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Naive Sensualism, Docta Ignorantia. Tibetan Liberation through the Senses Author(s): Joanna Tokarska-Bakir Source: Numen, Vol.

47, Fasc. 1 (2000), pp. 69-112 Published by: BRILL Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3270361 . Accessed: 05/04/2013 09:41
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NAIVE SENSUALISM, DOCTA IGNORANTIA. TIBETAN LIBERATION THROUGH THE SENSES


JOANNA TOKARSKA-BAKIR Summary of the Tibetan the senses are the soteriological Liberations practices through on whatin Europeis occasionally to and an elaboration a counterpart Buddhists, Linkedwith offone's prayers". as "rattling somewhat described, contemptuously, in Europeanethnographic and labelled"naive sensualism" folkbeliefsand rituals behaviours senses"are all thosereligious Tibetan"liberation through terminology, to and repeating sacredobjects)- such as listening mantras, (as well as related and of stiapas, relics,smelling circumambulation lookingat sacredimages,tasting - which that sensualcontact areaccompanied substances sacred bya belief touching witha sacred object (sculptedfigure, mandala,stiipa,holy man, tree, painting, of achieving mount, book, substance, etc.) can give one hope and even certainty sucha kind Thisstudy liberation. conclusion, classifying ethnological argues against The textis as a typical of behaviour folk-religiousness. exampleof non-reflective the senses."The of "liberations withan in-depth concerned through interpretation associatedwiththeprocessof destroying idea of endlessrepetition, soteriological ofcomparative on thebackground is projected thediscursive consciousness, religion. and withrattling offprayers thefullsoteriological cycle,beginning Subsequently, is tracedin theTibetanand other religious experience," endingwith"a borderline materials.

Tibetan known One of theaimsof thistexton thelittle religious boils down to the senses" "liberation as termed through practices, thesentence by thePolishwriter, Czeslaw Milosz: "It doesn'tmatter Who servesbestdoesn'talways serves:/ what he knows he whether understand".1 all thesereligious thesenses"comprises "Liberation practhrough - andthesacred to related are tises taste, sight, hearing, they things
Poems 1 C. Milosz,Love,from: byC. Milosz,in: Collected Rescue(1945), transl. 1988,p. 50. 1931-1987, Penguin BrillNV,Leiden(2000) ? Koninklijke NUMEN,Vol.47

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with intocontact that thebelief smellandtouch, coming coupledwith a stiapa, a holy a mandala, a painting, a sacredthing (a monument, even or a a a man, tree, mountain, book,etc.) inspires hope guaranthese In European teesliberation. practises terminology, ethnographic andlabeledas "naivesensualism." to popular areattributed religiosity on cloth a big painting national Bhutan's partially palladium-thangka, theIndianyogin in silkandrepresenting embroided Padmasambhava, called in TibetGu ru Rin po che, 'The PreciousTeacher',who inis called "liberation to Tibetin the8thcentury, Buddhism troduced intheHihands andbackleft ofhisfeet, Theimprints through seeing". also carried thisname.Comin which he meditated grottoes malayan withancient so-calledtreasure-texts (Tib. gTerma), ingintocontact andhisdisPadmasambhava to bookshidden, by according tradition, orhearing. Sources liberation endows touching seeing, through ciples, inorder toachieve relics tosee these itis enough holy "just" emphasize liberation. No "innersenses" are involved.Gu ru Rin po che's blessing and man's simpleexoteric can becomeeffective sight onlythrough touch and also through taste, guidebooks memory. Pilgrim's hearing, contact: thesoteriological "Pray powerof simplesensory emphasize of sentient the liberation these here,for beingsthrough represent What and touch."2 thepowerof sight, Europeans memory hearing, to getinvolved Tibetans do nothesitate aboutor do in secret, grumble we laugh at, such as prayer in openly,sayingthatthe activities drinking, chanting, speedmantra stapa circumambulation, pattering, liberation. sacredobjects, sacred foodandtouching guarantee eating the Western readerscame across the term"liberations through thefirst senses"in 1927 whenW.Y.Evans-Wentz3 English published of the textknownas The TibetanBook of the Dead, translation
2 E. Bernbaum, New York1989,p. 278, n. 21; 172. toShambhala, Way 3 W.Y. Evans-Wentz, on the Book of The After-Death The Tibetan Experiences Oxford to Lama Kazi Dawa Samdup'sEnglishRendering, Bardo Plane, according 1968 [1927].

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whose original laterreferred to as TBD.4 The text, titleis theBar do thos grol chen mo or The GreatLiberationThrough Hearing is the classic in the Bardo [the statebetweendeathand rebirth], the senses. This specificaspect of exampleof liberation through Tibetan has never been dealtwith in a systematic wayby soteriology works on theTBD (published foroverseventy anyof thenumerous in theTibetan The hermetic character oftheteachings doctrine years). ofeschatology, theunparalleled ofsymbolics anditsexotic complexity research have diverted from what is hidden character, successfully thesoteriological in theobvioustitle. Meanwhile, by pathindicated to liberation be of fundamental the senses significance through appears fortheTibetan of religiosity ordinary people possesingan unusual spiritual imagination. the veryterm"liberation the senses" is To Europeans, through research. odd,letalone theidea of usingthesensesin soteriological in Europeans Classicalantiquity inculcated thebeliefthat "touching thusassuring is shameful" them of an insoluble conflict (Aristotle), thebody and thesoul. To some extent, between thisconflict grew with of Christian in defiance theadvent of thedogma times, stronger ofincarnation andtheconcept ofresurrection. "Forif someone wants whotakesa spiritual to becomea meditator, of viewand looks point into hisinner selfbutis sure he should smellandtouch hear, see,taste, and acts to order."5 (...), thenhe is entirely contrary natural wrong Thisview,voicedin the14th-century The Cloud anonymous writing, as sensus can be of of Unknowing, regarded representativeEuropean theidea of resorting to theaid of communis. Europeans maytolerate thesensesina bidfor salvation when it the they give metaphorical only sense of opening the "innersenses" Christian used to tell mystics
4 Englishtranslation of TBD alwaysafter and F. Fremantle, Chogyam Trungpa TheTibetan BookoftheDead. TheGreatLiberation Through Hearingin theBardo; do thos Guru to by grol],Boulder1975, Rinpoche According KarmaLingpa [Bar XI. p. 5 [Anonymus] transl. ['The CloudofUnknowing'], niewiedzy byW.Ungolt, Obtok Poznaii1986,p. 31.

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about:"Whenyou disappear in yourself forthewill and sensesof and speechwill openfor yourown 'self', theneternal hearing, sight and will see hear and God you, you through yourself'(J. BOihme). Does Tibetan "liberation thesenses" refer tothesamemystical through sensorium? I willseekto answer thequestion in this paper. aboutdifferent MirceaEliade Writing pathsleadingto thesacred, easier such as and to ones, "mantra, opposes prayers pilgrimage" more difficult and yoga."6His ones, such as "gnosis,asceticism view reflects a classic division and religious (in ethnology sciences) intolittle and great, low and high,popular and elitetraditions. This criticized historical differentiation is repeatedly recalled frequently whenone thinks of liberation the senses. Its secret criterion through is therole playedby variousforms of self-consciousness in a given and the to attached the practice religious importance independence of cogitoin Europeanphilosophical tradition. is often but Writing as the indicated criterion in between groundlessly key differentiating lowandhigh little andgreat, direct andindirect traditions and culture,' even"cognitive (Jack styles" Goody).
6 M. Eliade,Joga. i wolnof5 and Freedom', NiegmiertelnoS5 ['Yoga. Immortality B. Warszawa transl. 1984,p. 212. by Baranowski], e. g. Wilhelm Halbfass's ofE. Geller'sarticle 7 Compare, critique "HighandLow Culture in EuropeandElsewhere," w Castel [in:Europai co z tegowynika. Rozmnowy Geller differentiates between 1985,vol.2, Warszawa 1990,p. 328] inwhich Gandolfo on thebasis of literacy factor. Halbfass claimsthisis a highand low culture, strictly totalmisunderstanding, at leastin reference to Indiantradition: "Fromthepointof viewofBrahminist tradition to low will,in someway,belong orthodoxy, anywritten culture becausewhat was subject tothestrictest codification hadfor hundreds ofyears beenreserved fororaltradition. The mostsacredand intensely normative were texts all that towritten texts. far oral;youcouldapplytothem (...) Techniques youascribe all that couldbe possiblein reference to manuscripts, havebeenused to surpassing ensure oraltradition. Climate andother factors contributed tothedestruction genuine ofmanuscripts; themostancient more texts, Vedas,werepreserved namely carefully than all that was expressed inwriting. The Hindusbecamefamiliar with writing early and eventhough had known howto write fora longtime, was notput they writing intouse forhundreds of years.Even in late Hinduism, werepreserved texts original ofmouth. Thispractice, under between Islam,ledtosomemisunderstandings byword

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to an entirely thesensesrefers liberation We will see that through than theone whose other to its"faculty" "levelofintellect", different is thisfaculty and are consciousness Obviously, writing. synonyms which one or something notreasonas ratiobutsurely mind/intellect8 not reduced is of the nature this can experience, cognition although thesensesis Liberation controlled to consciously through cognition. It is of theexample cognition-not-through-discursive-consciousness. and evenmoreto theterm to see howwe objectto thisterm striking be touching We unconsciousness." uponone might through "cognition that associates ofthemajor exclusively cognition prejudices European withignorance. unconsciousness whileequating withconsciousness thesenses, liberation Tibetans'religious through especially practice, issue. to the to a different approach points are used." This is clearly seen in theexampleof "thewaysletters to do not letters the In liberation function, according through senses, andforthewit"(Plato'sPhaeforthememory as "a specific Theuth, thediscursive of or as an instrument 274C ff.) content, drus, preserving exists sacramentale. as a magicalmedium, butrather onlyas Writing achieves man who or touch in liberation a rheme9 taste; through sight,
did not wantto give because theformer of Hinduism Muslimsand theadherents of Book?." ofa <<religion the thestatus Hinduism 8Tibetan one. is a complicated the"mind/intellect/consciousness" for terminology 'Mind' maybe calledbLa, Yid,Sems,rNam par shespa etc. See: GyatsoKelsang, transl. in Vajraydna Clear LightofBliss. Mahamudra Buddhism, by TenzinNorbu, TheNine Ways Boulder1982,p. 135; D.L. Snellgrove, from"gZiofBon. Excerpts London1975, TheTantric Tradition, brjid",Boulder1980,p. 259,n. 36; A. Bharati, p. 44-49etc. and adjusted revised has beenconsiderably that terminology 91 use thelinguistic is whatis beingtold a rheme In myterminology, of thiswork. to therequirements of thetext, of themateriality whatit is talkedabout.The perception and a theme will be rhematic form behaviour, itsmaterial (thecultof theBook as a holything) whileform is semantically will be thematic on its content concentration behavior, witha high to writing cultures are proper Rhematic to readers. practises transparent ofmouth is chiefly tradition that oforaltradition, ratio is,inwhich byword preserved See W. Ong,Oralnoidi pismiennoid is higher. ofwriting thestatus ['Orality although infootnote 7. Halbfass Lublin1990,andalso theopinion andLiteracy'], byWilhelm

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while ofan inscription and matter focuses liberation onlyon theform auis left to of thecontent examination a reflective (theme) "higher on this from dissuaded He is sometimes thorities." focusing formally "the claimthat Somespiritual content.10 authorities, e.g.,Vasubandhu, and that of an absenceof meaning consists realsenseof mantras by theontological on absent meaning youcometounderstand meditating oftheuniverse.""11 unreality - is The formof the text- its visual and audio materiality or rotates in streamers It flutters on prayer prayer duplicated. infinitely orcarefully on manistones andis inscribed streams wheelsin Tibetan 12 etc. andamulets, ofthecanonofwritings copiedon thewood-blocks but is never andmayevenbe eaten, is lookedat,touched Aninscription thesensesis concerned, as liberation at leastinsofar treated, through of the and thewit."The understanding forthememory as a "specific who Does thatmeanTibetans, reader." textis leftto the"heavenly that fall victim to the in trust liberation which, through senses, place was condemned ofdisputes on theEucharist, tradition intheEuropean whofailstounderstand sacramentalism?" Can theperson as "magical be liberated? which liberates that for carnal contact orthesearch orprayer Endlessmantra, chanting, which of substances which liberate the with liberate, tasting things even and whose of circumambulations liberates, sight doing staipas all these the monument thewater used to wash practices drinking hadthis The issuewouldbe clearer ofreligiosity. forms areenigmatic of peoplewho wereoutside boileddownto thepractises religiosity folk neither of an orthodox thestream Yet, simpleTibetan religion. are so simpleas to remainoutsidethe religionnor the educated
10This concerns of liberation at least textreadingfromthe category through 'utter rNam thar the so-called TBD and (literally specific hagiographies, hearing, e.g., the Tibetan of famous the obscene yogin liberation'), hagiography compare, e.g., "liberates ofwhich through hearing". 'Brugspa kunlegs' pa, thereading 11 [in:]Eliade,Joga,p. 230. Bodhisattvabhami, 12Por.N. Douglas, Tibetan 230 Examples Tantric Charmsand Amulets. ReproNew Yorkn.d. duced Woodblock, from Original

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the Tibetanclasses so elite as to be unawareof liberation through and seekingliberation senses. Cognition-not-through-consciousness of the nameandthe in narrow the the senses, meaning proper through are essential broadsenseof theterm, soteriological pathsof Tibetan and "the Buddhism that unite"simple" nepioi13, people,evangelical orsocialstatus. oforigin poorin spirit" regardless theSenses and Descriptions Classifications ofLiberation Through thesensesis found indifferent classifications in Liberation throuigh a fourpart Be rumkhyen brtse offers Tibetan sources. category: known of a Buddha's "Thereare several virtuous conduct, aspects and being as liberations hearing, through seeing,through recalling a hiswords, touched. Thusbymerely seeing Buddha, hearing recalling can become from themor beingtouched his liberated hand, you by withno conscious however, (...) All suchthings suffering. happen, efforts on thepart oftheBuddha. ( ...) The classicexample forhowliberation seeingandhearing through in terms the Indra. sits in his heavenly are of Indra god operates hisappearance on all the is reflected doing palaceandwithout anything see this and are facets ofitswalls.Peopleon earth beautiful reflection to work Indrahas a heavenly to achievethisstate. Likewise, inspired the which sound of is so that drum, moving peopledevelopprofound it. from insights merely hearing to benefit Justas the sun and moonhave no intentions people, his virtuous a Buddhafulfils theaimsof others through effortlessly conduct andwithout anythought."14 classification of liberation is corroborated This four-part by the It med mentions the of Nam mkha' (1591-1650). 'jigs hagiography
13Greek ofarooog, usedas theantithesis substantive 'infant, child',when v?7rrtog, cf.Matt.11,25; Luc. 10,21. has a meaning of 'simpleton', 14Wang-ch'ug and rdo rje],A Guideto KagyuMahamudrd dorje[dBangphyug theDarkness TheMahamudrd chenma [Phyag Eliminating ofIgnorance Guru-yoga: brtse oralcommentary BeruMkhyen Rin rigmunsel andBla ma Ingabcupa, with Dharamsala 1978,p. 147-148. Berzin], po che,transl. byAlexander

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treasure-text thistext"is conducive (Tib. gTerma) he discovered; to deliverance and touching by merely hearing, seeing, remembering A modified four-fold of liberation is offered it."15 slightly category He speaksof "four of thesacredlocality" (Tib. by Lauf.16 blessings ba Grol bzhiIdan)through (Thosgrol), seeing(mThong grol),hearing wearing (bTagsgrol)andtasting (Myang grol). TulkuThondup classifies liberation thesensesaccording to through thecriterion similar to that ofsix mental with the powers,17 exception of smell.18 "thefive skillful means Theyaretermed swiftly liberating, of tantra": "the which liberates mandala 1) [Skr.], diagram byseeing. In the case of Termas[Tib. gTer ma] - the symbolicwriting"; "thesyllables which liberate 2) mantra [Skr.] 3) ambrosia, byhearing"; "substances which liberate "a consort, the 4) mudra [Skr.], bytasting"; sourceof wisdomof united bliss and emptiness, whichliberates by consciousness transference 5) theso-called (Tib. 'Pho ba), touching"; liberates "which bythinking". The mostcomplete is thesix-part classification of liberation proFremantle and It includes wearposedby seeing, Trungpa.19 hearing, andremembering ing,tasting, touching (thinking). - This term is used 1) liberation through remembering, thinking to definean "ordinary" mentalreference to the Enlightened One, Bodhisattvas and also Buddhas, (especially Tiri, or Avalokite~vara) consciousness transference.20
15E. Dargyay, TheRise ofEsoteric Buddhism in Tibet, New York1978,p. 168. 16D.I. Lauf,Tibetan SacredArt:TheHeritage 1976,p. 205. ofTantra, Berkeley 17Tib. dBangpo drug: ba'i seeing(Mig gi dbangpo), hearing (rNa dbangpo), smell(sNa'i dbangpo), taste(ICe'i dbangpo), touch (Lus sku'i dbangpo), andalso or"comprehension" Tibetan"mental power" dbang po). See: TsepakRigzin, (Yidkyi Buddhist Buddhist Dharamsala 1986,p. 289. of Dictionary Terminology, of Tibet.An Explanationof the Terma 18ThondupTulku,Hidden Teachings Tradition SchoolofBuddhism, London1986,p. 242, n. 152. ofNyingma 19TBD, XI. p. 20H.G. Mullin, Death and Dying, The Tibetan Boston1986,p. 176 etc; Tradition, TheRise ofEsoteric tibetain des morts Buddhism...,p. 214,n. 58; Le livre Dargyay, bardothodol, Paris1980 [1977],p. 50-52etc.

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- Its source is thebodyoftheEnlighttouch 2) liberation through as nirmanakaya. automatenedOne, termed The group nirmanakiya not human but also animals, e.g., birds icallycomprises only beings ormonkeys, considered tobe Buddhas in animal forms. Various sPrul the who incarnate themselves skus, people consciously monks, yo- are amongthe musicians and painters21 doctors, gins,teachers, touch. HiddensPrulskus, like through peoplethoseendowliberation ofHasidism, "hidden zaddiks" andpeoplefrom walksoflife, different water carriers andevencourtecobblers, fishermen, including potters, sans(compare thehagiographies ofeighty-four mahasiddhas and The In their canalso giveblessings touch. ofTardTantra22) Origin through can be obtained from their in absence,thisliberation representatives, sKutshab) theliteral andmetaphorical oftheword, (Tibetan meanings andothers suchas "theartificial bodiesofemanations" ofspecialqualities.Thesearemiraculous monuments andpaintings as wellas traces oftheworldly existence oftheEnlightened, the walls ofthegrote.g., toesin which theimprints oftheir feet andhands(Timeditated, they betan Zhab their the etc. relics, gTer mas, holybooks Phyagrjes, rjes), ofTibetan also liberate Buddhism, through beingtouched. 3) liberation (Tibetan wearing through bTagsgrol)is notincluded in anycategory andmaybe regarded as thesub-category ofliberation touch orinterpreted as veiledliberation smell. "Wearthrough through to "a relates brief text fastened to mantras, ing" mostly comprising thebodyof thedead as an amulet."23 a circualso mentions Dargyay and lar diagram the heart of the on head dead.24 back,throat, placed In thehagiography of Gu ru Chos dbang,thepatron of Ma ni pas, we find a passageabouta yoginwhokilledtwoanimals(a hareand a whistler) with a mantra, and later used bTagsgrolto transfer them
21Wang-ch'ug A GuidetoKagyuMahdmudra and Guru-yoga, dorje, p. 146. 22In: Taranatha, TheOrigin the Tantra ma'i [sGrol of Tard kyi rgyud byung khung ba zhesbyaba, transl. gsergyiphren gsal bar byed pa'i lo rgyus byD. Templeman], Dharamsala 1981. 23TBD, p. 59, picture on pp. 32, IX. 24Dargyay, TheRise ofEsoteric..., p. 114,n. 117.

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thebardo.25 The text Bar do thosgrolreads:"Read this'Libthrough eration' and 'Liberation because [through hearing] through wearing', are like a decorated with and together they golden mandala turquoises The ofdrawings canbe found intheTibetan Tantric gems."26 examples Charms andAmulets.27 Thatsmellcan be an agent ofliberation is corrobthrough wearing orated the fact that liberation ofthe one (the by through wearing only seems to be almost meant forthedead,whohave group) exclusively thestatus ofDri za, thesmell-eaters, thebeings on smells when feeding in an intermediate state between lifeandnext incarnation. Liberation resembles thepractise ofcloththrough wearing slightly known inJewish andgnostic inginNames, magic.28 taste Its source is Dam rdzas,"a substance 4) liberation through which is nobleandwondrous initsorigin."29 Si tuRinpo cheidentifies themas variouspills and pelletsprepared herbsand by saintsfrom and givenaway after special ingredients havingbeen blessed.The of Ma labs mentions numerous (1055-1249)30 hagiography gcig gron bSrelleft behind whenthecorpseof a holywoman has five-coloring beencremated Allione the of the term (sKu gdung). explains meaning in thefollowing relics,usually way: "Ringbsrelare smallspherical sometimes the five which white, colours, though manifesting emerge from theashesofgreat teachers after their death orfrom sacred places suchas Buddhastatues or stupas. It is said they are brought forth by thedevotion ofdisciples, andevenwhena very advanced practitioner are no devoted there will be no ringbsrel. dies, if there disciples,
25Ibidem, p. 114,217, n. 116 and 121. 26 TBD, p. 79. 27N. Douglas, Tibetan Tantric Charms and Amulets. 230

ExamplesReproduced New York no. 227, 232. Woodblock, n.d.,print from Original 28G. Quispel, Warszawa Gnoza['Gnosis',transl. 1988,p. 65; G. SchobyB. Kita], lem,Kabbalah,New York1978 [1960],p. 135-136. 29Situpa the XIIth Khentin, Tilopa (Some Glimpsesof His Life) [transl. by K. Holmes],1988,p. 58. 30T. Allione,Women from theTibetan], London ofWisdom transl. [6 rNamthars, oftheoriginal. 1984,p. 185.Transcription

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Thereare also cases of ringbsrelappearing theashesor bitsof after bonehavebeencollected andkept for sometime. Someone have might someremnants and when look at them they they devotedly, keepvery after intoringbsrel.One of them sometime, they mayhave turned getsbiggerand thenthebumpsbecomesmallringsbsrel.In 1970, thestupaof Swayambhu in Kathmandu ringbsrelon the produced eastern sideofthestupa. There all overtheground werethousands and all themonastery, thehighest left lama,who almostnever including hisroom, wereoutside them in the above Noteworthy up."31 picking is a specialstatus of ring bsrel. Like many other causesof description liberation the straddle the line between animate senses, through they andinanimate worlds. Thehagiography ofMilarepa a search (Tib.:Mi la raspa) describes in for the left the bsrel ashes after cremation of Ring ceremony a saint. A knife, a clothand a notewerefoundthere: a sugarloaf, "When cutwith thisknife, theclothand sugarwill never be exhausted. Cut as manystrips the clothand as manybitsfrom the sugaras from and them the distribute whotastes can, you among people.Everyone thesugarand touchestheclothwill gain liberation thelower from the becausethesethings, food and of clothes realms, being Milarepa his meditative wereblessedby theBuddhas throughout awakening, who appearedin the past. Any sentient being who has heardthe name of Milarepaeven once and in whomit produced veneration willnotgo through in thelowerrealms thecycleof rebirth forseven lifetimes."32 Waddell that also writes after thebodyoftheBuddhadid cremation, into notturn ashesbutintopelletsresembling Waddell sago seeds.33 divides them into'Phel gdungwhich, he claims,come from a burnt
31Ibidem, 203,n. 140. p. 32LobsangLhalungpa, TheLifeofMilarepa.A New Translation theTibetan from Boulder1982,195; also p. 220,n. 25. [Gtsan heruka], smyon 33L.A. Waddel, Tibetan Buddhism With ItsMystic andMythology Cults, Symbolism andItsRelation toIndianBuddhism, NewYork1972[1895],p. 317,n.4 (transcription oftheoriginal): "On thecremation ofthebodyofa Buddhaitis believed that no more ash results, thebodyswells up and resolvesintoa mass of sagoon thecontrary,

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comefrom the bonesofa saint. Theformer bodyandRingbsrelwhich are keptin themostsacredstipa in Sikkim, called mThong ba rang looked at'. grol, 'liberating spontaneously just through being Apart from therelics of?dkyamuni theashesoftheformer Buddha, Kayapa Buddhaarealso saidtobe there. The following is a description of liberation tastein the through of Orgyan his body "shouldhave hagiography Lingpa.Reportedly, turned intoprecious relicswhichwouldsetfreea personwhotasted them within thenextsevenlives(sKyebdunmyang grol).(...) [One of thedescendants of thedeceased]askedfora smallpiece of flesh from a corpse.After he had tasted zeal blazedup and it,hisreligious he rosein theairone khru = Khru 15 abovetheground. [Tib. inches] He traveled to various countries theair.On thisaccount the through was corpse highly esteemed."34 to the production of liberating tabletsis According Lhalungpa, rooted in thealchemic tradition of eighty-four mahasiddhas35: '"The of these were the masters ancient of India origin pills enlightened and Tibetwho had the personal so that powerof esoteric alchemy were to able transform five kinds of five flesh and they liquidsinto ambrosia forthebenefit of theinitiated."36 This "ancient alchemy" is referred in his Originof theTara Tantra. to by Taranatha In the
likegranules of twokinds, from theflesh as smallwhite and (a) Phe-dun, granules, nodules from the bones. is It the former sort which are (b) ring-srel, yellowish larger believed to be preserved at theholiest of T'ori-wa or Sikkim, rar Caitya namely grol, mere It owes its to its some by sight?. specialsanctity reputedly containing <<Saviour of thefuneral of themythical Buddhaantecedent to Muni,namely granules S.ikya or K~iyapa, thereclicshavingbeen deposited there Pawo, the Od-sruii, by Jik-mi incarnation andsuccesor ofSt.Lha-tstin." 34Dargyay, TheRise..., p. 126. 35BuddhaLions.TheLivesoftheEighty-Four Siddhas[Caturdaiti-siddha-pravrtti; Grubthob cu rtsabzhi'ilo rgyus, transl. 1979. brgya byJ.B.Robinson], Berkeley TheLifeofMilarepa,p. 215, n. 17; see also: Sky 36LobsangLhalungpa, Dancer, TheSecret London [transl. Lifeand Songsofthe LadyYeshe Tsogyel byK. Dowman], TheRise..., p. 137,221, n. 209; S. Beyer, TheCultof n.d,p. 201, n. 20; Dargyay, 1978,p. 283-284,252-253. Berkeley Tar~.Magic and Ritualin Tibet,

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ofmanufacturing hismagicalpower book,KingHaribhadra perfected tothefootnote, that should Rilbu are"thesacrament Rilbu.According in danger, after whenlifeforces are impaired, be eatenduring crises, certain etc."37 dreams, dark tasteis especiallyusefulin the present Liberation through era of Kali-yuga, the 19th-century TibetantextWondrous Ocean38 the The source ofliberation taste is defined claims. through by general that werediscovered as term of nectar (Tib.:bDud rtsi):"The nectars havebeenprepared termas Padmasambhava Therefore, (...). by (...) if one takes the nectarby itselfthe channels(rTsa), essence or semen [orair](rLung)and mind(Sems)willreceive (Khams), energy will be and the excellent accomplishment blessingsspontaneously intoxicated made like achieved, being by alcohol,being by aconite or thorn apple (Bongnga) and beingdeludedwithvisionsby datura has since the nectar the dhattura) (Thangkhrom, extraordinary power on inner of of notdepending (mental) power, owingto thegreatness meansofmantra theskillful ( ...)"39 in 5) liberation (Tib.:Thosgrol).The bookknown through hearing Book of theDead or Bar do thosgrolchen theWestas theTibetan ofthisliberation. "it writes: mo,is themostfamous example Trungpa is one of a seriesof instructions on six types of liberation: liberation liberation liberation through hearing, through wearing, through seeing, and liberation liberation remembering, tasting, liberthrough through and ation through touching. Theywerecomposed byPadmasambhava written downby hiswife, YesheTsogyal[Ye she mTsorgyal], along and with thesadhanaofthetwomandalasofforty-two peaceful fiftyintotheear deities."40 Thetext oftheTBD is whispered wrathful eight du brjod ofa dying ordeadperson (Tib.:'chi bo'i ma khung pa). itis a profound instruc"Thisteaching does notneedanypractice, seen heard and read. This tionwhich liberates and projustbybeing
TheOrigin 37Taranatha, oftheTardTantra, p. 53, n. 64. 38Thondup, HiddenTeachings ofTibet, p. 95, 152-153. 39Ibidem, p. 152-153. 40TBD, XI. p.

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If one doesnot sinners on thesecret leadsgreat found instruction path. seven when chased even itswords andterms by dogs,the being forget Evenif before death. liberates in thebardoofthemoment instruction would future were to and ofthepast, theBuddhas search, they present itis extremely "Therefore than this."41 notfind a better importeaching in inthis'Liberation totrain themind tant through Hearing thoroughly be grasped, itshould one's life.It should theBardo',especially during be perfected, it shouldbe read aloud,it shouldbe memorised propthe a without three times be it should fail, meaning day practised erly, itswords clearin themind, of itswordsshouldbe madecompletely were murderers evenifa hundred should not be forgotten andmeaning to appearand chase one. Since thisis called 'The GreatLiberation thefivedeadly through Hearing',evenpeople who have committed it should ifthey be liberated sinswillcertainly onlyhearit; therefore afar. crowds and be readaloudamong great spread has Even if it has beenheardlikethisonlyonce and themeaning themind becomesninetimes in thebardostate notbeenunderstood, word with notevena single so then itwillbe remembered more clear, it to all their should itshould be told Therefore life, during forgotten. itshould be readbesidethebodies ofall thesick, be readatthebedside it is great farand wide.To meetwith be spread ofthedead,it should fortune."42 good ofsacred include all kinds forms ofliberation Other through hearing ofdeath the moment Their function at and mantra language, dharani. ofthetext oftheTBD) is termed occurin someversions byLauf (they If with bardo deities. a dead a dead as communication person through as visionsor them namesand recognize is able to knowtheir person them.43 he will no fear of his mind, longer projections 6) liberation grol) All thesources through seeing(Tib.: mThong endowliberation touch discussedin the case of liberation through
41TBD, p. 94. 42TBD, 71. p. 43D.I. Lauf,Secret Bookofthe Dead [transl. Doctrines byG. Parkes], oftheTibetan Boulder1977,p. 197.

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bodiesof and "artificial" through beingseen:a viewofthe"natural" new-born that emanation is,both (Tib.:sPrulsku), people especially - and their sKu tulkus tshab), (Tib.: monuments, "representatives" theobjectsconsecrated gTermas, etc. by their presence, paintings, Let me give a couple of examples.The Guide to theHoly Places of of all, stapas in the category first of CentralTibet" mentions, liberation grolchenmo ('the seeing.Theyare,i.a., mThong through sKu in Byamspa glin,46 liberation seeing')inJonang,45 through great in sKu a Buddhas of thousand mo or a 'bum chen mthong grol bigstapa of is Byams there 'bum.47 In Brasspung, grol,a monument pa mthong "liberates that of the Buddha future, peoplejust by being Maitreya, ba don Idan ('the view A goldenstapa,calledmThong lookedat."48 ofTsong with therelics andreligion')49 ofvirtue that blessing givesthe mentioned in dGa' Idan.I havealready khapa, is keptat a monastery relics of where are in there Sikkim ba fikyamuni mThong ranggrol and All monuments Buddha andoftheformer that pictures KMgyapa.5o mas all havecomeinto (Tib.: beingspontaneously Rang 'byung), gTer "All theTermascripts liberate: so-calledsymbolic and their writing of himself and possess thegreatness are blessedby GuruRinpoche from theTibetan Bookof Thesentence liberation byseeing."'5 granting the about instructions Liberation theDead "theGreat Hearing through to boththe liberate Bar do, that through beingheardand seen"refers which ranks the of the material character book, among category very evokes. thetext ofgTermas, andtotheimages
Tibet[transl. byA. Ferrari, 44Mk'yenbrtse'sGuideto theHolyPlaces of Central Roma 1958. L. Petech, H. Richardson], 45Ibidem, p. 67, 156. 46Ibidem, p. 45, 133. 47Ibidem, vol.I, Roma 1949, Painted Scrolls, p. 66-67etc;also: G. Tucci,Tibetan J.N. Annals, Roerich, [Blue ofDharmasvamin Biography trudy Izbrannyje p. 191-196; 776 etc. Moskwa 1967, etc], p. 48Mk'yen brtse's Guide..., p. 97-98,n. 76. 49Ibidem, p. 108,n. 108. 50Waddel, Tibetan .., p. 314,n. 112. Buddhism. 51Thondup, HiddenTeachings ofTibet, p. 112.

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The so-calledblack crownof Karmapas(Tib.: Zhva nag), the authorities of thebKa' rgyud pa line,is also an interesting example of liberation Due to the colour of the the crown, through seeing. line is sometimes called 'black hats' in the West.The history of the crowncould be the subjectof a separatestudy. Let us quote in Tibetaniconography: author "It Gega Lama, a verycompetent is the crownsignifying It is worn spiritual power. by Karmapas, foretold in Samddhirdjasatra and Lahikavatarasatra. In the past a crown woven from thehairof 100,000dakinis was placedbyBuddhas and Bodhisattvas on thehead of sage dKonpa skyes.As all he ever didwas for thebenefit ofall sentient he was master ofactivity beings, las or Ka rma of the Victorious Ones. Although the (Phrin pa pa) crown was on theheadsofall successive incarnations in theKarmapa lineas themanifestation of their inner awareness it was [awakening], notvisibleto everyone, butonlyto exceptionally sensitive spiritually was born in 1928 of incarnation, people.De bzhingshegs pa, thefifth theBuddhist era [1384]. At theage of 24, he wentto Chinaandmet with was able to see theblackcrown emperor Yunglo. The emperor and askedforpermission to makeits material based on his replica, vision.Havingobtained he to maketheother black consent, ordered crown oftheoriginal, also termed as thecrown (Zhvanag),a duplicate of 100,000dakinfs (mKha' 'gro 'bum zhva).It was wovenin theyear 1951oftheBuddhist era [1402]."52 Chams(Tib.: 'Cham)ormystery dancedramas,53 heldon important at Tibetan can be another sourceof monasteries, religious holidays liberation the through seeing. Thangstong rgyal po, calledsometimes Tibetan Leonardo da Vinci(W. Kahlen),was theauthor ofone ofthe
52Gega Lama,Principles andExplanations Art:Illustrations ofTibetan ofBuddhist and Iconometry to Karma Gadri School,Darjeeling1983, Iconography According vol.2, p. 124.See also: S.L. Huntington, J.C.Huntington, Leavesfrom the BodhiTree. TheArtofPala India (8th-12th and Its International Centuries) Legacy[Exhibition at The DaytonArtInstitute], Seattle-London Hidden 1990,p. 336, 356; Thondup, Book of theDead, Teachings..., p. 42, 75; Lauf,SecretDoctrines of the Tibetan p. 225. 53Dargyay, TheRise..., p. 222, n. 211.

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had alreadybecome mostpopularshows."His charismatic activity effective [theplay]."54 watching bymerely theSenses Ma nipas - TheAdvocates Through ofLiberation fervent advocates of arethemost Ma nipas, orwandering beggars, bKra the senses. liberation chapels(Tib.: Theycarry portable through hierarIn thestrongly stories. their devout shissgo mang)to illustrate the Chinese the times from chicalTibetan invasion, society preceding level of thesocial ladder, Ma nipas wereat thenext-to-the-last just folk to sermons aheadof beggars.55 country (rGyal Manipaspreach and famiof dynasties aboutthedescent tellstories khams pa); they of of "creation the the with lies (rGyalrabs),that myth usually begin stories of Tibetan histories of theorigin theworld", clans,mythical saints and national the Tibetan ofPadmasambhava, hero, Gesar, (their Ma ni are called rNam thar, liberation'). pas 'complete hagiographies are also recite the oral literature they although compositions protect on theone hand, in Their oral tradition often aims, preserved writing. form ideas in a popular basic Buddhist at disseminating and,on the aboutthebeginthefolkheritage, other, including myths preserving of thedivine that anditsdifferent oftheworld races, origin praise ning etc.56 certain families, in anddirect indirect57 oftheclashbetween thought Manyrecords and withtheformer are preserved, Tibetan culture valuingsymbols Ma nipas, andthe and favoring cognition-not-through-consciousness writes of loafers. are latter Epstein58 claiming they onlysuperstitious with which thecontempt 'Phagspa bla ma oftheSa skyaschoolspoke
54Ibidem, p. 154. 55R.A. Stein, Paris1959,p. 324,330; Recherches surl'epopeeetla bardeau Tibet, 1988 [1970],p. 207. G. Tibet G. Tucci,TheReligions [transl. Berkeley by Samuel], of 56Ibidem, 207. p. 57G. Durand,Wyobrainia transl.by symbolique'], ['Imagination symboliczna Warszawa 1986. C. Rowiiiski, 58L. Epstein, andAnnotation from Bakshi:Translation [transl. Biography ofKarma at University ofWashington], theTibetan, dissertation 1968,p. 3-4. Washington

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of Kublaikhan. of KarmaPak shi (Karmapa II), his rivalat thecourt a Ma ni was Pakshi ForPakpaLama,Karma pa". "merely Ma ni pas - theirname derivesfrommani, the termof the - arethemost ofsensual advocates fervent mantra ofAvalokitesvara the withthe cult of theirpatron, liberation, especiallyconnected dates of Ma ni The phenomenon of compassion. Bodhisattva pas monkGu ru Chos dbang(1212-1273),who back to the13th-century shouldbe heard of Avalokite'vara59 thatthemantra recommended that at "market places."'6 We learn fromthe monk'shagiography his discipleBha ro gtsug'dzin attained just through enlightenment the work In to Chos 'bum, voice."61 bka' Mani dbang's "listening to the king Srong btsan sgam po, we findenthusiastic attributed thesenses.62 ofliberation through apologetics of thesense theexplanation flowfrom endlessbenefits Similarly in the of can count You ofmanito other grains sand,thetext beings. continents. onfour intheocean,seedsgrowing assures, drops question You can also weighMountMerubutyou cannotcountthebenefits of thismantra. from a singlerepetition "Therefore, spread flowing of samsdra!"63- thetext of maniin thetendirections theteaching concludes. toInterpret TheSenses:AnAttempt Liberation Through theSoteriological Concept thesenses theTibetan At first through conceptof liberation sight ofnon-reflective as a typical no explanation popular example requires conand cultural broader in when philosophical put religiosity. Only
59O1 MANI PADME HUM. H. Richardson, ['Tibet.History zaryshistorii kultury Tybet, 60D.L. Snellgrove, Warszawa S. of Culture', 1968, chapt.3; Mani bka' 'bum, transl. by Godziiiski], version A, p. 224 etc. 61Dargyay, TheRise,p. 112. 62L. Epstein, ofthe'Da-logs,"TheTibet andPsychology "On theHistory Journal, vol.7: 1982,No 4, p. 26ff. 63Ibidem.

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idea willcomeinto a profound ofcomparative text sciences, religious in thewordsof OsIt is bestreflected viewin thisnon-reflectiveness. before topray is toputthecart faith inorder karMilosz:"[T]o waitfor tothespiritual."64 thephysical Ourpathleadsfrom thehorse. theTibetan idea of carnalenstasy Withall its specific character, the it is, however, to is not so (Greek:enstasis) strange Europeans; ofclarity an outline Forreasons cause offrequent misunderstandings. thesenses,based of liberation of thesoteriological through concept will of the on a phenomenological material, comparative analysis I have selectedthismaterial be proposedin this study. according this selection or of theme content,65 to thecriterion therefore, goes and elite into and division so-called the low, popular high great beyond culture.66 and claimthat Tibetans' In thiswork tasting just "hearing, seeing, issuearises: The following willbe taken liberates" seriously. touching we understand the can senseofthequestion, How,inthephilosophical The idea toanalyze thesenses? ofliberation religious through concept is notnew (see theworkof Lev werephilosophical texts as if they to who successfully Shestov, compared Hegel to Joband Abraham the toward about senses will now be directed Kant). The question as we will see, they find tradition although, unintelligible Europeans arequitefamiliar with.67
Wroclaw1996,p. 74. ziemia, 64OskarMilosz,in: C. Milosz,Nieobjrta 65I1 of thesametype orstyle that document andlowculture, from usedsources high in selecting thesources, vs. genetic differentiation of generic For criteria religiosity. theentries J.Tokarska-Bakir, see: A. Kutrzeba-Pojnarowa, "Etnografia", "Etnologia", PWN Publishers the Polish Science intheGreat (in print). Encyclopaedia of 66G. Lenclud, in:Ethnoloen France," hieret aujourd'hui, et histoire, "Ethnologie et La France les en Colloque Ethnologie franvaise, pays allemandes, gies mirroir. Paris 1987, ed. I. Chiva,U. Jeggle, Bad Homburg, Volkskunde, Mitteleuropdiische p. 35-65. 67See: H.W. Haussing, of Byzantium', Historiakultury ['History bizantyjskiej, w Warszawa1969, p. 223]. R. Gansiniec, transl. "Eucharystia by T. Zabludowski, "Lud" 1957, vol. 50, in folk-beliefs', ludu" ['Eucharist i praktykach wierzeniach

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from thesensesshouldbe liberated The idea of liberation through the (magic, popularsegment ethnographic interpretations hackneyed distorted theecho of mystic of religion, by thesimpletons, practices is thathope forliberation etc.). The truth through simplesensual How can you first of all, in popularreligiosity. contactemerges, it without it,beingcondescending ignoring simplifying, comprehend to the truth? its claim orwithout up lifting offand itstrue This is by no meansan easytask.To highculture has all ethnology, popular religiosity always namely, European spring, an interpreter who Thestranger was assigned beena classic"stranger". and of all and in good faith, notonlyinterpreted but,first justified a bravefaceanytimethe"stranger" thebarbarian, corrected putting to. The stranger was notlistened seemed to start nonsense. talking of the way we wouldreactto Tibetans aside, let's think Putting of Lourdespilgrims touchtherock, thesight who,one after another, of hands,wherethe Virgin Mary appeared. polishedby thousands. a holyspring, Whatdo we think of pilgrims who drawwaterfrom herfuneral in of thedormant touchthegarment Virgin Maryduring flowers to Paclawska(Poland)or add ashesfrom Kalwaria procession butat thesametime their food?"TheMiddleAges"- we pronounce of of famous take rushto gettheautographs people, partin auctions kissthephotos of idols and lovedones,andwhen their memorabilia, from water evenifitis poured do not from bed-ridden, Lourdes, spurn bottle witha twist-off a cheap Virgin Mary-shaped cap. A member is who is a practising of theintelligentsia, believer, readyto observe Research ritualsbut doesn't treatthemseriously. some traditional the middle class indicates of intocontemporary profound religiosity toward which parareligious byno meansexcludes dogmas, skepticism tothecurrent massculture saints. addressed practices in of popular thephenomenon Czeslaw Milosz ponders religiosity Pause. Milosz, one of fewcontemporary theessayA Metaphysical describes a massin a Swiss thinkers whocan appreciate itsresources,
['Tales ofHasidim',transl. Opowiedci byP. Hertz], chasyd6w p. 81,n. 11]. M. Buber, Poznani 1989,p. 19-20.

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Brunnen church: (...), he says,are countryside '"Thosepeoplefrom ofcalfish innocent. imagination, tardy Theyareaccusedofpossessing to them. exist a house which of a tree, simply contemplation man, a minimum Faith canpray. Thatis why Period. guarantee requires they is There thatthe word <to be>>has some meaning. (...) sacrality of a loaf of breadon the sacrality thanall our rebellions, stronger in whichthereis the depthof being thetable,a roughtreetrunk Theseare nottheological scent."68 we intuitively just the dogmasbut Milosz. that of the cosmos alive,says keepreligions images popular a crisisin conceptions to say laterthat is wrong Milosz,however, of symbols andin in therealism faith aboutthecosmos,undermining inthetimes ofCopernicus. ofdeity", thesimple beganonly "sensuality to theReformathis disaster of the date who shifted So is J.P. Uberoi69, nor lostitsorder ofspacethat theformlessness tion. Neither gradually in word and of "theultimate imagination sign" European separation which ofthereligious ofdestruction universe, gaveriseto theprocess manand the andbeing, of thought in theseparation itself manifested was doomed of archaic The world artandreligion. world, ontology70
68C. Milosz,Metafizyczna Pause'], Krak6w1995,p. 21, pauza ['A Metaphysical 70. 69J.P. Delhi 1978,p. 25 ff. Scienceand Culture, Uberoi, context in a term is used Eliadean givenby WieslawJuszczak specific 70This theTheory i teorii Szkicez sztuki)['Fragments. Essays from (Fragmenty. filozofii see of Warszawa and Philosophy Art'] rzeczy pierwszych 1995), especiallyTreMd ornament ofFirst Ornament']. ['The Illicit Speaking ['Content Things']andWystfpny de l'histoire o historii Eliade (M. Eliade,Traktat of archaic religii ontology, ['Trait6 "theway butsimply Warszawa1995) meansnotonlya "worldview" des religions'] an element which is in cultures theworld is" inarchaic regulating omnipresent religion of is a manifestation all spheres oflife.Each natural, social,andartistic phenomenon the sacred of a manifestation thesacred."Frommostelementary e.g., hierophanies, of thesacredin a tree- to thesupreme in anyobject,stone, one,theincarnation act: the same secret never ceases to last.On a structural Jesus Christ plane,we face that does notbelong ofsomething themanifestation <entirely different> thereality secularworld." an integral form to ourworld- in objectsthat partof thisnatural, Sourcebook A Thematic and Eschatology. oftheHistory (M. Eliade,Death,Afterlife London1974,p. 160). New York, ofReligion,

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to a famous to corruption from thevery beginning. Alluding Heidegone can say: timehas alwaysbeen "vain"or corrupted. gerianterm ChiNot onlyin Europebutalso in Tibet,and notonlytodayunder nese occupation butonce under the?5kyamuni Buddha.The decline radical finiteness andwith is connected with man's ofarchaic ontology what ofbeing," andnotwith called"the temporality precise Heidegger its historical timeor a definite location. Though intensity geographic it and takes thisis a permanent varies, process place in itsindividual human thewholeculture ora single abodes,be they being. The impactof archaicontology on Tibetanculture is obviously but the ontology thanon contemporary Europeanculture, stronger excluded from culture. can be neither included norentirely European noneof them ownit.You can identify lose and regain Cultures them; itsislands, resembles themagicaltime-space of a thestatus ofwhich fableortheone in which theaction ofAndrei Tarkovski's Stalker took exist but without a trace tomorrow. place.They today maydisappear Archaic is Always an sich;It is notAware ofItself Ontology and selfThe most important thingis the kind of knowledge The basic feature oftheworld thisontology is shaping. of knowledge archaic is or its non-reflection. its Archaic unconsciousness, ontology It onlyexists in thestate an sich,like is notaware ofitself. ontology of in "senseoftime", Thomasa SaintAugustine's God" "knowledge or"good"inSimone Weil,lostwhen beingawareofit.71 Kempis and ascetic, whounexpectedly Here we haveWeil,theintellectual of liberation lendshersupport to theidea of thereligiosity through the senses.This passagefrom herwritings naturally singlesout the we musttouchupon in orderto tracethe soteriological problems ofthese ofliberation. She writes, "itis necessary that sources meaning in of the soul the which cares for discursive time, part existing part, themeasures, should be destroyed. Themethod ofZen Buddhist koans
71 S. Weil,Pisma wybrane transl. ['Selected Writings', by C. Milosz], Krak6w 1991,p. 123.

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thatat timeswhenherheadaches, Weilwrites it."72 helpsto destroy a she endlessly hersinceadolescence, repeated grewworse, torturing that verseof one of the18th-century poets."I believed metaphysical to mywill,this a beautiful I was onlyreciting poem,but,contrary I was reciting when a Just of the recitation it, prayer. possessed power me for andconquered himself descended that ithappened (...) Christ himself."'73 Weilsaysthat, willlead us intounknown Thisadmission territory. is acthe sense of in the strictest a word, mystical experience, firstly, Secofthesoulis destroyed. cessibleafter (the"discursive part") part be a "veto or that she happens ondly, suggests repetition, recitation, discursiveness. in theprocessof destroying hicle"or an "instrument" occurrence effect of this the beneficial shemakesitclearthat Thirdly, Let us analyzethethree is notdetermined by whatis beingrepeated. form oftheidea ofliberation mark thephenomenological that motives the senses. through PartoftheSoul" "TheDestruction oftheDiscursive thediscurto destroy was also sureitis necessary ThomasMerton of this whim sivepartof thesoul and the"trivial imagination." ego, Merton stressed thecontemporary consciousness, European Assessing that the idea cogitohad on it.He wrote theCartesian thehugeimpact as a manwas able to develophis consciousness morecontemporary the relation he and the more comprehended againstobjects, subject he was able themoreeffectively theseobjectsand himself, between of his in the bubble himself theseobjectsand protect to manipulate and thesense intoa prison, turns This shelter gradually subjectivity. cause that nota participant, and theroleof an observer, of isolation that Merton claimed him as selvescease tobe treated other by persons. ofGod." to thecontemporary "death had contributed thisobjectifying reach God as an to with he Cartesian attempt began thought, writes,
72Ibidem, p. 81. p. 35. 73Ibidem,

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he hadbeenan object."When God becomesan object, sooner though orlater, he diesbecauseGod cannot be thought ofas an object."74 Nolens volens,Merton after says so almostrepeating Heidegger: "A beingis a beingnotbecausemanis looking at it.It is rather manat whom thebeingis looking."75 Themoment manis ready tobelieve that occur to him because of him heralds the and of hierophanies beginning time"(Heidegger), theactualdecayof archaicontology. "corrupted Thismistake is costly: It apparently elevates mantogreat honors but, as a matter in reality of fact, castshimintofalsehood that makesthe andcreation ofrealtieswith theworld discovery impossible. The diagnosesof Weil and Merton are astonishingly unanimous. The trivial should be in ourselves before is "self' destroyed religion borninsideofus. The discursive really partof thesoul,theabodeof and a false of the must be annihilated. world, pride comprehension as an Existential Repetition Category How is thediscursive "self"destroyed? trivial Weilargues itis that "Discursive is destroyed through consumption. intelligence destroyed of clearand inevitable contradictions. A koan. by thecontemplation Secrets. The will is destroyed tasks. through performing impossible ventures in fables."76 Superhuman One of thewell-tried of destroying methods discursiveness is repIt is notthequestion etition. of a narrative function of repetition in a a or function. At stake is as the existenstory trance-creating repetition tialcategory hasinmind when of"the obSorenKierkegaard speaking scuremetaphysics ofrepetitions,""77 or Ryszard who Przybylski says: "torepeat meansto disclosetheseventh veilofconsciousness."78 "An
74T. Merton, Zen i ptaki igdzy ['Zen and Birds of the Appetite', transl. by A. Szostkiewicz], Warszawa 1989,p. 29. 75M. Heidegger, "Die Zeitdes Weltbildes," in:Holzwege, Frankfurt amMain 1950. 76Weil,Pismawybrane, p. 154. in: J. Sadzik, [Introduction to:] 77S. Kierkegaard, ['Repetition'], Powt6rzenie byC. Milosz]Paris1980,p. 15. KsifgaHioba ('Book ofJob',transl. 78R. Przybylski, Stowoi milczenie bohatera Polak6w,['Wordand Silenceof the PolishHero'],Warszawa1993,p. 56.

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outa circle at a fire, oran Eskimostaring entranced Bushman gouging oftheego (andthe thesameextinction attains on a flat surface, rocky orPuebloIndianholydancers."79 as dervishes samepower) examis a typical so-called Christ's Christian's The Eastern prayer of discursiveness: to the destruction automatic of leading repetition ple itwith ofanydiscursive thereason ( ...) andreplace thought "Deprive inside topray andtry on me!>> Son ofGod,havemercy thecall <<Jesus, treatise the 12th-century of having instead by anythought," yourself, in also discussed This is recommends.80 Pilgrim's prayer Nicephorus on God's willina clearer "toshowman'sdependence Stories: wayand of on thenumber thedecision God left himinhumbleness, toimmerse all at on himto keep praying in thehandsofman,instructing prayers times and in all places.Thispavesthewayfora secret wayof attainmeansaverting says anythought,"82 "Saying prayers ingrealprayer."81 Ponticus (345-399). Evagrius cultures thecharges to understand It is notdifficult bring higher in are innocent who the They expressed the prayers.83 patter against anddevotio stulta old opposition sacra,basedon thecontempt devotio wastochardevotion" "unreasonable Theformer for theunintelligible. thosewho was to describe et idiotaewhilethelatter acterize illiterati to say RomanCatholic couldreadand wereready onlyafter prayers Automatic their had grasped poses the prayer pattering meaning. they ofwarnings a mortal sin.There areplenty threat ofcommitting against in medieval anddevotional offences unintentional similar committing demindful of"proper ofreligiosity, Thisrationalist stream literature.
79P. Mathiesen, ['The SnowLeopard',transl. byB. Kluczborska], Snieinapantera 1988,p. 90. Warszawa, 80In: MnichKogciolaWschodniego, ModlitwaJezusowa['JesusPrayer', transl. Krak6w1993,p. 36. K. G6rski], 81Szczereopowiekci ['Pilgrim's jego ojcu duchowemu, przedstawione pielgrzyma, 1988,p. 154. Stories', byA. Wojnowski], Poznani transl,. 82In: K. Armstrong, Historia chrzekciBoga wjudaizmie, Boga. 4000 lat dziejdw of God. The 4000 YearQuestofJudaism, i islamie['A History Christianity jaristwie Warszawa1996,p. 238. andIslam',transl,. byB. Cendrowska], 83Szczereopowiekci pielgrzyma, p. 153.

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Reformation of theProtestant in thetimes culminated votion," propain transBible vernacular thetextof the theidea of rendering gating ofGod,or the"rationalFromthistime lations. on,theunderstanding of worship becamethebasic form of theRevelation", ization paid to God. all thetime,and it was a different Therewas, however, tendency and non-knowledge non-reason It stressed notlimited to low culture. to trust senses. andwas rather intellect in soteriology, distrusted ready in manifests oral cultures of Thissensualist general, tendency, typical and showsinterest or texts, in thespecific use of sacredthings itself theme notso muchin their (whata textis about or whatan image thesubstance ofa text, in their but (themateriality represents), rheme84 Ezekiel's of an image,whatthetextor the imageis). The prophet a of or the scroll of a Torah (Isa. 3.3), swallowing gTerma by eating of arethearchetypes Tibetan 'Jigsmedgling pa,85 yogin 18th-century forms of cult are characterized Some rhematic by usually religiosity. the is on the stress In a "rhematic put practices approach." religious on theknees, itself bowing, holymountain (kneeling, walking activity with beads,etc.)andnot circumambulation, praying prayer pattering, recommended ofprayers orintention on thecontent bya breviary. in the instructions is This rhematic following approach expressed to it is enough on howto deal witha text:"You needn't understand, inthis "You or"Giveupunderstanding readdiligently,"86 work."87 may You maylook andlook butyou willnotunderstand. listen andlisten Isaiah says(Isa. 6.9),88 andhiswords know," againbutyouwillnever to SaintMatthew intheGospelaccording Christ arerepeated byJesus tosayChrist's hermit Anoldmantolda young (Matt.13.14-15). prayer
84See n. 9. 85Thondup HiddenTeachings Tulku, ofTibet..., p. 89. 86Szczere 40. opowiedci pielgrzyma, p. 87Oblokniewiedzy, p. 69. 88See also: idea that is thehigher theHolyNamesareincomprehensible, themore kierunki in:G. Scholem, ofprayer, therank iydowski ijego gdlwne ['Major Mistycyzm 1997 [1941],p. 194-201. inJewish Trends transl. byI. Kania],Warszawa Mysticism',

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as a remedy forovercoming he was overpowered it was desires with; to work ofwhether itswords wereunderstood regardless by supposed themanwhouttered it:"Just and will words, God saythese helpyou," theold manadvisedtheyoung andother hermit. "AbbaPimen fathers did notknowthepowerof his words, said that a snakecharmer but whena snakeheard it calm and their We to them, got yielded power. do notknowthepower of thewordswe utter, butdemons getscared whenthey andflee hearthewords we say."89 of theAreopagite, the who recomFollowing example Dionysius ofarational mended God"through theadvocates non-reason," knowing a and made distinction between heart reason, sharp religiosity rejecting therational of for the benefit of God understanding clinging," staying with known as devekut God. The latter anddrawn from Kabconcept, in and should be of interest the balah Hasidism, special philosophical ofliberation context thesenses.According todevekut, theulthrough aim of man'slifeis to attain timate and intimacy withGod.91 unity Man's actions or not him closer to from farther God may onlybring butmayalso havean influence on God himself andaccelerate ordelay of theMessiah.We readaboutit in thetextattributed thecoming to Ba'al ShemTov,thefounder of Hasidism: "Everyone maycontribute tocompleteness andunity on high, that is in God,byperforming even as themost such sexual inactivities, physical eating, drinking, having trade and socializing. to knowGod tercourse, (...) <<Get developing in all yourways>>." In another on a case, Ba'al ShemTov comments inthefollowing from theBook ofJob "'And I verse shall discern way. at myside' (Job19.26): By attaining thegreatmywitness standing estsensual the of sexual man orgasm, gives pleasure, namely, pleasure from to God This comes theunionof man himself. pleasure pleasure
89R. Przybylski, i demony and Demons'], Krak6w 1994, Pustelnicy ['Hermits 122. p. in: G. Scholem, Kabbalah,New York1978,p. 53ff. Abulafia, 90Abraham 91B.L. Sherwin, ofThe Duchowe dziedzictwo 2yd6w ['Spiritual polskich Heritage PolishJews', Warszawa transl. 1995,p. 158ff. byW. Chrostowski],

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andwoman, which contributes tounity The versefrom on high."92 the Book of Jobwas of specialimportance to medieval who Cabbalists, recommended thiscontemplation as thewayto knowGod. Thisgoal is achieved thedivineservice mateby avodahba-gaszmiut, through the of Hasidic God through riality, practice adoring eating, carnality: sexualintercourses anddefecation. TheHasidicideaofmateriality as a ladder towards like theinvisible, ingeneral, intherealistic is rooted assessment anyrhematic religiosity of a disproportion between humanwishesand possibilities. For "to waitfor faith in order to prayis to putthecartbefore thehorse. Our leads from what to what is is path spiritual.""93 physical Liberation Through Prayer Pattering Thelastfragment ofWeil'sstatement, which theissueof anticipates liberation thesenses,concerns thepostulate notto thematize through texts oractions that discursive consciousness. In thecase helpdestroy ofWeil,a poembythe18th-century it.In Christ's poethelpeddestroy it was a in Middle and Far Eastern both prayer, pious call; prayers, in Muslimrecitation dhikr and in mantra chanting by Hindusand a or name sound was instrumental in theprocessof Buddhists, holy In all thesecases, it is hard discursive consciousness.94 destroying to speakof following thecontent of prayers becauseof thepace of narration andthesole concentration on soundandrhythm. There is a Christian folk about three hermits onanisland living story lostinthesea.95 The three with words holymenprayed youcouldnot find in anybreviary: "Three ofYou,three ofus, havemercy on us."A to visittheislandon his sea voyagedecided to bishopwhohappened teachthem thereal OurFather he sailed them, prayer. Havingtaught
92Ibidem, 161-162. p. 93OskarMilosz,in: C. Milosz,Nieobjrta Wroclaw1996,p. 74. ziemia, 94J.Y.Leloup,Hezychazm. modlitewna, ['Escritsurl'hisyZapomniana tradycja Krak6w1996. chasm.Unetradition oubliWe', transl. byH. Sobieraj], contemplative nie95L. Tolstoj,Trzejstarcy ["The ThreeOld Men"], in: R. Luiny,OpowiedC of theUnseenCityKitiei', transl. R. miescieKitieiu['Story widzialnym by Luiny], Warszawa 1988,p. 346-352.

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men were away.At dawn,lightwas seen on the island.The three on the water, as though trying theywereon a drysurface, running and a wordtheyhad forgotten. to ask the bishopabouttheprayer Thereare manysimilarstoriesin Asian folklore, e.g. the Tibetan after who attained of a enlightenment he had walked story plowman mantra of themispronounced behind a yak-pulled plow and chanted the Sok Koreans know about while Avalokiteivara Du, story working. "the koan"theBuddhais mind" themonastery cook,whoreplaced by himfrom didnotprevent Buddhais a shoeofgrass," however, which, enlightenment.96 attaining becomes clearinviewofthestatement ofthese events Themeaning whoclaimed meanthetrue Vasubandhu, bytheBuddhist philosopher, atall.97 stoin no meaning The three consisted actually ingofmantras drawn from the tradition are of a common idea:although riesshare they unandOrthodox Church Catholics believers), (Buddhists, iconophiles show relative inessentialof iconoclastic dertheform they metaphors - of - Buddhists wouldrather say"insubstantiality", "emptiness" ity or relicsused believed to be holy:prayers, thethings mantras, koans, ofthedarksideof as a vehicle towards liberation/salvation. Theywarn mean the of a is enIt does not substance holything opus operatum. in theabsenceofman The point is that andalwaysmeaningless. tirely the eventhemost whowouldbe able to genuinely embody meaning an inert ofthematter. Itis imporwillremain substance sacred particle matter what with "faith confidence" no a sacred and tant totouch thing of an icon thehead,eyes,ears,and mouth itis madeof."He touched became and immediately and confidence withfaith "(...) healed."'98 with faith and touches a to this he whoevermakesa pilgrimage place with thegraceofhealing remains is endowed containing holy reliquary of areprein liquid, "Nectars hisbodyandsoul.""99 powder pillforms
96Seung Sahn, Strzepujgc popidtna Buddk.NaukiMistrzaZenu Seung Sahna trans. unknown], ['Asheson Buddha', n.p. 1990,p. 61-2. 97In: M. Eliade,Yoga:Immortality New York1958,p. 216. and Freedom, o niewiedzialnym 98Luzny, miedcie. OpowieSd ..., p. 121. 99Ibidem, p. 134.

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rituals. It is believedthat can specialattainments paredwithesoteric with A believer's comejustby tasting them or attitude, just faith."'10 an absurd sacralize even a malapropism, may prayer dog's tooth.101 of faith is sacred. the absence that which On theother hand, paralyzes todegrade it.Neither the Thereis no possibility it,onlytoovershadow a of a human wish for is the source of substance nor miracle power itself is itsownsource.102 sacredness. Sacredness This fearof substantializing the sacred,leadingstraight to the in many wilderness of idolatry, can be recognized unintelligible practisesof greatspiritual masters. PeterMetthiesen writes that "in Zen, of Buddha'sgoldenwords in atevena recitation maybe an obstacle the Buddha!>> The Hence,you say (...) <<Kill taining enlightenment. else buttheuniverse itself."103 Thislesholybook of Zen is nothing son can be deducedfrom of crazyTibetan thebehavior (Tib.: yogins Russian dPa'bo, Zhigpo, bLa ma smyon pa), jurodiwyje, Byzantine Theirbehavior to radically chalsaloi and Muslimsantons. happens customs and books and lenge they religion; ostentatiously destroy holy monuments andreject norms ofco-existence. To commonly accepted of celebrate one them throws a into a enlightenment, rosary latrine,104 theother all sutras,105 andanother, after thenight ina redburns spent a Zen and throws runs intothe master's district, away light garment andin rags.106 street barefoot dancing Another is told by story, warning meaningful againstidolatry, Daisetz Teitaro is aboutTanka,who was putup Suzuki.This story inthecapital coldday.He tookdownone ofthestatues on a piercingly
100 HiddenTradition..., p. 100. Thondup, 101 and Compassion. TheSacredArt Wisdom San M. M. Rhie,R. Thurman, ofTibet, Francisco 1991,p. 38. 102See theHeideggerian ofartinDer Ursprung des Kunstwerkes. concept 103 P. Mathiesen, transl. Snieinapantera['The Snowleopard', by B. Kluczborska], Warszawa 39 1988,p. 104 from TheSelf-perfected State[transl. theTibetan Namkhai Norbu, Dzogchen. by J.Shane],London-Melbourne n.d.,p. 64-65. 105 A Handbook, Helmut Hoffman (etal.), Tibet. (no date),passim. Bloomington 106SeungSahn,Strzepujgc na 49-50. Buddr, p. popi6t

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ofBuddha atthetemple andusedittolight a fire tokeepwarm kept by. in theashes,he explained totheenraged caretaker that Raking temple he wasjusttaking outsacred (Sanskrit crystalline Sariras sarira,round white orgreenish incolor, left behind when thecorpse ofa saint stones, askedwhether it was possibleto find has beencremated). The keeper Buddha. Unruffled Tankaasked bythequestion, sarirasinthewooden for another twomorestatues ofBuddhatokeepthefire burning.107 - TheFoundation A Ban On Objectifying a SacredThing ofArchaic Ontology The religiosity of a holysimpleton, one of thenepioiWeil spoke of from fables aboutthree brothers about,108 stupid European Johnny Tibetan is thestory aboutBen from is the (their counterpart Kongpo), of real devotion that the of archetype successfully escapes extremity andidolatry. is an oralversion The following ofthishistory cynicism toldbyChoskyinyimaRinpo chebla ma: "When atthe [Ben]arrived Jowo there was no one else around, butin front of thestatue temple, he saw different of for kinds food that nice Ben lama. was nota itself, fellow andso he thought, <<This must be foodforthat nice very bright lama.>The statue hada smiling countenance andBen said:<<You must be a very so nice and quiet.You mustbe a good lama.You sitthere nice have such a nicemealheretoeatandbutter and really person you into thebutter by.Youcan dipthecakesandbread lampstokeepwarm and eat But the statue didn't and answer it made no move lamps it.>> if you are notgoingto eat it,I will.? to eat. So Ben thought: <<Okay, ofcourse, so Ben said: <<Gee, The statue, didn't are protest, youreally a good lama.I'm getting and you'renotgetting at angry yourdinner to do a circumambulation" me.ButnowI want and one has to do it without shoeson so wouldyou mindkeeping an eye on myshoes??> The statue He his shoes <<All right.?> put up on thealtarand replied:
107D.T. Suzuki, Wprowadzenie do buddyzmu to the Zenzen ['Introduction M. Grabowski and A. Warszawa transl. buddhism', 1979,p. 164. Grabowska], by 108 Weil,Pismawybrane, p. 109. 109 orprddaksina. parikrama Skr.

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to walkaround. Whenhe reached thebackside ofthealtar, the started He thought: caretaker came in and saw theshoeson thealtar. <What maniac wouldputhisfilthy old shoeson theshrine? kindofdisgusting Thisis terrible!> He tookthem andwas abouttotossthem outthedoor whenthestatue them thoseout.I am keeping said,<Hey,don'tthrow thedevoted Ben from for Kongpo>."110 A monument or a painting whichcomes to life in the face of real devotion is one of the mostdistinct of overcoming metaphors thesubjectand theobjectin religious distance between experience. This devotion, rooted in religion's oldestinternal restores harmony, all thefeatures of archaicontology orderto theworld.We identify in theattitude of a holysimpleton, a beingthatis realizedonlyan as a being."' The features sich,that is, whenit is notawareofitself includenon-reflectiveness, an absenceof consciousness of "self', a blessedstateof calmeddiscursiveness. A simpleton can be a guide in theprocessof restoring a proper measure to things. It is better to call hima "doorkeeper" notbe substantialized, onlybecausehe must or we willruntheriskof falling into"Rousseaudeviation," creating about "natural untouched civilization. In order to man," myths by avoid this dangerlet me quote Merton, who wrotethateven an intellectual can be simple because"onlya fooldoes notfind thegrace ofrealsimplicity." Adiscursive devotion that restores archaic disrupted and that itself becomes a does ontology, religiosity hierophany, not somewhere entirely belongto simpleor wild menliving"someday, wheremenhave never been."Theyhappento shareit,butit is not Intellectuals also happento experience thisgraceof givento them. devotion are in the has to be a man One although they minority. an opening of remarkable to find whereothers see only intelligence
110 Chos kyi nyi ma Rin po che, The Unionof Mahuamudra and Mahasandhi, Kathmandu 1985,vol. I, p. 47-48. 111See: G. Scholem about "the hiddensaints"(nistar)in everygeneration of in: G. ScholemZur Kabbalah und Israel, saintshiddenalso beforethemselves, am Main 1960, p. 7 (lost in theEnglishtranslation ihrerSymbolik, Frankfurt by R. Manheim, New York1965,p. 6-7). On Kabbalahand itsSymbolism,

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circles>>."112 ofunmeaning "a sillymummery Only jargonand<<magic and acceptsto yield itsownattitudes intellect daresto question great toarational discipline. togo beyond itsown that resolves Besidessophisticated intelligence thewaytoreachit.All ofthe thistype of devotion requires territory, andtoreduce anderadicate abovetoolsusedto destroy discursiveness the trivial "self' become veryhelpfulon thispath.The "obscure of the is nothing morethana translation of repetitions" mysticism thesensesintothelanguage ofliberation through qualitative category becomesa that and endlessmultiplication of quantity, a bewildering senseand mockitsclaimsandboth Bothdefy common goal in itself. for certitude. the which is mistaken to truth other than truth also aspire NonLet us comeback to thedescription of a "godlysimpleton". "self' all these absence of "blissful reflectiveness, ignorance", is the realization are not yet accurateenough.A simpleton terms to and as a almost of the mostfundamental result, impossible - prohibition of archaicontology is on whichthestructure express the or based: a prohibition againstobjectifying thematizing sacred, Thisis an explanation sacrality bythesimpleton. including personified is realized be a I haveexpressed before: to oftheprinciple beingthat hand onlyan sich. "Do notlet yourlefthandknowwhatyourright is doing" (Matt.6.2.), the Gospel reads,and thisis one of these ofgenuine that universal. commands devotion, appeartobe really orTibetan lamasnever Zen masters, zaddiks ofHasidism (oralmost to first stories in the tell never) Theyhardly happen boastof person. in cultivating virtues. or achievements miracles experiences, mystical
112 and MytholWith Tibetan Buddhism L.A. Waddell, Cults, Its Mystic Symbolism New York1972,p. 15. See also Waddel's toIndianBuddhism, ogyand Its Relation within itself the on yoga (p. 12: "thisYoga parasite, similar statements containing its monster hold of its hostand soon developed seized strong of Tantricism, germs lifeofpurely Buddhist stock mostofthelittle which crushed andcranked outgrowths, for in theMahlyina")and lamas(p. 573: "So itwillbe a happy day,indeed, yetleft from theintolerable of overcredulous Tibetwhenitssturdy tyranny peopleare freed devilswhoseferocity andexacting from the the anddelivered weight whorship Lnmas, oftheoriginal). likea nightmare transcription uponthem";

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of this a psychological that It shouldbe stressed pseudo-explanation it based is because here. False epistemology, is notsought prohibition see as a benefactor, of oneself on subiectum (e.g., theconsciousness as ruins thequotedexample axiology, it by SimoneWeil),obviously the to ontology, all good doneand,moreover, posesa threat questions is has beenexpressed no which exist."Enlightenment realwaythings a Zen text putsit. "If someonesays 4I paradoxically enlightenment," he is wrong."113 have attained "If someonewanted enlightenment,> neverachievereal would he to school oneselfin humbleness (...), context Letus recallinthis humbleness," MagidofZlocz6wclaims.114 Jesus couldn't "As are haunted Christians thequestion God, by: many that Jesus causedbythefact Thisdoubt, was?"115 knowwhohe really he "And his evaded (cf. you, asked,who declaring identity repeatedly of the anew in light do you say I am?",Mark8.29) can be clarified abide alone to is not the sacred. Jesus to not command bythe objectify of some in thebehaviour features similar One could find command. his cf. unclear like the other Muhammad, Prophet personages, spiritual tohimby attributed is different from declaration yours," "Myreligion etc. thetradition, in a comicalway.Duwyd,the thisprohibition Let me exemplify tellshowhe unWreath heroofthePeriwinkle Vincenz, by Stanislaw in Kossovo, thesacred:"[T]here learnt to thematize immediately they owntough school.Theyteachtheir Hebrew sentme to a tough way; Bible reads: the In the with Bible the start away. beginning right they buru [Hebrew Bereszit wejs hu-erec? Elojhimes ha-szumaim <<Brejsz God crewe etha arec,'In thebeginning ethaszammaim bara Elohim headgoing is mystupid Genesis1.1].Andwhat andearth', atedheaven what does <And the teacher: I ask ofgrasping todo? Instead it, 'Brejsz blowwith a meintheface, He punches buru'mean?? givesmeanother itmeans.> <That'swhat inthe behind: thick bookonmyheadandkicks
113SeungSahn, na Buddr, Strzepujgc p. 97. popi6t 114 M. Buber, Opowieicichasyd6w, p. 120. 115 KnowHe WasGod?', F. Dreyfus, CzyJezus wiedziate jest Bogiem, ['Did Jesus Poznaii1995. transl. byR. Rubinkiewicz],

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tocomplain. tomydaddy inheaven. I amalready I see stars. (...) I run <He didnothityou. andhe sayscalmly, I cry andtellabout everything, You must sacred ask about mustn't that He instructed things. you you at once>>."116 understand TheMetaphors ofLiberation thesenses. "senses"inliberation Wehaveso far through emphasised Whatdoes liberation The timehas come to ask about"liberation". senses the imply? through called leads to the "statebeyondsuffering" Tibetansoteriology this when moment is the or Liberation, enlightenment, goal nirvana. in it is whenthisstateis identified is attained. Practically speaking, is Buddhists nature eternal in claim, freedom, which, oneself, one's thewaygoodexists. of Budin thefoundations is included of eschatology An outline the is suffering; All existence nobletruths": as the"four known dhism, is from freedom illusion of is the of cause suffering "self"; suffering one showsthemeansof thefourth thestate nirvana, suffering; beyond is of illusion As the "self' said to be thecause of attaining nirvana. forms showvarious of liberation themetaphors no wonder suffering, extinction. ultimate and eradication its of the of emptiness "self", thatas soon as man goes beyondthe "self",he Mertonwrites rather "becomes or attains by thewisdom"thatannulsa enraptured thisdivision The moment and theobject."'17 intothesubject division of the in a is expressed specific is overcome heralding proximity style of records aim. Thereare onlyfewand "indirect" thesoteriological can be and testimonies than rather allusions this Theyare experience. andin inpeople'sbehavior, ofcultures, andclimate in thestyle found records in the direct than rather thevisualand linguistic imagination
G. Scholem,On Kabbalah in Kabbalah-learning, p. 396. See also ban on questions and itsSymbolism, p. 87. of a Guilty 117T.Merton, widza ['Conjectures Bystander', Zapiskiwsp6twinnego M. Maciolek], 1994,p. 409. transl. Poznani byZ. Lawrynowicz,
116S. Vincenz, ofThe Old Time'],Warszawa Prawdastarowieku 1981, ['The Truth

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in one wayor another All sources, ofreligious referring experiences. a shift a of reversal stress "state tothis order, words", cognitive beyond of these Let's discuss "self' to "no-self". from ofemphasis metaphors in: included liberation of"self',its theextinction universal a) emphasizing stylistics religious destruction, kenosis, whichreducesthe and writing, of Tibetanpainting the b) ontology or an author, ofa painter presence in which"self"is itself of theterminal a few accounts c) experience ultimately destroyed. a) Stylistics of "Self" oftheExtinction with. "Willthe arefamiliar Let me start with Europeans examples withthe handthat or the earthenware withthe potter, pot contend what he is making?" (Isa. 45.9). shapesit?Willtheclayask thepotter sacredness overits of stress the ontic texts advantage always Mystic himSilesiusterms In Cherubinischer adorer. Wandersmann, Angelus in is found is playing." The samefigure thespirit self"theinstrument of Jalaluddin ofAlexandria, Clement RumiorinthePlatonian concept who become divine (Greekmania)descending uponpoets inspiration himinside "He whoprays inadmiration." "God's interpreters ardently An word matters. that an inner utters God himself self,in his throat of Bratslav zaddikNahman wordis onlyattire," outer says."1 "I did andcrenotascend(...) intoheavenanddid notsee all God's works itself butheaven ations, openedinsideofme,andI knewGod's works B ihmeinAurora. writes Jakob in spirit," andcreations wounds the the of corresponding bodywith Stigmatization, marking is ofhowemphasis is a typical on Christ's tothoseleft example body, include the to Other from shifted "self' "no-self'. mystic examples of Margaret MaryAlacoque (1647-1690) whose mortal experience ofhisownandinflamed, heart was taken "placed(....) inside byChrist,
118 des RabbiNachman', rabina Nachmana M. Buber, Opowiedci ['Die Erzihlungen Paris1983,p. 18. E. Zwolski], transl.

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Therearesimilar andthen accounts120 (...) in herbreast."119 replaced writes:"Christ (1347-1394; her biographer by Dorota of Mgtowy tookherheart and gave a new one"), Teresaof Avila (1515-1582) and Veronica Guliani(1660-1727:"He who wantsto belongto God and "I reallylive only whenI die for mustfirst die forhimself," of Catholic cases of stigmatizations myself"). Equally spectacular of Siena,121 ofAssisiand Catherine saints include St. Francis as well is a clear symbol Robin.Stigmatization as Father Pio, and Marthe "self" and belonging to whatgoes beyondself.The of abandoning to sensualist of thisphenomenon is notlimited occurrence European In in the there distinct post-Trent period. Japan, religiosity, especially whopart on their breasts ofZen patriarchs arerepresentations lappets wherethe smilingface of Buddha is seen. Similariconographic Bhutan. I haveseenin Bumthang, motives of and accountsof the shift beautiful descriptions Exceptionally and "the of reduction" "self"into"no-self", epochi "epistemological and in thetradition of painters, are found calligraphers personality" It was saidthat theChinese Jo-ku had writers ofhaiku. painter forgotwhilepainting bamboos. hisbodyandturned into tenabout bamboo122 whowereseenunder arepreserved of haikumasters Similar legends canes or a blossoming theform of cranes, humming plumtreewhen in these stories is notjust an What finds expression writing poems. a or literary ornament. These metaphors convention anticipate empty of conditioned "the abandonment one's by practice, precisespiritual can intotheobjectlookedat,becauseonlythen selfandtransference at from their of view "Look things its<suchness>>."123 we grasp point an 1 realnature," Chinese and youwill see their ith-century philosofrom of viewand youwillonly yourpoint phersaid. "Look at things
119 New York1958,p. 268. Varieties W. James, ofReligious Experience, 120 Stygmatycy ['Stigmatizations', unknown], transl. n.p. 1994,p. 46, 65, 82. 121 G. Herling-Grudziriski, Dziennik by Night'], pisanynocg ['A Diary Written Warszawa 32. 1993,p. 122 New York1959,p. 340. TheMeeting F.S.C. Northrop, oftheEast and West, 123 1992. C. Milosz,Haiku['Haiku'],Warszawa

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andclearwhile is neutral becausenature ownfeelings your experience Soen Sa's Korean Zen master and The obscure."124 are biased feelings thisaction, the intellect from "Ifyouthink is similar: statement strays If not do will be blocked. or courseofyour (...) you painting writing the areone.Youaretheteayouaredrinking, action think, youandyour "noA based on with."125 are action, painting you painting paintbrush takes ofdiscursive self' anddeprived duality, placeintheabodeof"arit.It is hard andinvigorates stems from this chaicontology", ontology, itis towhat is "artificial"), initsnametheallusion tolabelitart (having be as and its results rather creation, picmay regarded acheiropoietoi, "come hand.Such images"are God-sent", tures notmadeby human or by coincidence. intolifespontaneously" by Theycan be created ofanything.126 that areunaware or animals rain, fire, wind, inthe Art and Tradition b) "No-Self" ofHolyBooks has the flavor tradition of The whole Tibetanart and writing liberation fromthe illusionof "self'. This tradition beginswhere confines of a at art at the that is, ends, being, thetreshold European that Tibetan has nothing Tucci writes of thecognizable. iconometry and it is notused in common withthecanonsof classicalantiquity a certainideal of beauty.He adds thatman is not to reproduce atall inthis with reckoned painting. utterly magicalandtranscendental value. It is likethemap of a holyzone in has "Iconometry liturgical toperform."127 a priest has a ritual which to whatwe wereaccusman is not,contrary In theTibetan world, ofall "themeasure to believein thepost-Renaissance tomed Europe, of are man but one out All many, equal only including things." things, In theworld ofarchaic absolute. inthe ontology, eyesoftheontological
124Shao Jung, Nauka i spoteczeiistwo w in: J.Needham, Wielkie miareczkowanie. in and Titration. Science Civilization i na Chinach China',transl. Zachodzie['Great Warszawa 1984,p. 55. byI. Katuiyfiska], 125SeungSahn, Strzepujgc p. 84. popi6tna Buddy, 126 Boulder1980, The History KarmaThinley, of theSixteen Karmapasof Tibet, p. 66-67. 127 Roma 1949,vol.I, p. 291. Painted G. Tucci,Tibetan Scrolls,

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thesignof theabsolute a monument thisis a holything, (a painting, or a text), that to. "No-self' is has poweroverwhomit opensitself "self'. Buddhist and texts work were to as if they superior paintings readers andadorers, and reliving beings. Theyselecttheir recognize those actuated and is allowed motives, everybody ject byquestionable he orshewillbe capableofcomintotheunderstanding ofonlywhat The a or a painting of book the prehending. being alwaysdominates ora reader. beingofa spectator Tibetis richin stories oftheso-called texts, gTermas,thetreasure masters128 so of the buried that tradition by greatspiritual fragments in hiding could be preserved tillsafer times.These carefully sealed Thereare plenty bookswaitto be discovered. of listsof thesetexts The as well as prophecies aboutthecircumstances of their discovery. finders of thesetextsare called gTerstons.A secret bondbetween andthetext each ofthem allowsthem tounderstand itsmeaning in an and stons are sometime named the after original unique gTer way. gTer Ifwe weretoinquire masthey discovered.129 about themeaning ofthis tradition, youcouldsee in it thetraceof theattitude religious people shoulddevelopin themselves in relation to a sacredobject.Readers and evenauthors whichresonate insideof belongto thesacredtexts written them. a It is human this is eternal. book Although being, by in relation substance-essence to whichman is but an affliction, the ofarchetype. scribe The motive ofthesealing text ofan esoteric in stories about appears will it. books. the chosen ones read "John the is the holy Only Apostle of book [TheRevelation onlyone whois allowedtoreadtheheavenly The motive of The Book in St John]."130 ofSethappears theapocryphal
128 ma pa schoolbutI haveonceheardthe All gTerstonsseemtobelongto rNying XIVthDalaj Lama talking mas. aboutsomeother schools'gTer 129 in custom is known tradition of Medieval similar the Kabbalists A (e.g.C. Vital) writes about Rabbi the of called orPolishHasids.J.J. the"Roar Singer Sage Przemygl, or abouta Lublinrabbi, of a Bear",becauseofthebookhe published under thistitle, called"Seductive Baruch". JosieKatb,Krak6w1992,p. 192. J.J. Singer, 130Luiny,Opowiefd o niewidzialnym miefcie, p. 61, n. 10.

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and sealedit can look who wrote Gospel;onlytheperson Georgian we find it.131 In Vincenz, to open intoit.Herodwillfailin hisefforts from book Ba'al ShemTov obtained odd taleaboutthesecret a very is notdefenseless World" God."TheDove Book ofthe laymen. against He willbe it"becausehishandwillstopandwither. No onewilltouch a from willemerge Andlight with saturated it,likefrom onlyitssmell. from taken can be word letters! One the universal cloud,[thelight of] toreadit.Andeachofthose theDove Book by one whois authorized willnot read Twohermits word. cantakea different whoareauthorised toread willonlybe enough The wholelifeofa hermit thesameword. Book."132 of the Dove a single page to the The beliefinto"thesealingof thebook" maybe attributed that claims and treats thebookrhematically that oforalculture naivet6 is itsonlyreader. manits author of an illiterate from theperspective as the book's self-defense thismotive One can understand against can who to all it when falls This prey beingobjectified. mayhappen read. It comesto lifeonly This is also thecase witha sacredpainting. overthe Its existence faith. of genuine in thepresence predominates of the is the source Canon or a a of spectator. subjectivity painter oran illumination133 a dream whilea meditative form vision, painter's idea orlicense aesthetic The artist's canon. the of sources are caprice, and notcreating. meansproducing is neversuch a source.Painting as instance such a in cannot be rooted The act of creation wayward the excludes for theartist's theego.Thisrespect utterly theurgic power in Europe.A in thesamesenseas is understood idea of "production" He does not of divine buta reproducer is nota creator reality. painter old.To hisartbutrather new"with want to say"something something thesacredwell,he should be, as Vincenz says,"transparent represent
131 M. Starowieyski, Apokryfy ['The New Testament NowegoTestamentu ApocLublin1988,vol. I, p. 158. ryphs'], 132S. Vincenz, Wreath wianek 1983,p. 330. Barwinkowy '], Warszawa ['Periwinkle 133D.P. Jackson, and Materials, Methods Tibetan J.A.Jackson, Thangka Painting: Boulder1984,p. 12.

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for "without "illiterate". The painter, like creation", "poor", memory", thezaddikassuming thenameofhismost book,is tobelong important to therepresented He is to a docile thescribe be instrument, thing. of archetype. Insteadof referring to metaphors of theinsignificance of thesubject, a myth its divinity. Then you can sometimes stresses ofsacralrelics, monuments speakofthesupernatural origin paintings, andbooks.134 At stakeis stillthesame"no-self', thereduction ofthe roleofhumans Their as their authors. doesnotmatter. What "divinity" matters is that are "not human", "not-made-by-human-hand". they c) TheDestruction of "Self"in theTerminal Experience accountsof enlightenment in There are few "autobiographical" Buddhism. are eliminated from tradition a the They by prohibition thesacred, one's own againstthematizing religious including experiences. These accounts of liberation, written downby disciples, emwe comeacrossin Buddhist that art, is, the phasizethesamemotive extinction of "self'. The following of how theKorean is an account Zen master Soen Sa attained "The hundredth enlightenment. day [of satrameditation and recitation] came at last.As usual,Soen solitary Sa chanted and tappedon moktak used as a [thewoodeninstrument drum tosetthe for Buddhist hisbodyvanrhythm chanting]. Suddenly, he in and found infinite he returned himself When ished, space (...). to a bodily he cameto understand. The rocksandrivers, andall state, he couldsee andhearwerehistrue'self'. All things wereexactly the were."135 waythey This is theaccount of theterminal of theordinary man experience whodidnotmeditate than three Heishiro, longer days."He kept sitting at all night when he heard birds he could not and find sing dawn, his body.He feltas if his eyeshad dropped to earth. (...) Whenhe saw a panoramic ofthecoast,he fully understood that sight suddenly all creatures, trees andbirds werea Buddhafrom the leavesofgrass,
134 W. Juszczak, Fragmenty, p. 129. 135Thondup, HiddenTeachings ofTibet..., p. 252,n. 211.

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- this is still theaccount ofKo Bong's "Atthis moment beginning."136 I as if the fallen to universe had pieces,andthe enlightenment felt earth was flat. Therewas no 'self' and no world.As if twomirrors I assigned a fewkoans, and answers each other. were reflected myself clear."137 through-out exof greatmasters' enlightenment expresstheterminal Reports The in most radical vanishes the subjectsimply language. perience In thestory aboutKo Bong, and onlythehierophanic universe is left. us the the were removed but boththesubject and onlyto offer object as thedoubleemptiness ofFarEastern favourite iconoclasts, metaphor ofmirrors setagainst eachother. the of no "self' and the is mostdistinct Disappearance metaphor at stakeis a metaphor and a I stress: signof fullliberation. simplest the the of The manifestation of so-called not evaluation facts. sign, "rainbow body"(Tibetan'Ja lus ) is a metaphorical signof theend of"self'. According toTibetan Ja lus is atthe demonstrated tradition, ofrDzogschenmasters, whopractise rainbow death theso-called body ofthedeath ofoneofthemasters: meditation. Thisis an account "Durthat thetime of ingtheweekend, NyaglaPadmaDydyltoldeverybody hisdeath was drawing near(...) all hisdisciples went with himtothe a smalltent. He toldthem mountain andhe erected to sew up andseal thetent, and he wanted to be left alone forsevendays.The disciples went and waited for seven ofthe moundown daysina campatthefoot itstarted tain. Atthat time torain andmany rainbows heavily appeared. returned to themountain and openedthetent theway The disciples left but all found were master's had the hishair clothes, it, they they wereat theplace where he had satandwere andhisnails.His clothes a belt.He left still fastened with them likea snakesheditsskin."138
136SeungSahn, Strzepujqc, p. 150. 137Kurz zen. Mala antologia japoriska ['Dust of Zen', ed. by M. FostowiczWroclaw1992,p. 98. Zahorski], 138 i umieranie. bon i z tradycji Wybdr tekst6w tybetariskiego, buddyzmu ,mierd na temat i procesuumierania anded. Smierci ['Deathand Dying',transl. therawady Katowice1994,p. 263-274. byJ.Sieradzan],

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demonthesignsof ultimate concerns account Another liberation, It is told achievements. ofspiritual strated suspected bythemannever seventh the of the few on a "After the monk: evening days, byhisson, Year (1952), myfather month oftheWater-Dragon dayofthefourth should care that relatives brother told A lama of 79. diedattheage my whathe meant. understood butnobody forthebodyin a specialway, the for to care his after death, bodyas if it had they began Shortly and therainbow noticed man.Soon they to an ordinary light belonged while rested where the the ofthetents body surrounding place coloring mortal whole his few After a shrink. to the body (...) days, bodybegan home. back and came retreat finished I dissolved. swiftly mysolitary cametoanend,andonly ofdissolution theprocess Atthat time, twenty been his had where the left at nailsandhairwere kept.""139 body place Tenzin The deathofTibetan (?ldan Orgyen Togden O rgyan yogin died after he He remarkable bsTan'dzin?)was themost disappearance. Norbu Lama in 1984.Thisis what hadbeenimprisoned bytheChinese said that Tenzin Orgyen Togden supervising says:"One oftheofficials in whenhe had come to theyogin'sroom,he saw his bodysitting The official child. of a to thesize butit shrank meditation, panicked He becausehe had no idea howto explainthisfactto his superiors. would be and that he wouldbelievethestory, that was afraid nobody a to submit went intheescape.He immediately accusedofcomplicity When he and high-ranking on thewholecase to thesuperiors. report to Togden'shousea fewdayslater, returned officers Togden'sbody hadentirely Onlyhairandnailswereleft."'40 disappeared. through by liberation Perhapsthisis the way theroad indicated a radicaldisappearance with thesensescomesto an end.It concludes of Buddhist whichis themostremarkable of thesubject, metaphor ofSimone themystical totrace Theroadwe took liberation. experience Weil had begunwiththe decisionto kill the "self', the discursive it.We saw how was a weaponto destroy of thesoul. Repetition part
139 Ibidem, p. 269. 140 andDzogchen, Tantra and TheWay TheCrystal Namkhai Norbu, Sutra, ofLight. New York-London 1986,p. 126-128.

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of theprohibition thematization observing repetition, strictly against a or the sacred(askingaboutthe sense of a text, ritual, painting), discursiveness. This ban concerned boththe successfully destroyed mantraand dharani,and the analysisof the content of a prayer, ora relicortheascertainment ofitsownreligious matter ofan image, on thematter Rhematic focused exclusively experiences. religiosity, is realizedin thelogic of thisprohibition. (rheme)of sacredthings, and thematter fed for some timeby thepureform Discursiveness, itself andgivesup. Onlythen exhausts ofrhematic rapidly religiosity, viewthrough thefilter does realsacredness comesinto oftheperfectly - 'emptying, has undergone ken5sis selfthat kenotic (Greek purified is This the sacredness transformation. no of the longer shedding') in a spoiled worldbut,afterall the tracesof subjectiverighteous aregone,thesacredness that distance oftheworld has been objective saved. It seemsthatthisis thesense of disappearance Weil longed theultimate senseof liberation thesenses. forand,perhaps, through the"self' has disappeared willthecreator andthecreation, Onlyafter their be "Let of able to their secrets".141 name, regardless "exchange I can see become me disappear," Weil prayed, "so thatthe things beautiful as will be seenby me." no the they longer things perfectly In Christianity, thisvisionof thesavedworldis calledapokatastasis In oriented to theother side of existence, wholly panton. Buddhism, evenmakesan attempt tonameit. nobody 03-710Warsaw Poland Okrzei34/25, JOANNA TOKARSKA-BAKIR

141 Weil,Pismawybrane, p. 115.

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