-engineering for Slope protection and Stabilization

Main function of plants


Soil bioengineering takes advantages of particular characteristics of vegetative components, alone or integrated with living or non-living structures, to control erosion and slope instability. Different species of plant, different methods of propagation or different spatial arrangements of the live material perform different function. For this, when we design an intervention, we have to put clear in mind the dynamic and the causes of the erosive process, the problem that we want to solve and the function that the live component and/or the structure have to perform and the time evolution of the intervention.

Habitat and biodiversity


Plants offer shelter and sustenance to animals and other organisms, thus enhancing ecosystem's diversity and, consequently, stability.

Positive Influence on soil structure


Soil is composed of sand, silt, clay and organic matter. The minute particles of sand and silt are bound by clay and organic matter into aggregates. The arrangement of aggregates gives soil its structure. Good soil structure has adequate spaces (pores) between aggregates that allow water and air to enter the soil and drain easily, and at the same time hold enough moisture to allow a regular plant growth. Poor soil structure has few aggregates and few pores between soil particles. Good structure helps to make a fertile and resistant to erosion soil. Aggregation in the surface soil is favoured by surface residue, organic matter, live roots secretions and soil microorganisms activity. A continuous supply of organic materials and roots of living plants are needed to maintain good soil aggregation.

Figure 4 A well aggregated soil have a range of pore sizes. This medium size soil crumb is made up of many smaller ones. Very large pores occur between the medium size aggregates (FAO).

Chapter 2 Plant Function

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Figure 5 A dense vegetation cover protects the soil and helps regulate waters movement and surface erosion. The figure shows the variations in erosion and runoff with the variation of soil coverage

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Soil Bio-engineering for Slope protection and Stabilization

Plant regulation of water balance and reduction of surface erosion

Rainfall Interception Foliage and plant residues absorb rainfall energy; reduce the drop impact (see below Armour function and figure 7), preventing soil compaction and surface soil erosion. Infiltration Root and plant residues help maintain soil porosity and permeability. Run-off occurs on surfaces when rain falls faster than it can be absorbed into the soil. The natural consequence of reduced infiltration is increased run-off. Retardation As runoff water moves down a slope, it increases in speed and increases the potential for erosion. The volume of sediment also increases because the transported particles scour and dislodge more soil particles. Above-ground residues, herbaceous, and to a lesser extent woody vegetation, increase surface roughness and slows run-off velocity and so have a fundamental role in mitigating erosion. Along a slope with a dense vegetation cover, the speed of flow of the water is about of that which would be, in equal rain condition, on soils without vegetation: consequently, the erosive action, which varies exponentially, can drop down to 1/16 (figure 5). Restrain Root systems physically bind or restrain soil particles while above-ground residues filter sediment out of run-off (see Catch function below). Water absorption, Plant Transpiration and Evaporation The vegetation defends water and soil by keeping the amount' of water necessary for the vital functions, thereby regulating the flow of surplus gradually, so not occurs excessive run off and solid transport. Depletion of soil moisture by plants reduces the quantity of run-off and delays onset of saturation. A saturated soil, or a very moist one, have less intern cohesion and this can leads, on slope, to land movements or landslides.

Figure 6: Influence of vegetation on water balance

Chapter 2 Plant Function

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Figure 7: The drop energy destroys aggregate (soil crumbs) and the resulting fine particles can be easily transported and, also, fill the surface micro-pores, decreasing g the permeability of the soil. In bare soil the detachment and transport of soil particles is more than in a covered soil.

Figure 8: On a slope the movement of the detached particles is down slope due to the gravity force.

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Soil Bio-engineering for Slope protection and Stabilization

Engineering Function of Vegetation11- Technical capacity


Drain Function Armour Function Catch Function Reinforce Function Support Function Anchor Function

Drain Function - application


The planting configuration of the vegetation can enhance drainage or water infiltration. Diagonal and angled grass or vegetation lines (see figure 9) can canalise the water, avoiding it to reach the erosive speed and avoiding saturation and slumping of material. Contour line (as contour line fascines see leaflet number 3) catches debris and reduces the run off by increasing the water infiltration. The water infiltration increase because the contour line configuration cut the slope, slows down the water flow that loose erosive energy and can penetrate easily into the soil. On a steep slope, when the soil is saturated the weight of soil is often sufficient to exceed the forces holding the soil in place. Under these circumstances, large masses may slip downhill, further losing their internal cohesion as they fall and becoming loose heaps at the bottom which can be easily be detached and transported by the run-off with risk of mud flood. So, in case of instable (e.g. incohesive material) on a steep slope with drainage problem is necessary (instead of increase infiltration) avoid soil saturation, removing the exceeding water. Down slope configuration can evacuate surface water quickly, but can also help erosion in very erodible lands or very steep areas. One of the soil-bioengineering interventions are the Drainage fascines (see leaflet number 4) that are made assembling long bundles of live branches placed in existing rill/small gully (or in a trench), secured with live or dead pegs and covered with soil. They are similar to contour line fascines but instead of being oriented along the contour they are placed down-slope, following the maximum slope line, or angled (figure 10). They perform immediate sub-surface drainage, as the water is channelled through the straight branches: provides rapid stabilization at mid depth, where excess moisture has created instability, thus reducing shallow slips. The cuttings used to form the fascines will eventually put out roots and sprout, developing into a strong line of vegetation that reduces erosion, while the excess moisture continues to drain from the lower end.
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Resource Manual on Flash Flood Risk Management: Module 3: Structural Measures, Arun Bhakta Shrestha Ezee Shrestha Ezee GC, Rajendra Prasad Adhikary and Sundar Kumar Rai. International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development, Nepal, 2012

Chapter 2 Plant Function

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Bioengineering Requirement: Plants small enough to be planted in closely packed lines Resist scour High leaf area to enhance transpiration Soil B.E. Examples: To drain: Drainage fascines or Live pole drain To increase water infiltration and catch debris: Contour line or angled intervention. Civil Engineering equivalent: Surface or subsurface drains, French drains.

Figure 9: Drainage fascines, section on slope.

Figure 10: Angled vegetation line

Armour Function: - application


As previously mentioned, the vegetation absorb the energy of falling rain and, like a armour, protect the slope against surface erosion from both rain splash effect (see figure 7) and runoff. When rain drop fall on the soil surface they detach soil particles and transport the up, loaded on the droplets. The soil movement due to splash-effect is more sever in sloping land: When the raindrops have a vertical fall on level surface, the splashed soil particles tend to scatter uniformly over the surface in all directions. When the raindrops strike slopping land surface, the majority of the splash moves down hill because of gravitational force. The hammer like action of falling raindrops compacts the soil and destroys crumb structure (aggregate) and the slit disperse from the aggregates causes sealing of the surface microporosity, consequently reducing infiltration capacity of the soil surface. This function to be effective requires a continuous cover of low vegetation. Bioengineering Requirement: Dense surface cover of vegetation Numerous stems Soil B.E. Examples: Grass lines or a complete grass carpet; Seeding mattress (figure 11); Figure 11: seeding mattress: mats Mulching; made of a slowly biodegradable material such as coconut fiber, straw, Vegetated riprap. cellulose, etc. with seeds Civil Engineering equivalent: Revetments.

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Soil Bio-engineering for Slope protection and Stabilization

Catch Function - application


Eroding material moving down a slope, as a result of gravity alone or with the aid of water, can be intercepted by stems the vegetation (grass stems and trunks) or by protruding element of the bioengineering structure. Bioengineering Requirement: Figure 12: live wattling Strong, numerous and flexible stems Soil B.E. Examples: Planting large shrubs with many stems; Live Palisades, Vegetated Contour lines: Brush layering leaflet number 2, Live wattling leaflet number 5, Contour line fascines after sprouting leaflet number 3 Civil Engineering equivalent Catch wall.

Support Function - application


Support the soil mass by buttressing and arching. Bioengineering Requirement Extensive deep and wide spreading root systems; Many strong fibrous roots. Soil B.E. Examples: Large trees; Vegetated gabions wall see leaflet number 6. Civil Engineering equivalent: Retaining walls.

Figure 13: Retain gabion wall

Reinforce Function - application


Reinforce the soil by providing a network of roots that increases the geotechnical properties of the soils: resistance to shear, tensile strength and the cohesion. Bioengineering Requirement Plants with extensive roots with many splits; Many strong fibrous roots. Soil B.E. Examples: Densely rooting clumping grasses planted in lines; Shrubs and trees which develop lateral roots; Jute netting with planted grass. Civil Engineering equivalent: Reinforced earth.

Chapter 2 Plant Function

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Anchor Function - application


Anchor the surface material by extending roots through potential failure planes into firmer strata below. Big tap roots are good for deeper failure plane. Bioengineering Requirement Plants with deep, strong, long vertically oriented roots Soil B.E. Examples: Deeply rooting shrubs and trees; Combination of anchors and trees. Civil Engineering equivalent: Soil anchors.

Figure 14: Different species have different growth characteristics (height, shape, rooting capacity, etc).

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Soil Bio-engineering for Slope protection and Stabilization

How to choose the right species


Since we work with live material the choice of the species is influenced by ecological aspects. Plant species must be suitable for the specific needed function and adapted to the sites climate and soil conditions. To ensure appropriate species to be used is necessary to study the natural vegetations on site, to carry out searches on technical literature12 and to get advice by a specialist about available species and cultivars.

Autochthonous Material
The best result can be reach using autochthonous living materials (i.e. plant, seed, parts of plants and plant communities) collected near the construction site itself and from close around. They are always suited best because they have already adapted to the site: well suited to the climate, soil conditions, and available moisture. It is a good candidate for survival. They are always the best choice because they are already adapted to the site (to the climate, to the soil conditions, and to the available moisture). In the first survey of the future constructions site must always include an inventory of the living building materials available in site: examine whether parts of the natural vegetation have to be removed during the construction and whether can be re-use later on13. Preferred candidates are pieces of closed vegetation, which are lifted off as transplants together with topsoil and roots, stored temporarily, if necessary, and then replaced further material or twigs, as well as vegetative propagating herbs and grass species as rhizome cuttings or divided stolons. Plants which are valuable, rare o worth protecting and preserving for other reason can be dug out as individual plants together with their root ball and reset as transplants. Appropriate vegetation material, like cuttings, is often obtained from natural poplar and willow stands. Using local materials is cost effective because plant costs are limited to labour for harvesting, handling, and direct costs for transporting the plants to the site. Where living building material cannot be obtained from the construction site or from natural vegetation is necessary to purchase the live material: in this case is good to choose material that is originates from areas that are largely identical to the site of application.

Biological Properties
The plants possess biological and technical properties which, together, constitute the bio-technical properties. Technical proprieties are the capacity to fulfil the engineering function explained in the previous paragraph (Engineering Function of Vegetation).
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It is a good book for choose the right plant in the Europe context: Ischiechtl 1994, 2001. Ingenieurbiologie: Handbuch Bautypen

Chapter 2 Plant Function

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Possibility of easy propagation (capacity of vegetative or seeds propagation, development of the roots, etc); Growth capacity and rapid growth; Capacity to colonize sterile land and to trigger the ecological succession; Resistance: to salt, to flooding, to debris accumulation, to drought, cold resistance.

Some plant species have the capacity to develop new plant from branches or even parts of them, this ability is called ability to vegetative or asexual reproduction. We will speak about how to reproduce plant using one of these techniques in the paragraph How to prepare cutting for Soil-Bioengineering. The capacity to reproduce a new plant from branch section is connected with the capacity of the plant to produce adventitious roots from the stem and trunk. This capacity gives also to some species the possibility to create new root when a part of the stem is coated by soil after a land slide or an accumulation of debris (see next paragraph).

Figure15:Adventitios root

Stress Resistance:

Debris accumulation or landslide


Most of the plants are dying back if coatings by landslide or other debris accumulation. By the way few plants can bear without damage coatings of soil up and debris (silt or gravel) to 1-2 m in height: from stems buried, near the new ground level, they are able to produce adventitious roots. There are no study available on the international literature on Central Asian plant resistant capacity, the experience and the observation of the local environment can give to the technician a lot of information regarding the local availability of resistant plant (e.g.: plant growing on site subject to frequent stone debris flow Figure 16: Resistance to debris are resistant to debris coatings).
accumulation

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Soil Bio-engineering for Slope protection and Stabilization

In Central Europe were tested as debris accumulation resistant the following plants: alder (Alnus spp.), willow (Salix spp.), poplar (Poplar spp. excluded P. tremula), ash (Fraxinus spp.), hazel (Corylus spp.), maple (Acer spp. excluded A. platanoides), privet (Ligustrum spp.), pine (Pinus spp.), Sorbus aucupariaand a few other trees and shrubs.

Episodic and periodic flooding14


The short duration of submergence, from several hours to several days, may occur without damage to riparian vegetation, even several times a year. Only few tree species, Alnus glutinosa (alder), Populus alba (white poplar), Populus nigra (black poplar), Salix sp. pl. (willows), Fraxinus excelsior (Common Ash), bear a water stagnation of a long-term to permanent. A gradual submersion is tolerated more easily than a sudden massive stagnation. In the presence of permanent artificial stagnation, trees should be shielded with gravel and pebbles just above the water level, in order to make them able to generate adventitious roots. With regard to the willows resistance to submersion, it is assumed that all willow species of Central Europe withstand without damage a submersion of a few days, while the most sensitive species to submergence is the goat willow(Salix caprea). Only a few species of willows withstand a prolonged and perennial submersion, which can occur as a result of the construction of hydroelectric reservoirs. From experimental observations is shown that the Salix alba (white willow), Salix fragilis(brittle willow) and Salix pentandra (willow fragrant) withstand prolonged and even perennials submersion. The height of the flooding should not exceed 2 meters and clearly depends on the height of the tree at the start of submersion. Present in Central Asia: Populus alba, Populus nigra, Salix spp: Salix triandra, Salix alba, Salix pentandra, Salix cinerea. DO NOT use Salix caprera!

Nitrogen fixation
More ecologically efficient plants are those living in symbiosis with noduleforming bacteria and fungi (micorrhizae) live on the root of plants and produce nitrogen, thus creating the effect of automatic permanent nitrogen fertilization. For Soil Bio-engineering purpose the most important species in Europe with these characteristics are alder and legumes; in Central Asia is interesting Elaeagnus angustifolia15(Russian: ; Tajik: - Sunjit).

Root development
In assessing the engineering function of plants, rooting depth is very important. Root development depends to species (figure 17), soil conformation, water table
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Manuale di Ingegneria Naturalistica, Regione Lazio; volume 3 Sistemazione dei versanti, capitolo 12 Biotecnica delle specie vegetali, F. Palmeri, P. Cornelini. 15 Nitrogen fixation by Elaeagnus angustifolia in the reclamation of degraded croplands of Central Asia, Khamzina A, Lamers JP, Vlek PL., Center for Development Research, Bonn, Germany.

Chapter 2 Plant Function

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(figure 19), and availability of nutrient and humidity. Roots growin the directionof thewaterand nutrient; in heavilyfertilized or humidsoils plants develops shallow root system.

Figure 17:Different specie have different root development.

Figure 18: Influence of soil conformation in root development

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Soil Bio-engineering for Slope protection and Stabilization

Figure 19: Different species have difference development in reletion with the water table

Chapter 3 Design Consideration and Techniques

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Chapter 3: Design Consideration and Techniques

CONSIDERATION-FOR A GOOD DESIGN Before precede to the design of the intervention it is necessary study Topography and exposure, Geology and soils, Hydrology, and follow some general Design considerations. HOW TO PREPARE CUTTING FOR SOIL-BIO-ENGINEERING Cutting are required for a lot of different soil bio-engineering techniques. It is important to plant in the right season, and to take care during preparation, storage and layering. SOIL BIO-ENGINEERING TECHNIQUES DESCRIPTION: Some useful intervention for slope protection and stabilization are: check dams, Palisade, Brush layering, Contour line fascines, Drainage with fascines, Wattling, Gabions, Riprap, Pole or Live stake planting. It is always important protect cutting and the trees from the animal damages.

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Soil Bio-engineering for Slope protection and Stabilization

Consideration
For planning a soil bio-engineering intervention has to be considered the site topography, hydrology, geology, soils and vegetation. Topography and exposure16 Note the degree of slope (figure 20) in stable and unstable areas. Also note the presence or lack of moisture17. The likely success of soil bioengineering treatments can best be determined by observing existing stable slopes in the vicinity of the project site. Note the type and density of existing vegetation in areas with and without moisture and on slopes facing different directions. Certain plants grow well on east-facing slopes, but will not survive on south-facing slopes. Look for areas of vegetation that may be growing more vigorously than other site vegetation. This is generally a good indicator of excess moisture, such as seeps and a perched water table, or it may reflect a change in soils.

Figure 20: Calculate the degree of the slope: Materials: Protractor String Weight (heavy washer or something similar) Yard or meter stick. Tie the weight to one end of the string. Use the other end of the string to secure the protractor to the yardstick 18 as the diagram indicates.

Geology and soils


Ask to the local people about the story and the evolution of the area, study the type of deposits (colluvium, glacial, alluvium, other). Use the soil survey report, if available. Determine soil type and depth. Soil B.E. can be limited by the available medium for plant growth. - Rocky or gravely slopes may lack sufficient fines or moisture to support plant growth, or hard pans or compacted soils may prevent the required root growth. Consult geologists and soil scientists if planning to do important intervention in instable area.
16

Soil Bioengineering for Upland Slope Protection and Erosion Reduction, Engineering Field Handbook, October 1992, United States Department of Agriculture Natural Resources Conservation Service 17 As above. 18 Slope Stabilization and Erosion Control Using Vegetation: A Manual of Practice for Coastal Property Owners. Myers Rian D.; Shoreland and Coastal Zone Management Program, Washington Department of Ecology. Olympia. Publication 93-30. 1993.

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Note evidence of past sliding. If site evidence exists, determine whether the slide occurred along a deep or shallow failure surface. Leaning or deformed trees may indicate previous slope movement or downhill creep. In addition to site evidence, check aerial photos (such as free satellite image from Google earth19), which reveal features that may not be apparent from a site can visit. Avoid extensive grading and earthwork in critical areas and perform soil tests to determine if vigorous plant growth can be supported.

Hydrology
All the hydrology analysis has to be carried out at watershed level. Observe Drainage Patterns: water causes soil erosion or slope instability. A visual observation of the drainage characteristics on the property should be conducted to determine the extent of surface water runoff. The best time to do this is during periods of heavy rainfall. Any observations on the direction and speed of runoff should be noted. Any catch basins, ditches, gullies, or general areas of concentrated water flow should also be noted. Determine the drainage area associated with the problem area. Note whether water can be diverted away from the problem area. Determine the annual precipitation. Are there concentrated discharges? Calculate peak flows or mean discharge through the project area. If a seep area was noted, locate the source of the water. Determine whether the water can be intercepted and diverted away from the slope face.

Design considerations
Retain existing vegetation whenever possible, vegetation provides excellent protection against surface erosion and shallow slope failures. Limit the removal of vegetation to the smallest practical size. Remove and store existing woody vegetation that may be used later in the project. Schedule land clearing during periods of low precipitation whenever possible. In the first centimetres of soil there is the fertility of the soil, topsoil removed during clearing and grading operations can be reused during planting operations. During construction protect the area from temporary erosion. Install a suitable drainage system to handle increased and/or concentrated runoff caused by changed soil and surface conditions during and after construction. Planning and coordination are needed to achieve optimal timing and scheduling. The seasonal availability of plants or the best time of year to install them may not coincide with the construction season or with tight construction schedules. In some cases, rooted stock may be used as an alternative to unrooted dormant season cuttings but they are more expensive.

19

GoogleGoogle http://www.google.com/intl/ru/earth/index.html

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Soil Bio-engineering for Slope protection and Stabilization

How to prepare cutting for Soil-bio-engineering


Cutting are required for such measures as live fascines, brush layer, wattling and live staking or where unrooted stems are used with structural measures. Cutting is a young shoots or stems of easily rooting species, such as willow, poplar, mulberry, red osier dogwood and sea-buckthorn, with adventitious root development capacity. These species have incipient root buds ready to develop in the right conditions.

Best planting seasons


Cuttings planting are most effective (higher survival rate) when they are prepared and installed during the dormant season (plant without leaves). The best periods are late fall at the onset of plant dormancy, in the winter as long as the ground is not frozen, or in early spring before growth begins. The parent plant vegetative stage is important because influence the cutting development. For example, dont cut willow for cutting preparation during the following vegetative stage: Flowering, Fruiting Leaf fall colour change period. Cutting collected from mother plant in one of this phases die easily and has grow rate depressed for the first 3 years. The only exception is Salix caprea (goat willow) that has to be cut after flowering but this species is generally not recommended. Another factor that influence the planting season is the risk of drying of the cutting during warm seasons before the development of the root systems. After initial spring and summer installation are not recommended, if necessary do it only in sites that will remain moist and consider that the survival rates will be lower.

Cutting preparation

Figure 21: Salix caprea

The parent plant have to be healthy and with intact buds. Generally sucker shoots, long shoots found near the stem base or root crown, root better. Use previous year's growth stem, so branches between 1 year and 6 years old. The longer, thicker stakes survive better than smaller diameter. The cutting have to be at least 25 long (30 < 60 cm), from diameter of a finger (1.20 cm) to the diameter of an arm (5 cm). For smaller cuttings, especially those for nurseries, the stem should include at least two nodes.

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All cuttings must have leaf buds on the stem so the cutting can grow leaves while it is rooting, thus producing energy. Select cuttings with leaf buds near the top of each cut line. Do not use branches with flower buds: they typically occur at the tips of branches produced during the last growing season, for eliminate flower buds trim branch tips of less of 6 mm diameter.

Figure 22: Cutting preparation from a stored branch.

Storage
To maintain the vitality of the cutting is necessary to prevent drying, heating and mechanic damage. To reduce drying remove small branches and whips as soon as possible after cutting. Best result can be reach if the cuttings are planted within 24 hours from the recollection from the parent plant. The cuttings have to be stored in the shade, cover with moist soil or store in water. Store in longer pieces (90 120 cm) reduce drying. The branches can be cut shorter late, just before laying, according with the construction requirement.

Figure 23: Cutting storage before layering: in the shade and in fresh water

Layering
Drive cutting in the soil respecting the direction of growth (if the wrong end is put in the ground the stake will die) and assure that at least of the cutting is in the soil; leave 5 15 cm (about ) above ground surface so they can sprout leaves.

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Soil Bio-engineering for Slope protection and Stabilization

If placed horizontally or inclined the cutting will produce more roots (unlike those placed vertically). Use an iron bar to start the hole in hard soils. Drive into the ground with a rubber mallet to avoid damaging them. If you damage the upper part (e.g.: using a hard hammer) after planting cut the damaged stump! If planted while dormant cutting should be show shoots (leaves and small branches) in spring. If planted during the growing season: it may take a full year or two to see results. To increase survival: watered once a week during their first growing season.
Figure 24: Use an iron bar to prepare the planting hole

Figure 25 Shoots: evidence of successful rooting.

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Soil Bio-Engineering Techniques Description


We briefly describe some techniques, without discriminate in the different bio engineering categories. For the techniques that have a technical leaflets refer to them for the construction guideline.20

Check dams
Check dams are often used on sites with slopes that are steeper than desired. A stone check dam is a barrier constructed of stone or wood (see Brush wood Check dam and palisades) that reduces the flow velocity of runoff, while minimizing channel erosion and promoting sediment deposition. During rainfall the water that enter in the gully (or swale or ditch) is pounded temporarily behind the check dam, allows sediment to settle out, while allowing some water to infiltrate and evaporate. The water that remains is slowly passed through the permeable check dam continuing on towards the outfall. In high flow situations, runoff is conveyed over the top of the dam. Basic Construction guidelines: Depending upon the slope of the channel multiple check dams may be needed to control runoff velocity. The distance between two check dam depend on slope and on the height of the dam (see figure 26). The maximum spacing between the dams should be such that the toe of the upstream dam (A) is at the same elevation as the top of the downstream dam (B). The center of the check dam should be, at a minimum, 15 cm lower than the edges to allow water to flow over the top of the structure. Functions: Slow down water flow, help sedimentation and formation of gradons, caches debris. Advantages: Fast and simple protection; big securing effect, resistant to damage, applicable in slope with big volume of debris flow (especially the reinforced check dam). It can be used up to about 60. Disadvantages: Labour intensive. Stone check dam required big quantity of stone, so the construction is limited by the availability of material. Reinforced check dam required expensive materials (iron rod and wired).

Figure 26: distance between check dams


20

Cesvi published 6 leaflets, annexed to this publication: Leaflet number 1: Live Palisades; Leaflet number 2: Brush Layering; Leaflet number 3: Contour Line Fascines; Leaflet number 4: Drainage Fascine; Leaflet number 5: Live Wattling; Leaflet number 6: Vegetated Gabions Gravity Retaining Wall.

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Soil Bio-engineering for Slope protection and Stabilization

Stone Check dam

Figure 27 Stone check dam: the central part of the dam have to be lower than the edge to invite the water to pass in the center of the stone line .

Reinforced Check dam

Figure 28: reinforced check dam.

It is formed by iron rod (armature) and wire, connected similar to wattling, and stones. The distance between the armatures is set up accordance the size of stones. The wire is interweaved horizontally between each armature, so the final result looks like square net (figure 28). The stones are put in both sides of check dam.

Brush wood Check dam


Advantages: applicable when is not possible to find stone for the stone check dam. It is stronger than a palisade.

Figure 29: Brush wood check dam

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Palisade Leaflet number 1


It is a wall consisting of living uniform stakes of live material driven into the ground (one third of their length), close to each other to form a palisade. The top ends are cut plane and tied to a horizontal (living or dead) pole that ties in the ground at both sides of the gully. Palisades are used to promote deposition in rills, V-shaped gullies and Figure 30: palisade with double horizontal rehabilitation in fine soils (clay, sand, pole. loess, loam). Functions: Reduce slope in gullies and tributaries, encourage deposition of sediments especially in fine soils. After sprouting the resulting vegetation becomes the major structural component; contribute to soil moisture depletion through transpiration. Trap material moving down the slope, form a strong barrier and reinforce the slope especially once cuttings developed the root. Advantages: Quickly and easily built, immediately effective, usually grows well, cheap if material at site is available. Filter effect. Disadvantages: Limited width (about 6 m) and length (2-4 m). Availability of material restricted (long, straight poles). Only for restricted water and debris flow.

Brush layering Leaflet number 2


It is made of living cuttings planted in line, on terraces across the slope, following the contour, cover with soil with just the tips sticking out. It use for stabilization ofshallow earth slumps and loose soil slopes and gullies. On contour line prevents the development of rills, if angled, the brushlayering helps to drain. Functions: Woody cuttings reinforce and armour the slope immediately. The portion of the brush that protrude assist in retarding run off and reducing surface erosion.

Figure 31: Brush layering, slope section.

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Soil Bio-engineering for Slope protection and Stabilization

After root and sprout develop into a strong line of vegetation that deplete soilwater through transpiration and interception, break up the slope length into series of shorter slopes, trap debris creating terraces, reinforce the slope with the roots adding significant resistance to sliding or shear displacement. Advantages: It is simple and provides a very strong and low-cost barrier, especially on loose debris of slopes. Disadvantages: The construction of the layers gives rise to a considerable level of disturbance to the slope. Brush layering should only be used on slopes consisting of loose material. Figure 32: Brush layering construction.
Cesvi, Khovaling, Tajikistan.

Fascines
Structures consisting of bundles made with live plant material anchored to the ground using pegs, which in some cases can also be made from live plant material (cuttings). Used in two type of intervention: Stabilizing the base of a stream bank Slope stabilization Reinforce slope - Contour line fascines Drainage Drainage fascines or Live Pole drain Below are described contour line fascines and drainage fascines: for more information see Leaflets number 3 and 4.

Contour line fascines Leaflet number 3


They are fabricated from woody species, such as shrub willow or shrub dogwood, into sausage-like bundles, which are placed with the stems oriented generally parallel to the slope contour or slightly angled. Functions: After rooting and spouting develop into a strong line of vegetation that depleting soil-water through transpiration and interception; dissipate the energy of downward moving water, trap debris and provide a series of benches on which grasses and eventually brush and trees establish more easily. Increase infiltration. Advantages: Simple and low cost erosion control measures, which is effective even after silting. Very adaptable to the existing morphology,
Figure 33: Fascine for contour line

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requires little soil work, suitable for steep rocky slopes where digging is difficult. The maximum slope is about 45. Disadvantages: A large amount of straight and long plant material is needed. Form a physical barrier only after sprouting.

Drainage with fascines - Leaflet number 4


Use for wet slope stabilization and drainage. They are positioned down-slope in existing rill/small gully (or in a trench), secured with live or dead pegs and covered with soil. Functions: Immediate sub-surface drainage with rapid stabilization at mid depth.

Figure 34: Drainage fascines

After spouting develop into a strong line of vegetation that reduces erosion, while the excess moisture continues to drain from the lower end. Advantages: Simple and low cost erosion control measure, which is effective even after silting. Very adaptable to the existing morphology, requires little soil work. Disadvantages: A large amount of straight and long plant material is needed. Do not form a physical barrier immediately. They can only drain a limited amount of water, up to 5 litres per second. The maximum slope is about 35.

Wattling Leaflet number 5


Wattling, or rooted fences, is used over steep slopes in loose materials, affected by superficial landslide sand erosion, where vegetation cannot naturally establish. Long live cuttings (e.g.: willow) are interweaving horizontally around vertical plant stakes, and/or rebar, driven into the groud. Soil is filled in behind the fence. Generally done along the contour line. Functions: Reinforce the slope. Modify the slope establishing terraces (breaks up the slope length into series of shorter slopes), catch debris and increase infiltration. After rooting and spouting plays a very efficient action of consolidation, by the root system, and drainage, by the leaf transpiration.
Figure 35: Wattling: slope section.

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Soil Bio-engineering for Slope protection and Stabilization

Advantage: Fast and simple protection; Rooted fences establishes a micro-site for other plants. Disadvantages: Large quantities of flexible branches are required. Labour and material intensive, securing effect is small, easily damaged, thus not sufficient for persistent rock falls. Applicable only to slope with limited volume of debris flow. It can be used up to about 40. Not suitable on excessively drained soils (the cuttings dry out and die).

Figure 36: Wattling reinforced by a stone line (Cesvi, Kujand, Tajikistan)

Gabions Leaflet number 6


A gabion is parallelepiped made by metal mesh, interconnected with other similar containers to form a monolithic structure. When live cutting or rooted plant or seeds are added during the gabion constructions we call it vegetated gabions. Some people confuse gabions with mattress: the function of them is completely different from the gabions function. Mattresses (figure 37) are flat layer of stone cover with metallic net. It is used for river bank protection and covering without structural or retain function.

Figure 37: Mattress: it is different from gabion! (Photo from internet)

Figure 38: Gabions for river bank protection and retain (Cesvi, Khovaling, Tajikistan).

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Gabions are used for generally structural purpose: gravity retaining wall, road and slope-stabilizing structures, reinforcement of shorelines, stream bank (figure 38) and embankments, channel linings, revetments, weirs, check dams (figure 41), etc, for erosion and flood control. It is important to notice that traditional net (see figure 39 A) is not adapted for gabions: the main problem is that if in one point the wire is broken all the net will be laddered. The best net is hexagonal double twist galvanized wire mesh net (figure 39 B). More resistant because the twist construction avoid an easy disintegration Galvanized because can resist longer to stress and corrosion hazards. Iron rods (figure 39 C) can be used to reinforce the connection with the ground. The gabions have a easy building shape (figure 40): For a rectangular parallelepiped shape gabion of 0.6 x 0.6 x 1.2 m are needed 3 m of wire mesh (1.2 m high).For bigger gabions, with cubic shape (1,2 x 1,2 x 1,2), are needed 7.2 m of wire mesh 1.2 m high. Advantages: can be built without any mechanical equipment. Rapid effect of consolidation, fast implementation, Very flexible, able to resist to erosion or landslides, or seismic tremors. Easy to find suitable living plant material. Great degree of permeability throughout the structure. Disadvantages: It is necessary to find the filling material on site. Labour intensive. It is important that a qualified geotechnical engineer approve the structural wall design.

Cubic

Figure 40: Gabions shape: and

Parallelepiped.

Figure 39: A. Traditional wire mesh,

B. double twisted net,

C. Iron rods

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Soil Bio-engineering for Slope protection and Stabilization

Figure 41: A B Gabions Check dam and Gabions Stream dikes: for energys flow reduction Cesvi, Khovaling, Tajikistan

Vegetated Gabions Gravity retaining wall - Leaflets number 6


A retaining wall is a structure designed and constructed to resist the pressure of soil thanks to the mass of the structure Function: Stabilization of slopes and landslides, water drainage and plant cover restoration, great degree of permeability. The living plant material, once taken root and developed, contributes to the overall consolidation, through the root system, and Figure 42: Retain gabion wall, Cesvi, drainage effect, by means of the leaf Khovaling, Tajikistan transpiration. Advantages: Rapid effect of consolidation, fast implementation. Its very flexible structure: able to resist, without serious deformation, to settling and/or subsidence of the soil due to erosion or landslides, or seismic tremors. Usually is easy to find in the area suitable living plant material with the possibility of re-creation of natural habitats and good landscaping. It can be built without any mechanical equipment (all stages of excavation and laying of foundations can be carried out by hand). It may constitute a basis for further interventions of bioengineering. Disadvantages: The filling and closure of the wire cages is labour intensive. Its necessary to find the filling material on site. The structural wall designer requires the approval of a qualified geo-technical engineer.

Figure 43: Calculation for the design of a retain wall

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Riprap
Riprap is the pitching of stones for slope protection. In vegetated riprap vegetation (brush and or grass) is inter planted between the stones. Riprap can be used in slopes (stream bank, shoreline, toe wall, revetment, roadside slopes, and gully head) and water course (spillway, waterways, and gully floor). We can divide them in two groups, one integrated Figure 44: Vegetated riprap with vegetation and the other one without: A. Stone riprap without vegetation21. Generally used in revetment, stream bank, water course. B. Riprap with vegetation22.Generally used in toe wall / roadside, gully beds and head. Function: Reinforce and armour the slope against erosion. It allows seepage to flow out between the stones. Advantages: Stones are not dislodged once the vegetation is established. Good drainage through wall by the plants. Disadvantages: Regeneration of vegetation is obstructed by stones. It is relatively expensive to carry out in large scale. It cannot be used in toe protection more than 2 meters in height and slope greater than 60, in long slopes length, in very steep gullies (more then 45) or gullies where plentiful debris flow occurs. Use on gully floors with a maximum slope of 45 and with only very small amounts of debris flow.

Figure 45: Revetment overflow water way. Cesvi, Khovaling, Tajikistan.

21 22

BIWMP, 2003, Ohio Department of Natural Resources. Howell, 1999.

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Soil Bio-engineering for Slope protection and Stabilization

Pole or Live stake planting


Live staking involves the insertion and tamping of live, rootable vegetative cuttings into the ground. If correctly prepared and placed, the live stake will root and grow. Function: A system of stakes creates a living root mat that stabilizes the soil by reinforcing and binding soil particles together and by extracting excess soil moisture. Most willow species root rapidly and begin to dry out a slope soon after installation. It is appropriate for repair of small earth slips and slumps Figure 46: Live stakes that frequently are wet. Advantages: May be used for pegging down surface erosion control materials (e.g.: seedling mat). It enhances conditions for natural invasion and the establishment of other plants from the surrounding plant community. It can be used to stabilize the area of intervention between other soil bioengineering techniques, such as live fascines. Disadvantages: A technique for relatively uncomplicated site conditions when construction time is limited and an inexpensive method is necessary. The stabilization effect starts after 6 months -1-2 years. Basic Construction guidelines: The cuttings are usually Branches of easy rooting plants (like willow, poplar, mulberry and sea-buckthorn) 60-90 cm long of 1.5 to 5 cm in diameter from one year to 6 years old branches. For final size determination, refer to the available cutting source. The materials must have side branches cleanly removed and the bark intact. The basal ends should be cut at an angle for easy insertion into the soil. The top should be cut square and flat. Materials should be installed the same day that they are prepared. Drive cutting in the soil respecting the direction of growth (if the wrong end is put in the ground the stake will die) and the right angles. Be sure that at least 1/4 of the cutting is in the soil and firmly packed soil around it after installation. The installation may be started at any point on the slope face. The live stakes should be installed using triangular spacing (from 2-5 cutting/m2 to 5-10 cutting/m2). Do not split the stakes during installation. Stakes that split should be removed and replaced. An iron bar can be used to make a pilot hole in firm soil. Drive the stake into the ground with a dead blow hammer (hammer head filled with shot or sand).

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Trees and cutting protection


Trees protection with recycled plastic bottle. The bottle are cut longitudinally for enlace the trunk to grow. Functions: Protect tree and soilbioengineering interventions from animal. Create a microclimate (enhance moisture and temperatures). It is a low cost alternative to rigid plastic shelter (photo-degradable figure 47).

Figure 47: trees protection from animal damage: rigid pho-degradable plastic shelter and plastic bottles

CesvI, established in 1985, is a secular, independent association, working for global solidarity. In the values which guide Cesvi, the moral principle o human solidarity and the ideal of social justice are transformed into humanitarian aid and development, reinforcing an affirmation of universal human right. Cesvi believes strongly that helping the underprivileged in developing countries, or those I difficulty due to war, natural calamities nd environmental disaster, does not help only those who soffer, but contributes also to the well-being of all of us on the planet, our common home to be look ed after for future generations. CesvI has been in Tajikistan since 2001: the main area of intervention are agriculture, water supplies and development of local economy, with specific focus on vulnerable people, to improve socio-economic conditions and living standards. CesvI has 3 offices in Tajikistan: Dushanbe, Khujand, Khovaling

CesvI Tajikistan

Dushanbe Office: 37, Buzurgzoda Street tel. +992 37 224 67 28 E-mail: filippocrivellaro@cesvioverseas.org Khovaling Office: 8 of March Street Tel +992 934098724 E-mail- dushanbe@cesvioverseas.org

www.cesvi.org

This publication has been produced with the assistance of the European Union. The contents of this publication are the sole responsibility of Cesvi and the implementing partner and can in no way be taken to reflect the views of the European Union.