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SEPTEMBER 2009 – VOLUME 3 NUMBER 3

ON THE COVER: MASTERSERIES

Features
EDITOR-IN-CHIEF
Dr. Marco Liserre, Politecnico di Bari, Italy
liserre@ieee.org
4 Measuring the I–V Curve of PV Generators
Analyzing Different dc–dc Converter Topologies EDITORIAL BOARD
Eladio Durán Aranda, Juan Antonio Gómez Galán, Prof. Kamal Al-Haddad
Ecole de Technologie Superieur, Canada
Mariano Sidrach de Cardona, and Jose Manuel Andújar Márquez
Prof. Seta Bogosyan — Educational/Chapter News
15 Managing Emergency Response Operations University of Alaska Fairbanks, USA
for Electric Utility Maintenance Prof. Bimal K. Bose
University of Tennessee, USA
Using Multiagent System Technology Dr. Chandan Chakraborty
M.C. Romero, F. Sivianes, C.A. Carrasco, M.D. Hernandez, Indian Institute of Technology, India
and J.I. Escudero Dr. Michael W. Condry — Industry Forum
Intel, USA
19 Transmission of Bulk Power Prof. Hiroshi Fujimoto — New Products
The History and Applications of Voltage-Source Converter Yokohama National University, Japan
High-Voltage Direct Current Systems Prof. Okyay Kaynak
Stijn Cole and Ronnie Belmans Bogazici University, Turkey
Prof. Marian Kazmierkowski — Book News
25 The Benefits of Hybridization Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
An Investigation of Fuel Cell/Battery and Fuel Cell/ Dr. Mariusz Malinowski — Society News
Supercapacitor Hybrid Sources for Vehicle Applications Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Phatiphat Thounthong and Ste
phane Raël Prof. Kouhei Ohnishi
Keio University, Japan
38 Shunt Compensation Dr. Alberto Pigazo
Reviewing Traditional Methods of Reference Current Generation University of Cantabria, Spain
Avik Bhattacharya, Chandan Chakraborty, and Subhashish Bhattacharya Dr. Thilo Sauter
Austrian Academy of Sciences, Austria
Prof. Bogdan M. (Dan) Wilamowski
Auburn University, USA
Departments and Columns Dr. Richard Zurawski
Atut Technology, USA

IEEE PERIODICALS/MAGAZINES
2 EDITOR’S COLUMN 54 EDUCATION NEWS DEPARTMENT
3 MESSAGE FROM THE PRESIDENT 56 BOOK NEWS Geri Krolin-Taylor
Senior Managing Editor
50 SOCIETY NEWS 58 CALENDAR
Jessica Barragu e
52 CHAPTER NEWS 64 MY VIEW Associate Editor
Janet Dudar
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An Investigation of Fuel Cell/Battery
and Fuel Cell/Supercapacitor Hybrid Sources for Vehicle Applications

M
odern fuel-cell (FC) vehicles (such as cars, buses, tram-
ways, trains, or aircrafts) arose from an infusion of
research money by several research agencies, including
the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) [1], [2], the Istituto
PHATIPHAT THOUNTHONG Motori of Italian National Research Council (CNR) [3],

and STEPHANE RAËL the French National Center for Scientific Research
(CNRS) [4], the French National Railways Company
(SNCF), the ALSTOM Company [5], the Japan Railway Technical Research Insti-
tute [6]–[8], and so forth. The aim of this research is to study, analyze, and test
energy-efficient and environmentally friendly traction systems.
FCs are able to generate electrical power with high-efficiency, low-operation
noise, and no emissions from hydrogen or hydrogen-rich reformer gases and air.
The byproducts are exhausted gases, water, and waste heat. The supplied electrical
power can be used in vehicles for propulsion and operation of electrically powered

© PHOTODISC & BUS: WIKIMEDIA COMMONS

Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/MIE.2009.933885

1932-4529/09/$26.00&2009IEEE SEPTEMBER 2009 n IEEE INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS MAGAZINE 25

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accessories. Polymer electrolyte mem- 0.5-kW PEMFC by Avista Company), supercapacitor, to improve the per-
brane FCs (PEMFCs) use a solid poly- Wang et al. [19] (who worked with a formance of the system when electrical
mer electrolyte membrane, operate at 0.5-kW PEMFC by Avista Company), loads at a dc bus demand high power in
lower temperature, and are considered and Gaynor et al. [20] (who worked a short time (e.g., vehicle acceleration
most suitable for vehicle applications with a 350-kW solid oxide FC), the FC and deceleration) [27], [28].
[9]–[12]. time constants are dominated by An FC vehicle can benefit from
PEMFC systems require onboard temperature and fuel delivery system being hybridized with an energy stor-
stored hydrogen or hydrogen-rich gas- (pumps, valves, and, in some cases, a age device, which assumes some of
es generated onboard from liquid hydrogen reformer). As a result, fast the roles the FC would normally han-
fuels, such as methanol, or the conven- energy demand will cause a high-volt- dle. It may increase fuel efficiency and
tional hydrocarbons, gasoline and die- age drop in a short time, which is rec- improve the performance of the vehi-
sel. Because more advanced vehicles, ognized as fuel starvation phenomenon cle. Each energy storage type has
such as the FC electric vehicle, have [21]–[23]. Fuel or oxidant starvation advantages and disadvantages: a
one energy storage (buffer) device as refers to the operation of FCs at substoi- battery has lower power and high
part of the propulsion system, it is pos- chiometric reaction conditions. When energy-storage capability, and a super-
sible and necessary to apply advanced starved from fuel or oxygen, the capacitor (ultracapacitor) has higher
control technologies to significantly performance of the FC degrades, and power but relatively low energy-stor-
optimize the vehicle’s fuel economy, the cell voltage drops. This condition of age capability. So, the energy storage
emissions, and drivability [13]. operation is evidently hazardous for systems in FC hybrid vehicles offer the
According to the recent works of the FC stack [24]. well-known ability to [29], [30]
Corrêa et al. [14], [15] (who worked Therefore, to use an FC in dynamic n absorb regenerative braking energy
with a 0.5-kW PEMFC by BCS Technol- applications, its current or power slope n improve fuel economy
ogy Company and 0.5-kW PEMFC by must be limited to circumvent the fuel n provide a more flexible operating
Avista Company), Thounthong et al. starvation problem, e.g., 4 A  s1 for strategy
[16], [17] [who worked with a 0.5-kW a 0.5-kW, 12.5-V PEMFC [25] and n overcome FC cold start and
PEMFC by Zentrum für Sonnenener- 5 A  s1 ; 10 A  s1 , and 50 A  s1 for a transient shortfalls
gie und Wasserstoff-Forschung (ZSW) 20-kW, 48-V PEMFC [26]. As a result, the n potentially lower the cost per
Company and a 1.2-kW Nexa PEMFC vehicle electrical system must have at unit power.
by Ballard Power System Company], least an auxiliary power source (energy This article presents the impact of
Zhu et al. [18] (who worked with a storage device), such as battery or the performance of an FC and control
strategies on the benefits of hybridiza-
tion. The possibilities to use a superca-
pacitor or battery bank as an auxiliary
source with an FC main source are
presented in detail. One considers that
the storage devices are faster than an FC
main source. Then, the storage device
can complement the main source to
produce the compatibility and perform-
ance characteristics needed in a load.
The studies of two hybrid power sys-
tems for vehicle applications, FC/battery
and FC/supercapacitor hybrid power
sources, are explained. Experimental re-
sults with small-scale devices (a PEMFC
(a)
of 500 W, 40 A, and 13 V; a lead-acid bat-
Group Group Heating Ventilation tery module of 33 Ah and 48 V; and a
Compressing Pantograph Electric Box supercapacitor module of 292 F, 500 A,
Power Braking Resistor Group Braking
Converter and 30 V) in laboratory will illustrate
Generator
the performance of the system during
motor-drive cycles.

Conventional Power
Traction Motor Guidance Traction Motor
(b) Train Architecture
For example, a modern European tram
FIGURE 1 – Modern European tramway Bombardier TVR: (a) front view of the tramway in vehicle named modified Bombardier
Nancy City Center, Lorraine, France, and (b) side view drawing of the three-car tramway. serve
Transport sur Voie Re e (TVR) is

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presented in Figure 1. The front view
of a rubber-tired vehicle in Nancy City Overhead dc Bus: 750 V
Center, Lorraine, France, is given in Contact Line Pantograph + − Inverter Traction Motor
Figure 1(a). The side view drawing of Wheel
the three-car tramway is portrayed in
Figure 1(b). The basic specifications of Inverter Traction Motor
the vehicle are total weight (with six Note: Energy Flow
 Wheel
people m2 ) ¼ 38,000 kg, maximum
Braking Chopper Inverter
mechanical power ¼ 300 kW (2 3 150 Resistor 400 V, Cabins:
kW), maximum speed ¼ 70 km/h, and 50 Hz Air Conditioning,
length ¼ 25 m. Heating, etc...
As depicted in Figure 2, the con-
ventional power train of a tramway FIGURE 2 – Schematic diagram of power-conventional tramway.
contains traction motors with their
inverter and electronic loads, such as
conditioning system and heating. The n negative peak power is 800 kW energy demanded and absorb the
main electrical energy comes from the during around 10 s. regenerative braking energy.
overhead contact line through the Therefore, the drive cycle is char-
pantograph. This architecture allows acterized by a great number of Battery Versus Supercapacitor
the partial reuse of the regenerative microcycles with a high level of peak as an Energy Storage Device
braking energy of the vehicle if energy, a relative low average pow- The battery is still the most extensive
another vehicle is capable of using it. er, and duration between 1 and 2 energy storage device to provide and
In this case, instead of burning it in the min. Overall, most of the time, the deliver electricity. Today, there are
braking resistor, it is first used for the main power source operates at many kinds of battery technologies
auxiliaries of the vehicle, and the com- lower load. So, the hybridization used, such as lead-acid, NiCd, NiMH,
plement is sent via the pantograph in consists of replacing the bulky or Li ion. Using analytical expres-
the overhead contact line to another generator of 600 kW with a smaller sions to model a battery behavior
vehicle. To prevent high voltage at the one of 100 kW capable of providing has always been limited by the com-
dc bus, in case of control failure, or the average power. It is then coupled plex nature of battery electrochemis-
high energy during rapid braking of with at least one energy storage try [31]–[33]. For lead-acid cell, the
the traction motor when the storage device (typically batteries or super- terminal voltage of battery Vb and
device is fully charged, this structure capacitors) to provide the peak internal resistance Rb are strong
must have a protection circuit functions of the state of charge
by dissipating high energy in a (SOC). The actual voltage
braking resistor. curve is linear over most of its
Vehicle Speed (km/h)

To illustrate vehicle charac- 50 operating range; nevertheless,


teristics, Figure 3 depicts the 40 at the end of discharge, the
speed and power profiles of an voltage decreases very rapidly
30
European urban tramway during toward zero. This is because
a drive cycle for a 500-m course. 20 the internal resistance of a
The acceleration and decelera- 10 lead-acid battery is almost lin-
tion of the vehicle is sustained by ear during discharge, but the
0
motors and electric drives with losses are substantial below
large power. The characteristics 800 25% SOC because of the in-
of the vehicle are as follows: 600 crease in internal resistance of
Vehicle Power (kW)

n vehicle peak power is 400 the battery. This is a reasona-


around 600 kW 200 ble work for the case of bat-
n peak power duration is 0 teries used in electric vehicles,
around 18 s (related to the –200 because the battery is typically
slope) –400 operated only down to 60%
n average power is between –600 SOC [or 40% depth of dis-
100 and 200 kW according –800 charge (DOD), the amount of
to the auxiliaries (heating or –1,000 energy capacity that has been
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80
air conditioning) Time (s) removed from a battery]. Usu-
n duration of standard cycle ally, DOD is expressed as a per-
is between 67 and 80 s FIGURE 3 – The speed and power profiles of an European centage of the total battery
according to the slope urban tramway during a drive cycle. capacity, and DOD ¼ 100% 

SEPTEMBER 2009 n IEEE INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS MAGAZINE 27

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SOC. So, the well-known bat- Moreover, Figure 4 com-
tery SOC estimation is defined 10,000 pares the advanced techologies
Supercapacitors HP: High Power
as [32], [33] of batteries and supercapaci-

Specific Power (W/kg)


HE: High Energy
Li-Ion (HP) tors in terms of specific power
Z t 1,000
1 and energy. Even though it is
SOC(t) ¼ iBat (s)ds Lead-Acid
QBat t0 true that a battery has the larg-
þ SOC0 (t0 ), (1) Li-Ion (HE) est energy density (meaning
100
more energy is stored per
where SOC0 is the known bat- weight than other technolo-
tery SOC (in percentages) at 10 gies), it is important to con-
the time t0 , QBat is the rated 0 50 100 150 sider the availability of that
Specific Energy (Wh/kg)
capacity (Ah), and iBat (s) is energy. This is the traditional
the battery current (A). advantage of capacitors. With a
FIGURE 4 – Specific power versus specific energy of modern
Energy storage by super- storage devices: supercapacitor, lead-acid, and Li-ion battery time constant of less than 0.1 s,
capacitors is an emerging technology. The supercapacitors and Li-ion batteries are energy can be taken from a
technology. Current break- based on the SAFT company. capacitor at a very high rate
throughs in material design [37]–[39]. On the contrary, the
and fabrication methods aimed at dissipated within the battery as heat in same-size battery will not be able to
maximizing rated capacitance have the ESR. This is to say that the effi- supply the necessary energy in the
provided a tremendous increase in ciency of batteries is around 50%. For same time. More advantageous, unlike
the energy storage capabilities of the supercapacitors, the peak power is batteries, supercapacitors can with-
supercapacitor [34], [35]. For exam- usually for a 95% efficient discharge, in stand a very large number of charge/
ple, an innovative prototype superca- which only 5% of the energy from the discharge cycles without degradation
pacitor SC3500 model developed and device is dissipated as heat in the ESR. (or visually infinite cycles) [11].
manufactured by SAFT is 3,500 F, 2.5 For a corresponding high-efficiency
V, 500 A, and 0.65 kg with a maximum discharge, batteries would have a FC/Battery and FC/
energy storage capacity of 10,938 J much lower power capability. Supercapacitor
(2 kW  kg1 and 4:67 Wh  kg1 ) in an Furthermore, the main drawback of Hybrid Power Sources
equivalent series resistance (ESR) of the batteries is a slow-charging time,
only 0.8 mX (representing small losses). limited by a charging current [36]; in Structure of the Hybrid
Terminal voltage of the supercapaci- contrast, the supercapacitors may be Power Sources
tor is limited, though, because of dis- charged in a short time depending on The FC operates giving dc and a low-
sociation of the electrolyte. This limits a high-charging current (power) avail- dc voltage, and it is not current revers-
the maximum voltage of 2.5–3 V. able from the main source. The capaci- ible; thereby, the step-up converter
When comparing the power charac- tor voltage vC can then be found using (called the FC converter) is always
teristics of supercapacitors and bat- the following classical equation: selected to adapt the low-dc voltage
teries, the comparisons should be Z delivered by the FC to the utility dc-
made for the same charge/discharge 1 t bus voltage [40]–[42].
vC (t) ¼ iC (s)ds þ vC (t0 ), (2)
efficiency. Only one half of the energy C t0 The constraints to operate an FC
at the peak power from the battery is are as follows:
in the form of electrical energy to where iC is the capacitor charging 1) The FC power or current must
the load, and the other one half is current. be kept within an interval (rated
value, minimum value, or zero).
2) The FC current must be con-
FC dc Bus trolled as a unidirectional current.
FC Converter + − Inverters Traction Motors 3) The FC current slope must be
iFC vBus iLoad
H2 +
vFC − + Wheel limited to a maximum absolute
pFC pLoad
O2 − value (e.g., 4 A  s1 [25]) to pre-
Water Heat vent an FC stack from the fuel
Braking
Battery Module i Chopper Resistor starvation phenomenon.
Bat
+
vBat − + 4) The switching frequency of the
pBat Note: Energy Flow
− FC current must be greater than
1.25 kHz, and the FC ripple cur-
FIGURE 5 – Concept of FC/battery hybrid power source, where pFC (¼ vFC 3 iFC ), vFC , and iFC rent must be lower than around
are the FC power, voltage, and current, respectively. pBat (¼ vBat 3 iBat ), vBat , and iBat are the 5% of rated value, to ensure
battery power, voltage, and current, respectively. pLoad (¼ vBus 3 iLoad ), vBat , and iLoad are the
load power, dc-bus voltage, and load current, respectively. pLoad ¼ pFC þ pBat . It has been minor impact to the FC condi-
assumed that there are no losses in FC converter, and here, vBus is vBat . tions [43].

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Concepts of the FC hybrid power
sources are depicted in Figures 5 and FC dc Bus
FC + − i Inverters Traction Motors
6. Because battery voltage, e.g., in a iFC Converter vBus Load
H2 +
lead-acid battery, is nearly constant vFC − + Wheel
pFC pLoad
and virtually independent from dis- O2 −
charge current and drops sharply Water Heat
when almost fully discharged, we Supercapacitor Supercapacitor Braking
Module Converter Chopper Resistor
propose the FC/battery hybrid +
iSuperC − +
source (Figure 5) by connecting the Note: Energy Flow
− pSuperC
battery module directly to a dc bus vSuperC
[44], [45]. For the FC/supercapacitor
hybrid source (Figure 6), the super- FIGURE 6 – Concept of FC/supercapacitor hybrid power source, where pFC (¼ vFC 3 iFC ), vFC , and
capacitor module is frequently con- iFC are the FC power, voltage, and current, respectively. pSuperC (¼ vSuperC 3 iSuperC ), vSuperC , and
nected to the dc bus using a classical iSuperC are the supercapacitor power, voltage, and current, respectively. pLoad (¼ vBus 3 iLoad ), vBus ,
and iLoad are the load power, dc-bus voltage, and load current, respectively. pLoad ¼ pFC þ pSuperC .
two-quadrant (bidirectional) dc/dc It has been assumed that there are no losses in FC and supercapacitor converters.
converter [46], [47]. The supercapa-
citor current iSuperC , which flows
across the storage device, can be To manage the energy exchanges power mission of the vehicle (Figure
positive or negative, allowing energy among the loads in the hybrid system, 3) into the sources in such a way that
to be transferred in both directions. the main source (here the FC), auxil- each source is optimally used. Accord-
The definitions of current direction iary source (the battery or supercapa- ing to the dynamic characteristics of
are also illustrated in Figures 5 and 6. citor), and three operating modes (or the hybrid power source mentioned
states) can be identified [11]: earlier, embedded energy sources can
Energy Management of the n Mode i: charge mode, in which be classified as illustrated in Figure 7.
Hybrid Power Sources the main source supplies energy An FC generator is controlled as the
For reasons of safety and dynamics, to the load and/or to the storage lower dynamic power source. An auxil-
the FC and supercapacitor convert- device (Figure 3; during 0–10 s, iary source is controlled as the higher
ers are primarily controlled by inner 26–46 s, and 56–80 s) dynamic power source, which pro-
current-regulation loops, classically. n Mode ii: discharge mode, in which vides the microcycles and fast
The dynamics of the current-regula- both main source and storage dynamic power supply in the dynamic
tion loops are also supposed to be device supply energy to the load classification.
much faster than those of the outer (Figure 3; during 10–26 s) Therefore, the hybrid source-con-
control loops, detailed hereafter. n Mode iii: recovery mode, in trol strategies presented here intelli-
Therefore, the currents iSuperC and iFC which the load supplies energy gently lies in using the storage
are considered to follow perfectly to the storage device (Figure 3; device, which is the fastest energy
their references iSuperCREF and iFCREF . during 46–56 s). source of the system, for supplying
Besides, when an FC operates, its As mentioned earlier, the FC has the transient energy and absorbing
fuel (hydrogen and oxygen) flows are slow dynamics. This can be compen- the regenerative braking energy
controlled by an FC controller, which sated by faster dynamics from a stor- required by the load, as if this device
receives current demand. This age device. The energy-management were a standard power supply. In
current demand is the FC current strategy based on a dynamic classifi- consequence, the FC may be seen as
reference iFCREF coming from the cation aims at distributing the global the generator that supplies energy
hybrid-control algorithms. The to keep the storage device
fuel flows must be adjusted to charged, although it is obvi-
match the reactant delivery Auxiliary Source ously the main energy source
1.0
rate to the usage rate by an FC of the system.
0.8 FC
controller. For this reason, the
Power (p.u.)

inner FC current control loop is 0.6 FC/Battery Hybrid


obligatory, and the hybrid-con- Power Source
0.4
trol algorithms demand energy One takes advantage of a bat-
from the FC to dc link by gener- 0.2 tery bank (which is directly
ating iFCREF [48], which is sent 0.0 connected to a dc bus for sup-
to the FC system synchro- plying transient energy de-
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80
nously. One can take advantage Time (s) mand and peak loads required
of the safety and high-dynamic during traction motor accelera-
characteristics of this loop FIGURE 7 – Dynamic classification of the FC hybrid power tion and deceleration) as if this
as well. source (in p.u.). device is a standard power

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supply. The proposed control strategy assumed that QBat is constant. Addi- a maximum absolute value (in A  s1 ),
is a cascade-control structure com- tionally, in a real system of applications, which enables the safe operation of the
posed of three loops as portrayed in SOC0 [initial value of the battery SOC, FC to respect constraints associated
Figure 8. The outer loop is the battery (1)] can be retained in a storage device. with the FC.
SOC control that links the battery According to this SOC control One may summarize that the con-
SOC to the battery charging current algorithm, the battery SOC controller trol principle of the whole system is
reference iBatREF . The middle loop generates a battery charging current based on the battery SOC, whatever
controls the battery charging current iBatCh for the battery current-control the load power is.
and links iBatREF to the FC current loop, and the charging current must n If the SOC is lower than SOCREF ,
reference iFCREF . The inner loop is the be limited at IBatMax . the battery charging current
FC current control, which is not To avoid high voltage at the dc reference is negative value and
presented in Figure 8. bus, in case of an erroneous SOC esti- an FC current is necessary to
The simple method to charge the mation or high regenerative braking, charge the battery.
battery is constant current (maximum the dc-bus voltage (battery voltage) n If the SOC is higher than SOCREF ,
charging current IBatMax is set around must be monitored to limit charging the battery charging current
QBat =10; for a modern Li-ion battery, it current. The battery current-limita- reference is positive value or
can be set at IBatMax ¼ QBat ) when the tion function consists of limiting the equal to zero, and the FC current
SOC is far from the SOC reference battery current reference iBatREF reference is reduced to zero.
(SOCREF ) and reduced current when versus the dc-bus voltage as As a consequence, a transient in the
the SOC is near SOCREF and zero when load modifies the FC current when the
the SOC is equal to SOCREF . For the iBatREF (t) ¼ iBatCh (t) battery SOC becomes lower than the
 
SOC, it can be estimated by using (1) VBusMax  vBus (t) SOCREF . In any case, if SOC is higher
 min 1, ,
as depicted in Figure 8 ‘‘Battery State- DvBus than SOCREF , the FC current reference
of-Charge Observer.’’ (3) is equal to zero. For transient condi-
More importantly, in vehicle appli- tions, as FC current dynamics have
cations, battery monitoring is com- where VBusMax is the defined maxi- been intentionally reduced, the battery
pulsory to replace aged batteries. In mum dc-bus voltage, and DvBus is the supplies all load variations.
particular, the potential capacity QBat defined voltage band.
is dependent on the DOD, discharge The battery current-control loop FC/Supercapacitor
rate, cell temperature, charging re- receives iBatREF from an SOC-regulation Hybrid Power Source
gime, dwell time at low- and high-SOC, loop. The battery current controller gen- To manage energy exchange in the
battery maintenance procedures, cur- erates the FC current reference iFCREF . It system, its basic principle lies in using
rent ripple, and amount and frequency must be limited in level, within an inter- the supercapacitor, which is the fast-
of overcharge [49]. val maximum IFCMax (corresponding to a est energy source of the system, for
It is beyond the scope of this work rated current of the FC) and minimum supplying the energy required to
to observe the battery capacity. It is IFCMin (set to 0 A) and limited in slope to achieve the dc-bus voltage regulation,

FC
System
iFCREF

+ vFC −
Battery iFC
State-of-Charge Battery Current FC Current
Controller Battery Current
Controller
Converter

Limitation Function Slope Limitation


SOCREF IBatMax iBatCh iBatREF IFCMax
FC

− IBatMin − IFCMin iFCREF


Battery vBus dc Bus
vBus Current Filter
iBatMea iBatMea iBat
Battery
–1 + vBat −
SOC State-of-Charge QBat
Observer
SOC
SOC0
Battery
Module

FIGURE 8 – Proposed energy management of the FC/battery hybrid power source [49].

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as if this device were a standard power power pSuperC , FC power pFC , and load voltage within an interval [VSuperCMin ,
supply. Therefore, the FC, although power pLoad by the following differen- VSuperCMax ]. The higher value of this
obviously the main energy source of tial equation: interval corresponds to the rated
the system, is operated for supplying voltage of the storage device. Gener-
energy to supercapacitors to keep d EBus (t) ally, the lower value VSuperCMin is
¼ pSuperC (t) þ pFC (t) 
them charged [50], [51]. dt chosen as VSuperCMax 2, resulting in
Consequently, the supercapacitor  pLoad (t): (4) the remaining energy in the superca-
converter is driven to realize a classi- pacitor bank of only 25%, which
cal dc-bus voltage regulation, and the The function F1 presented in Fig- supercapacitor discharge becomes
FC converter is driven to maintain ure 9 is a voltage-to-energy transfor- ineffective. This results in supercapa-
the supercapacitor module at a given mation, proportional for the total dc- citor current reference iSuperCREF .
SOC. The supercapacitor and FC cur- bus capacitance CBus to the square The SuperC current-limitation func-
rent-control loops are supplied by function tion consists of limiting the reference
two reference signals, iSuperCREF and iSuperCREF to the interval [ISuperCMin ,
iFCREF , generated by the dc-bus volt- 1 ISuperCMax ] defined versus measured
EBus (t) ¼  CBus  v2Bus (t): (5)
age-regulation loop and supercapaci- 2 supercapacitor voltage vSuperCMea as
tor voltage-regulation loop, as shown follows:
in Figure 9. It enables the generation of both dc-
9
For the dc-bus voltage-control loop, bus energy reference EBusREF and dc- ISuperCMin ¼ISuperCRated >
>
>
it uses the dc bus capacitive energy bus energy measurement EBusMea , >
 >
>
EBus as state variable, and the superca- through dc-bus voltage reference VSuperCMax vSuperCMea (t) >
>
>
>
 min 1, >
>
pacitor delivered power pSuperCREF as VBusREF and dc-bus voltage measure- DvSuperC =
command variable, to obtain a natural ment vBus , respectively. The dc-bus ,
>
>
ISuperCMax ¼þISuperCRated >
>
linear transfer function for the system. energy controller generates a superca- >
>
 >
>
If the losses in both the FC converter pacitor power reference pSuperCREF . This vSuperCMea (t)VSuperCMin >>
>
>
and supercapacitor converter are signal is then divided by the measured  min 1, ;
DvSuperC
neglected, the dc link capacitive energy supercapacitor voltage vSuperCMea and
EBus is given versus supercapacitor limited to maintain supercapacitor (6)

FC
System
Supercapacitor
Voltage Filter iFCREF

vSuperCMea vSuperC
+ vFC −
iFC
Supercapacitor FC Current
Voltage Controller Slope Limitation
VSuperCREF IFCMax iFCREF Converter
FC

− IFCMin

dc Bus
vBus
dc Bus Energy
Controller
Supercapacitor

SuperC Current
Converter

VBusREF EBusREF pSuperCREF Limitation Function


F1 iSuperCREF

vSuperCMea
dc Bus
Energy Filter vSuperCMea iSuperC
vSuperC
EBus vSuperC
EBusMea
F1 vBus + −

Supercapacitor
Module

FIGURE 9 – Proposed energy management of the FC/supercapacitor hybrid power source [25].

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where ISuperCRated and DvSuperC source, and load. The FC power
are regulation parameters. 3.0 or current dynamics have been

Load Power (p.u.)


For the supercapacitor volt- intentionally reduced; the aux-
age-regulation loop, the super- 2.0 iliary source supplies all load
capacitor voltage controller variations.
generates an FC current refer- 1.0 Finally, Figures 10 and 11
ence iFCREF limited in level and present simulation results dur-
slope, with respect to con- 0.0 ing a high-constant stepped
straints associated with the FC. 3.0 load power. They show the
The iFCREF that drives the FC Auxiliary
load, auxiliary, and FC powers

Power (p.u.)
converter through the FC cur- 2.0 in each unit. In simulations, the
rent loop is then kept within an FC minimum and maximum
interval [IFCMin , IFCRated ]. The 1.0 powers are set at 0 p.u. (corre-
higher value of this interval cor- FC sponding to the FC minimum
responds to the rated current 0.0 current) and 1.0 p.u. (corre-
of the FC, and the lower value 0 1 2 3 4 5 sponding to the FC maximum
should be zero. Slope limitation Time (s) current), respectively. The
to a maximum absolute value of power dynamics of the FC is
some amperes per second ena- FIGURE 10 – Simulation result: hybrid source response dur- set at 0:6 p:u:  s1 . As illus-
ing a high-positive load step (power in p.u.).
bles safe operation of the FC, trated in Figure 10, initially, the
even during transient power demand. current dynamics have been inten- storage device is full of charge, and
Using this form of control princi- tionally reduced, the supercapacitor the load power is 0.2 p.u. As a result,
ple, the state of the supercapacitor supplies load variations. In effect, the the power of the storage device is
module is naturally defined through dc-bus voltage regulation transforms zero, and the FC supplies 0.2 p.u. for
the dc-bus voltage regulation by the a sudden increase in load power into the constant load power. At t = 1 s, the
load power level and by its SOC. The a sudden increase of supercapacitor constant load power steps to 3.0 p.u.
following cases are encountered in current and, on the contrary, a sud- The following are the observations:
narrow steady-state conditions. den decrease in load power into a n the auxiliary source supplies most
1) If load power is negative, the dc sudden decrease of supercapacitor of the transient power required
link voltage regulation generates current. n the FC power increases to the
a negative supercapacitor cur- limited power 1.0 p.u. with a
rent reference iSuperCREF . Conclusion of the Proposed slope of 0:6 p:u:  s1
2) If load power is greater than the Energy Management Algorithms n synchronously, the auxiliary power,
approximate FC-rated power, the The important point in hybrid system after a sharp increase (discharg-
dc-bus voltage regulation gener- presented here is to balance energy ing), decreases slowly to a con-
ates a positive supercapacitor cur- among the FC main source, auxiliary stant discharge of 2.0 p.u.
rent reference iSuperCREF . At steady state, the con-
3) Otherwise, the state of stant load power of 3.0 p.u. is
the supercapacitor mod- 1.0 entirely supplied by the FC of
Load Power (p.u.)

ule depends on its SOC: 1.0 p.u and storage device of


for positive load power, 0.0 2.0 p.u. (discharging state).
supercapacitor current As a final simulation illus-
will therefore be positive trated in Figure 11, initially,
–1.0
if vSuperC > vSuperCREF , nega- the auxiliary energy source is
tive if vSuperC 5 vSuperCREF ; full of charge, and the load
–2.0
for negative load power, power is 0.8 p.u. As a result,
1.0
supercapacitor current the storage device power is
FC
will be always negative, zero, and the FC supplies 0.8
Power (p.u.)

0.0
even if vSuperC > VSuperCREF p.u. for the constant load
or vSuperC 5VSuperCREF . power. At t ¼ 1 s, the constant
In all cases, the FC state –1.0 load power steps to 1.0 p.u.
Auxiliaryy
depends only on supercapaci- (imitated regenerative brak-
tor voltage: FC current will be –2.0 ing). The following are the
0 1 2 3 4 5
strictly positive and less than Time (s) observations:
IFCRated , if vSuperC 5VSuperCREF ; oth- 1) the auxiliary source ab-
erwise, it will be zero. In FIGURE 11 – Simulation result: hybrid source response during sorbs most of the transient
transient conditions, as FC a high-negative load step (imitated regenerative braking). negative power

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2) the FC power reduces to Analog FC the dc-bus voltage), to operate
Current Controller
zero with a slope of iFCREF (from dSPACE)
a two-quadrant converter at a
0:6 p:u:  s1 , because the FC Step-Up duty cycle of 50% (efficient
FC power source is a uni- Converter switching utilization). Accord-
Traction Motor Desktop
directional power flow as a dc Bus Control Panel ingly, 14 packs are used in a
3) simultaneously, the auxil- Load series so that the maximum
iary source, after a sharp supercapacitor voltage VSuperCMax
decrease (charging), in- is 210 V. As a result, the nom-
Analog Supercapacitor
creases slowly to a con- Current Controller inal supercapacitor voltage
stant charge at 1.0 p.u. VSuperCNom is 200 V, and the mini-
dSPACE Controller mum supercapacitor voltage
Design Example for Interfacing Card VSuperCMin is 100 V. To store the
Hybrid Power Source FIGURE 12 – Hybrid source test bench. usable energy of 298 Wh, the 18
We design a full FC hybrid vehi- strings are needed to be con-
cle to present how to scale a power the required battery bank is as nected in parallel. Based on correspon-
source and storage device with follows: dence with a Maxwell representative, a
respect to applications. The vehicle n pack in series: 23 packs cost of US$85 per 15-V pack is used for
specifications are as follows: n string in parallel: two strings high-volume production. The mass of
n average vehicle power ¼ 40 kW n maximum battery voltage VBatMax : each pack is 680 g (including cell bal-
n storage device for the worse-case 455 V ancing and packaging). In this case, the
cycle during vehicle acceleration n nominal battery voltage VBatNom : required supercapacitor bank is as
¼ 298 Wh 400 V follows:
n dc-bus voltage for traction motors n maximum energy content: 1,840 n pack in series: 14 packs
¼ 400 V. Wh ¼ 400 V 3 2.3 Ah 3 2 n string in parallel: 18 strings
Normally, we consider an FC size n DOD: 20% n total capacitance, C: 75 F ¼ ((350
of the average vehicle power of 40 kW. n usable energy: 368 Wh ¼ 20% of F/6)/14) 3 18
In high-power applications, an inter- maximum energy content n maximum supercapacitor voltage
leaved multiphase boost converter is n peak power: 56 kW ¼ 70 A 3 2 3 VSuperCMax : 210 V
always selected as an FC converter 400 V n nominal supercapacitor voltage
[17]. Because the dc-bus voltage is n weight: 34 kg ¼ 0.123 kg 3 6 3 VSuperCNom : 200 V
equal to 400 V, the rated FC voltage is 23 3 2 n minimum supercapacitor voltage
approximately equal to 200 V to oper- n cost: US$5,290 ¼ US$115 3 23 3 2. VSuperCMin : 100 V
ate a boost converter at 50% duty For an FC/supercapacitor hybrid n usable energy: 313 Wh ¼ (0:5  C
cycle for efficient switching utiliza- source, an FC is connected to the dc VSuperCNom2  0:5  C  VSuperCMin2 )/
tion. For an FC/battery hybrid source, bus by a unidirectional dc/dc con- 3,600
an FC is connected to the dc bus by a verter, and a supercapacitor bank n maximum energy content: 459
unidirectional dc/dc converter, and a is connected to the dc bus by a bidir- Wh ¼ (0:5  C  VSuperCMax2 )/3,600
battery bank is connected directly to ectional dc/dc converter (Figure 9). n peak power: 342 kW ¼ 95 A 3
the dc bus (Figure 8). The battery con- The supercapacitor presented here 18 3 200 V
sidered here is based on A123 sys- is based on Maxwell Supercapacitor’s n weight: 171 kg ¼ 0.68 kg 3 14 3 18
tems’ new high-power lithium ion BMOD0058 15-V pack, which contains n cost: US$21,420 ¼ US$85 3 14 3 18.
ANR26650MI cell (2.3 Ah and 3.3 V). six BCAP0350 cells (2.5 V, 350 F, and From the aforementioned estima-
Each cell has a mass of 70 g. After add- 95 A) in a series. The pack includes tions, it is very clear that an FC/super-
ing 53 g for cell balancing and packag- cell balancing and sturdy packaging. capacitor vehicle must have at least 18
ing, the total mass is 0.123 kg/cell. The Because the dc-bus voltage is 400 V, strings of supercapacitors in parallel
published cost for six cells is US$115 the maximum supercapacitor pack to provide the amount of extra energy
(including cell balancing and packag- voltage should be around 200 V (50% of (298 Wh) required for acceleration.
ing). The upper current limit is This large number of superca-
70 A. Because the dc-bus volt- –vFC Membrane pacitors increases the cost and
+vFC
age is 400 V, 23 packs are used mass of the vehicle.
in a series so that the maximum
battery voltage VBatMax is 455 V. Experimental Validation
One defines 20% DOD from the
battery. Then, to store the usa- Test-Bench Description
ble energy of 298 Wh, the two A small-scale test bench of the
strings are needed to be con- 23 Cells in Series hybrid systems in our laboratory
nected in parallel. In this case, FIGURE 13 – PEMFC stack: 500 W, 40 A, and 13 V. is presented in Figure 12. As

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+vBat Battery Current Sensor

−vBat

FIGURE 14 – Lead-acid battery module: 33 Ah and 48 V. FIGURE 15 – Supercapacitor module: 292 F, 30 V, and 500 A.

illustrated in Figure 13, the PEMFC sys- and dry air from a compressor. The bat- by means of 12 SAFT supercapacitors
tem (500 W, 40 A, and 13 V) was tery module (Figure 14) is obtained by SC3,500 (3,500 F, 2.5 V, 500 A, and a low-
achieved by ZSW, Germany. It is com- means of four aged lead-acid batteries frequency ESR of 0.8 mX) connected in
posed of 23 cells of 100 cm2 in a series. [7.78 Ah (33 Ah at name plate) and 12 a series.
It is supplied using pure hydrogen from V] connected in a series. The superca- The load at dc bus is only a dc-trac-
bottles under pressure and with clean pacitor module (Figure 15) is obtained tion motor drive (10 kW) coupled with
a small-inertia flywheel. For the super-
capacitor and FC current-control
loops, they have been realized by ana-
50 dc Bus log circuits to function at high band-
width. The proposed energy-control
Voltage (V)

40
30 algorithms have been implemented in
20 FC the real-time card dSPACE DS1104,
through the mathematical environ-
10
ment of MATLAB–Simulink, with a
0
1,500 sampling frequency of 25 kHz. The
Load ControlDesk software enables changes
1,000
Power (W)

Battery FC in the parameters of the control loops.


500
FC The controlled parameters of the
0
Load PEMFC are set as follows:
–500
Battery 1) IFCMax ¼ 40 A (rated FC current
–1,000 IFCRated , corresponding to the
1,500
Motor Speed (r/min)

rated FC power)
1,000 2) IFCMin ¼ 0 A (minimum FC cur-
rent, corresponding to the mini-
500 mum FC power)
3) the FC current absolute slope
0 limitation is set to 4 A  s1 (cor-
40
responding to the FC power slope
FC of around 50 W  s1 ). This value
Battery State-of-Charge (%) Current (A)

20
Battery has been experimentally deter-
mined as the highest current
0
slope of our FC system, where no
fuel starvation occurs [25].
–20

100 Performance of FC/Battery


Hybrid Power Source
99
The controlled parameters of this
98 system are set as follows:
n SOCREF ¼ 100% (equal to 7.78 Ah)
97 n IBatMin ¼ 50 A
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
Time (s) n IBatMax ¼ þ6 A
n VBusMax ¼ 61 V
FIGURE 16 – FC/battery hybrid source response during a motor-drive cycle. n DvBus ¼ 2 V.

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Figure 16 presents waveforms motor acceleration, there is no motor electrical system called Power-
obtained during the motor-drive power limitation in Figure 16. In addi- Net [11])
cycle. It shows the dc-bus voltage tion, during motor braking, the small n VSuperCREF ¼ 25 V
(battery voltage), FC voltage, load regenerative braking energy is n VSuperCMax ¼ 30 V
power, battery power, FC power, absorbed by the storage device, but n VSuperCMin ¼ 15 V
motor speed, battery current, FC cur- in Figure 3 (real vehicle), the high n ISuperCRated ¼ 200 A
rent, and battery SOC. regenerative braking energy is ab- n DvSuperC ¼ 0:5 V.
The initial state is zero for both sorbed by the storage device; however, Figure 17 presents waveforms ob-
the FC and battery powers and 100% extra energy needs to be dissipated by tained during the motor-drive cycle.
for the battery SOC. At t ¼ 4 s, the a resistive braking during t = 48–51 s It shows the dc-bus voltage, FC
motor starts to the final speed of in Figure 3. voltage, load power, supercapacitor
1,500 r/min, such that the final FC cur- power, FC power, motor speed,
rent is IFCRated . The following can be Performance of FC/ supercapacitor current, FC current,
observed: Supercapacitor and supercapacitor voltage (or super-
n the battery supplies most of the Hybrid Power Source capacitor SOC).
power of 1,600 W required during The controlled parameters of this The initial state is no-load power,
motor acceleration system are set as follows: and the storage device full of charge,
n the FC power increases with a n VBusREF ¼ 42 V (a new standard dc- VSuperC ¼ 25 V; as a result, zero for
limited slope up to a level of the bus voltage in an automotive both the FC and supercapacitor
rated power 500 W
n concurrently, the battery power,
after a sharp increase during dc Bus
42
motor acceleration, decreases
Voltage (V)

35
slowly to a constant discharging
28
power of 400 W 21 FC
n the steady-state load power at 14
the constant speed of 1,500 r/min 7
is about 800 W, entirely supplied 0
1,000
by the FC and battery. Load
After that, at t ¼ 54 s, the motor 500
Power (W)

Supercapacitor FC
reduces speed to stop. It can be FC
0
scrutinized that there are three Load
phases. First, the battery recovers –500
the power supplied to the dc link by Supercapacitor
–1,000
the FC and motor (known as a regen-
Motor Speed (r/min)

1,000
erative braking energy). Second, the
battery recovers the reduced power
supplied to the dc bus only by the 500
FC. Third, the battery is charged at a
constant current of 6 A by the FC. 0
During the first and second phases, Supercapacitor
40
the FC power reduces from a rated
FC
Current (A)

power of 500 W with a constant slope 20


of 50 W  s1 . In the third phase, the
0
FC power is nearly constant at
around 300 W to charge the battery. –20
After that, both the FC and battery
Supercapacitor Voltage (V)

–40
power will reduce to zero when the 25.0
SOC will reach SOCREF . So, this
24.5
characteristic can be comparable
with the simulation results in Fig- 24.0
ures 10 and 11. 23.5
It must be noted here that the
23.0
drive cycle in Figure 3 is not identical 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
with that in Figure 16, because, in the Time (s)
test bench, the FC and storage devi-
ces are small-scale sizes. So, during FIGURE 17 – FC/supercapacitor hybrid source response during a motor-drive cycle.

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powers. At t = 10 s, the motor speed characteristics of a main source by supported, in part, by the Institut
accelerates to the final speed of 1,000 providing a stronger power response National Polytechnique de Lorraine
r/min; synchronously, the final FC to changes in system loading. During Nancy Universite, the Nancy Research
power increases with a limited slope motor starts/stops or other consider- Group in Electrical Engineering
of 50 W  s1 to a rated power of 500 able steps in load, the energy storage (GREEN: UMR 7037), the Thai-French
W. Therefore, the supercapacitor, devices provide the balance of energy Innovation Institute, King Mongkut’s
which supplies most of the power needed during the temporary load- University of Technology North Bang-
required during motor acceleration, transition periods and also absorb kok under the Franco-Thai on Higher
remains in a discharge state after the excess energy from the generator Education and Research Joint Project,
motor start, because the steady-state source (motor braking). Adding en- and the Thailand Research Fund
load power (approximately 600 W) is ergy storage to distributed power sys- under grant MRG5180348.
greater than the FC-rated power (500 tems improves power quality and
W), and the peak load power is about efficiency and reduces capital ex- Biographies
1,000 W, which is about two times penses by allowing the systems to be Phatiphat Thounthong (phatiphat.
that of the FC-rated power. sized more closely to the steady-state thounthong@ensem.inpl-nancy.fr) re-
After that, at t ¼ 40 s, the motor power requirements, rather than over ceived his B.S. and M.E. degrees in
speed decelerates to stop with a peak sizing the main generator to meet electrical engineering from King Mon-
load power of about 500 W. The transient loading requirements. gkut’s Institute of Technology North
supercapacitor is deeply charged, Experimental results with a small- Bangkok, Thailand, in 1996 and 2001,
demonstrating the three phases. First, scale hybrid test bench in the labora- respectively, and his Ph.D. degree in
the supercapacitor recovers the en- tory have evidently shown the possi- electrical engineering from INPL,
ergy supplied to the dc bus by the bility of improving the performance Nancy, France, in 2005. From 1997 to
FC (500 W) and the traction motor. of the whole system and validated 1998, he was an electrical engineer
Second, the supercapacitor is charged the proposed control algorithms: FC/ with E.R. Metal Works, Ltd. (EKARAT
only by the FC. Third, the supercapa- battery hybrid source and FC/super- Group), Thailand. From 1998 to 2002,
citor is nearly full of charge, then capacitor hybrid source. he was an assistant lecturer at King
reducing the charging current. After In general, an FC/supercapacitor Mongkut’s University of Technology,
that, both the FC and supercapacitor hybrid has better performance, be- North Bangkok, where he is currently
powers reduce to zero when VSuperC cause a supercapacitor can more an assistant professor and also a
reaches VSuperCREF of 25 V. Excellently, effectively assist an FC to meet tran- head of Department of Teacher Train-
only small perturbations on the dc- sient power demand (supercapacitors ing in Electrical Engineering. He has
bus voltage waveform can be seen, can be charged or discharged at high published more than 40 articles in
which is of major importance in using current, where a battery cannot func- international journals, refereed con-
supercapacitors to improve the dy- tion), and high-current charges and ferences, and two book chapters. His
namic performance of the whole sys- discharges from batteries will also research interests include power elec-
tem. These characteristics can be have a reduced lifetime. tronics, FC hybrid vehicles, electric
again comparable with the simulation Nevertheless, an FC hybrid vehi- drives, and electrical devices. He is a
results in Figures 10 and 11. cle with supercapacitors as the only Member of the IEEE.
energy storage will have deficiency Stephane Raël received his M.E.
Conclusions or even malfunction during the vehi- degree in electrical engineering from
An FC vehicle can benefit from being cle start up, because the start up time Ecole Nationale Superieure des
hybridized with an energy storage of a PEMFC is around 5–10 min, where nieurs Electriciens de Grenoble,
Inge
device (battery or supercapacitor). the battery has higher specific ener- Grenoble, France, in 1992, and his
The advantages could include im- gy than supercapacitor. Ph.D. degree in electrical engineer-
proved vehicle performance and fuel Subsequently, a more practical solu- ing from the Institut National Poly-
economy and lower system cost. The tion will be an FC/battery/supercapaci- technique de Grenoble, Grenoble,
degree of hybridization benefits from tor hybrid power source. So, the future France, in 1996. Since 2008, he has
FC efficiency characteristics, FC down- studies may be a hybrid source of FC/ been a professor at the Institut
sizing, displacing FC tasks with the battery/supercapacitor combination. A National Polytechnique de Lorraine.
secondary source functionality, or main advantage of the FC/battery/ His research interests include pow-
energy recovery through regenerative supercapacitor vehicle is the increase er electronic components, superca-
braking. The role of batteries and in the battery lifetime due to reduction pacitors, batteries, and FCs.
supercapacitors in FC hybrid vehicles of high-current charges and discharges.
is studied to understand their poten- References
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