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Media language.

By Rea Spelzini

Mise-en-scene ( put in the scene)

Everything that creates the visual world of the movie and its overall atmosphere

Mise- en- scene is an expression used to describe the design aspects of a theatre or film product. Its the arrangement of scenery and stage properties in a play for example actors, lighting, dcor, props and costume.

Lighting must be manipulated (controlled) by the director to accomodate his or her desirers for the movie. The two broad types of lighting approaches are Low-key lighting and high-key lighting. Low key lighting is a style of lighting for photography, film or television. It is a necessary element in creating a chiaroscure effect (use of strong contrasts between light and dark). Its often seen in horror movies and thrillers, comprising of a lighting pattern that has both bright and dark areas in the frame. High-key lighting is a style of lighting for film, television, or photography that aims to reduce the lighting ratio present in the scene. Its often seen in romantic comdies and musicals, encompassing (surround and have or hold within) an even lighting pattern and avoiding dark areas in the frame. Everything looks bright with no shadow. Its also used for a dramatic effect and is often used in a scene with no tension.

Decor refers to the decoration or decorative styles on/in the set, also the props on a film set. The Decor within a room can relay information regarding a character, genre and atmoshphere to the audience. An example of a film that shows decor is the film The Graduate. Its early scene opens with a close up of the main character, alone in his bed. Behind him is a fish tank, which may symbolize his entrapment (a defense that claims the defendant would not have broken the law if not tricked into doing it) in a life that he doesnt want. Later on in the movie, he finds himself at the bottom of a swimming pool, continuing that concept.

Setting creates both scene of place and a type of mood. It could also reflect on a characters type of mood or emotional state of mind. It can be created within a studio for example - Gravity , or can be set in an actual existing enviroment, for example The Hobbit.

The purpose of costuming is to dress the actor/actress according to their character. For example, A Lawyer would be wearing a suit and tie with possibly a brief case. Costuming can also be used to establish someones class. Even the colour may distinguish an enemy from a friend. In the film The Good, the Bad and the Ugly in 1966, a comical situation happens when Blondie (Clint Eastwood) heads towards the enemy that was covered in dust. When the enemy slaps his gloves on his sleeve, his grey uniform changes to blue. Costumes can also be used to emphasize a theme. For example the film The Graduate starts with a first scene in a hotel, a women (Mrs Robinson) wears a fur coat that makes her look predatoe hunting for prey. Her coat could symbolise the sort of person she is and what she is capable of doing.

Cinematography is the art or technique of movie photography, including both shooting and developing/development of the film. The cinematographer could also be referred to the film directors main visual collaborator (a person who works jointly on an activity or project, like an associate). 8 Important Cinematography Terms.
1. Shutter speed- The shutter speed of the camera controls how many frames are taken/captured per second. In film, cameras and some video cameras have a shutter speed of 24fps, whilst other video cameras have 30fps. The shutter speed of the camera remains unchaged unless youre shooting at high speed or slow motion. 2. Aperture- The aperture contains how much light passes through the lens to the photographic medium (film and digital). Aperture is measured in f-stops (a camera setting corresponding to a particular f-number). You can change the settings in order to get too much light or too little light in the scene. 3. Pan- In Cinematography panning refers to moving the camera/video camera or a light on a horizontal axis. 4. Tilt- Tilting refers to moving a camera/video camera or a light on a verticle axis. 5. Singles and Doubles- Singles and doubles can either refer to scrims, which is are steel circle nets placed directly on lights. Or it can refer to nets, which are cloth nets placed on stands in front of lights. 6. Flags- Flags are black clothes that are sewed onto metal frames on cameras. They are placed in front of lights to help cut out the beams and shape it. If a flag is placed close to a lamp, it will produce a soft and fuzzy shadow. If it is placed far away from the light, it will produce a sharp and distinct shadow.

7. Diffusion- Diffusion can refer to any material placed infront of a light that will diffuse the beam and create soft light. 8. Stingers- When you hear someone asking for a stinger on a film set, theyre referring to an extension cord.

An example of Cinematography in film The film Psyco 1960, Alfed Hitchcock is a master of cinematography. The film is presented in black and white, which word really well as they were able to convince the audience that it was blood dripping down in the shower instead of it actually being chocolate syrup. Cinematographers in most films use a variety of lenses when they shoot a feature, from long lenses to wide lenses. Psycho was shot entirely on 50mm lenses which are close to human vision. That involves the audience even more, as if they were eavesdropping on the story, creating more of an suspense.

Camera Angles in Cinematography Eyelevel Angle- A camera angle creates the effect of the audience being on the same level as the subject/ actor. So they would eye level. Low Angle- Low angles are caputered from a camera placed below the actors eyes,looking up at them. It makes the characters look dominant and aggresive. High Angle-In a high angle, the camera is above the actor/actress looking down. Making the character look weak. Dutch Title- The camera is positioned leaning sideways, creating a slope. This creates more of an dynamic composition. Point of view- Point of view angles is a short film scene that shows what a character is actually looking at. This is done to show the characters reacrion.

Eye level Angle

Low Angle

High Angle

Dutch Tilt

Point of View


Editing is the movement and manipulation of frames, within which more movement takes place
Film Editing is the activity of filming and then selecting scenes and putting them together to create a film. Order of Edits Images are placed together to create meaning. As exploded by the Kuleshov effect.- The five editing techniques of Pudovkin are> Contrast > Parallelism > Symbolism > Simultaneity > Leit Motif This is more commonly known as montage editing.

Montage sequence: A series of shots which summarise an action or build a mood, rather than playing it out in the equivalent of real time.

In most films, the primary process of editing is to create contiuity that is a sense that the film makes logical sense in term of immediate cause and effect and that is consistent in its presentation of the world. 180o



Camera 1- Looking right to left. Camera 2- Looking left to right. Camera 3- When you break the 180 degree rule, it disrupts the continity and sequence.

30o rule.
If cutting between shots on the same figure, the camera must move by more than 30 degrees, or the shot length must be significantly changed. For example, a medium shot on an actor cannot be followed by a medium close up at the same angle, otherwise the actor would appear to jump towards the spectator.

Editing is a way of guiding the emotional thoughts of the viewer The five editing technique of Kuleshov Pudovkin 1. Contrast- The cutting together of two ideas. 2. Parallesim(graffic mateh)-Way of connecting 2 scenes visually/one time period to another. 3. Symolism- meaning behind scenes. 4. Simulaneity- Happening or existing or done at the same time. 5. Leit Motif- Describes a musical phrase with a particular person or idea. eg. Jaws.

Films are 50% visual and 50% sound. Sometimes sound even overplays the visual David Lynch
Sound in film is a powerful film technique for many reasons. To begin, sound engages a distinct sense which can lead to a synchronization of senses making a single rhythm or expressive quality unify both image and sound. There are sounds in films that cues us to form expectations. For example, a door creaking in a film would make us expect or think that someone or something has entered the room. The use of sound can sometimes trick and redirect the viewers expectations. Two types of sound
Diegetic- Sound that exists within the world of story/film. It refers to sound that both audience and the characters can hear. For example- in the film Stranger than fiction When the main character is playing on the guitar. Non Diegetic- Sound that is seperate from the story/film. Its refers to sound the only the audience can hear, like soundtrack music to build tension for the audience but not particular the scene itself. For example- when the rock music Whole wide world by Monkees came on. It was made for something else not that specfic scene.


Diegesis- The world of the story- for example, diegetic time is time as experienced by the characters rather than the audience/ Score- Where music has been specifically written for that film. Soundtrack- Use of existing and popular music within a film. Ambient sound- Sounds that create an atmosphere in the environment. Foley- Sound effects created for a particular reason, for example-stabbing. in the film Pyscho, when the women gets stabbed in the shower there is a high pitched sound created an tense atmosphere. Stab- High pitched music that disrupts a scene. Parallel sound- Sound that matches the visual. Contrapuntal sounds- Music or sound that contradicts the visual. Eg. Horrific scene but with happy music. For example- Reservoir Dogs has a scene in which includes a man slicing another mans ear but the music is a happy tune.