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Hc vin k thut qun s

khoa c kh - B mn ch to my
v hu nam - l-u vn bng
Nguyn vn hoi - li anh tun - D-ng Quc Dng











Cng ngh kim loi
Phn ii: gia cng ct gt
(Dng cho sinh vin ngnh C kh)
















H ni 2002

L-u hnh ni b
Hc vin k thut qun s
khoa c kh - B mn ch to my
v hu nam - l-u vn bng
Nguyn vn hoi - li anh tun - D-ng Quc Dng











Cng ngh kim loi
Phn ii: gia cng ct gt
(Dng cho sinh vin ngnh C kh)

















H ni 2002

L-u hnh ni b
Mc lc
Ch-ng 1. Nhng khi nim c bn
1.1. Khi nim gia cng kim loi bng ct gt
1.1.1. nh ngha gia cng kim loi bng ct gt
13
1.1.2.Vai tr, v tr ph-ng php gia cng ct gt 13
1.1.3. Cng c dng trong gia cng ct gt 13
1.2. Cc b mt trn vt ang gia cng 14
1.2.1. Mt gia cng 14
1.2.2. Mt ch-a gia cng 14
1.2.3. Mt ang gia cng 14
1.3. Cc chuyn ng cn thit trong qu trnh ct
1.3.1. Nguyn l to hnh cho b mt gia cng
14
1.3.2. Chuyn ng to hnh khi ct 15
1.3.3. Cc chuyn ng ph 16
1.4. Dng c ct kim loi
1.4.1. Phn loi dng c ct theo ph-ng php ct
17
1.4.2. Kt cu dao tin ngoi u thng 17
1.4.3. Vt liu lm dao 19
1.5. Thng s hnh hc phn ct ca dao (gc dao)
1.5.1. Cc mt to
23
1.5.2. Gc ca dao trng thi tnh 24
1.5.3. Gc ca dao trong qu trnh ct (trng thi ng) 30
1.6. Cc yu t ch ct khi tin 33
1.6.1. Chiu su ct - t 33
1.6.2. L-ng chy dao 34
1.6.3. Tc ct - V 35
1.6.4. Thi gian my - To 35
1.7. Thng s hnh hc mt ct ngang lp ct 36
1.7.1. Chiu rng lp kim loi b ct (gi tt l chiu rng ct) b

36
1.7.2. Chiu dy lp kim loi b ct (gi tt l chiu dy ct) a 36
1.7.3. Din tch lp kim loi b ct (gi tt l din tch lp ct) 37
1.8. Khi nim chung v my ct kim loi
1.8.1. Khi nim v my ct kim loi
38
1.8.2. Phn loi v k hiu 38
1.8.3. K hiu my ct kim loi 40
1.8.4. Khi nim v ng hc my ct kim loi 41
Ch-ng 2. Cc hin t-ng vt l khi ct
2.1. Qu trnh bin dng khi ct gt kim loi
46
2.2. Qu trnh hnh thnh phoi vcc dng phoi
2.2.1. Qu trnh hnh thnh phoi
47
2.2.2. Cc dng phoi 49
2.3. Lo dao trong qu trnh ct kim loi
2.3.1. Hin t-ng
50
2.3.2. Cc yu t nh h-ng n lo dao 52
2.4. Hin t-ng cng ngui 54
2.5. Hin t-ng co rt phoi
2.5.1. Hin t-ng:
56
2.5.2. Cc yu t nh h-ng 57
2.6. ng sut d- 60
2.7. Nhit sinh ra khi ct kim loi
Qu trnh sinh nhit khi ct
61
2.7.2. Cc yu t nh h-ng n nhit ct 62
2.8. Rung ng khi ct
2. 8.1. Cc dng rung ng
64
2.8.2. Cc yu t nh h-ng n rung ng 65
2.9. mn ca dng c ct
2.9.1. C ch mi mn
67
2.9.2. Cc nguyn nhn mi mn dao 68
2.9.3. Cc dng mn dao 69
2.9.4. Tui bn ca dao - T 70
2.10. Lm ngui v bi trn khi ct
2.10.1. Cng dng ca bi trn - lm ngui khi ct
71
2.10.2. Yu cu cht bi trn - lm ngui 72
2.10.3. Cc cht trn - ngui dng khi ct 73
2.10.4. Cc ph-ng php -a cht trn - ngui vo vng ct 74
Ch-ng 3. Gia cng trn my tin
3.1. c im, cng dng, kh nng
75
3.1.1. c im
3.1.2. Cng dng 75
3.1.3. Kh nng cng ngh 76
3.2. Cc loi dao tin 76
3.2.1. Theo ph-ng php cng ngh 76
3.2.2. Theo tnh cht gia cng 77
3.2.3. Theo hnh dng u dao 78
3.2.4. Theo h-ng chy dao 78
3.2.5. Theo vt liu phn ct ca dao 78
3.3. Cc loi g vn nng km theo my tin 78
3.3.1. Cc loi mm cp 78
3.3.2. Cc loi mi tm 80
3.3.3. Tc kp 81
3.3.4. Gi 82
3.4. Lc ct khi tin 83
3.4.1. Cc thnh phn lc tc dng ln dao 83
3.4.2. Cc yu t nh h-ng ti lc ct 86
3.4.3. Cng thc tng qut tnh cc thnh phn lc ct 91
3.5. Tc ct khi tin 92
3.5.1. Cc yu t nh h-ng n tc ct 92
3.5.2. Cng thc tng qut tnh tc ct 97
3.6. Xc nh cc thng s ct hp l
3.6.1. Thng s ct hp l v c s ban u xc nh
98
3.6.2. Trnh t xc nh thng s ct 99
3.7. My tin
3.7.1. Cc loi my tin v cng dng
111
3.7.2. My tin ren vt vn nng 1K62 115
3.8. iu chnh my tin ren vt vn nng tin ren v tin
cn
3.8.1. Khi nim
120
3.8.2. iu chnh my tin ren vt vn nng tin cn 120
3.8.3. iu chnh my tin ren vt vn nng tin ren 120
Ch-ng 4. Gia cng trn nhm my Bo-Xc-Chut
4.1. Gia cng trn my Bo, my Xc
131
4.1.1. Cng dng, kh nng, c im
4.1.2. Kt cu dao bo, dao xc 132
4.1.3. Cc yu t ch ct 133
4.1.4. Lc ct v cng sut ct 136
4.1.5. My bo, my xc 137
4.2. Gia cng trn my chut 142
4.2.1. Cng dng, kh nng, c im 142
4.2.2. Dao chut 143
4.2.3. Cc yu t ch ct 146
4.2.4. Lc ct v cng sut 147
4.2.5. My chut 150
Ch-ng 5. Gia cng trn my khoan - My doa
5.1 Cng dng, kh nng
5.1.1 Cng dng
152
5.1.2. Kh nng 152
5.2. Dng c ct trn my khoan, my doa
5.2.1. Mi khoan
153
5.2.2. Mi khot 158
5.2.3. Mi doa 160
5.3. c im ca qu trnh ct khi khoan 163
5.4. Cc yu t ct khi khoan- khot -doa
5.4.1. Cc yu t ch ct
164
5.4.2. Thng s tit din ngang lp ct 165
5.5. Lc ct
5.5.1. Lc ct khi khoan
166
5.5.2 Lc ct khi khot v doa 168
5.5.3. Cng sut ct 165
5.6. Tc ct
5.6.1. Cc yu t nh h-ng n mn dao v tui bn
169
5.6.2. Cng thc tng qut xc nh tc ct 174
5.7. Xc nh cc yu t ch ct hp l
5.7.1. Chn dng c ct
174
5.7.2. Chn chiu su ct 174
5.7.3. Xc nh l-ng chy dao 175
5.7.4. Tnh tc ct v s vng quay 178
5.7.5. Kim nghim kt qu tnh ton theo my 178
5.7.6. Tnh thi gian my 178
5.8. My khoan, my doa 179
5.8.1. Cc loi my khoan v cng dng 179
5.8.2. My khoan ng 2H135A 184
Ch-ng 6. Gia cng trn my phay
6.1. Cng dng, kh nng, c im khi phay
6.1.1. Cng dng my phay
191
6.1.2. Kh nng cng ngh ca my phay 191
6.1.3. c im khi phay 191
6.2. Dao phay
6.2.1. Cc loi dao phay
193
6.2.2. Kt cu v thng s hnh hc ca dao phay 195
6.3. Cc yu t ct khi phay
6.3.1. Cc yu t ch ct
198
6.3.2. Cc yu t lp ct 200
6.4. Lc ct khi phay
6.4.1. Cc thnh phn lc tc dng ln dao khi phay
205
6.4.2. Tnh lc ct khi phay 207
6.5. Tc ct khi phay
6.5.1. Mi mn v tui bn ca dao
209
6.5.2. Tc ct khi phay 210
6.5.2. Tc ct khi phay 212
6.6. Chn yu t ct hp l khi phay 214
6.7. My phay
6.7.1. cc loi my phay v cng dng
214
6.7.2. My phay ngang vn nng 6M82. 221
6.8. Mt s g vn nng trang b km theo my phay
6.8.1. Trc g dao
224
6.8.2. Bn trn quay (mm chia) 225
6.8.3. u phn vn nng c a chia 226
Ch-ng 7. Gia cng trn my mi
7.1. Cng dng, kh nng, c im ca mi
236
7.1.2. Kh nng ca mi 236
7.1.3. c im ca mi 236
7.2. Dng c mi 237
7.2.1. Cc yu t kt cu ca dng c mi 237
7.2.3. K hiu dng c mi 242
7.2.4. Lp mi v sa mi 243
7.3. Cc ph-ng php mi
7.3.1. Mi trn ngoi
244
7.3.2. S mi cn 246
7.3.3. Mi trn trong 246
7.3.4. Mi phng 247
7.3.5. Mi khng tm 249
7.4. Lc ct v cng sut khi mi 250
7.5. Cc yu t ch ct khi mi 251
7.5.1. Chiu su ct t 251
7.5.2. L-ng chy dao 252
7.5.3. Tc ct V 254
7.5.4. Thi gian my T
0
254
7.6. Mt s ph-ng php gia cng tinh khc dng ht mi
7.6.1. Mi khn
255
7.6.2. Mi nghin 258
7.6.3. Mi siu tinh 260
7.6.4. nh bng 262
7.6.5. Gia cng tinh bng dng cht lng mang ht mi 264
7.7. My mi
7.7.1. Cc loi my mi v cng dng
265
7.7.2. S ng my mi trn ngoi kiu 3150 270
Ch-ng VIII. Gia cng bnh rng
7.1. c im qu trnh gia cng bnh rng
8 .1.1. Cc ph-ng php to prfin rng
273
8.1.2. c im cn ch khi gia cng bnh rng 274
8.2. Ct rng bng dao phay m un
8.2.1. Nguyn l gia cng
275
8.2.2. Dao phay m un 275
8.2.3. u, nh-c im ca ph-ng php 278
8.3. Ct rng bng dao phay ln rng
8.3.1. Nguyn l ct rng bng dao phay ln rng
279
8.3.2. Dao phay ln rng 280
8.3.3. Cc yu t ct khi phay ln rng 281
8.3.4. Kh nng ng dng ca ph-ng php 282
8.4. Ct rng bng dao xc rng
8.4.1. Nguyn l ct bnh rng bng dao xc rng
283
8.4.2. Dao xc rng 284
8.4.3. Cc yu t ct khi xc rng 285
8.4.4. Kh nng ng dng ca ph-ng php 286
8.5. u, nh-c im ca ph-ng php gia cng bao hnh 286
8.6. Cc ph-ng php gia cng tinh bnh rng
8.6.1. Nghin rng
287
8.6.2. Mi rng 288
8.6.3. C rng 290
8.6.4. Ln rng 291
8.6.5. Khn rng 292
8.7. My chuyn mn ho dng gia cng bnh rng
8.7.1. My phay ln rng
293
8.7.2. My xc rng 299
Ch-ng 9. My cng c iu khin theo ch-ng
trnh s CNC
304

9.1. H thng iu khin theo ch-ng trnh s 304
9.1.1. Nguyn tc cu trc 304
9.1.2. Cc dng iu khin 306
9.1.3. Vt mang tia v ct m ho 309
9.1.4. c tr-ng c bn ca k thut iu khin s 311
9.2. My cng c iu khin theo ch-ng trnh s (NC-M) 315
9.2.1. Chc nng ca NC-M 315
9.2.2. Cu trc tng th ca NC-M 321
9.2.3. -ng h-ng ca NC-M 321
9.2.4. Cc xch ng hc ca NC-M 325
9.2.5. H thng iu khin theo ch-ng trnh s 328
Li ni u
Gio trnh cng ngh kim loi - Phn gia cng kim loi bng ct gt -c
bin son theo ch-ng trnh mn hc Cng ngh kim loi dng cho hc vin
gc ngnh c kh hc ti Hc vin K thut Qun s. Sch ny cng c th lm
ti liu tham kho cho cn b ging dy cng nh- sinh vin i hc v cao ng
ngnh c kh trong v ngoi Qun i.
So vi gio trnh cng tn -c bin son tr-c y, ln bin son ny
chng ti mnh dn -a vo mt s ni dung mi (Ch-ng IX My cng
c iu khin theo ch-ng trnh s - CNC), ng thi thay i v ph-ng
php trnh by mt s vn cho ph hp vi s pht trin ca khoa hc v
cng ngh cng nh- yu cu chun ha trnh theo tinh thn ci cch gio
dc ca B gio dc v o to nhm nng cao tnh c bn, tnh h thng
v tnh thc tin ca mn hc.
Gio trnh ny gm hai phn chnh:
Phn I trnh by nhng khi nim c bn v qu trnh ct v cc hin
t-ng vt l khi ct.
Phn II trnh by cc ph-ng php gia cng.
Tham gia bin san gio trnh ny c cc ng ch:
GVC-TS Li Anh Tun vit ch-ng Ch-ng IX.
GVC-ThS Nguyn Vn Hoi vit cc Ch-ng IV, V.
GVC- KS L-u Vn Bng, KS D-ng Quc Dng vit cc Ch-ng I, II, III, VI.
GVC-ThS V Hu Nam Ch bin v vit cc Ch-ng VII, VIII.
Hiu nh: GVC- KS L-u Vn Bng.
Chng ti xin chn thnh cm n PGS -TSKH Phan B, TS Nguyn c Ph-ng,
cc ng nghip trong b mn Ch to my - Hc vin K thut Qun s c nhiu
ng gp qu bu trong qu trnh bin son v chun b xut bn ti liu ny.
Chng ti rt mong nhn -c kin ng gp ca bn c v cc bn
ng nghip trong ln ti bn sau gio trnh -c hon chnh hn. Mi
kin xin gi v a ch B mn Ch to my - Hc vin K thut Qun
s.

Cc tc gi



Ch-ng 1
Nhng khi nim c bn
1.1. Khi nim gia cng kim loi bng ct gt
1.1.1. nh ngha gia cng kim loi bng ct gt
Gia cng kim loi bng ct gt l ph-ng php to hnh cho chi tit gia
cng bng cch ct b mt lp kim loi d- trn b mt vt gia cng (phi) thu
-c mt chi tit c kch th-c, hnh dng cht l-ng b mt v cc yu cu vt
l khc trn b mt chi tit ph hp vi bn v thit k. Lp kim loi b ct b gi
l phoi.
Gia cng kim loi bng ct gt cn -c gi l ph-ng php gia cng c
phoi (d-i y gi tt l: gia cng ct gt GCCG).
1.1.2.Vai tr, v tr ph-ng php gia cng ct gt
GCCG l ph-ng php khng th thiu trong ngnh ch to c kh nhm
nng cao chnh xc kch th-c, hnh dng, cht l-ng b mt cc chi tit my,
c bit cc chi tit c yu cu chnh xc lp ghp cao. GCCG l ph-ng php
gia cng tip theo sau cc ph-ng php gia cng to phi.
Chn ph-ng php gia cng ng, hp l khng nhng nng cao cht l-ng
b mt chi tit gia cng m cn gp phn nng cao nng sut lao ng v hiu
qu kinh t ch to cc chi tit my ni ring v sn phm ni chung.
Hiu bit mt cch thu o kin thc v GCCG v cc ph-ng php ct l
mt yu cu khng th thiu i vi cc k s- c kh m nhim cng vic cng
ngh hay cng vic thit k. Khng th c mt thit k tt khi khng hiu bit v
cng ngh.
1.1.3. Cng c dng trong gia cng ct gt
a.My ct kim loi: l thit b dng to ra cc chuyn ng to hnh v
ng lc cn thit cho qu trnh ct gt.
b. Dng c ct (dao ct) kim loi: l cng c trc tip ct lp kim loi
cn d- trn b mt vt ang gia cng trong qu trnh ct.
c. g: l mt loi trang b cng ngh gp phn nng cao cht l-ng
sn phm v hiu qu kinh t qu trnh GCCG.
d. Dng c o kim: l mt loi trang b cng ngh dng o l-ng v
kim tra cc yu cu k thut cho trn bn v thit k ca vt gia cng.
1.2. Cc b mt trn vt ang gia cng
Trn vt ang gia cng ng-i ta phn bit ba mt (hnh 1-1):
1.2.1. Mt gia cng
Mt gia cng l b mt ca chi tit -c to thnh sau khi dao ct i
mt lp kim loi (mt 1).
1.2.2. Mt ch-a gia cng
Mt ch-a gia cng l b mt ca vt gia cng (phi), t mt lp kim loi
d- s -c ct thnh phoi (mt 2)
1.2.3. Mt ang gia cng
Mt ang gia cng l b mt ca vt ang gia cng ni gia b mt gia
cng v b mt ch-a gia cng. Trong qu trnh gia cng mt ang gia cng lun
lun tip xc vi l-i ct chnh ca dao (mt 3).



Hnh 1-1. Cc mt trn vt ang gia cng
1.3. Cc chuyn ng cn thit trong qu trnh ct
1.3.1. Nguyn l to hnh cho b mt gia cng
Nu cho mt -ng sinh chuyn ng theo mt -ng dn h-ng s to nn
mt b mt. Hnh dng ca -ng sinh v -ng dn h-ng khc nhau s to
hnh dng b mt khc nhau. Hnh 1-2a, -ng sinh 1 l -ng thng v -ng
dn h-ng 2 cng l -ng thng th b mt -c to l mt phng. Nu -ng
sinh l -ng trn cn -ng dn h-ng l -ng thng, b mt -c to l mt
tr (hnh 1-2b).


Hnh 1-2. -ng sinh v -ng dn h-ng
B mt chi tit -c to nn trong qu trnh ct gt da vo nguyn l trn.
-ng sinh v -ng dn h-ng l nhng -ng khng c thc trn my, chng
-c to nn do cc chuyn ng t-ng i gia dao v phi trong qu trnh ct.
B mt chi tit -c to nn do ct gt khng phng nh- l thuyt m c nhng
nhp nh t vi.
1.3.2. Chuyn ng to hnh khi ct
Chuyn ng ca cc c cu cng tc mang dao v phi ca my to nn
-ng sinh v -ng dn h-ng cho b mt gia cng trong qu trnh ct -c gi
l chuyn ng to hnh.
Cc thnh phn ca chuyn ng to hnh:
a. Chuyn ng chnh: l chuyn ng to tc ct ln nht cn thit
tch phoi ra khi phi, -c k hiu bng ch V hoc ch n.
Chuyn ng chnh c th l chuyn ng quay trn ca phi (nh- tin-
hnh 1-3a) hoc ca dng c (nh- khoan - hnh 1-3b, mi- hnh 1-3c); cng c th
l chuyn ng thng i - v hoc lin tc do dao thc hin (nh- bo ngang - hnh
1-3c; xc; chut) hoc do phi thc hin (bo gi-ng)
b. Chuyn ng chy dao: l chuyn ng -a l-i ct t v tr ny n v
tr khc tip tc tch phoi ra khi phi trn ton b b mt cn gia cng, -c
k hiu bng ch S.
Chuyn ng chy dao c th thng lin tc do dao thc hin (nh- tin hnh
1-3a, khoan hnh 1-3b) hoc do chi tit thc hin (phay). Chuyn ng chy dao
c th khng lin tc, -c thc hin sau mt hnh trnh i - v ca chuyn ng
chnh (nh- bo - hnh 1-3c; xc). Hu ht cc ph-ng php gia cng u c mt
chuyn ng chy dao (tin, phay...) hoc hai chuyn ng chy dao tr ln (nh-
mi) ring ph-ng php chut khng c chuyn ng chy dao.






Hnh 1-3. Chuyn ng to hnh khi ct


1.3.3. Cc chuyn ng ph
Chuyn ng ph l nhng chuyn ng ca cc c cu cng tc ca my
khng trc tip tham gia vo qu trnh tch phoi khi phi song khng th khng
c khi gia cng. Cc chuyn ng ph bao gm:
a. Chuyn ng phn : l chuyn ng chia b mt phi thnh
nhng phn theo mt quy lut nh. Chuyn ng phn -c thc hin sau
mt ln chuyn ng chy dao (phn gia cng bnh rng theo nguyn l
chp hnh trn my phay vn nng)
b. Mt s chuyn ng ph khc
* Chuyn ng -a dao vo v tr gia cng.
* Chuyn ng -a nhanh dao v v tr ban u.
* Chuyn ng iu chnh v tr ban u ca dao v phi.
1.4. Dng c ct kim loi
1.4.1. Phn loi dng c ct theo ph-ng php ct
Tu theo mc ch s dng, c th phn loi dng c ct kim loi (DCC)
theo ph-ng php ct, theo tnh cht gia cng, theo hnh dng dng c. Theo
ph-ng php ct, DCC -c phn thnh:
- Dao tin: l dng c dng thc hin cc cng vic tin trn my
ct kim loi
- Mi khoan, mi khot, mi doa: l dng c thc hin cc cng vic
khoan, khot, doa trn my ct kim loi.
- Dao phay: l dng c dng thc hin cc cng vic phay trn my ct
kim loi
- Dao bo, dao xc: l dng c dng thc hin cc cng vic bo, xc
trn my bo, my xc.
- Dao chut: l dng c dng thc hin cc cng vic chut trn
my chut.
- Dao ct rng: l dng c dng gia cng rng cc loi bnh rng.
- Dao ct ren: l dng c dng gia cng cc loi ren trn my ct kim
loi hoc th cng (khng cn my ct kim loi).
- Dng c mi: l dng c dng thc hin cc cng vic mi hoc ct.
1.4.2. Kt cu dao tin ngoi u thng
Cc yu t kt cu ca dao tin ngoi u thng -c th hin trn hnh 1-4.



Hnh 1-4. Kt cu dao tin ngoi u thng

V kt cu, dao tin ni chung v dao tin ngoi u thng ni ring gm
hai phn:
a. u dao (phn ct): u dao l phn trn c cc l-i ct trc tip
ct kim loi trong qu trnh gia cng. u dao d cc mt sau y to nn:
* Mt tr-c: Mt ca u dao theo phoi thot ra trong qu trnh ct
(cn gi l mt thot)
Tu theo vt liu lm phn ct ca dao, vt liu gia cng, iu kin ct, ch
ct m mt tr-c ca dao tin c th c dng: phng khng c cnh vt (hnh
1-5a), phng c cnh vt (hnh1-5b), cong khng c cnh vt (hnh 1-5c), mt
tr-c cong c cnh vt m (hnh1-5g). Chiu rng cnh vt f ph thuc l-ng
chy dao -c chn trong khong (0,21)mm. L-ng chy dao cng ln th f ly
cng ln.



Hnh 1-5. Cc dng mt tr-c ca dao tin

* Mt sau chnh:
Mt ca u dao i din vi b mt ang gia cng ca chi tit (cn gi l
mt st).
*Mt sau ph:
Mt ca u dao i din vi b mt gia cng ca chi tit. C th c mt,
hai hay nhiu mt sau ph.
Giao tuyn ca cc mt to thnh cc l-i ct ca dao.
* L-i ct chnh: Giao tuyn gia mt tr-c v mt sau chnh, gi nhim
v ct ch yu trong qu trnh gia cng. Tu thuc hnh dng mt tr-c v mt
sau chnh m l-i ct chnh c th thng hoc cong.

* L-i ct ph: Giao tuyn gia mt tr-c v mt sau ph. Trong qu trnh
ct, mt phn l-i l-i ct ph tham gia ct. L-i ct ph c th thng hoc cong
ph thuc vo dng mt tr-c v mt sau ph. Tu theo s l-ng mt sau ph, m
dao ct c th c mt, hai hoc nhiu l-i ct ph.
* Mi dao: Phn ni tip gia l-i ct chnh v l-i ct ph. Mi dao c th
nhn (r = 0) hoc c bn knh cong r (r = 0,1 2)mm.
b. Thn dao: thn dao dng u dao v g kp dao ln my. Mt ct
ngang ca thn dao c th trn, vung hoc ch nht. Kch th-c mt ct ngang
thn dao -c tiu chun ho.
1.4.3. Vt liu lm dao
tit kim cc loi thp tt, t tin nhm gim gi thnh ca dng c,
ng-i ta lm phn ct ca dng c bng cc loi vt liu c tnh ct tt, cn thn
dao lm bng thp kt cu thng dng.
a. Vt liu lm phn ct ca dao: Trong qu trnh ct, ngoi iu kin p
lc v nhit cao, dng c ct cn chu rung ng, mi mn... khin cho tnh
ct ca vt liu lm phn ct ca dao chng b gim thp. Do , mun gi -c
tnh ct trong mt khong thi gian di, vt liu lm phn ct ca dao cn phi
bo m nhng yu cu c bn sau y.
* cng cao: Mun ct -c kim loi, vt liu lm phn ct phi c
cng cao hn cng ca vt liu gia cng. Yu cu cng ca vt liu lm
dao ph thuc vo cng ca vt liu gia cng. Thng th-ng cng ca vt
liu gia cng nm trong khong 200 240HB, do cng ca dao trung bnh
phi nm trong khong (60 65)HRC.
* Tnh chu nng cao: Tnh chu nng ca vt liu phn ct ca dng c ct
l kh nng gi -c cng cao v cc tnh ct khc nhit cao (khng b
chuyn bin v t chc kim loi) trong mt thi gian di.
Dng c ct khi lm vic th-ng chu nhit rt cao ( vng ct c khi
nhit cao hn 1000
0
C), do tnh chu nng l mt trong nhng tnh nng rt
quan trng ca vt liu lm phn ct ca dao.
* Tnh chu mi mn tt. Phn ct ca dng c b mi mn l mt trong
nhng dng hng ch yu ca dng c ct. Mt trong nhng nguyn nhn ch
yu lm cho phn ct ca dao chng b mi mn l hin t-ng dnh gia vt liu
gia cng v vt liu lm dao. Tnh dnh -c c tr-ng bng nhit chy dnh
gia hai loi vt liu khi tip xc nhau. Loi vt liu lm phn ct ca dao tt l
loi vt liu c nhit chy dnh cao.
Ng-i ta cng thy rng khi cng ca vt liu cng cao th kh nng
chng mi mn ca vt liu cng tt, ngha l tnh mi mn ca vt liu t l
thun vi cng.
* bn c hc cao. Trong khi ct dng c th-ng chu nhng lc v xung
lc rt ln. Kinh nghim cho thy mt s ln dng c ct b gy, v phn ct
ngay trong qu trnh ct, do vt liu lm phn ct ca dao no c bn c
hc cng cao th tnh nng s dng ca n cng tt.
* Tnh cng ngh cao: tnh cng ngh ca vt liu lm phn ct ca dao -c
th hin cc mt: tnh ti -c, thm ti, mc thot cc bon khi nhit luyn,
do trng thi ngui v nng, tnh d gia cng bng ct. C mt s loi vt
liu tuy c tnh ct tt nh-ng khng -c s dng lm phn ct ca dng c ct
mt phn v tnh cng ngh ca chng khng cao.
Ngoi nhng yu cu ch yu ni trn, vt liu lm phn ct ca dao cn
cn phi c nhng tnh nng quan trng khc nh- dn nhit cao, sc chng va
chm cao v gi thnh phi thp.
lm phn ct ca dng c, ng-i ta th-ng dng cc nhm vt liu sau:
thp cc bon dng c, thp hp kim dng c, hp kim cng, vt liu gm...(Cc
nhn hiu vt liu dng d-i y theo tiu chun ca Lin X c.)
* Thp cc bon dng c: bo m cng v tnh chu mn cao c th
dng thp cc bon dng c c hm l-ng cc bon trong thp khng thp hn
0,7%. Mt s nhn hiu hay -c dng: Y7 Y13 v cc loi thp tt: Y7A
Y13A (c hm l-ng pht pho <0,03% v l-u hunh <0,025%).
Thp cc bon dng c c cc c tnh sau:
- cng sau khi ti v ram t (60 62)HRC. Sau khi c cng
khong (170 220)HB nn d gia cng bng p lc v ct gt.
- bn nhit thp. Khi nhit vng ct khong (200 250)
0
C cng
gim nhanh, nn ch dng ct tc thp (V = 4 5) m/ph.
- thm ti thp nn th-ng phi ti trong n-c lm cho dng c sau khi
ti d b nt, v ... v vy khng -c dng lm nhng dng c c kch th-c ln.
Vi nhng c tnh trn, thp cc bon dng c th-ng ch dng ch to
cc dng c ngui nh- c, da...; cc dng c rn v cc loi khun.
Thp hp kim dng c: l loi thp c hm l-ng cc bon cao v hm
l-ng mt s nguyn t hp kim vo khong (0,5 3)%. Cc nguyn t hp kim
c tc dng tng thm ti hoc ci thin tnh d ti cng ca thp, lm tng
kh nng chu nng ca thp. Cc nhn hiu ca thp hay -c dng lm phn
ct ca dng c: 9XC, XB5, XBI, 13X...
Thp hp kim dng c c cng (62 68) HRC v bn nhit khong
(300 350)
0
C.
Ng-i ta th-ng dng 9XC ch to tar, bn ren, mi khoan, mi khot,
dao phay; thp XBI dng ch to nhng dng c c chnh xc cao v hnh
dng phc tp nh- mi doa, ta r, dao chut, dng c lm ren, dng c o...; cn
thp c nhn hiu XB5 dng lm dng c gia cng cc vt liu rt cng hoc cc
dng c c l-i ct sc trong thi gian di.
Thp gi: l loi thp cc bon dng c nh-ng c hm l-ng crm (C
r
),
vonfram (W), vanadi (V) cao. Thp gi l loi vt liu lm dao c tnh ct tt v
-c s dng rng ri nht. Thp gi c th ct vi tc cao gp (2 4) ln, c
tui bn bng (8 15) ln so vi cc loi thp cc bon dng c khc v thp hp
kim dng c. Thp gi c cng sau nhit luyn HRC = (62 65) v bn
nhit t = (600 650)
0
C.
Thp gi ca Lin X c v ca Cng ho Lin bang Nga ngy nay c
k hiu bng ch P v sau l ch s ch s phn trm trung bnh ca
von ph ram.
C th tm chia thp gi thnh hai nhm: Nhm c bn nhit trung bnh
(hay nhm c nng sut trung bnh) gm cc thp c nhn hiu P18, P12 v P9;
nhm c bn nhit cao (hay nhm c nng sut cao) bao gm cc thp c nhn
hiu: P9u5; P14u4; P18u2; P9K5; P9K10; P10K5u5; P18K5u2 (Trong cc
nhn hiu trn ch u- k hiu vanai; ch K- k hiu c ban, cn cc ch s ng
st sau cc ch ci ch s phn trm trung bnh ca cc nguyn t ).
Thp gi dng ch to nhiu loi dng c ct khc nhau nh- cc loi dao
phay, cc loi mi khoan, mi khot, mi doa, dao chut, cc loi dng c gia
cng ren, gia cng rng v dao tin.
Hp kim cng. Khc vi cc loi thp dng c, hp kim cng (HKC)
-c ch to bng ph-ng php luyn kim bt. Cc cc bt vonfram (WC), cc bt
titan (TiC) v cc bt tantan (TaC) dng ht mn -c trn vi cht dnh kt c
ban theo t l thch hp trong 24 gi. Sau em p theo hnh dng cn thit p
lc (100 140)MN/mm
2
v thiu kt nhit (1400 1500)
0
C. Cc cc bt
quyt nh tnh chu nhit ca HKC; hm l-ng cht dnh kt cng tng th
bn, tnh do ca HKC cng tng nh-ng tnh chu nng li gim.
C th phn cc nhn hiu HKC thnh 3 nhm:
- Nhm mt cc bt. T chc ca n gm cc bt vonfram (WC) v cht
dnh kt c ban (Co), k hiu l (BK). Nhm BK gm cc nhn hiu: BK2, BK4,
BK6, BK8, BK10, BK15, BK25. Ch s ng sau ch K ch t l phn trm c
ban, cn li l l-ng WC.
Phn ct ca dao lm bng HKC nhm BK dng gia cng cc loi vt
liu dn (gang, ng thau) v vt liu phi kim loi.
- Nhm hai cc bt. T chc ca n gm WC +TiC + Co, k hiu l TK.
Nhm TK c cc nhn hiu sau: T30K4, T15K6, T14K8, T60K6, T5K10. Ch s
ng sau ch T ch t l phn trm ca TiC, cn ch s ng sau ch K ch t l
phn trm ca c ban, cn li l l-ng WC.
Phn ct ca dao lm bng HKC nhm TK dng gia cng cc vt
liu do, vt liu c bn v cng cao, vt liu chu nng v dng
gia cng tinh.
- Nhm ba cc-bt. T chc ca n gm WC + TiC + TaC + Co, k hiu l
TTK. Nhm TTK c cc nhn hiu sau: TT7K12, TT7K15. Ch s ng sau
hai ch TT ch t l phn trm ca T
i
C + T
a
C, sau ch K ch t l phn trm ca
Co, cn li l l-ng WC.
Phn ct ca dao lm bng HKC nhm TTK dng gia cng cc loi vt
liu cng v c bn cao. HKC c cng HRC = (71 75), bn nhit
khong (9001000)
0
C nn phn ct cc loi dng c ct ch to t cc loi vt
liu ny c th ct vi tc cao.
Vt liu gm. Nh c tnh ct tt, bn nhit cao (1200
0
C), cng cao
HRC =(75 80), nn loi vt liu ny ngy cng -c ch nhiu trong ngnh
ch to dng c ct. Song v gii hn bn un thp v dn nhit km nn vt
liu gm mi ch s dng c kt qu gia cng bn tinh v tinh kim loi khi qu
trnh ct khng c va p v rung ng.
Cc loi vt liu tng hp. Cc loi vt liu tng hp bao gm kim c-ng
nhn to, Nitrit Bo lp ph-ng (elbo). Kim c-ng c cng t vi cao hn HKC
khong (5 6) ln, tnh dn nhit cao hn (1,5 2,5) ln nh-ng cn nh-c im
l gin, chu nhit khng cao (800 1000)
o
C v gi thnh ch to cn cao nn
ch dng mi sc v mi bng dng c ct. Dao tin kim c-ng ch yu -c
dng gia cng HKC, kim loi mu, cng nh- vt liu phi kim loi tc ct
cao. Ngoi nhng -u im nh- kim c-ng, elbo cn c bn nhit cao
t=(2000
0
C) nn n rt c trin vng trong ngnh ch to dng c. Hin nay elbo
-c s dng rng ri lm mi.
b. Vt liu lm thn dao: vt liu lm thn dao phi c bn un v dn
nhit tt, gi thnh khng cao. Th-ng ng-i ta dng cc loi vt liu c nhn hiu sau
lm vt liu thn dao: C40, C45, C40X hoc Y7 Y9.
c. Ph-ng php gn vt liu phn ct ln thn dao:
* Hn dnh (Hnh 1-6a)
* Kp bng c kh (Hnh 1-6b)





Hnh 1-6. Ph-ng php gn vt liu phn ct ln thn dao

1.5. Thng s hnh hc phn ct ca dao (gc dao)
1.5.1. Cc mt to
xc nh cc gc phn ct ca dao, ng-i ta quy -c cc mt to
(hnh 1-7) sau: mt phng ct, mt phng y, mt ct chnh (tit din chnh) v
mt ct ph (tit din ph).




Hnh 1-7. Cc mt phng to
a. Mt phng ct
Mt ct ti mt im ca l-i ct chnh l mt phng to thnh bi -ng
tip tuyn vi l-i ct chnh ti im ta xt v vc t tc ct ti im .
Tc ct y -c hiu l tc dch chuyn t-ng i gia l-i ct v
b mt -c gia cng tc l tc tng hp ca tc ca chuyn ng
chnh v tc ca chuyn ng chy dao.
b. Mt phng y (gi tt l mt y)
Mt phng y ti mt im ca l-i ct chnh l mt phng cha -ng
tip tuyn vi l-i ct chnh ti im ang xt v vung gc vi vc t tc ct
ti im . Trong tr-ng hp mi dao g ngang tm chi tit gia cng v b qua
chuyn ng chy dao, mt y song song vi mt ta khi g dao.
c. Mt ct chnh (tit din chnh)
Mt ct chnh ti mt im ca l-i ct chnh l mt phng vung gc vi
hnh chiu ca -ng tip tuyn vi l-i ct chnh ti im ang xt trn mt y.
d. Mt ct ph (tit din ph)
Mt ct ph ti mt im ca l-i ct ph l mt phng vung gc vi hnh
chiu ca -ng tip tuyn vi l-i ct ph ti im ang xt trn mt y.
Nu l-i ct chnh (hoc ph) thng, -ng tip tuyn vi l-i ct chnh
(hoc ph) trng vi l-i ct chnh (hoc ph).
Theo nh ngha nh- trn, ba mt to s vung gc vi nhau.
1.5.2. Gc ca dao trng thi tnh
Gc dao trng thi tnh l gc dao xt trong tr-ng hp mi dao g
ngang tm chi tit, trc dao vung gc vi -ng tm ca my v ch c chuyn
ng chnh, khng c chuyn ng chy dao. Gc ca dao trng thi tnh
-c trnh by trn hnh 1-8.
a. Gc tr-c chnh ca dao (gc thot) - . Gc tr-c chnh ca dao l gc
gia mt phng tip tuyn vi mt tr-c ca dao v mt y o trong mt ct
chnh (ti im ang xt).
Gc tr-c nh h-ng ln ti qu trnh ct. Gc tr-c cng ln phoi thot
cng d, bin dng ca lp kim loi b ct gim, ma st gim, cng tiu hao gim,
nhit ct gim nn tui bn dao c th tng. Tuy nhin khi gc tr-c tng qu
gii hn no th bn phn ct ca dao s gim.
Tu theo vt liu gia cng, vt liu lm dao v tnh cht gia cng m chn
gi tr gc tr-c ca dao. Vt liu gia cng cng do, chn gc tr-c cng ln v
ng-c li vt liu gia cng cng dn th chn gc tr-c cng nh; vt liu lm
dao chu un tt (thp gi) chn gc tr-c ln, cn vt liu lm dao chu un thp
(HKC, vt liu gm...) nn chn gc tr-c nh v c th nh hn khng; khi gia
cng th chn gc tr-c ln, khi gia cng tinh chn gc tr-c nh.
Gi tr ca gc tr-c c th d-ng, m hoc bng 0, thay i trong gii hn
t (-10
0
30)
0
.
b. Gc sau chnh (gc st) -o. Gc sau chnh l gc hp bi mt phng tip
tuyn vi mt sau chnh v mt ct o trong mt ct chnh (ti im ang xt).
Gc sau chnh nh h-ng ln n ma st gia mt sau chnh v mt ang
gia cng nn nh h-ng n tui bn ca dao. Gc sau chnh cng ln, ma st
gia mt sau chnh ca dao v b mt ang gia cng cng gim do mn
mt sau chnh cng gim nn tui bn dao tng. Tuy nhin gc sau o cng gim,
vt liu phn ct gim nn u dao yu. Khi gia cng tinh, khi ct vt liu gin,
khi my - dao- chi tit cng vng chn gc sau chnh ln v ng-c li.
Gi tr ca gc sau chnh lun d-ng, bin i trong gii hn t (5 12)
0
.
c. Gc sc |: l gc gia mt phng tip tuyn vi mt tr-c v mt phng
tip tuyn vi mt sau chnh o trong mt ct chnh (ti im ang xt).
Gc sc | -c hnh thnh sau khi mi to gc tr-c chnh v gc sau
chnh . Gc | cng nh dao ct vo kim loi cng d song bn phn ct
gim, kh nng chu nhit km.
d. Gc ct o: l gc gia mt phng tip tuyn vi mt tr-c ca dao v mt
phng ct o trong mt ct chnh (ti im ang xt).
Gc ct o -c hnh thnh sau khi mi gc tr-c chnh.
Quan h hnh hc gia cc gc trong mt ct chnh:
o + | + = o + = 90
0

o = o + | = 90
0
-
Nu gc ct o< 90
0
th gc tr-c d-ng, cn nu gc ct o >0 th gc tr-c
m hoc bng 0.




Hnh 1-8. Gc dao trng thi tnh

e. Gc nghing l-i ct chnh - (gi tt l gc nghing chnh): l gc
gia hnh chiu -ng tip tuyn vi l-i ct chnh (ti im ang xt) trn mt
y v ph-ng chy dao (gi nh).
Gc nghing chnh nh h-ng ln n nhm b mt chi tit gia cng v
bin dng ca chi tit gia cng, cc b phn cng tc ca my. Nu gc nh,
nhp nh b mt Rz gim v chiu di phn tham gia ct ca l-i ct tng nn
thot nhit tt hn, iu ny lm gim mn phn ct ca dao nn tui bn dao
tng. Song gc gim, thnh phn lc h-ng knh (Py) vung gc vi -ng
tm chi tit tng lm cho chi tit gia cng b cong, cc b phn cng tc ca my
b x dch trong mt phng nm ngang nn chnh xc chi tit gia cng gim..
Xut pht t nhn xt ny m gc nghing chnh nn chn cng nh cng tt nu
cng vng ca my g - dao - chi tit (gi tt l cng vng ca h thng
cng ngh - MGDC) cao v ng-c li.


Gc nghing chnh thay i trong khong t 30
0
90
0
nh-ng thng th-ng
chn = 45
0
60
0

f. Gc nghing l-i ct ph (gi tt l gc nghing ph) -
1
: l gc gia
hnh chiu -ng tip tuyn vi l-i ct ph trn mt y v ph-ng chy dao
nh-ng chiu ng-c li.
Gc nghing ph nh h-ng ch yu ti nhp nh b mt gia cng. Gc

1
cng nh, nhp nh cng thp nn nhm b mt gim. Thng th-ng
chn gc
1
= 5
0
30
0
, gi tr nh dng khi gia cng tinh v h thng cng ngh
cng vng.
g. Gc mi dao c: l gc gia hnh chiu -ng tip tuyn vi l-i ct chnh
v l-i ct ph (ti im ang xt) trn mt y.
Gc c -c hnh thnh sau khi mi gc v
1
, song trong tr-ng hp tin
ren, gc c = gc profin ren cn gia cng.
Cc gc o trn mt y c quan h nh- sau:
+
1
+ c = 180
0
h. Gc nng ca l-i ct chnh (gi tt l gc nng) -: l gc gia -ng
tip tuyn vi l-i ct chnh ti mi dao v -ng thng vung gc vi vc t vn
tc ct ti im , o trong mt ct (hnh 1-9).
Gc c th d-ng (>0), khi mi dao v tr thp nht ca l-i ct chnh
(hnh 1-9a); c th m (<0), khi mi dao v tr cao nht ca l-i ct chnh
(hnh 1-9c); hoc = 0 (=0) (hnh 1-9b).



Hnh 1-9. Gc nng ca l-i ct chnh
Gc nng nh h-ng n ph-ng thot phoi, sc bn ca phn ct v iu kin ct
vo ca tng im trn l-i ct chnh. Khi >0, phoi thot v pha mt gia cng,
im tip xc u tin ca dao v b mt gia cng nm pha trong nh dao nn phn
ct ca dao t b v, ng thi cc im khc nhau ca l-i ct vo kim loi gia cng
tun t tng im mt lm cho qu trnh ct n nh (hnh 1-10a). Nu gc <0 th
ng-c li (hnh 1-10b).




Hnh 1-10. Gc nng l-i ct chnh >0 (a) v <0 (b)
Gi tr gc bin i trong khong t (-5 45)
0
, chn gi tr da vo loi dao
(dao tin ngoi, dao tin l), vt liu lm phn ct ca dao (thp gi, HKC...), tnh cht
gia cng (gia cng th hay gia cng tinh, c va p hay khng), vt liu gia cng. Ni
chung khi gia cng th, c va p v vt liu phn ct ca dao dn chn gc >0; khi
gia cng tinh chn gc <0.
e. Gc tr-c ph -
1
: l gc gia mt y v mt phng tip tuyn vi mt
tr-c o trong mt ct ph.
f. Gc sau ph - o
1
: l gc gia mt ct v mt sau ph o trong mt ct
ph. Gc sau ph nh h-ng n ma st gia mt sau ph v mt gia cng.
Gc sau ph cng ln, ma st cng t nn mc mn mt sau ph gim. Gc sau
ph lun lun d-ng. Th-ng chn gc sau ph bng gc sau chnh. Dao tin ct
v ct rnh chn o
1
= 1
0
2
0
.
Ch :
* Cc nh ngha nu trn y ng vi mi loi dng c ct khc.
* Gc dao trng thi tnh dng mi dao v o gc dao.
* Khi mi sc v mi li dao, ng-i ta tin hnh mi trong mt ct vung
gc vi trc dao (mt XX) v mt phng cha trc dao (mt YY).

Quan h gia gc tr-c chnh v gc sau chnh trong mt ct chnh vi mt
ct XX v mt ct YY nh- sau: Hnh 1-11 biu din cc gc tr-c v sau trong
mt ct XX v mt ct YY.
tg
y
= tg cos tg cos
tgg
x
= tg sin tg cos (1.1)
cotgo
y
= cotgocos tg cos
cotgo
x
= cotgosin tg cos
Cc du pha trn trong cng thc ng vi gi tr gc >0, cn cc du pha
d-i ng vi gi tr gc <0.







Hnh 1-11. Gc dao trong mt ct NN, mt ct XX v YY
1.5.3. Gc ca dao trong qu trnh ct (trng thi ng)
Gc ca dao thay i trong qu trnh ct do cc nguyn nhn sau:
- Do trc thn dao g khng vung gc vi -ng tm ca my
- Do mi dao g khng ngang tm my (tm chi tit)
- Do c cc chuyn ng chy dao trong qu trnh ct.
D-i y chng ta hy xt s nh h-ng ca tng yu t trn n s thay
i gc ca dao.
a. Gc ca dao thay i khi g dao khng ng
* G mi dao khng ngang tm chi tit. Hnh 1-12a th hin s thay i
gc ca dao khi g mi dao cao hn tm chi tit trong tr-ng hp tin ngoi
(xt trong mt ct YY).
Khi g mi dao khng ngang tm chi tit lm gc tr-c v gc sau o thay
i mt l-ng
h
. Gi tr ca gc
h
-c tnh theo cng thc:

D
h
Arc
h
2
sin = [] (1.2)
Trong : h- dch chuyn ca mi dao so vi tm chi tit (tm my) theo
ph-ng thng ng, mm
D- -ng knh b mt ang gia cng, mm.







Hnh 1-12. Gc dao khi g dao khng ng
Dao v bng nt t th hin dao v tr g ng
Dao v bng nt lin th hin dao v tr g sai
Tu theo v tr ca mi dao so vi tm chi tit (cao hoc thp hn tm) v
ph-ng php gia cng (tin l hoc mt tr ngoi) m gc hoc gc o thay i
theo chiu tng hoc gim. Quan h nh- sau:

h y
d
y
h y
d
y
o o

! =
=
(1.3)
Trong : Du pha trn ng vi tr-ng hp tin mt tr ngoi g cao hn
tm hoc tin l g thp hn tm; du pha d-i ng vi tr-ng hp ng-c li.
Cc gc
y
, o
y
l gc tr-c chnh v sau chnh o trong mt ct YY
Cc gc

d
y
d
y
,o
l gc tr-c chnh v gc sau chnh ng vi g mi dao
khng ngang tm chi tit, o trong mt ct YY.
* G trc thn dao khng vung gc vi -ng tm ca my
T hnh v 1-12b ta thy, nu khi g trc dao xoay mt gc l e so vi
v tr vung gc vi -ng tm ca my th gc v
1
s bin i mt gc
cng c gi tr l e. Nu trc thn dao nghing sang phi th tng v
1

gim, cn nu nghing sang bn tri th ng-c li. T-ng quan tng gim gia
cc gc nh- sau:
+ c +
1
=

+ c +
d
1
= 180
0
= const
Khi ct ren, nu g trc dao khng vung gc trc chi tit gia cng th ren
b nghing () gy sai s v na gc prphinren.
b) Gc ca dao khi c chuyn ng chy dao
Khi tin, chuyn ng ct gm hai thnh phn; chuyn ng chnh c vc t
tc l
n
V v chuyn ng chy dao c vc t tc l
S
V , nn vc t tc
ct tng hp V S l:

S n
V V V + =
Lc ny qu o ca chuyn ng t-ng i gia mi dao v b mt gia
cng l -ng xon, vy mt ct s l mt phng cha vc t tc ct tng hp.
V tr ca mt ct khi c chuyn ng chy dao s khng trng vi v tr mt ct
trng thi tnh (khng c chuyn ng chy dao) nn lm cho gc v o thay
i. Ta s nghin cu s thay i ca gc gc v o khi c chuyn ng chy
dao dc (S
d
) v chuyn ng chy dao ngang (s
n
).
* Khi c chuyn ng chy dao dc. phn tch s thay i ca gc v
gc o, ta xt tr-ng hp tin ngoi (hnh 1-13a). Khi c chuyn ng chy dao
dc th qu o ca chuyn ng ct t-ng i ca mt im bt k trn l-i ct
l -ng xon c, do vc t tc ct s nghing i vi vc t tc ct
trng thi tnh mt gc
S
bng gc ca -ng xon. T hnh v ta c:

S x
d
x
S x
d
x
o o

=
+ =
(1.4)
Vi
S
= Arctg (
t
sin .
D
S
d
) (1.5)
Trong :
d
X
d
X
o , ,
x
, o
x
- l gc tr-c v gc sau trng thi c chuyn
ng chy dao dc (trng thi ng) v trng thi khng c chuyn ng chy
dao (trng thi tnh) xt trong mt ct XX.
D- -ng knh b mt gia cng , mm
S
d
- l-ng chy dao dc, mm/vng
- gc nghing l-i ct chnh,



Hnh 1-13. Gc dao khi c chuyn ng chy dao
* Khi c chuyn ng chy dao ngang (S
n
). Khi tin ct t, tin rnh, xn
mt u v tin ren mt u ng-i ta thc hin chy dao ngang (h-ng chy dao
ngang vung gc vi trc chi tit gia cng). Khi c chy dao ngang th qu o
ca chuyn ng ct t-ng i ca mt im bt k trn l-i ct l -ng xon
Ac si mt. Do c l-ng chy dao ngang nn h-ng ca vc t tc ct trong qu
trnh ct lun lun thay i v to vi vc t tc ct trng thi tnh mt gc
l
S
, do lm gc ca dao thay i nh- sau (hnh 1-13b):

S Y
d
Y
S Y
d
Y
o o

=
+ =
(1.6)

Gi tr ca
S
-c tnh theo cng thc:

S
= Arctg
t 2
S
n
(1.7)
Trong :
Y Y
d
Y
d
Y
o o , , , l gc tr-c v gc sau trng thi c chuyn ng
chy dao ngang (trng thi ng) v trng thi khng c chuyn ng chy dao
ngang (trng thi tnh) xt trong mt ct YY.
S
n
-l-ng chy dao ngang, mm/vng
-bn knh ca b mt ang gia cng ti im ang xt, mm.
Vy khi c chuyn ng chy dao, gc tr-c trng thi ng tng ln v
gc sau trng thi ng gim bt mt l-ng l
S
= f(S, D). Gi tr ca
S
t l
thun vi l-ng chy dao v t l nghch vi -ng knh b mt gia cng.
1.6. Cc yu t ch ct khi tin
Hnh 1-14 th hin cc yu tc ct khi tin chy dao dc. S 1 v 2 l hai v
tr lin tip ca mt ct khi phi quay mt vng.



Hnh 1-14. Cc yu t ch v thng s hnh hc lp ct khi tin

1.6.1. Chiu su ct - t
Chiu su ct t l khong cch gia b mt gia cng v b mt ch-a gia
cng o theo ph-ng vung gc vi b mt gia cng trong mt ln ct.
Tr s ca chiu su ct -c o trong mt ct cha trc chi tit gia cng v
-c tnh theo cng thc:

2
d D
t

= [mm] (1.8)
Trong : D - -ng knh b mt ch-a gia cng, mm
d - -ng knh b mt gia cng, mm
1.6.2. L-ng chy dao
L-ng chy dao l l-ng dch chuyn t-ng i gia l-i ct v b mt gia
cng theo ph-ng chuyn ng chy dao sau mt vng quay ca phi hoc trong
mt n v thi gian.
Ng-i ta phn loi l-ng chy chy dao nh- sau:
a.Theo ph-ng chuyn ng ca dao
* L-ng chy dao dc (S
d
) l l-ng dch chuyn t-ng i gia l-i ct v
b mt gia cng theo ph-ng dc trc phi cn gia cng.
Chuyn ng chy dao dc dng tin cc loi mt tr trong v ngoi, cc
loi ren trong v ngoi.
* L-ng chy dao ngang (S
n
) l l-ng dch chuyn t-ng i gia l-i ct
v b mt gia cng theo ph-ng vung gc vi trc phi gia cng.
Chuyn ng chy dao ngang dng tin rnh, tin ct t, tin mt u...
* Chuyn ng chy dao xin (S
x
) l l-ng dch chuyn t-ng i gia l-i
ct ca dao v b mt gia cng theo ph-ng to vi -ng trc phi gia cng mt
gc nht nh.
Chuyn ng chy dao xin dng tin mt cn trong v ngoi, mt nh
hnh.
b.Theo n v tnh ca l-ng chy dao
* L-ng chy dao vng (S
v
) l l-ng dch chuyn t-ng i gia l-i ct
ca dao v b mt gia cng sau mt vng quay ca phi hoc ca dao v -c
tnh bng mm/vng.
L-ng chy dao vng nh h-ng trc tip n chiu cao nhp nh ca b mt
gia cng.
* L-ng chy dao rng (S
r
) l l-ng dch chuyn t-ng i gia l-i ct
ca dao v b mt gia cng sau khi dao dch chuyn -c mt cung rng v -c
tnh bng mm/rng. Vi tin S
r
= S
V
* L-ng chy dao pht (S
Ph
) l l-ng dch chuyn t-ng i gia l-i ct
ca dao v b mt gia cng sau thi gian mt pht v -c tnh bng mm/ph
L-ng chy dao pht c tr-ng cho nng sut ca qu trnh ct.
Mi quan h gia S
v
, S
z
, v S
ph
nh- sau:
S
v
= S
z
. Z [mm/vng] (1.9)
S
ph
= S
v
. n

= S
z
. Z . n [mm/ph] (1.10)
Trong : Z- s rng dao
n- s vng quay ca phi, vng/ph
1.6.3. Tc ct - V
Tc ct l l-ng dch chuyn t-ng i gia l-i ct ca dao v b mt
gia cng trong mt n v thi gian.
s n V V V + =
Trong : n V l vc t tc ct ca chuyn ng chnh;
s V

vc t tc ct ca chuyn ng chy dao.
Trong thc t gi tr ca V
S
rt nh so vi V
n
nn trong tnh ton tc ct
ng-i ta b qua gi tr V
S
v tc ct -c tnh theo cng thc:

1000
Dn
V V
n
t
= = [m/ph] (1.11)
Trong : D - -ng knh b mt gia cng (hoc ca dng c ct) ng vi
im tip xc vi l-i ct xa tm nht, mm
n- s vng quay ca phi (hoc dng c) trong mt pht, vg/ph
Tp hp cc yu t V, t, S, gi l ch ct.
1.6.4. Thi gian my - To
Thi gian my l thi gian cn thit dng c trc tip ct lp kim loi
trn b mt phi trong mt nguyn cng cng ngh.
Vy thi gian my chnh l t s gia khong dch chuyn ca dao v
l-ng chy dao pht trong mt nguyn cng cng ngh, -c tnh theo cng
thc (hnh 1-15)


Hnh 1-15

t
h
n S
l l l
t
h
S
L
T
v ph
.
.
.
2 1
0
+ +
= = [ph] (1.12)
Trong :
l- chiu di b mt cn gia cng, mm
l
1
- l-ng chy ti, l
1
= t.cotg [mm], th-ng ly l
1
= (2 3)mm
l
2
- l-ng chy qu, th-ng ly l
2
= (2 5)mm
n- s vng quay ca phi trong mt pht, vng/ph
h- l-ng d- gia cng ca nguyn cng cng ngh, mm
t- chiu su ct, mm
- Gc nghing l-i ct chnh,
1.7. Thng s hnh hc mt ct ngang lp ct
Thng s hnh hc ca mt ct ngang lp ct -c th hin qua hnh 1-14.
1.7.1. Chiu rng lp kim loi b ct (gi tt l chiu rng ct) b
Chiu rng ct l khong cch gia b mt gia cng v ch-a gia cng o
dc theo l-i ctchnh.
Chiu rng ct chnh l phn l-i ct trc tip tham gia ct.
Khi l-i ct thng, mi dao g ngang tm chi tit, dao c gc nng = 0
0
th:

Sin
t
b = [mm] (1.13)
Trong : t- chiu su ct, mm
- Gc nghing l-i ct chnh,
1.7.2. Chiu dy lp kim loi b ct (gi tt l chiu dy ct) a
Chiu dy ct l khong cch gia hai v tr lin tip ca l-i ct sau mt
vng quay ca phi o theo ph-ng vung gc vi l-i ct.
Khi l-i ct thng, mi dao g ngang tm chi tit, gc nng =0:
- Khi dao c gc tr-c = 0
0

Cos
S
a
sin .
= [mm] (1.14a)
- Khi dao c gc tr-c = 0
0

a = S . Sin [mm] (1.14b)

Trong : S - l-ng chy dao vng, mm/vng
T hnh 1-14 v cc cng thc 1-13 v 1-14 ta thy rng: b = f(t, )
v a=f (S, ). Nu gi nguyn tv S, gc nghing chnh cng gim th
chiu dy ct gim, cn chiu rng ct tng ngha l phoi cng di v cng
mng; nu gc tng th ng-c li.
Nu gc =0
0
th

chiu dy v chiu rng lp ct -c tnh theo cng thc:

cos
sin . S
a
0
= [mm] (1.15)

tg
t
b
v
. cos
= [mm] (1.16)
Trong :

cos
tg sin
Arctg
2 2
0
+
= [] (1.17)
1.7.3. Din tch lp kim loi b ct (gi tt l din tch lp ct)
Ng-i ta phn bit din tch lp ct thnh din tch ct danh ngha, din tch
ct cn d-, din tch ct thc.
a. Din tch ct danh ngha -F. Khi g mi dao ngang tm chi tit, dao c
gc tr-c chnh = 0
0
; gc nng =0
0

th din tch ct danh ngha -c tnh theo
cng thc:
F
d.n
= a . b = S . t [mm
2
] (1.18)
b. Din tch ct cn d- - F
d
l din tch lp ct kim loi cn li trn b
mt gia cng do dao khng ct -c ht. Din tch tam gic ABC trn hnh
1-14a l phn din tch d- trong tr-ng hp tin ngoi chy dao dc, c bn
knh mi dao r = 0mm. Din tch ct cn d- -c tnh theo cng thc.
F
d-
H . S
2
1
= [mm
2
] (1.19)
Trong : S - L-ng chy dao dc, mm
H- Chiu cao ca lp kim loi cn li trn b mt gia cng do dao
khng ct -c ht, mm. Chiu cao ny c tr-ng cho chiu cao nhp nh ca b
mt chi tit sau gia cng. Chiu cao H -c tnh nh- sau:
* Khi bn knh mi dao r = 0 th:
H = S.
) sin(
sin . sin
1
1


+
(1.20)
* Khi bn knh mi dao r =0 th H -c tnh gn ng:
H =
r 8
S
2
[mm] (1.20b)
Trong : S - l-ng chy dao dc, mm
,
1
- Gc nghing l-i ct chnh v l-i ct ph,
r, bn knh cong mi dao, mm
c. Din tch ct thc F
th
F
th
= F
d.n
- F
d-

T cc cng thc (1.19) (1.20b) ta c th rt ra kt lun: chiu cao ca
din tch ct cn d- H (hay chiu cao nhp nh ca b mt chi tit gia cng) t
l thun vi l-ng chy dao S, gc nghing l-i ct chnh v l-i ct ph
1
v
t l nghch vi bn knh mi dao r.
gim nhm b mt gia cng cn gim S, ,
1
v tng r.
Khi lp cc cng thc tnh chiu cao H u da trn quan h hnh hc, ch-a
k n bin dng do, bin dng n hi, rung ng... trong qu trnh gia cng
nn nhp nh thc t ca b mt chi tit gia cng ln hn nhiu so vi cc tr
s tnh theo cc cng thc (1.20).
1.8. Khi nim chung v my ct kim loi
1.8.1. Khi nim v my ct kim loi
My ct kim loi l mt dng my cng c dng gia cng cc chi tit my
c hnh dng v kch thc khc nhau bng cch ct i trn b mt ca phi mt
lp kim loi tha sao cho m bo chnh xc kch th-c v cht l-ng b mt
theo yu cu thit k ra. c im phn bit my ct kim loi vi cc
my cng c khc l trong qu trnh hot ng chng thc hin qu trnh ct v
to ra phoi.
1.8.2. Phn loi v k hiu
a. Phn loi theo ph-ng php gia cng
Theo ph-ng php gia cng my ct -c phn ra cc nhm my:
* Nhm my tin.
* Nhm my khoan - doa.
* Nhm my mi.
* Nhm my t hp.
* Nhm my gia cng rng.
* Nhm my phay.
* Nhm my bo - xc - chut.
* Nhm my ct t .
* Nhm cc my cn li
b. Phn loi theo mc vn nng
Theo mc vn nng my ct -c phn ra:
My vn nng l nhng my dng thc hin nhiu nhiu nguyn cng
cng ngh khc nhau trn nhiu chng loi chi tit c hnh dng v kch th-c
khc nhau. V d: trn my tin ren vt vn nng c th tin tr trong, tr ngoi,
ren trong, ren ngoi, xn mt u, tin ct t trn cc chi tit c kch th-c v
hnh dng khc nhau v lm nhiu cng vic v tin khc.
My vn nng c dng trong sn xut n chic, trong sa cha c kh, trong
sn xut lot nh v lot va khi sn l-ng nh v i t-ng sn xut lun thay i.
My chuyn mn ho l nhng my dng gia cng mt loi chi tit c
hnh dng ging nhau song kch th-c khc nhau.V d: My gia cng bnh rng
5E32 hay my 514 ch dng gia cng cc bnh rng tr c rng thng v rng
xon song c th c -ng knh, s rng v m uyn khc nhau.
My chuyn mn ho -c s dng trong sn xut lot ln khi sn l-ng ln.
My chuyn dng l nhng my -c thit k theo yu cu c th ca
qu trnh cng ngh. Mi my chuyn dng dng gia cng mt b mt c th
trn mt loi chi tit c th.
My chuyn dng -c dng trong sn xut lot ln v trong sn xut hng
khi khi i t-ng sn xut hu nh- khng thay i trong mt thi gian di.
c. Theo mc t ng
Theo mc t ng my ct kim loi -c phn ra:
My khng t ng bao gm nhng my m ch c chuyn ng ct
c c kh ho cn cc chuyn ng cn thit khc do cng nhn ng
my thc hin. V d: cc my tin ren vt vn nng thng th-ng ch c
chuyn ng quay trn ca phi v chuyn ng chy dao ca dao -c c
kh ho cn cc chuyn ng khc nh- chuyn ng iu chnh my, -a dao
vo v ra khi v tr ct, tho v kp chi tit gia cng vv... u do cng nhn
trc tip thc hin.
My bn t ng l nhng my c tt c cc chuyn ng u -c t ng
ho, tr chuyn ng cp phi v tho chi tit. Sau khi g kp chi tit gia cng v
dng c ct ln my ri cho my chy, my s chy cho ti khi hon tt chu k
gia cng th t ng dng li.
My t ng bao gm cc my m c tt c cc chuyn ng u -c t
ng ho. Nhim v ca cng nhn ng my khi s dng nhng my ny l theo
di hot ng ca my v kp thi s l nhng trc trc c th sy ra m bo
cho my hot ng bnh th-ng.
d. Phn loi theo cp chnh xc
Theo tiu chun nh n-c Vit nam TCVN 4234-86 my ct kim loi -c
phn ra 5 cp chnh xc, k hiu: I-II-III-IV-V theo chnh xc tng dn,
trong :
I - k hiu nhm my c chnh xc bnh th-ng.
II - k hiu nhm my c chnh xc nng cao.
III - k hiu nhm my c chnh xc cao.
IV - k hiu nhm my c chnh xc rt cao.
V - k hiu nhm my c chnh xc cao c bit.
Tr s cc ch tiu nh gi chnh xc ca cc nhm my ny tng dn t
cp V ti cp I theo qui lut cp s nhn vi cng bi e = 1,6.
e. Phn loi theo ph-ng b tr trc chnh
Theo ph-ng b tr trc chnh my ct -c phn ra my ng v my nm
ngang. My ng l my c trc chnh thng ng, cn my nm ngang l my
c trc chnh nm ngang.
f. Phn loi theo s l-ng trc chnh
Theo s l-ng trc chnh my ct -c phn ra my mt trc chnh v my
nhiu trc chnh.
g. Phn loi theo trng l-ng my
Theo trng l-ng my ct -c phn ra hng my:
My hng nh bao gm nhng my c trng l-ng nh hn 1 tn.
My hng va bao gm nhng my c trng l-ng ln hn 1 tn v nh hn
10 tn.
My hng nng bao gm nhng my c trng l-ng ln hn 10 tn.
My hng nng -c chia ra:
* My nng va c trng l-ng 10 tn< m < 30 tn.
* My nng c trng l-ng 30 tn | m | 100 tn.
* My cc nng c trong l-ng m -100 tn.
1.8.3. K hiu my ct kim loi
Mi n-c c mt h thng k hiu my ct kim loi ring. K hiu my ct
theo tiu chun nh n-c Vit nam nh- sau:
Ch ci ng u k hiu nhm my: T - ch nhm my tin; P- ch nhm
my phay; K- ch nhm my khoan; M- ch nhm my mi; B-ch nhm my bo
vv... Ch s ng tip theo ch ci k hiu kiu my. Mt hoc hai ch s tip
theo th hin mt trong nhng c tnh quan trngnht ca my.
V d1: T616 .Trong k hiu ny ch T k hiu nhm my tin, ch s 6
ng sau ch T k hiu kiu my nm ngang, ch s 16 ni ln chiu cao tm
my H = 160 mm.
V d 2: K125. Trong k hiu ny ch K k hiu nhm my khoan, ch s 1
ch kiu my khoan ng, ch s 25 ni ln -ng knh khoan l c ln nht
trn thp C45 l 25 mm.
V d 3: P 82. Trong k hiu ny ch P ch nhm my phay, ch s 8 ch my
phay nm ngang, ch s 2 ni ln my c bn s 2.
Nhng my -c ci tin t nhng my vn nng thch ng th trong k hiu
ca my c thm ch ci gia hoc cui. V d: my tin T616 sau khi ci
tin c k hiu T6M16. K hiu my ca Lin x tr-c y v ca Nga hin
nay cng t-ng t nh- k hiu my ca Vit nam, tuy nhin c mt im
khc l Nga khng dng ch ci ng u k hiu nhm my m ly cc
con s t nhin: 1-k hiu nhm my tin; 2- k hiu nhm my khoan - doa;
3- k hiu nhm my mi vv... . V d: 1616 l my tin ren vt vn nng
nm ngang c chiu cao tm my H=160 mm; 2A135 l k hiu my khoan
ng c th khoan l c ln nht trn thp C45 vi -ng knh u
max
=35 mm
-c ci tin t my khoan 2135. My phay ng 6H12 sau khi -c trang b
thm u chp hnh c k hiu 6H12K; my phay ngang 682 sau ci tin c k
hiu l 6H82 v sau khi -c trang b thm u phay ng c k hiu l 6M82.
1.8.4. Khi nim v ng hc my ct kim loi
a. Khi nim v truyn dn
Tp hp tt c cc khu tham gia vo vic truyn chuyn ng t ngun ti
c cu cng tc gi l truyn dn.
Theo s l-ng ngun c th phn ra truyn dn tp trung v truyn dn phn
tn.Theo ngun nng l-ng s dng c th phn ra truyn dn in, c kh , thu
kh. Theo ph-ng thc thay i tc c th phn ra truyn dn v cp v truyn
dn phn cp.Truyn dn phn cp l truyn dn m trong phm vi iu chnh tc
thit k n ch m bo s l-ng hu hn cp tc , cn truyn dn v cp
l truyn dn m trong phm vi iu chnh tc thit k n c th m bo
bt k cp tc no.
b. S cu trc ca my
Biu th quy -c cc -ng truyn trong my theo mt h thng thng nht
dng m t nguyn l chuyn ng to hnh ca my gi l s cu trc
ng hc.
Cc -ng truyn trn s cu trc -c biu hin bng nhng -ng chm
gch ni gia khu u v khu cui ca xch truyn, cc khu iu chnh -c
k hiu bng cc hnh thoi, ch i biu th s bin i t s truyn, cc ch s i
km theo ch i biu th i l-ng cn bin i. S cu trc ca my tin ren
vt vn nng -c th hin trn hnh 1-6.
Chuyn ng chnh. Chuyn ng chnh l chuyn ng quay trn ca trc
chnh mang chi tit gia cng. Chuyn ng bt ngun t ng c in truyn qua
b truyn ng dy ai, qua hp tc c khu iu chnh i
V
ti trc chnh mang
phi. Ph-ng trnh xch ng ca xch tc c th vit d-i dng:
n
c
.i
v
.i
c
= n
tc







Hnh 1-16. S cu trc ca my tin ren vt vn nng.

Trong cng thc trn: i
V
v i
c
l t s truyn ca khu iu chnh v t s
truyn ca cc cp truyn c nh trong xch tc .
Chuyn ng chy dao dc. Chuyn ng chy dao dc l chuyn ng tnh
tin ca bn dao theo ph-ng dc theo -ng tm my. Chuyn ng bt ngun
t trc chnh qua chc bnh rng thay th c t s truyn i
tt
, qua khu iu chnh
xch chy dao vi t s truyn i
S
ti trc trn 4. T trc trn chuyn ng -c
truyn ti cp bnh rng - thanh rng 5 c thanh rng lp c nh trn thn my
to chuyn ng tnh tin cho bn dao theo dn h-ng dc ca thn my.
Ph-ng trnh xch ng ca xch chy dao dc -c vit d-i dng tng qut
nh- sau:
1 vg. i
c
. i
tt
.i
s
.t . m . Z = S
d
(mm/vg).
Trong cng thc trn:
i
c
l tch ca cc t s truyn ca cc cp truyn c t s truyn
khng i trong xch chy dao dc
m v Z l m un v s rng ca bnh rng trong cp truyn bnh
rng-thanh rng.

Chuyn ng chy dao ngang. Chuyn ng chy dao ngang l chuyn ng
tnh tin ca bn dao theo ph-ng vung gc vi -ng tm ca trc chnh. Khu
u ca xch chy dao ngang l trc chnh mang chi tit gia cng, khu cui l vt
me chy dao ngang 6. Ph-ng trnh xch ng tng qut ca xch chy dao ngang
-c vit nh- sau:
1 vg. i
c
. i
tt
.i
s
.K. P
ng
= S
ng
(mm /vg).
Trong cng thc trn:
i
c
l tch ca cc t s truyn ca cc cp truyn c t s truyn
khng i trong xch chy dao ngang
K v P
ng
l s u mi v b-c ca vt me ngang.
Xch ct ren. T-ng quan chuyn ng trong xch ct ren phi m bo sao
cho khi trc chnh mang chi tit gia cng quay -c mt vng th bn dao phi
tnh tin -c mt l-ng ng bng b-c xon K
C
.P
C
ca ren. Bi vy, xch ct
ren phi c khu u l trc chnh mang chi tit gia cng v khu cui l vt me
chy dao dc 3. Chuyn ng quay t trc chnh truyn qua chc bnh rng
thay th, qua hp chy dao c t s truyn iu chnh i
S
ti vt me dc 3 c ai
c lp c nh trn bn dao dc lm cho bn dao tnh tin dc theo dn h-ng
dc trn thn my. Ph-ng trnh xch ng tng qut ca xch ct ren -c vit
d-i dng sau:
1 vg. i
c
. i
tt
.i
s
. k
v
. P
v
= k
c
. P
c
[mm/vg]
Trong cng thc trn k
V
, P
V
v k
C
, P
c
l s u mi v b-c ren ca vt me
chy dao dc v ca ren cn ct trn chi tit gia cng. Khi ct ren mt u mi th
b-c ren cn ct ng bng b-c xon ca ren.
b. Khi nim v s ng
Biu th qui -c cc khu truyn dn theo th t nht nh ca xch ng
hc -c tri phng v t hp tt c cc xch li thnh mt s thng
nht gi l s ng ca my. S ng dng nghin cu ng hc
ca my, dng iu chnh my t tc cn thit, dng trong sa cha
my khi cn thit.
Trn s ng s dng cc k hiu cc cp truyn nh- qui nh
trong mn hc Chi tit my. Cn ghi nh: cc trc trn s ng -c k
hiu bng cc ch s La m theo th t ca xch truyn, cc bnh ai -c k
hiu bng cc con s t nhin hoc tr s thc ca -ng knh cc bnh ai,
cc bnh rng -c k hiu bng cc s t nhin hoc s l-ng rng trn tng
bnh rng, chc bnh rng thay th trong xch tc cc k hiu l A, B ,
C, D cn trong xch chy dao chng -c k hiu l a, b, c, d c hc khng
c ch s km theo.
c. Ph-ng trnh xch ng
Ph-ng trnh xch ng l ph-ng trnh biu th s t-ng quan chuyn ng
gia khu u v khu cui ca xch truyn ng.
Khi c khu u v khu cui ca xch truyn ng u c chuyn ng
quay trn th t-ng quan chuyn ng ca xch l :
n[vng ] ca khu u n[vng ] ca khu cui.
Ph-ng trnh xch ng tng qut ca xch c dng:
n

. i = n
c
[vng/ pht] i = n
c
/ n

; i = i
c
.i
c
i
c
= i/ i
c
.
Trong cng thc trn:
n

v n
c
- s vng quay ca khu u v khu cui, vng/pht
i- t s truyn chung ca ton xch
i
c
- tch cc t s truyn ca cc cp truyn c nh trong xch
i
c
- t s truyn ca khu iu chnh dng thay i tc ca
khu cui.
T ph-ng trnh xch ng tng qut trn c th rt ra cng thc tnh ton t
s truyn iu chnh iu chnh tc quay cn thit ca c cu cng tc
(khu cui ) nh- sau:

d cd
c
dc
n i
n
i
.
=
(1.21)
T-ng quan chuyn ng ca xch c chuyn ng ca khu cui l chuyn
ng thng l:
Khi khu u quay -c n vng vng th khu cui tnh tin -c mt l-ng
S (mm ). Tu theo n v thi gian tnh ta c th c cc t-ng quan sau:
n [ vg/ph] ca khu u S [mm/ ph ] ca khu cui.
1 [vg/ ph] ca khu u S
V
[ mm/ vg] ca khu cui.
Ph-ng trnh xch ng biu th s t-ng quan chuyn ng trn c th
-cth hin nh- sau:
n [vg/ ph] .i . H = S [ mm /ph]
1 vng .i . H = S [ mm / vng]
Trong cng thc:
H l b-c ca c cu y (c cu bin chuyn ng quay trn ca
trc u ra thnh chuyn ng thng).
Nu c cu y l cp vt - ai c th H = K. P
v
[ mm]; nu c cu y l cp
bnh rng - thanh rng th H= t. m . Z [mm]. Vy ph-ng trnh xch ng c th
vit y hn nh- sau:
S
ph
= n .i
c
. i
c
. K
v
.P
v
[ mm/ph] .
S
ph
= n . i
c
.i
c
. t . m . Z [mm / ph] .
S
0
= 1 vng . i
c
.i
c
. K
v
. P
v
[ mm / vng ] .
S
0
= 1 vng . i
c
.i
c
. t . m . Z [ mm / vng] .
Ph-ng trnh iu chnh c dng :

H i
S
i
i
i
cd
V
cd
dc
.
= = (1.22)






























Ch-ng 2
Cc hin t-ng vt l khi ct
Ct gt kim loi l mt qu trnh phc tp c nhiu hin t-ng vt l
km theo nh- bin dng n hi, bin dng do, to nhit... Tm hiu bn
cht vt l ca qu trnh ct c mt ngha thc t rt ln v qua gp
phn iu khin qu trnh ct t -c nng sut cao, cht l-ng tt khi
gia cng chi tit.
2.1. Qu trnh bin dng khi ct gt kim loi
Bng tnh ton v thc nghim chng minh qu trnh ct kim loi
t-ng t nh- qu trnh chn p kim loi, ngha l lp kim loi b ct qua 3
giai on bin dng: bin dng n hi, bin dng do v bin dng ph
hu.
c tnh v l-ng bin dng ca lp ct ph thuc vo tnh cht c l
ca vt liu gia cng, ch ct, hnh dng hnh hc ca dng c ct, vic
s dng n-c bi trn v lm lnh. Chng ta c th gii thch hin t-ng
bin dng ca kim loi khi ct nh- sau: kim loi l mt vt th a tnh th,
ngha l gm nhiu ht tinh th gp li. trng thi bnh th-ng cc
nguyn t -c b tr u n trn cc nt mng v cc mt mng khng
gian ca tinh th. Khi c lc tc dng mng tinh th b bin dng, nu khi
ngng tc dng lc, mng tinh th tr li dng ban u, bin dng gi l
bin dng n hi. Nu tip tc tng lc lm cho v tr gia cc nguyn t
trn mng b x dch rt nhiu v khi ngng tc dng lc, mng tinh th
khng tr li trng thi ban u - kim loi b bin dng do.
Hin t-ng c tr-ng u tin cho bin dng do l s tr-t, l s
dch chuyn song song gia cc phn tinh th dc theo cc mt gi l mt
tr-t (mt tr-t l mt c s l-ng nguyn t b tr dy c nht). Thc t
khng phi khi ct cc mt tr-t trong lp kim loi cng tr-t mt lc. u
tin tr-t xy ra theo nhng mt d tr-t nht (mt c ng sut tip ln
nht), v n lc no s tr-t theo mt dng li, nu tip tc tng ti
trng bn ngoi th s tr-t chuyn sang mt khc v c tip tc nh- th.
Vy kim loi cng b tr-t ng sut trong ni b kim loi cng tng, kim
loi tr nn bn hn, l qu trnh ho bn ca kim loi. Ngoi ra qu
trnh bin dng do ca kim loi cn km theo hin t-ng to nhit, lm
thay i tnh cht ca vt liu.
Nu tip tc tng lc, bin dng cng ln v ng sut nn trong lp kim
loi do ngoi lc to nn ln hn lc lin kt trong ni b kim loi, cc ht
kim loi tch khi s lin kt mt tr-t 0B - l giai on ph hu kim
loi (giai on to phoi) (hnh 2-2).


Hnh 2-1. S qu trnh bin dng v to phoi

Khi gia cng kim loi dn (gang xm chng hn) bin dng do xy ra
rt t, hu nh- bin dng n hi chuyn ngay sang giai on ph hu.
2.2. Qu trnh hnh thnh phoi vcc dng phoi
2.2.1. Qu trnh hnh thnh phoi
Qu trnh hnh thnh phoi t-ng t qu trnh nn kim loi (hnh 2-1
v hnh 2-2). Qu trnh hnh thnh phoi c th chia thnh 4 giai on:
Giai on1: Khi tc dng mt lc P vo dao, dao dn dn p vo phi
(hnh 2.2b), lp kim loi tip xc vi mt tr-c ca dao b nn li lm cho
kim loi b bin dng n hi (t-ng t on 0.a hnh 2-2a)
Giai on 2: dao tip tc tin, kim loi cng b nn, ng sut trong
ni b kim loi tng ln. Khi t ti gii hn chy, bn trong kim loi
pht sinh bin dng do v xut hin s tr-t t-ng i gia cc phn
t trn mt tr-t t-t (hnh 2-2b) nh-ng kim loi vn ch-a tch ri
nhau. Gc |
1
gia mt tr-t v ph-ng chuyn ng ca dao gi l gc
tr-t (t-ng ng on ab hnh 2-2a)


Hnh 2-2a. Gin nn kim loi Hnh 2-2b. S to phoi (theo TI ME)
Giai on 3: Khi dao tip tc tin thm, ng sut v bin dng trong
ni b kim loi tip tc tng ln, khi v-t qu gii hn bn ca kim loi th
kim loi pht sinh nhng gn nt theo gc t |
2
t-ng ng on bc (hnh
2-2a). Gc |
1
v |
2
ph thuc iu kin ct v khng trng nhau.
Giai on 4: Dao tin thm, yu t th nht ca phoi c chiu dy ct a
1

-c hnh thnh t lp kim loi b ct a tr-t dc theo mt tr-c ca dao v
dao li bt du p lp kim loi tip theo, qu trnh lp li nh- trn.
Cc giai on ca qu trnh hnh thnh phoi ct lin tc. Khi ct cc
vt liu khc nhau, cc giai on trn c lc thy r c lc kh phn bit,
chng hn khi ct gang xm giai on 2 hu nh- khng c v bin dng do
rt t.
Vic nghin cu t chc kim loi khu vc to phoi chng t rng tr-c
khi bin thnh phoi, lp kim loi b ct tri qua mt giai on bin dng
nht nh, ngha l gia lp kim loi b ct v phoi c mt khu vc bin
dng - gi l min to phoi. Trong min ny (nh- s ho hnh 2-1) c
cc mt tr-t 0A, 0B, 0C, 0D. Kim loi gia cng tr-t theo cc mt .
Min to phoi -c gii hn bi -ng 0A, dc theo -ng ny pht sinh
nhng bin dng do u tin; -ng 0D, -ng kt thc bin dng do.
Trong qu trnh ct min to phoi 0AD di chuyn cng dao ct.
Ngoi b bin dng trong min to phoi khi thnh phoi, lp kim loi b
ct cn chu bin dng ph do ma st vi mt tr-c ca dao. Nhng lp
kim loi ca phoi k vi mt tr-c ca dao (hnh 2-1, khu vc I) chu bin
dng ph nhiu hn, cc lp cng xa mt tr-c bin dng ph cng gim
dn. Nh- vy phoi ct ra chu bin dng khng u.
Gi k
f
- mc bin dng ton b ca phoi.
k
bd
- mc bin dng ca phoi trong min to phoi.
k
ms
- mc bin dng ca phoi do ma st vi mt tr-t ca dao (bin dng
ph).
Vy: k
f
=k
bd
+ k
ms

V bin dng do c tnh lan truyn nn lp kim loi nm pha d-i -ng
ct 0N (hnh 2-1, khu vc II) cng b bin dng do.
Din tch min to phoi ph thuc vo tnh cht vt liu gia cng, thng
s hnh hc ca dao, ch ct... . Tc ct nh h-ng ln nht n din
tch min to phoi. Tc ct cng tng th min to phoi cng hp, v khi
tng tc ct, vt liu gia cng s dch chuyn qua min to phoi vi tc
nhanh hn lm bin dng do khng kp xy ra theo -ng 0A m chm hn.
Tc ct ln, din tch min to phoi ~0.

2.2.2. Cc dng phoi
Trong qu trnh ct kim loi, tu tnh cht c l ca vt liu chi tit
gia cng, ch ct, thng s hnh hc ca dng c ct v vic s dng
dung dch trn ngui m phoi c hnh dng v kch th-c khc nhau. Do
, cn c vo phoi ct c th nh gi -c dng c ct tt hay xu, s
tiu hao nng l-ng nhiu hay t, b mt gia cng nhm nhiu hay nhm
t. C th chia phoi thnh 3 dng ch yu sau:
a. Phoi vn: Phoi ct ra thnh nhng ht ri rc c kch th-c khng u nhau
(hnh 2-3). Khi gia cng vt liu dn (gang, ng thau...) ta th-ng thu -c
loi phoi ny. C th gii thch qu trnh hnh thnh phoi vn nh- sau: khi ct,
mt phn t phoi ng thi chu hai ng sut, ng sut nn do dao vo kim loi
gia cng to nn, ng sut ny c ph-ng theo ph-ng chuyn ng ca dao v
ng sut ko theo ph-ng thng
gc vi chuyn ng, ng sut
ny l yu t ch yu tch phoi.
Vt liu dn c ng sut ko nh
nn d b tch thnh tng on
nh.
nhm b mt gia cng t -c
khi ct ra phoi vn khng cao, b
mt c cu to nh- b mt b ph
hu dn.



Hnh 2-3. Phoi vn
b. Phoi xp: Phoi ct ra thnh tng mnh ri hoc on ngn (hnh 2-4). Mt
phoi tip xc vi mt tr-c ca dao bng, mt kia c nhng gn n. Nhn chung
phoi c dng tng t xp li. Th-ng gp loi phoi ny khi ct vt liu do tc
trung bnh v thp vi chiu dy ct v gc ct ca dao ln. Khi ct ra phoi
xp, lc ct thay i t hn loi phoi vn nn rung ng t v vy nhm b mt
gia cng tt hn. Phoi xp chu bin dng do rt ln v c cng cao.




Hnh 2-4. Phoi xp Hnh 2-5. Phoi dy
c. Phoi dy: Phoi ct ko di lin tc. Mt phoi tip xc vi mt tr-c ca dao
rt bng, mt kia hi gn nt nh-ng i lc kh phn bit (hnh 2-5). Ct vt liu
do tc cao v chiu dy ct b th-ng -c loi phoi ny. Khi ct -c phoi
dy nng l-ng tiu hao t hn phoi xp v mc bin dng do chm, trung tm
p lc ca phoi cch xa mi dao, lc ct hu nh- khng thay i, rung ng t
nn nhm b mt gia cng nh. Ct -c phoi dy l tt nht, song c nh-c
im do phoi di nn gy tr ngi khi ct, khng bo m an ton cho ng-i ng
my. V vy, khi gia cng -c phoi dy cn lm cc c cu b phoi. Nn nh
rng, tu thuc vo iu kin ct (thng s hnh hc ca dao, ch ct ...), khi
cng mt loi vt liu m c th -c nhng loi phoi khc nhau, chng hn khi
bo thp tc thp -c phoi xp nh-ng khi bo tc cao li -c phoi
dy. Tuy nhin, vi iu kin ct cho, qu trnh to phoi li ph thuc vo
bin dng do ca kim loi gia cng.
Khi ct, phoi tr-t trn mt tr-c ca dao, do phoi b ng v c nhng gn
n nn chng b xon li. cong ca phoi ph thuc vo tnh cht c l ca vt
liu gia cng, iu kin ct v hnh dng mt tr-c ca dng c ct. Phoi b cun
cong l do cc yu t phoi b nn theo dng hnh thang. S cun ca phoi nh
h-ng n tnh khng ng nht ca nhit ct theo chiu dy v lc ly tm khi
phoi quay.
Vy qua nghin cu cc dng phoi chng ta c th phn on xem hnh
dng hnh hc ca dao, ch ct hp l ch-a, v da vo dng phoi ta
iu chnh ch ct v mi li dao m bo nng sut v cht l-ng chi
tit gia cng cao.
Trn y chng ta nghin cu qu trnh bin dng ca kim loi khi
ct v s hnh thnh phoi. C th rt ra -c nhng kt lun sau:
* Qu trnh ct l qu trnh nn kim loi khng t do, kim loi b bin
dng v phoi tch khi vt gia cng.
* Kt qu bin dng do sinh nhit ct lm nh h-ng n phoi, chi
tit v dao. Mt khc do bin dng do, ng xut ni b kim loi tng nn
lc ct tng.
* Do bin dng ca kim loi trong qu trnh ct, mt s hin t-ng vt
l khc xy ra nh-: co rt phoi, lo dao, ng sut d- m chng ta s ln l-t
nghin cu sau y.
2.3. Lo dao trong qu trnh ct kim loi
2.3.1. Hin t-ng
Khi ct kim loi ra phoi dy, u mi dao v mt tr-c ca dao k
ngay l-i ct th-ng xut hin mt lp kim loi c cu trc kim loi v tnh
cht khng ging vt liu gia cng cng nh- vt liu dao. Nu lp kim loi
ny bm vo l-i ct ca dao th -c gi l lo dao v hin t-ng trn gi
l hin t-ng lo dao.
Nhiu cng trnh nghin cu chng t rng c hai loi lo dao:
a. Lo dao n nh: Th-ng hnh thnh khi gia cng thp vi chiu
dy ct nh. Loi lo dao ny gm mt s lp kim loi gn nh- song song
vi mt tr-c v nm dc theo l-i ct trong qu trnh gia cng.
b.Lo dao chu k: Loi ny gm hai phn: phn nm st vi mt tr-c
ca dao, v c bn l lo dao n nh v trn nn ny hnh thnh lo dao
chu k. Phn lo dao chu k sinh ra, ln ln v mt i nhiu ln trong mt
n v thi gian.
Qu trnh lo dao c th m t mt cch n gin theo s hnh 2-6.



Hnh 2-6. S to lo dao

Giai on I: T-ng ng vi v tr ca dao khi bt u ct, lc ny
ch-a c lo dao, giai on II bt u xut hin lo dao, giai on III
kch th-c ca lo dao tng ln v vy mt phn lo dnh vo b mt gia
cng, cn mt phn tch ra khi phoi. giai on IV lo dao t kch
th-c ln nht v t hu. giai on V lo dao b cun theo phoi v t
hu. Qu trnh lp i lp li mt cch chu k. Nn nh rng lo ln
sau c kch th-c v hnh dng khng ging cc ln tr-c.
Nguyn nhn xut hin hin t-ng lo dao -c gii thch nh- sau:
Khi ct do p lc v nhit ct cao, mt khc do mt tr-c ca dao khng
tuyt i nhn nn lc ma st ca phoi v mt tr-c ca dao ln lm lp
kim loi ca phoi st mt tr-c c tc dch chuyn chm so vi cc lp
khc, l hin t-ng chy chm. Nu lc lin kt trong ni b kim loi b
hn lc ma st gia mt tr-c ca dao v phoi th mt lp kim loi gn mt
tr-c ca dao s tch khi phoi v nm li trn mt tr-c ca mi dao - lp
kim loi chnh l lo.
Gi: Q
"
- lc lin kt trong ni b kim loi b ct
T - lc ma st gia phoi v mt tr-c ca dao
S
"
- lc y phoi
iu kin hnh thnh v mt i ca lo dao c th th hin bng quan h
sau:

S Q T
" "
+ > (2.1)
Vy lo dao s n nh khi S Q
" "
+ nh hn T
"
, nu ( S Q
" "
+ ) > T th lo
dao b ph hu mt phn hay ton b v qu trnh c nh- vy lp li.
Do lp kim loi lo dao chu p lc cao, ng thi chu nhit v ma
st ln nn bin dng do ca n ln hn bin dng do ca lp phoi ct rt
nhiu, lm t chc kim loi hon ton thay i nn cng tng t
(2,53,5) ln. cng ny c th thay th vt liu lm dao ct. Thng
s quan trng nht c tr-ng cho kch th-c lo dao l chiu cao lo h
l

(hnh 2-7). Chiu cao lo, hnh dng lo cng nh- vng to lo ph thuc
vo tnh do ca vt liu gia cng, iu kin ct v gc ca dao.

Hnh 2-7. Kch th-c lo
2.3.2. Cc yu t nh h-ng n lo dao
a. Vt liu gia cng. Vt liu gia cng cng dn khi ct cng kh to
thnh lo dao v chiu cao ca lo dao cng thp v vt liu dn khi ct bin
dng do t, ng thi khi ct ra t ngay.
b. Tc ct. Ct tc thp (V=58m/ph) v cao (V >60m/ph)
khng c lo dao. Lo dao ch pht sinh trong mt phm vi tc ct nht
nh (gia cng thp chiu cao lo ln nht khi V = 20 30[m/ph), phm vi
ny c th thay i tu theo iu kin gia cng (hnh 2-8).
Khi ct tc thp, nhit ct nh nn nhit thp, lc lin kt trong
ni b kim loi vn ln tuy lc ma st bn ngoi ln nh-ng ch-a thng lc
lin kt trong ni b kim loi nn khng c lo dao.
Tc ct tng, nhit ct tng, nhit khu vc ct tng, lc lin kt
trong ni b kim loi cng gim, trong khi ma st ngoi vn tip tc
tng v khi ln hn lc lin kt trong ni b kim loi s sinh hin t-ng
lo dao.



Hnh 2-8. Tc ct nh h-ng ti chiu cao lo
Tc ct cao hn na, nhit tip tc tng v lc lin kt trong ni
b kim loi tip tc gim nh-ng h s ma st gia mt tr-c ca dao v
phoi gim nhanh hn, mt khc lp kim loi gn mt tr-c ca dao nhit
cao gn nh- chy long, n c tc dng lm nhn do lc ma st ngoi
nh hn lc lin kt trong ni b kim loi nn mt hin t-ng lo dao.
c. nh h-ng ca gc . Gc tr-c cng ln cng kh hnh thnh lo
dao v chiu cao lo dao cng thp (hnh 2-9). Gc tr-c cng ln phoi bin
dng cng t, nhit ct cng thp nn tc hnh thnh ca lo dao cng
cao, chiu cao ca lo dao cng thp.
d. nh h-ng ca chiu dy ct a. Chiu dy ct a cng ln, nhit
ct cng cao nn gii hn hnh thnh ca lo dao cng thp ng thi chiu
cao lo cng ln (hnh 2-10).

Hnh 2-9. Quan h h
L
=f(V) Hnh 2-10. Quan h
h
L
=f(V) khi V khc nhau khi a khc nhau
Hin t-ng lo dao lm thay i iu kin ct. Khi ct u dao c lo
dao, gc tr-c tng nn lc ct gim, ng thi lo bo v l-i ct nn l-i
ct t mn khi ct v c th thay l-i ct ct. Nh-ng do lc lun lun
bin i gy rung ng nn lm tng nhm b mt gia cng. Khi lo t
hu s dnh vo b mt gia cng lm tng nhp nh b mt gia cng.
nhm khng ng u trn b mt gia cng nn ny sinh hin t-ng vt
nt. Nh- vy lo dao c tc dng tt khi gia cng th, cn khi gia cng
tinh c nh h-ng xu.
Mun trnh lo dao cn khng ch nhit ct v ma st trn mt
tr-c ca dao nh- thay i thng s hnh hc ca u dao (v d gim gc
ct...), thay i ch ct (v d s dng v tht cao hoc thp ...), dng
dung dch trn ngui, mi mn mt tr-c ca dng c ct...
2.4. Hin t-ng cng ngui
Sau khi gia cng, mt lp mng kim loi trn b mt gia cng c
tnh cht c l khc vi tnh cht ban u ca n v c cng cao hn -
lp kim loi gi l lp cng ngui v hin t-ng gi l hin t-ng
cng ngui.
Nguyn nhn:
* Do kt qu bin dng lan truyn ca bin dng do (hnh 2-1) khi ct
nn lp b mt ca chi tit b
bin cng.
* Do l-i ct ca dao bao
gi cng c bn knh cong
nht nh nn khi bt u ct
s tip xc gia dao v chi
tit l im A (hnh 2-11)
Dao cng i su vo chi
tit th im c ng sut ln
nht cng h thp v khi qu
trnh ct n nh th im
tip xc l im B (nm ngay trn mt tr-t), do ch c lp kim loi
Hnh 2-11


c chiu dy a

nm trn -ng BC l -c ct thnh phoi, lp kim loi


nm d-i -ng BC khng b ct m b nn, do chu bin dng n hi,
bin dng do.
* Sau khi l-i ct i qua, do bin dng n hi ca kim loi, lp b mt
gia cng nng ln vi chiu cao h nn gy p lc php tuyn v ma st
vi mt sau ca dao lm cho mt lp kim loi trn b mt gia cng b
bin dng thm v sinh cng ngui.
Do bin dng do lp ct gim dn t ngoi vo tm chi tit nn kt
qu l lp ngoi cng trn b mt chi tit b ph hu, tip theo l l lp
cng ngui v trong cng l vt liu ban u. B mt chi tit cng ln
nht. Trng thi vt l lp b mt chi tit -c nh gi bng cc thng s
(hnh 2-12)
* Mc cng ngui (AH) -c tnh nh- sau:
% 100 .
H
H H
H
0
0

= A (2.2)
Trong :
H- cng lp b
mt sau khi bin
dng do
H
0
- cng lp b
mt tr-c khi bin
dng do.
* Chiu su lp
cng ngui (h)





Hnh 2-12. S thay i cng H theo
chiu su lp b mt gia cng
* Tr s, chiu su, du ca ng sut d- lp b mt.
Mc cng ngui cng nh- chiu su lp cng ngui ph thuc vo tnh
cht vt liu gia cng, thng s hnh hc ca dng c ct v iu kin gia cng
(hnh 2-13). Khi cc iu kin khc nh- nhau, vt liu gia cng cng do th mc
cng ngui cng cao (v d: gia cng nhm th AH = (90 100)% cn thp
th AH = (40 50)%).
Lp cng ngui tuy c cng cao nh-ng li dn, b mt cng ngui b
rn nt nn ng sut bn mi thp, ng thi nh h-ng n kh nng gia cng
tip theo. Lp cng ngui c tc dng tt khi b mt sau khi gia cng khng c
khuyt tt.


Hnh.2-13. th biu th nh h-ng ca tc ct V v gc tr-c n H v h
2.5. Hin t-ng co rt phoi
2.5.1. Hin t-ng: Do bin dng do ca kim loi trong qu trnh ct
nn chiu di phi (L
f
) ngn hn chiu di gia cng (L), cn chiu dy phoi
(a
f
) ln hn chiu dy lp ct (a) - gi hin t-ng l hin t-ng co rt
phoi (hnh 2-14)
Bng thc nghim
cho thy bin dng theo
ph-ng chiu rng ca
lp ct bng 0 hoc rt
nh nn c th b qua.
Theo nh lut th tch
khng i ta c:
L . a .b = L
f
. a
f
. b
f





Hnh 2-14. S tnh co rt phoi

Rt ra: K
a
a
L
L f
f
= = (2.3)
K- gi l h s co rt phoi. Thc nghim cho thy K>1
Da vo h s co rt phoi, s b nh gi v mc bin dng do sinh ra
trong lp ct. Cn nh rng khng -c php coi tr s co rt phoi v tr s bin
dng khi ct kim loi l mt v khi lp cng thc tnh h s co rt phoi K ch da
trn t-ng quan hnh hc m khng da vo hin t-ng tr-t. V vy, co rt
phoi ch c ngha so snh mc bin dng khi ct kim loi, khng dng
tnh l-ng bin dng khi ct. Qua mc co rt phoi c th nh gi -c qu
trnh ct l kh hay d, tiu tn nng l-ng nhiu hay t.
Mun o chiu di phoi tnh h s co rt phoi K c th dng mt trong cc
ph-ng php sau y: o trc tip L v L
f
bng cc dng c o c kh; ph-ng
php cn (da vo nh lut th tch khng i); ph-ng php gii vv...
2.5.2. Cc yu t nh h-ng
H s co rt phoi ph thuc rt nhiu yu t nh-ng c th gp li thnh ba
nhm sau:
- Vt liu gia cng: tnh cht c l, thnh phn ho hc, cch to phi.
- Dng c ct: vt liu lm dng c ct, hnh dng hnh hc ca phn ct.
- iu kin ct: ch ct, dung dch trn ngui.
D-i dy ln l-t xt tng yu t:
a. nh h-ng ca vt liu gia cng v vt liu lm dao: vt liu gia cng nh
h-ng rt ln n co rt ca phoi. Trong cng iu kin ct, vt liu gia cng
cng do h c co rt phoi cng ln. V vt liu do c lc lin kt gia cc phn t
nh nn v tr ca chng d b ph v do bin dng do khi ct s tng ln.
Chng hn khi ct vi iu kin ct = 0
0
; V = (5270)m/ph; a = (0,1250,170)mm,
nu ct thp 20X (o
b
= 438N/mm
2
; HB =1500) th K =3,64 nh-ng nu ct ng thanh
(o
B
= 245N/mm
2
; HB =726) th K = 6,5.
Vt liu lm dao c h s ma st cng ln, h s co rt phoi cng ln.
b. nh h-ng ca hnh dng hnh hc phn ct
* nh h-ng ca gc ct o: nh h-ng ca gc ct o n h s co rt phoi
K c th chng minh nh- sau (hnh 2-14). T biu thc (2.2)

a
a
K
f
=
Trong : a= CF = 0Fsin|
1
(theo A 0CF)
a
f
= BF = 0F cos (|
1
- ) (theo A 0BF)
K =
|
|
sin
) .( cos
1

(2.4)
Thay gi tr = 90
0
- o vo (2.4)
Rt ra: K =
1
sin
) sin(
|
o | +
(2.5)
T ph-ng trnh (2.5) chng ta c nhn xt, gc ct cng tng h s co
rt phoi cng ln v o tng dao tin vo kim loi cng kh v lc bin dng
cng ln.
* nh h-ng ca gc nghing chnh . Khi r=0, nu tng gc lm
chiu dy ct a tng nn phoi dy do bin dng kh v vy bin dng bnh
qun (K
tb
) gim (hnh 2-15c) -ng gch gch ng vi k = f() khi r = 0.



Hnh 2-15. nh h-ng ca gc nghing chnh n h s co rt phoi

Khi r=0, nh h-ng ca n k phc tp hn
(hnh 2-15a). Ti tr s = (60 70)
0
, khi tng
gc nghing chnh , h s co rt phoi tng, v
khi nu t = const, chiu di lm vic phn
cong ca l-i ct tng (AB>ABhnh 2-15).
Trn on cong c bin dng rt phc tp bi
v mt phng bin dng giao nhau v vung gc
vi l-i ct (hnh 2-16), phoi thot ra chm vo
nhau nn mc bin dng tng. Ngoi ra chiu
dy ct thay i dc theo phn cong ca l-i ct
v on l-i ct thng chiu dy l-i ct ln
nht, v vy phoi on l-i ct cong s bin dng


Hnh 2-16
nhiu hn on l-i thng. Trn on l-i ct cong gc tr-c thay i v gim
khi >0 nn gc ct tng do h s co rt phoi tng.
*nh h-ng ca bn knh mi dao r: bn knh mi dao tng lm bin dng
phoi tng v chiu di phn cong l-i ct tng (hnh 2-17).


Hnh 2-17. nh h-ng ca bn knh mi dao n h s co rt phoi K
c. nh h-ng ca ch ct ti bin dng ca phoi
* nh h-ng ca tc ct V
Tc ct l yu t ch ct nh h-ng rt ln n bin dng ca phoi v
qu trnh nh h-ng rt phc tp (hnh 2-18)
Khi tng tc ct t V
1
V
2
, nhit ct tng nn xut hin lo dao lm gc
ct gim do h s co rt phoi gim (khu vc I: on AB). Tip tc tng tc
ct t V
2
V
3
, nhit ct tip tc tng, chiu cao lo gim v vy gc ct tng nn
h s rt phoi tng (on BC). Khi tc v-t qu V
3
, bin dng ca phoi gim
(on CD). Khi Vcng tng nhit ct cng cao, mt lp phoi gn mi dao bt u
chy lm h s ma st gim. Mt khc tc cng cao bin dng do ca kim loi
cng gim v thi gian ct rt ngn (t-ng t nh- kim loi b ph hu d-i tc dng
ca lc va chm) nn bin dng ca phoi gim. Khi V>V
4
(V = 300m/ph) h s co
rt phoi hu nh- khng i v tc ct cao tuy nhit ct ln nh-ng khng kp
truyn vo lp ct nn ma st n nh.

Hnh 2-18. nh h-ng ca tc ct n h s co rt phoi
Qua nghin cu ct vi tc cao, chng ta thy bin dng do v nh h-ng
ca chng n tiu ph nng l-ng trong qu trnh ct khng ln. Do hin nay
c xu h-ng ct vt liu tc trn.
- nh h-ng ca chiu dy ct a

Hnh 2-19.
Hnh 2-19 biu din s thay i ca h s co rt phoi theo chiu dy lp ct
khi gia cng thp 45 vi = 25
0
, = 45
0
v V = 52m/ph (khng c lo dao). Theo
th chng ta c nhn xt: chiu dy ct cng tng bin dng ca phoi cng
gim. Nh- bit, bin dng ca phoi theo chiu dy ct khc nhau, lp phoi st
mt tr-c ca dao c bin dng ln nht v gim dn n lp xa nht. V vy khi
tt c cc iu kin khc nh- nhau, phoi cng mng bin dng cng ln.
Ngoi ra cc yu t nh- dung dch trn ngui, -ng knh phi cng nh
h-ng ti K.
Chiu su ct nh h-ng n co rt phoi khng ng k.
Qua nghin cu trn chng ta rt ra kt lun: c rt nhiu yu t nh h-ng
n bin dng ca phoi, do h s co rt phoi dao ng trong mt khong rt
rng, th-ng k = 18, cng c tr-ng hp k <1.
2.6. ng sut d-
Vic pht sinh ng sut d- lp b mt l mt hin t-ng quan trng c
nh h-ng n cht l-ng b mt gia cng cng nh- n kh nng s dng ca
chi tit. Th-ng ng sut d- nn lm tng tui th chi tit v bn khi chu ti
dao ng.
Nguyn nhn pht sinh ng sut d- l do bin dng do khng ng nht, lp
b mt b nung nng cao v c th c s thay i cu trc kim loi ca chi tit gia
cng. Qu trnh to thnh ng sut d- c th khi qut nh- sau. Khi ct, lp kim
loi ngoi b bin dng do lm th tch tng nh-ng b lp bin dng n hi bn
trong cn li do lp ngoi chu ng sut nn, bn trong chu ng sut ko. Sau
khi dao i qua, lp kim loi bn trong b bin dng n hi c xu h-ng tr li v
tr ban u nh-ng li b lp bin dng do bn ngoi ngn li. Kt qu l lp
trong b mt cn d- mt phn ng sut ko v lp b ngoi xut hin ng sut
nn. ng thi, d-i tc dng ca nhit, chi tit b nung nng lm cho lp ngoi
c xu h-ng gin n nh-ng lp trong ch-a b nung nng nn gy sc cn ln lm
lp b mt chu ng sut d- nn. Lc chi tit ngui, nhng lp bn trong xut
hin ng sut d- nn, cn lp b mt xut hin ng sut d- ko. Ngoi ra, cn
mt s nguyn nhn khc nh- s thay i pha trong kim loi lm tng th tch
cng gy ng sut d-.
Tr s, du v chiu ng sut d- ph thuc vo ch ct, iu kin lm lnh,
tnh cht vt liu gia cng, thng s hnh hc phn ct, chng hn khi tng V,
v t-i dung dch trn lnh lm ng sut d- ko gim v c th i du.
Mun tng ng sut d- nn tng gii hn mi ca chi tit gia cng ng-i
ta dng ph-ng php ln bi hoc tr-t p.
2.7. Nhit sinh ra khi ct kim loi
2.7.1. Qu trnh sinh nhit khi ct
Nhit sinh ra khi ct l mt hin t-ng rt quan trng trong qu trnh ct, n
trc tip nh h-ng n mi mn v tui bn ca dng c ct, cht l-ng b
mt gia cng, lm thay i tnh cht c hc v trng thi kt cu ca vt liu gia
cng, hn ch kh nng nng cao tc ct do nh h-ng n nng sut gia
cng. V vy, nghin cu nhit sinh ra khi ct c mt ngha thc t to ln.
Trong phn ny chng ta ch yu nghin cu ngun gc sinh nhit khi ct; nhit
dao, chi tit v phoi c bit l dao, v cc yu t nh h-ng n nhit
ca cc phn trn.
Trong qu trnh ct, tt c cng c hc do bin dng v ma st u chuyn
thnh nhit (99,5%). Tng nhit sinh ra trong mt n v thi gian -c tnh gn
ng theo cng thc:

427
.
427
V P A
Q
z
= = [Kcal/ph] (2.6)
trong : A- cng bin dng v thng ma st,
P
Z
- lc ct, N
V- tc ct, m/ph.
Nhit sinh ra truyn mt cch nhanh chng vo chi tit, dng c, phoi v mi
tr-ng xung quanh theo cc nh lut truyn nhit (tip xc, dn nhit, pht nhit)
lm cho nhit ca chng tng ln nhanh chng.
Ph-ng trnh cn bng nhit c th vit nh- sau:
Q = Q
I
+ Q
II
+ Q
III
= q
1
+ q
2
+ q
3
+ q
4
(2.7)
Trong : Q
I
- nhit sinh ra do bin dng do v bin dng n hi
Q
II
v Q
III
nhit sinh ra do ma st gia cc mt tr-c ca dao vi
phoi v mt sau vi chi tit gia cng
q
1
- nhit truyn vo phoi
q
2
- nhit truyn vo chi tit
q
3
- nhit truyn vo dng c
q
4
- nhit truyn vo mi tr-ng xung quanh (hnh 2-20).
Nn nh rng l-ng nhit truyn vo cc b phn v nhit trong tng
b phn l khng ging nhau, ph thuc vo tnh cht c l (nhit dung, tnh dn
nhit...) ca vt liu chi tit v dng c, hnh dng hnh hc phn ct ca dng c
v iu kin ct. V d khi tin l-ng nhit truyn vo phoi t 50 80% nh-ng
khi mi hu ht l-ng nhit truyn vo chi tit v mi tr-ng xung quanh.
Ni chung trong qu trnh ct, tuy nhit l-ng truyn vo dao t song nhit
dao vn cao hn nhit chi tit v tnh dn nhit ca vt liu lm dao km.
Trong dao, nhit cao nht gn mi dao v vng xung quanh l-i ct; nhit
mt tr-c dao cao hn mt sau. Do nhit ca dao cao lm cho cng ca
dao gim v b mi mn nhanh.


Hnh 2-20. S cc vng to v phn tn nhit

Mun xc nh tng l-ng nhit sinh ra khi ct dng ph-ng php o nhit
l-ng. xc nh nhit trung bnh hoc trong tng vng ring ca dng c
ct v chi tit c th dng ph-ng php trn hoc ph-ng php so mu.
2.7.2. Cc yu t nh h-ng n nhit ct
C nhiu yu t nh h-ng n nhit ct. nghin cu nh h-ng ca
chng v s phn b nhit ct c hai ph-ng php:
- Tnh ton theo l thuyt: da vo cc nguyn l nhit ng hc v s
truyn nhit.
- Thc nghim: gi thit u
0
= f(a, b, v, , ...), sau ly tng yu t lm
i t-ng nghin cu, cn cc yu t khc gi c nh, cui cng tng hp nh
h-ng ca cc yu t c biu thc tng qut. Chng ta cng phn tch theo
h-ng thc nghim.
a. nh h-ng ca vt liu gia cng: tnh cht vt liu gia cng nh
h-ng rt ln n nhit ct (chng hn nhit l-ng sinh ra khi gia cng thp nhiu
hn nhit l-ng sinh ra khi gia cng gang 1,5 ln v thp c gii hn bn cao hn
nn cng cn ph hu s lin kt trong ni b ln hn; hoc nhit ct khi gia
cng kim loi mu khng cao v cng tiu tn ct nh). Ni chung vt liu c
bn cng ln, cng cng cao v kh nng truyn nhit cng km th nhit
ct cng ln v nhit cng cao.
b. nh h-ng ca ch ct v thng s hnh hc ca dng c ct.
Bng ph-ng php thc nghim , cc nh khoa hc rt ra cng thc tnh nhit
ct khi gia cng thp bng dao thp gi nh- sau:

058 , 0 4 , 0
086 , 0
28 , 0 125 , 0 24 , 0 4 , 0
0
S
) .(sin . . .
F r
t
t S V C
T
|
.
|

\
|
=

[
0
C] (2.8)
Khi gia cng thp bng dao hp kim cng T15K6:
T = C
0
. V
0,23
. S
0,14
. t
0,04
[
0
C] (2.8b)
Khi gia cng gang:
T = 138 . V
0,36
. t
0,09
. S
0,133
[
0
C] (2.8c)
Trong :
C
0
- h s k n nh h-ng ca tnh cht vt liu gia cng v vt liu
lm dao n nhit ct.
F- din tch mt ct ngang thn dao, mm
2

r- bn knh cong mi dao, mm
T cc cng thc trn chng ta c nhn xt:
* Khi tc ct cng tng th nhit ct tng nh-ng tng khng t l thun bi
v tc ct cng tng th bin dng do cng gim nn nhit sinh ra do bin
dng do gim. Mt khc khi tc tng, thi gian tip xc gia phoi v mt
tr-c dao cng ngn, ma st gim v vy nhit sinh ra do ma st gim nn nhit
ct gim.
* Nhit ct tng khng t l thun vi chiu su ct v l-ng chy dao.
- Khi tng chiu su t lm cng ct tng nn nhit l-ng tng, mt khc
khi tng chiu su ct th chiu di phn l-i ct tham gia ct (b) tng nn truyn
nhit d dng.
- Khi tng l-ng chy dao s, mt mt p lc ca phoi ln dng c tng
nn cng bin dng v ma st ln do nhit ct tng cao. Mt khc, do tng s
th din tch tip xc gia phoi v dng c ct tng nn nhit truyn i nhanh lm
nhit ct gim nh-ng so vi yu t trn th t hn do cui cng nhit ct tng
nh-ng tng chm.
* L-ng chy dao nh h-ng n nhit ct ln hn chiu su ct v khi tng t
truyn nhit tt hn khi tng S.
* Trong cc yu t ch ct, nh h-ng ca Vn nhit ct ln nht sau
n S v cui cng l t.
* Nu t = cosnt v S = cosnt nh-ng tng gc nghing chnh () lm chiu dy
ct tng nn tng bin dng tng, mt khc khi tng lm chiu di tham gia ct
v gc mi dao gim nn iu kin truyn nhit xu hn do nhit ct tng.
* Nu tng t s t/s v bn knh cong mi dao (r) th chiu di phn lm vic
ca l-i ct tng nn truyn nhit tt v khi tng din tch mt ct ngang ca thn
dao th vic truyn nhit tt hn v vy nhit ct gim.
* Khi ct bng dao hp kim cng, mc nh h-ng ca V, S, t n nhit ct
t hn khi ct bng dao thp gi, bi v khi ct tc cao, bin dng do v h
s ma st gim nn nhit tng t.
Ngoi cc yu t trn, -ng knh vt gia cng, vt liu lm dao v dung dch
bi trn cng nh h-ng n nhit ct. Khi -ng knh vt gia cng cng gim
,vt liu dao c h s truyn nhit nh th nhit ct cng cao. Cn tnh cht v
bin php t-i dung dch trn ngui vo vng ct l bin php quan trng lm
gim nhit ct.
2.8. Rung ng khi ct
2. 8.1. Cc dng rung ng
Khi ct kim loi xut hin rung ng, l nhng dao ng tun hon c hi
cho h thng my - g- dao- chi tit (vit tt l MGDC). Dao ng t-ng i
gia dng c ct v phi (hoc ng-c li) lm thay i mt cch tun hon chiu
dy lp ct v lc ct, thay i tr s v c tnh ti trng tc dng ln my(c khi
lm ti trng tng n 10 ln hoc hn na so vi khi h thng khng rung ng).
Rung ng gy ting n lm nh h-ng n sc khe cng nhn, lm gim cht
l-ng b mt gia cng, gim tui bn ca dng c ct c bit l dng c lm
bng hp kim cng v kim loi gm; ti trng lun i lm gim tui th ca
my; ngoi ra, rung ng cn nh h-ng ti nng sut lao ng do khng tng
-c cc yu t ct (V, S, t) v hon ton khng s dng ht cng sut ca my.
L lun v rung ng rt rng. y ch nghin cu rung ng xy ra khi
ct. Rung ng c th chia lm hai loi:
a. Rung ng c-ng bc: Rung ng do cc nguyn nhn bn ngoi tc
ng, c th tm bin php khc phc d dng. Chng hn nh-:
- Cc b phn my quay khng cn bng hoc bn thn chi tit -c gia
cng quay khng cn bng. khc phchin t-ng ny cn lm cn bng cc
b phn quay, c bit khi gia cng trn my mi phi ch sa hoc cn
bng .
- Cc khu truyn ng ca my khng chnh xc gy rung ng c chu k
(nh- cc bnh rng gia cng khng ng, cc ch ni ca ai truyn lm xut
hin cc lc tun hon tc dng vo tr-t v sng tr-t gy nn rung ng).
Khc phc nguyn nhn ny bng cch loi tr cc sai st trn.
- Do nh h-ng ca cc rung ng bn ngoi truyn n (cc my xung
quanh ...), mng my khng cng vng.
- Do chuyn ng ca dao khng cn bng v tnh cht gin on ca qu
trnh ct.
b. T rung: pht sinh v duy tr do nhng nguyn nhn sinh ra trong qu
trnh ct. Cc nguyn nhn t rung bao gm:
- Lc ma st gia cc b mt ca dao vi phoi v b mt ca chi tit
thay i.
- Lc ct bin i do cng ca vt liu gia cng khng ng nht,
lo dao, bin dng...
- Lp li vt ca b-c gia cng tr-c.
1.8.2. Cc yu t nh h-ng n rung ng
C nhiu yu t nh h-ng n hin t-ng t rung. Sau y xt mt s yu t.
a. nh h-ng ca ch ct
* nh h-ng ca tc
ct. Tc ct nh h-ng n
rung ng phc tp. Khi tc
ct v-t qu tc sinh
lo dao V
0
th c-ng rung
ng gim, nh-ng khi tc
rt cao rung ng li tng v
khi sai st ca cc b
truyn, s khng cn bng
ca cc b phn quay nh
h-ng ti rung ng (hnh
2-21)


Hnh 2-21. nh h-ng ca V n
c-ng rung ng (h)
* nh h-ng ca chiu su ct v l-ng chy dao
Khi tng chiu su ct lm c-ng rung ng tng v chiu rng lp ct b
tng nn lc ct tng. Ng-c li, khi tng l-ng chy dao S lm rung ng gim
nh-ng gim t v S tng lm gim nh h-ng ca phn cong l-i ct nh-ng li
gim gc sau thc (hnh 2-22)


Hnh 2-22. nh h-ng ca t, s n H
b. nh h-ng ca thng s hnh hc ca dng c ct
nh h-ng ca thng s hnh hc dng c ct ti rung ng -c th hin
qua cc th m t trn hnh 2-22. Khi tng gc nghing chnh lm thnh phn
lc theo ph-ng vung gc vi trc chi tit gim do rung ng gim. Gc
tr-c cng tng (trong vng gi tr d-ng) th dao ng cng gim bi v lc ct
gim v mc cng ngui
gim. Gc sau cng nh (khi
= cosnt) th dao ct vo kim
loi cng kh v ma st cng
ln nn rung ng cng tng.
Khi tng bn knh mi dao th
rung ng tng bi v gc
nghing trn phn l-i ct
cng gim. Dng c ct cng
mn (c bit mn mt sau)
th rung ng cng tng v lc
tc dng ln dao tng.


Hnh 2-23. nh h-ng ca , , o, r
n c-ng ng rung ng


c. Vt liu gia cng
Vt liu gia cng cng dn hoc cng do th rung ng u tng v vt liu
liu dn khi ct -c phoi vn cn vt liu do bin dng ln.
Ngoi ra, cng vng ca h thng MGDC nh h-ng rt ln n rung
ng. H thng cng ngh cng cng vng, khe h gia cc chi tit cng b iu
kin pht sinh rung ng cng t.
gim rung ng cn chn ch ct v dng hnh hc phn ct ca dng
c ct hp l c bit l i vi gc nghing chnh. y l bin php n gin
nh-ng gim rung ng nhiu nht. Mt khc, c th dng cc c cu chng rung.
Cc c cu chng rung -c ch to theo nguyn tc to ra s rung cng tn s
vi rung ng ca qu trnh ct nh-ng lch pha. V c bn, rung ng sinh ra
trong qu trnh ct l c hi nh- trnh by phn u, song trong mt s
tr-ng hp nu ch ng to ra rung ng khi ct s c li, nh-:
- Khi gia cng cc vt liu kh gia cng (vt liu chu nhit...), ng-i ta ch
ng to rung nng cao nng sut ct gt.
- hn ch lo dao hoc gim ba via trn b mt gia cng, ng-i ta to cc
rung ng cn thit.
- Trong mt s ph-ng php gia cng tinh (nghin) ng-i ta ch ng to
rung ng vi tn s v chu k thch hp s lm gim nhp nh b mt t
1 2 cp.
2.9. mn ca dng c ct
2.9.1. C ch mi mn
Trong qu trnh ct, do ma st gia mt tr-c ca dng c ct vi phoi v mt
sau vi mt ang gia cng nn cc b mt tip xc ca dao v chi tit b mi mn.
Dng c ct b mi mn dn n:
* Lm thay i cc thng s hnh hc phn ct ca dng c ct nn nh
h-ng n bin dng do, lm cho nhit ct v lc ct tng.
* p lc tc dng ln dng c ct tng.
*Cht l-ng b mt gia cng gim (nhm b mt tng, lp cng ngui
tng ...)
* V tr mi dao thay i theo ph-ng h-ng knh do lm thay i
kch th-c gia cng (c bit khi gia cng theo ph-ng php t ng t kch
th-c).
* Kim loi dng c ct thay i v t chc v tu theo iu kin ma st c
th to thnh nhng t chc mi c bn thp v cng gim.
Nh- vy, dng c ct b mi mn nh h-ng trc tip n cht l-ng b
mt gia cng, nng sut lao ng v gi thnh ca sn phm. Do , nghin cu
s mi mn ca dng c ct tr thnh mt trong nhng i hi cp thit ca
thc t sn xut. Qu trnh mi mn ca dng c ct cng ging nh- qu trnh
mi mn ca cc chi tit my, ngha l cng qua 3 giai on (theo thi gian).
Hnh 2-24 gii thiu qu trnh mi mn mt sau ca dng c ph thuc tui th
ca dao.
Giai on 1(on 0T
1
): mn nhanh do trn b mt ca dao cn c vt nhp
nh t vi. on 0T
1
gi l thi gian chy r.
- Giai on 2 (on T
1
T
2
): giai on mn bnh th-ng. on AB l giai on
mi mn cng tc (giai on mi mn bnh th-ng).


Hnh 2-24. c tr-ng tiu chun mi mn
Giai on 3 (on T
2
T
3
): giai on mn khc lit. Lc ny do nhit dao
cao, cu trc kim loi ca vt liu dao thay i, cng gim nn mi mn tng
rt nhanh. Ti im C mi mn h
s
t-ng ng vi trng thi ph hu. Khi
khng th tip tc qu trnh ct. Nh-ng so vi chi tit my, iu kin mi mn
ca dng c ct nng hn nhiu v mi mn ca dng c xy ra trong iu kin
p lc rt cao, th-ng t (40005000)N/mm
2
trong khi chi tit my khong
15N/mm
2
. Nhit khu vc ma st ln n 1000
0
C v c khi cao hn. S tr-t
t-ng i gia phoi v dao ln (V>60m/ph). Nh- vy hin t-ng mi mn khi ct
xy ra iu kin p lc v nhit rt cao do rt kh to ma st -t. trong
vng ct ch c th to ma st na -t hoc ma st kh m thi.
2.9.2. Cc nguyn nhn mi mn dao
Tu theo iu kin ct, dng c ct c th b mn do cc nguyn nhn mi
mn sau:
a. Mi mn c hc (xy ra tc thp). Dao b mi mn ch yu l
do ma st gia mt tr-c ca dao vi phoi v mt sau ca dao vi mt gia cng.
B mt dng c b co x-c thnh cc rnh song song theo ph-ng thot phoi.
b. Mi mn ch yu do nhit (xy ra tc ct t-ng i cao). Khi
nhit ct cao, c th lm lp b mt ca dao thay i v cu trc.
c. Mi mn ch yu do xy ho (xy ra nhit cao). nhit cao,
lp b mt ma st ca dao c th c lp xy ho rt dn v b ph hu trong qu
trnh ct.
d. Mi mn khuych tn. Khi nhit ct t khong 900
0
C, kim loi
vng tip xc khuych tn vo nhau v to thnh lp kim loi mi.
e. Mi mn dn. Cc dng c lm bng hp kim cng v vt liu gm,
ngoi mi mn c hc cc b mt lm vic, cn km theo hin t-ng gy tng
phn ca dng c gi l mi mn dn.
f. Mi mn do mi. Khi tc dng ln b mt lm vic ca dng c mt ti
trng thay i, b mt dng c b cng, trng thi cng b mt trong mt lot
tr-ng hp c th -a n l-i ct b ph hu v mi.
g. Mn dnh. Qu trnh ct do p lc v nhit cao, phoi ct thot ra dnh
vo mt tr-c dao. Do dnh, mt phn kim loi ca dng c ct b rt ri tng
mnh v cun theo phoi. Hin t-ng ny sy ra trong iu kin t-ng ng vi tc
hnh thnh lo dao.
2.9.3. Cc dng mn dao
Tu theo iu kin ct, dao c th b mi mn cc vng khc nhau.

Hnh 2-25.
a. Mi mn ch yu theo mt sau (hnh 2-25a). Dng mi mn ny xut
hin khi gia cng vt liu do c chiu dy ct a < 0,15mm hoc khi ct vt liu
dn vi phoi vn. Nguyn nhn ch yu gy mn mt sau l do bin dng n
hi ca lp kim loi chi tit tip xc vi mt sau. K hiu l-ng mi mn mt sau
l h
s
.
b. Mi mn ch yu theo mt tr-c (hnh 2-25b). Dng mi mn ny xy
ra khi gia cng vt liu do vi chiu dy ct ln (a >0,5mm) v vn tc ct ln.
Khi , mt sau -c lo dao bo v. Phoi c mt ct ngang ln tr-t theo mt
tr-c ca dao gy ra mt p lc rt ln cch mp l-i ct mt khong (ti
gi l trung tm p lc) v to thnh rnh l-i lim ln dn v pht trin rt
nhanh v pha i din vi l-i ct chnh. Chiu rng rnh c tng mi n khi
chiu rng cnh vt f = 0, dao b mi mn ton b v khng cn kh nng ct, lc
ny chiu su v chiu rng rnh l-i lim hu nh- khng i. Ch tiu nh gia
mi mn mt tr-c l chiu su rnh l-i lim h
l
.
c. Mt tr-c v mt sau mi mn cng mt lc. Dng mi mn ny xy ra
khi ct vt liu do vi chiu dy ct a = (0,150,50)mm v tc ct trung bnh
(hnh 2-25c). Chiu rng cnh vt f ng thi gim dn v hai pha o bn
l-i ct gim nhanh.
d. Mi mn mi dao: xy ra khi vt liu gia cng c tnh dn nhit km
nht l khi ct cht do v khi nhit ti mi dao rt cao lm l-i ct nhanh
chng b mm v cn i (hnh 2-25d).
Trong cc dng mi mn, mi mn theo mt sau l dng mi mn ch yu
v d o nht. Do , th-ng dng h
s
- kch th-c chiu cao ca din tch b mi
mn theo mt sau lm tiu chun mi mn, k hiu [h
S
].
Khi gia cng tinh mn cho php ph thuc vo nhm b mt v
chnh xc gia cng. mi mn cho php ca dng c gia cng tinh gi l tiu
chun mi mn cng ngh.
Qu trnh mi mn ca dng c ct lm bng vt liu gm ging nh- cc
loi dng c k trn nh-ng ch yu l mn do dnh v trc.
2.9.4. Tui bn ca dao - T
a. Khi nim: Tui bn ca dao l khong thi gian lm vic lin tc ca
dao gia hai ln mi dao lin tip.
nh gia tui bn dao, ng-i ta da co ch tiu [h
s
]. Tr s [h
s
] -c tnh
theo cng thc thc nghim sau:
[h
s
] = C
h
. V
n
. S
x
. t
y
[mm] (2.9)
Trong : C
n
- h s tnh n tnh cht c l ca vt liu gia cng v iu
kin gia cng.
V- Tc ct, m/ph
S- l-ng chy dao vng, mm/vg
t- chiu su ct, mm
Gi tr ca C
h
, n, x, y chn trong cc s tay cng ngh. Trong thc t
th-ng chn [h
s
] nh- sau (theo thc nghim):
Khi gia cng thp v gang rn bng dao thp gi [h
s
] = (0,3 2)mm
Khi gia cng gang xm bng dao thp gi [h
s
] = (1,5 4)mm
Khi gia cng thp bng dao hp kim cng [h
s
] = (0,4 1,4)mm
Khi gia cng gang bng dao hp kim cng [h
s
] = (0,6 1)mm
b. Quan h gia tui bn v tc ct V:
Quan h gia T v V nh- sau:
A const T V T V T V
m
n n
m m
= = = =
2 2 1 1
(2.10)
Rt ra:
m
V
A
T = [ph] (2.11)
Trong :
V- tc ct, m/ph
T- tui bn ca dao, ph
T
1
, T
2
...,T
n
tui bn ng vi V
1
, V
2
, ...V
n

A-h s khng i, ph thuc vo vt liu gia cng, vt liu lm
phn ct ca dao, chiu su ct, l-ng chy dao v iu kin gia cng khc.
m- s m ni ln mc nh h-ng ca tc ct v tui bn. S m
m ph thuc vo cc yu t nh- i vi A, ngoi ra cn ph thuc vo c tr-ng
mn ca dao, th-ng m = 0,1 0,25 i vi dao thp gi; v m = 0,2 0,4 i
vi dao hp kim cng.
Tui bn T -c tiu chun ho v ph thuc vo cc loi dao. Dao c cu
to cng phc tp chn gi tr tui bn cng ln v ng-c li. Vi dao tin, gi tr
tui bn T = (30 90) ph
2.10. Lm ngui v bi trn khi ct
2.10.1. Cng dng ca bi trn - lm ngui khi ct
ci thin iu kin ct v tng tui th ca dng c ct nhm nng cao
cht l-ng b mt gia cng v nng xut lao ng, trong qu trnh ct, ng-i ta
dng mt loi cht phun vo vng ct gi l cht trn- ngui. Cht trn ngui
khng nhng c tc dng lm gim cng ma st gia cc b mt ma st m cn
gim cng bin dng do lm gim ton b l-ng nhit sinh ra khi ct. Vy
cht trn ngui c hai tc dng: bi trn v lm ngui, ngoi ra cn c tc dng
cun phoi ra khi vng ct.
Nh- chng ta bit, khi ct trn b mt tip xc ca dao chu mt p lc
khong (4 x 10
3
5 x 10
3
)N/cm
2
v nhit gn vi nhit nng chy ca
kim loi ct, hn na cc b mt c st th-ng c nhp nh ln, ti cc nh
nhn p lc rt ln, cn trong cc rnh to thnh chn khng, iu gy tr
ngi cho vic dng bi trn thng th-ng (du, m v.v ...) trn cc b mt c st
gia dng c vi chi tit v phoi. Khi phun cc cht trn ngui vo vng ct, mt
phn cht trn ngui b cun vo cc rnh v thm vo cc vt nt t vi to thnh
mng du mng gia cc b mt tip xc. Mng du tc dng lm gim lc
ma st v bin dng khi ct nn dn n gim lc ct. Thnh phn bi trn trong
cht trn ngui phi chn nh- th no lp mng mng t cn tr qu trnh
tr-t, c kh nng chu nhit cao, lin kt vi cc b mt c st bn chc v
-c hnh thnh rt nhanh. tng c-ng tc dng bi trn ng-i ta cho thm vo
cht trn ngui nhng cht hot tnh nh- pht pho, l-u hunh v clo. Do tc dng
ca nhit v p sut cao, cc cht hot tnh xm nhp vo vt liu nhanh v bm
cht vo vt liu, lm gim ma st gia cc b mt c st.
Vai tr ch yu ca thnh phn lm lnh trong cht trn ngui l gim ng
sut nhit trong qu trnh ct, gim sai s v kch th-c do nhit gy nn, nng
cao cht l-ng b mt gia cng, ng thi cho php nng cao tc v bn
ca dao. Cht lm lnh phi c dn nhit cao v nhit dung ln. Cht lm lnh
cng vi s trao i nhit bng i l-u khi ct c tc dng gp phn lm gim
bin dng nhit v nng cao tui bn ca dng c ct.
Ngoi tc dng bi trn v lm ngui, cc phn t hot tnh ca cht lng
thm vo cc vt nt t vi ca lp b mt phoi v chi tit, khi chng nh-
nhng ci chm gy ra sc cng ln lm cho cc k nt lp b mt c st ln ln,
sc bn mt ngoi gim nn qu trnh ct d dng hn. ng thi, do nh h-ng
phn gii ca cht lng m dung dch c kh nng ty lp phoi mng (as0,2mm)
tc thp.
2.10.2. Yu cu cht bi trn - lm ngui
m bo bi trn v lm ngui tt, cht trn ngui phi bo m cc yu cu:
* Bn vng khng b bin cht v gi -c tnh cht bi trn v lm mt
trong mt thi gian.
* Khng c mi kh chu lm nh h-ng n sc kho cng nhn, khng
gy c.
* Bn nhit cao: khng b phn tch nhit cao.
* Khng b vn cc.
* Khng -c lm han r chi tit gia cng.
Vy mt dung dch trn ngui -c gi l tt khi chng c tnh cht lm
ngui tt, tnh bi trn tt v kh nng ty tt, ng thi khng -c c hi cho
cng nhn v thit b.
2.10.3. Cc cht trn - ngui dng khi ct
Cc cht trn ngui khi ct c th chia thnh:
* Cht lng: munxi v cc loi du (du ng vt, thc vt v.v ...)
* Cc cht trng thi kh: ccbnic, ni t, cc cht lng v bt d-i dng
s-ng m. Cht kh ch dng khi khng dng -c cc cht khc.
Cc cht lng v cc cht trng thi kh th-ng dng bi trn v lm
lnh. Nh-ng cng c mt s cht ch yu bi trn (cc loi du) hoc ch
lm lnh ( mun xi, n-c ...)
* Cc cht th rn: bt ba ra phin, bt x phng v.v.
Nu thm cc cht hot tnh cao vo cht trn ngui s lm tng kh nng bi
trn v nng cao tnh dn nhit ca chng ln rt nhiu v chng to thnh lp hi
nhn trn b mt gii hn ca vng ct v bao bc phn ct ca dng c, xm
nhp vo vng tip xc v nng cao tc phn ng vi b mt oxy ho ca phoi
to thnh lp mng bi trn bn vng.
2.10.4. Cc ph-ng php -a cht trn - ngui vo vng ct
Hiu qu ca dung dch trn ngui ph thuc rt nhiu vo ph-ng php
t-i chng vo vng ct. C cc ph-ng php t-i sau:


Hnh 2-26. Cc ph-ng php -a dung dch trn-ngui vo vng ct
* T-i p sut bnh th-ng. Phn ln trong cng nghip dng ph-ng
php lm lnh bng cch t-i p sut bnh th-ng (hnh 2-26a), ph-ng
php ny n gin nh-ng c nh-c im tc phun thp, cn l-u l-ng ln
(810 lt/ph), dung dch b tung to nhiu, hiu sut bi trn thp.
*T-i p lc cao (p lc phun 150 200N/cm
2
, -ng knh l vi
phun 0,50,6mm). Ph-ng php ny cho php phun dung dch thnh tia nh vi
vn tc ln vo mt lm vic ca dng c ct (hnh 2-26b). V p lc phun ln
nn dung dch xm nhp rt mnh vo cc k nt t vi v cc khe h ca vng
tip xc nn tc dng bi trn v ty tt, hn na phn ln dung dch bin thnh
hi nn lm mt b mt ma st tt. Qua thc nghim cho thy ph-ng php phun
cht trn - ngui p lc cao khng nhng lm gim rt nhiu l-u l-ng cht
trn ngui m cn c tc dng nng cao cht l-ng b mt gia cng, cng nh-
nng cao tui bn ca dng c (c bit khi ct hp kim bn nhit v hp kim ti
tan).Tuy nhin, ph-ng php ny c nh-c im l cn c cc loi bm c bit,
dung dch phi sch, dung dch b tung to mnh nn phi ht sc ch n an
ton lao ng.
Trong mt s tr-ng hp (khoan l su hoc ct nhanh vt liu dn
nh- gang, ng thanh...), nng cao hiu qu lm mt ng-i ta dn dung
dch trn ngui qua thn dao hoc qua mt tr-c ca dao trc tip ti vng
ct (hnh 2-26c,d) hoc t-i dung dch d-i dng s-ng m.
Tm li, nng cao hiu qu ca dung dch trn ngui phi:
Phun trc tip dung dch trn ngui vo mt tip xc gia dao v phoi l khu
vc c nhit cao nht v cn -c bi trn lm ngui nht.
Phun ngay t u v phun lin tc trong qu trnh ct, nu khng nh- vy d
gy ra cc vt nt mnh dao c bit l dao hp kim cng.
L-u l-ng t-i phi , th-ng l-u l-ng khi tin v khoan khong (1012) lt/ph,
phay (10 20) lt/ph, gia cng th rng (8 10) lt/ph, gia cng tinh rng (23) lt/ph, gia
cng ren bng bn ren v ta r (34) lt/ph, trut (1012) lt/ph. Tu theo cc ph-ng php
gia cng m chn cc loi dung dch trn ngui khc nhau, chng hn:
- Tin thp kt cu dng dung dch mun xi (25)% v cc cht hot tnh
b mt.
- Khoan, khot: dng dung dch mun xi (46)%;
- Doa: dng dung dch mun xi (5 8)%;
- Phay: du l-u ho hoc dng dung dch mun xi (510)%;
- Gia cng hp kim ma nh v hp kim nhm dng du thc vt.
- Tin hp kim chu nhit dng dung dch mun xi 10% v l-u hunh hoc
dung dch n-c c cht ty.





Ch-ng 3
Gia cng trn my tin
3.1. c im, cng dng, kh nng
3.1.1. c im
Qu trnh ct trn my tin c cc c im sau:
- Dao tin l loi dao n, c mt rng ct.
- Chuyn ng to hnh khi tin bao gm chuyn ng chnh l chuyn
ng quay trn ca trc chnh mang phi; chuyn ng chy dao l chuyn ng
tnh tin ca dao song song, vung gc hoc to vi -ng trc ca my (ca trc
chnh) mt gc theo yu cu.
- Qu trnh thot phoi l qu trnh h - Rng dao ct lin tc trong mt ln
chy dao.
3.1.2. Cng dng


Hnh 3-1. Cc b mt gia cng -c trn my tin
Tin l ph-ng php cng ngh -c dng ph bin trong cc nh my c
kh. Cng vic tin chim khong (25 50)% cc cng vic gia cng ct gt, cn
s l-ng my tin chim khong (50 60)% tng s my ct kim loi.
Trn nhm my tin c th:
*Gia cng cc mt trn xoay trong v ngoi (mt tr, mt cn c bc hoc
khng bc) (hnh 3-1a 3-1d).
* Gia cng cc loi ren trong, ren ngoi v ren mt u.
* Tin rnh, tin ct t (hnh 3-1e).
* Tin mt u (hnh 3-1g).
* Tin cc mt nh hnh trn xoay.
* Khoan, khot, doa cc l tr v l cn khi lp cc dng c t-ng ng;
khoan l tm bng mi khoan l tm.
* Tin mt nhiu cnh, cc loi cam hoc mi nu c g t-ng ng.
3.1.3. Kh nng cng ngh
Gia cng trn my tin c th t -c cp chnh xc kch th-c v cp
nhm b mt chi tit nh- sau:
* Tin th t -c cp chnh xc IT12IT13 v cp nhm: cp 3cp 4
(chiu cao nhp nh R
z
= 80 40m).
* Tin bn tinh t -c cp chnh xc IT10IT11v cp nhm: cp 4 cp 5
(chiu cao nhp nh R
z
= (4020)m).
* Tin tinh t -c cp chnh xc IT7IT9 v cp nhm: cp 6 cp 8
(chiu cao nhp nh R
a
= (2,5 0,63m)).
* Tin mng t -c cp chnh xc IT5 IT6 v cp nhm: cp 8 cp
9 (chiu cao nhp nh R
a
= (0,63 0,32m))
Khoan t cp chnh xc IT11 IT12 v cp nhm: cp 4 cp 5 (chiu
cao nhp nh R
z
= (40 20)m).
* Khot t cp chnh xc IT8 IT11 v cp nhm: cp 5 cp 6 (chiu
cao nhp nh R
z
= 20m, R
a
= 2,5m).
* Doa t cp chnh xc IT6 IT8 v cp nhm: cp 6 cp 9 (chiu cao
nhp nh R
a
= (2,5 0,32m))
3.2. Cc loi dao tin
Tu theo mc ch s dng ng-i ta phn loi dao tin thnh cc nhm sau:
3.2.1.Theo ph-ng php cng ngh
a. Dao tin ngoi dng tin cc mt trn xoay ngoi (mt tr, trc bc,
mt cn...) (hnh 3-2a hnh 3-2c).
b. Dao tin l dng m rng l thng (hnh 3-2e) hoc khng thng
(hnh 3-2f).
c. Dao tin mt u (xn mt u) dng tin mt u chi tit (hnh 3-2d)
d. Dao tin ct t dng ct t chi tit hoc tin rnh (hnh 3-2h).
e. Dao tin ren dng tin ren ngoi v ren trong (hnh 3-2g).
f. Dao tin nh hnh dng gia cng cc b mt nh hnh trn xoay.
Dao tin nh hnh c hai loi: dao a (hnh 3-2i) v dao lng tr (hnh 3-2k).



Hnh 3-2. Cc loi dao tin

3.2.2. Theo tnh cht gia cng
Theo tnh cht gia cng phn thnh: dao gia cng th v dao gia cng tinh..
Dao dng gia cng tinh c bn knh mi dao r = (13)mm i vi dao c phn ct
lm bng thp gi; r = (0,5 1,5)mm vi dao c phn ct lm bng HKC, cng c
khi ng-i ta lm thm on l-i chuyn tip f = (12,0)mm thay cho mi dao.
Dao dng gia cng th ly r = 0.
3.2.3. Theo hnh dng u dao
Theo hnh dng u dao ng-i ta phn thnh dao u thng (hnh 3-3a; 3-2c;
3-2g); dao tin u cong (hnh 3-2b v hnh 3-2d n hnh 3-2f) dng tin th
v tinh mt tr ngoi, xn mt u; dao tin u ko di (hnh 3-2b) dng tin
rnh, tin ct t.
3.2.4. Theo h-ng chy dao
Theo h-ng chy dao, ng-i ta phn thnh dao tin phi v dao tin tri.
Dao tin phi l dao m khi p lng bn tay phi vo mt tr-c ca dao th l-i
ct chnh nm v pha ngn tay ci.
Dao tin tri l dao m khi p lng bn tay tri vo mt tr-c ca dao th
l-i ct chnh nm v pha ngn tay ci.
Khi tin, dao tin phi chy dao t ng v pha trc chnh ca my, dao
tin tri chuyn ng ng-c li.
3.2.5. Theo vt liu phn ct ca dao
Theo vt liu phn ct ca dao, dao tin -c phn thnh dao thp gi, dao
HKC, dao kim c-ng hoc dao vt liu gm.
3.3. Cc loi g vn nng km theo my tin
3.3.1. Cc loi mm cp
a. Cng dng. Mm cp dng nh v tr t-ng i gia chi tit - my-
dng c v kp cht chi tit trong qu trnh gia cng.
Chi tit -c nh v v kp cht bng mm cp khi t l gia chiu di L v
-ng knh D ca chi tit gia cng nh hn 5 (L/D s5).
b. Cc loi mm cp:
* Mm cp ba chu - cn gi l mm cp t nh tm. Ba chu ca mm
cp 1, 2, 3, cng tin vo hoc li xa tm nh vn cc chi tit 5 thng qua mt
trong ba l trn thn mm cp. Chi tit 5 l bnh rng cn n khp vi mt rng
ca chi tit 4. Chi tit 4 mt mt lm rng cn, mt i din lm ren Acsimet n
khp vi ren Acsimet trn mt ca chu (hnh 3-3)
Loi mm cp ny c -u im l cc chu c kh nng t nh
tm nn qu trnh g kp nhanh. Song chng c nh-c im l khng
g kp -c cc chi tit khng trn xoay, khng gia cng -c cc b
mt khng ng tm vi mt g kp. ng tm gia b mt gia
cng v mt g kp khng cao.
- Mm cp bn chu. Mm cp loi ny c bn chu, cc chu ny tin
vo hoc li xa tm c lp vi nhau nh vn chi tit s 5. Mt mt ca
cc chu c ren, n khp vi chi tit s 5 (hnh 3-4)


Hnh 3-3. Mm cp ba chu Hnh 3-4. Mm cp bn chu
Mm cp bn chu dng g kp chi tit khi gia cng cc chi tit c b
mt g kp khng trn xoay hoc cc chi tit m b mt gia cng khng ng
tm vi b mt g kp ca chi tit (nh- trc lch tm, bc lch tm). Loi mm
cp ny c nh-c im l qu trnh r g lu, chnh xc r g ph thuc vo
tay ngh ca ng-i ng my.
* Mm cp hoa mai. Loi mm cp ny khng c chu. Trn b mt u
thn mm cp 1 c x nhiu rnh h-ng tm, cc rnh ny lp cc ke 3 v bu
lng g kp chi tit gia cng 4 (hnh 3-5).
Hnh3-5. Mm cp hoa mai
Mm cp hoa mai dng g kp cc chi tit c hnh dng phc tp nh- tay
bin, cc ng ni cong...
* Mm cp c tc: Hnh 3-6 gii thiu mm cp c tc. Loi mm cp ny
dng tin bng ph-ng php chng tm hai u. Tc c tc dng truyn m
men xon v chuyn ng quay cho chi tit.
Hnh 3-6. Mm cp c tc
3.3.2. Cc loi mi tm
a. Cng dng. Mi tm dng nh v chi tit khi gia cng bng ph-ng
php chng tm hai u ca phi gia cng hoc mt u phi cp vo mm cp
t nh tm cn u kia chng tm. M men xon v chuyn ng quay -c
truyn cho chi tit bng tc.
S dng ph-ng php chng tm khi t l gia chiu di v -ng knh phi
gia cng L/D = 5 10.
b. Cc loi mi tm. Tu theo hnh dng, cu to m ng-i ta chia mi
tm thnh cc loi khc nhau. Nh-ng d loi mi tm no th mt mi tm u
c hai phn: Phn u (phn mi) lp vi l tm hoc mi nhn ca chi
tit gia cng, phn ny c gc cn o = 60
0
hoc 90
0
; phn cn c cn tiu
chun lp vi l cn ng hoc l cn ca trc chnh ca my tin.
* Mi tm th-ng (hnh 3-7a). Loi mi tm ny -c dng rng ri
trong cc tr-ng hp khi gia cng bng ph-ng php chng tm. Chng c -u
im l cng vng cao. Song chng c nh-c im nh- nhng loi mi tm
khc (tr mi tm quay v mi tm kha) l gia u mi tm v l tm ca chi
tit c chuyn ng t-ng i trong qu trnh ct, b mt u mi tm v l tm
tip xc kht (khng c khe h trnh sai s) do vy lm u mi tm v l tm
mn nhanh, gy sai s. khc phc nh-c im ny, ng-i ta bi trn bng m
b mt tip xc ca mi tm v l tm nh-ng cng ch to -c ma st na -t.
gim mn u mi tm, ng-i ta cn lm mi tm bng HKC.
* Mi tm quay (hnh 3-7b). Loi mi tm ny -c dng trong tr-ng hp khi
tin vi s vng quay ca chi tit ln. Mi tm c c im l phn u ca mi tm quay
t-ng i vi phn thn thng qua cc bi, do khc phc -c nh-c im ca mi tm
th-ng, song mi tm quay do nhiu chi tit hp thnh nn cng vng thp, ng
tm gia mi v phn cn thp do khe h lp ghp.

Hnh 3-7. Cc loi mi tm
* Mi tm khuyt (hnh 3-7c). Loi mi tm ny c phn cn u mi
tm -c vt mt phn theo chiu dc. Loi mi tm ny dng khi tin mt u
cc chi tit bng ph-ng php chng tm.
* Mi tm cu (hnh 3-7d). Loi mi tm ny u mi tm l mt hnh cu c
kch th-c t-ng ng vi l tm chi tit gia cng, do vy tip xc gia mi tm v l
tm l tip xc -ng trn nn c kh nng t la tt. Mi tm cu dng gia cng
mt cn ngoi bng ph-ng php nh lch ng ca my tin.
* Mi tm ng-c (hnh 3-7e). u cn ca mi tm ng-c -c thay bng l
tm. Chi tit gia cng khng lm l tm mt u m vt nhn to gc cn o. Loi ny
-c dng khi gia cng cc chi tit c -ng knh nh, khng th to l tm.
* Mi tm kha. u cn ca mi tm kha ng-i ta lm cc rnh dc
theo -ng sinh ca mt cn. Loi ny th-ng dng gia cng mt tr
ngoi trn cc chi tit c l sn t-ng i ln. Ngoi chc nng nh v,
mi tm kha n cn chc nng truyn m men xon.
* Mi tm tu ng. Phn cn nh tm chi tit ca loi mi tm ny c th
dch chuyn t-ng i so vi phn thn ca mi tm theo ph-ng dc trc.
3.3.3. Tc kp
Tc kp -c dng truyn m men xon v chuyn ng quay cho chi
tit gia cng khi tin bng ph-ng php chng tm hai u (hnh 3-8).
Khi lm vic, chi tit -c kp cht vo tc.
Hnh 3-8. Tc kp
3.3.4. Gi
Cng dng (cn -c gi l luy nt). Khi gia cng chi tit c t l chiu
di trn -ng knh L/D >12, ngoi vic dng ph-ng php chng tm ng-i ta
cn dng gi tng cng vng cho chi tit gia cng. Cu to gi nh-
hnh 3-9.


Hnh 3-9. Cc loi gi
a. Cc loi gi
* Gi c nh. Trong qu trnh gia cng, gi c nh -c kp c
nh trn bng my. Gi c nh c ba vu bng ng hoc ba con ln
chi tit. Cc vu hoc con ln c th dch chuyn theo ph-ng h-ng knh nh
cc vt iu chnh (hnh 3-9a).
Gi c nh c cng vng tt nh-ng i hi phi iu chnh cc vu
gi cn thn. Phn b mt ca chi tit tip xc vi cc vu gi phi -c gia
cng tr-c sao cho tm ca n trng vi -ng tm hai l tm hoc phn cp trn
mm cp v l tm.
i vi cc trc c cng vng qu thp v cn th, c th lp vo chi tit
mt ng c mt tr ngoi -c gia cng tinh. ng ny -c kp vo chi tit
nh ba hoc su vt kp phn b u theo chu vi. Tr-c khi kp cht, ng phi
-c iu chnh sao cho tm mt ngoi ca ng trng vi tm quay ca chi tit
(cng l tm ca trc chnh my tin) m bo mt ngoi ca ng tip xc
tt vi cc vu gi .
* Gi ng. Gi ng -c gn c nh trn bn dao v chuyn ng
tnh tin cng bn dao trong qu trnh gia cng. Loi gi ny c hai vu (hnh
3-9b).
Gi ng c cng vng km hn gi c nh nh-ng li c -u im
l cc vu lun nm gn v tr ca dao ct nn hn ch cong ca chi tit tt hn
gi c nh.
Gi ng th-ng dng tin trc trn. Vu ca gi ng chy tr-c
dao ct (khi g gi ng tr-c dao) ch dng khi tin tinh hoc tin bn tinh,
cn vu ca gi ng chy sau dao ct (khi g gi ng sau dao) c th
dng cho c tin th v tin tinh.
3.4. Lc ct khi tin
Mun ct lp kim loi d- ra khi phi thnh phoi phi tc dng ln dao lc
P ln thng lc lin kt trong ni b kim loi, lc ma st gia phoi vi mt
tr-c ca dao v gia phi vi mt sau ca dao. Vic nghin cu lc ct khi tin
c mt ngha rt ln v bit -c lc ct khng nhng gip chng ta tnh -c
cng sut tiu hao khi ct ca my, tnh bn ca my, dao, g m cn gip
cho ta nghin cu nhit ct v s phn b nhit trong qu trnh ct, quy lut mi
mn ca dao.
3.4.1. Cc thnh phn lc tc dng ln dao
Khi ct, phoi tc ng ln mt tr-c ca dao ng thi chuyn ng theo
mt tr-c nn sinh ra lc php tuyn N
1
v lc ma st F
1
. Tng hp hai thnh
phn ny l lc Q
1
tc dng ln mt tr-c ca dao. Trn mt sau ca dao cng c
lc php tuyn N
2
v lc ma st F
2
do tc ng ca lp kim loi b bin dng n
hi trn b mt gia cng v s dch chuyn t-ng i ca b mt gia cng vi mt
sau ca dng c. Tng hp hai thnh phn lc ny l lc Q
2
tc dng ln mt sau
ca dao.



Hnh 3-10. S lc tc dng ln mt tr-c v mt sau dao
Tng hp cc lc trn ta -c lc tng hp tc dng ln phn ct dao
(hnh 3-10).
2 1
Q Q R + =
Lc R gi l lc ct khi tin. Lc tc dng ln mt tr-c ca dao Q
1
thc
hin qu trnh to phoi. Thnh phn lc Q
1
ph thuc vo tnh cht c l ca vt
liu gia cng, kch th-c lp ct v iu kin gia cng. Lc tc dng ln mt sau
Q
2
ni chung l c hi, n nh h-ng n cng vng ca h thng cng ngh,
nh h-ng n rung ng khi ct, nh h-ng n bn ca dao v cht l-ng b
mt gia cng. Thnh phn lc Q
2
v c bn ph thuc vo tnh cht c l ca vt
liu gia cng, gc sau v h s ma st gia vt liu dao v vt liu phi
Ni chung, cc thnh phn lc N
1
, F
1
ln hn cc thnh phn lc N
2
, F
2
.
Nh-ng khi ct vi chiu dy ct nh (i vi thp a<0,25mm, i vi gang
a<0,3mm) khi dao b mi mn mt sau v ct vt liu c cng t vi cao th
N
1
, F
1
nh hn N
2
, F
2
.
Lc ct R c tr s v im t lun bin i trong qu trnh ct do cc
yu t ct (mn dao, tnh cht c l vt liu gia cng khng ng nht...)
lun bin i. Khi tnh ton, ta coi im t ca lc R nm gia phn l-i
ct chnh tham gia ct.
xc nh nh h-ng ca lc ct ti tng thnh phn ca h thng cng
ngh, ng-i ta phn lc ct R theo ba ph-ng: tip tuyn, h-ng knh v dc trc,
trong h to 0XYZ (hnh 3-11).
P
Z
- Lc tip tuyn, tc dng trong mt phng ct, trng vi ph-ng ca
chuyn ng chnh. Lc P
z
tn ti trong mi tr-ng hp ct v n th-ng chim
ti 99% lc ct. Thnh phn lc ny dng tnh hoc kim nghim m men
xon v cng sut ct cn thit, tnh bn ca dao, tnh bn cho cc c cu hp
tc ca my.

Hnh 3-11. S lc ct khi tin
P
Y
- lc h-ng knh, tc ng trong mt phng X0Y v vung gc vi -ng
tm chi tit gia cng. Lc P
Y
c xu h-ng y dao ra khi phi v gy un cho
chi tit gia cng trong mt phng tc dng, gy rung ng nn nh h-ng n
chnh xc chi tit gia cng. Da vo lc P
Y
tnh un cho chi tit gia cng v
cng vng bn dao.
P
x
- lc dc trc. Lc P
X
c ph-ng trng vi ph-ng chuyn ng chy dao.
Da vo lc P
X
ng-i ta tnh bn cho c cu chy dao, tnh cng sut chy dao v
tnh bn cho thn dao.
Khi ct bng dao tin c gc = 45
0
, gc >0, gc = 15
0
th quan h gia
cc thnh phn lc P
X
, P
Y
, P
Z
gn ng nh- sau:
P
Z
: P
Y
: P
X
= 1 : 0,45 : 0,35
Khi tng gc v gim gc th t s: P
X
: P
Y
tng, cn: P
Z
: P
X
gim. Khi
dao b mi mn mt sau th : P
Z
: P
Y
v P
Z
: P
X
u gim.
Quan h gia lc ct tng R v cc lc thnh phn P
Z
, P
Y
, P
X
nh- sau:

2 2 2
x y z
p p p R + + = (3.1)
Nu thay cc gi tr P
y
, P
x
theo P
z
vo (3.1) ta c:
15 , 1 ) P 35 , 0 ( ) P 45 , 0 ( P R
2
y
2
z
2
z
~ + + = P
z
(3.2)
tnh lc ct P
Z
khi tin, ta c th tnh gn ng theo cng thc:
P
z
= P . f [N] (3.3)
Trong : f- din tch mt ct ngang lp ct, mm
2

P - lc ct n v, N/mm
2

Lc ct n v l lc ct cn thit ct 1mm
2
ca mt ct ngang lp ct
trong iu kin nht nh. Lc ct n v ph thuc vo cc yu t ch ct,
thng s hnh hc ca dao v iu kin gia cng. Gi tr lc n v cng ln th
qu trnh ct cng kh.
Trong thc t ng-i ta tnh cc thnh phn lc theo cng thc thc nghim.
Cng sut ct -c tnh theo cng thc:

6 3
10 60
.
10 60
.

=
s n P V P
N
x z
c
[kW] (3.4)
Gi tr ca i l-ng th hai trong cng thc (3.4) th-ng ch chim
(1 2)% so vi i l-ng u nn khi tnh cng sut ng c ca my ch
tnh theo P
Z
, tc:

. 10 60
.
3 .
q q
= =
V P N
N
z c
c d
[kW] (3.5)
Trong cng thc (3.4) v (3.5):
n- s vng quay ca my, vng/ph
V- tc ct, m/ph
P
X
- lc chy dao, N
P
Z
- lc tip tuyn, N
S- l-ng chy dao vng, mm/vng
q- hiu sut ca my
3.4.2. Cc yu t nh h-ng ti lc ct
a. nh h-ng ca vt liu
*nh h-ng ca vt liu gia cng. Lc ct ph thuc rt nhiu vo tnh
cht c l ca vt liu gia cng cng nh- cu trc ca chng. Vt liu cng do,
bn v cng cng cao, kim loi c cu trc ht cng b th lc ct cng ln.
Hin nay ch-a c cng thc tng qut biu th nh h-ng ca tnh cht c l ca
vt liu gia cng n lc ct. Cc cng thc thc nghim mi ch thit lp nn
mi quan h gia lc ct vi gii hn bn ko v cng ca vt liu. Sau y l
mt dng :
P
i
= C
P1i
. HB
npi
[N] (3.6)
Trong : i = z; y; x
C
pi
- h s xt n nh h-ng nhm vt liu gia cng
HB - cng Bri-nen, N/mm
2

n
p
- s m, ph thuc vo cng Bri-nen
* nh h-ng ca vt liu lm phn ct ca dao. Vt liu lm phn ct
ca dao c h s ma st cng ln th lc ct cng tng. ng thi, vt liu
phn ct dao c hm l-ng cc bit titan cng cao th lc ct c xu h-ng gim
(v d khi thay dao ct T15K6 bng dao T30K4 th lc ct gim t (510)%.)
b. nh h-ng ca ch ct
* nh h-ng ca chiu su ct
(t) v l-ng chy dao (S).
Khi tng chiu su ct v l-ng
chy dao lm lc bin dng v lc ma
st tng nn lc ct tng. Chiu su ct
nh h-ng ti lc ct ln hn l-ng chy
dao. iu c th gii thch nh- sau,
khi tng t th chiu rng ct (b = t/sin)
tng t l thun vi n cn h s co rt
phoi v h s ma st gn nh- khng i.
Song khi tng l-ng chy dao S th chiu
dy ct (a = S. sin) tng t l thun vi
l-ng chy dao, nh-ng khi tng a th h
s co rt phoi v h s ma st gim, do
l-ng chy dao nh h-ng n lc
ct t hn.
T cc quan h thc nghim
nu, ta rt ra cc cng thc tng qut
nh h-ng ca chiu su ct v
l-ng chy dao n lc ct nh- sau:

Pi Pi
i 2
y x
P i
S . t . C P = [N] (3.7)
Trong : i= X, Y, Z (mm);
S(mm/vg), t(mm),
C
P2i
- h s ph thuc nhm vt
liu gia cng
x
Pi
, y
Pi
- biu th mc
nh h-ng ca t v S n lc ct
ph thuc vo iu kin gia cng
v x
p
>y
p
.
* nh h-ng ca tc ct. Tc ct nh h-ng n lc ct rt phc tp
(hnh 3-14). -ng cong biu din quan h hm P
i
= f(V) c cc i v cc
tiu. Tnh cht phc tp c th gii thch bng s nh h-ng ca qu trnh
bin dng v thay i lc ma st. Khi tc ct t ti tc V
0
bt u hnh
thnh lo dao. Trong vng hnh thnh lo dao (I), khi tng tc ct th qu trnh
lo dao tng nn gc tr-c tng (
L
>) tc gc ct o gim dn n bin dng do,
ma st gia phoi v b mt tr-c dao gim nn lc ct gim (Q
1
gim). Khi



Hnh 3-12. nh h-ng ca chiu su
ct ti lc ct (i = x, y, z)

Hnh 3-13. nh h-ng ca l-ng
chy dao n lc ct
tc ct V>V
A
, ng vi vng tc lo dao gim (khu vc II), gc tr-c
gim nn bin dng v ma st tng lm lc ct tng. Nu tc ct tip tc
tng v V>V
B
, nhit ct cng tng lm lp kim loi ca phoi st mt tr-c
dao b chy do dn n h
s ma st gim lm lc ct
gim (v F
1
gim) (ng vi
vng III). Khi V> V
e
~
400m/ph (vng IV), tc ct
tng nh-ng lc ct hu nh-
khng thay i v tc
ny h s co rt phoi v h s
ma st gn nh- khng thay
i.
Quan h gia tc ct
v lc ct c th biu din
bng cng thc thc nghim
sau:

pi
n
i P
j
V
C
P
3
= [N] (3.8)

c. nh h-ng cc thng s hnh hc phn ct ca dng c ct
* nh h-ng ca gc tr-c . Gc
tr-c cng tng lm gc ct o cng
gim, dao ct vo kim loi cng d
nn bin dng do lp kim loi phn
b ct gim; ng thi gc tr-c tng
th h s co rt phoi gim, phoi d
tr-t trn mt tr-c ca dao. V vy,
gc tr-c cng tng th lc cng gim.
Thc nghim cho thy gc tr-c
nh h-ng ti P
x
, P
y
nhiu hn P
z

(hnh 3-15), nu Gc tr-c tng 1
0

th lc P
z
gam 1% nh-ng P
x
, P
y

gim (45)%.


Hnh 3-15.
nh h-ng ca gc tr-c n lc ct
Song nn nh rng ch c th tng gc tr-c ti mt gii hn nht nh,
nu ln hn th dao s yu (v lc gc sc | gim) v tui bn thp.
C th rt ra cng thc thc nghim quan h gia v lc ct nh- sau:
xi
i P i
C P .
4
=
[N]


Hnh 3-14. nh h-ng ca tc
ct n lc ct
* nh h-ng ca gc sau o.
Khi tin, lp kim loi trn b mt
gia cng b bin dng. Khi dao
qua khi, lp kim loi b nn n
hi tr li to nn b mt tip xc
gi- mt sau dao v b mt gia
cng. Nu gc sau tng th din
tch tip xc gim nn ma st
gim v do lc ct gim nh-ng
khng nhiu (hnh 3-16). Chng
hn, khi gia cng thp 45, nu
tng gc sau chnh o t 2
0
ln 10
0

th lc P
z
gim 6%, P
Y
gim 17%
v P
x
gim 13%. Gc sau ln hn
16
0
th nh h-ng n lc ct l
khng ng k.
*nh h-ng ca gc
nghing chnh v gc
nghing ph
1
.
Nu bn knh mi dao r=0,
chiu dy ct v l-ng chy
dao S khng i, khi gc
tng dn n chiu dy ct a
tng v do lm gim h s
co rt phoi v lc ct P
z
.
Nh-ng khi gc >60
0
nu tip
tc tng gc th lc P
z
li
tng v khi chiu di on
cong ca l-i ct tng lm h
s co rt phoi on ln
hn so vi on thng.
Khi bn knh mi dao r =0, gc nghing chnh cng tng th chiu dy lp ct
cng tng do h s co rt phoi gim v lc ct P
z
gim (hnh 3-17).
Trong mi tr-ng hp, khi tng
1
th lc P
X
tng v P
Y
gim.
Gc nghing ph nh h-ng n lc ct khng ng k.

Hnh 3-16. nh h-ng ca gc
sau n lc ct

Hnh 3-17. nh h-ng ca gc nghing
chnh n lc ct
-ng 1: t-ng ng vi bn knh r= 0

* nh h-ng ca gc
nng . Trong gii hn -
5
0
<<+5
0
, nh h-ng ca
gc khng ng k. Khi
gc nng >5
0
, nu tip
tc tng gi tr ca gc
th thnh phn lc P
z
v P
y

tng nh-ng thnh phn lc
P
x
gim (hnh 3-17b)







Hnh3-17b. nh h-ng ca gc
nng n lc ct
*nh h-ng ca bn knh
mi dao r.
Khi tng bn knh mi dao r
lm cc thnh phn lc P
z
v P
y

tng cn P
x
gim. l v khi chiu
su ct t v gc nghing chnh
khng i, nu tng bn knh mi
dao s lm chiu di on cong l-i
ct tham gia ct tng, dn n h s
co rt phoi tng lm P
z
v P
y
tng.
ng thi khi tng r th gc
nghing chnh trn on cong gim
nn thnh phn lc P
y
tng nhanh
hn thnh phn lc P
z
(hnh 3-18),
v d khi tin thp, nu tng r t 0,5
mm ln 5 mm th lc P
z
tng 27%
nh-ng lc P
y
tng ti 200%.
d. nh h-ng ca iu kin
gia cng
* nh h-ng ca mi mn dao. Dao cng mn, din tch tip xc gia cc
b mt lm vic ca dao v b mt gia cng cng ln. Phn cong l-i ct cng
tng do bn knh cong l-i ct tng, gc ct tng nn lc ct tng. Cc khu vc
mi mn ca dao khc nhau dn n cc thnh phn lc ct tng khc nhau.




Hnh3-18. nh h-ng ca bn
knh mi dao lc ct
* nh h-ng ca dung dch trn ngui. Nu t-i dung dch trn ngui
trong qu trnh ct th lc ct gim, nht l khi trong dung dch trn ngui c cht
hot tnh cao. Mc gim ca cc thnh phn lc P
x
, P
y
do nh h-ng ca dung
dch trn ngui nhanh hn 1,5 ln so vi mc gim cc lc P
z
. l v cc
thnh phn lc P
x
, P
y
chu nh h-ng ca lc ma st trn mt tr-c ln hn thnh
phn lc P
z
.
Ngoi ra, ph-ng php to phi v phc to ca hnh dng l-i ct ca
dao cng nh h-ng n gi tr cc thnh phn lc ct.
3.4.3. Cng thc tng qut tnh cc thnh phn lc ct
Nh- vy, bng thc nghim ng-i ta thy rng cc yu t nh h-ng n
cc thnh phn lc ct rt phc tp. Trong cng thc tng qut tnh cc thnh
phn lc ct ng-i ta da vo cng thc (3.7) v (3.8) (cng c ti liu da vo
cng thc (3.6) v (3.7), cn nh h-ng ca cc yu t khc s -a vo h s iu
chnh k
i
).
a. Khi tin chy dao dc bng dao HKC, dao thp gi, cng thc tnh cc
thnh phn lc ct c dng:
P
Z
= C
pz
. t
Xpz
. S
ypz
. HB
npz
. K
pz
[N] (3.9)
P
Y
= C
py
. t
Xpy
. S
ypy
. HB
npy
. K
py
[N] (3.9b)
P
X
= C
px
. t
Xpx
. S
ypx
. HB
npx
. K
px
[N] (3.9c)
b. Khi tin bng dao tin nh hnh cng thc tnh c dng
P
t
= C
pt
. B. S
0,8
o
b
0,35
. K
m
. K
d
[N] (3.9d)
Trong cc cng thc trn:
C
p
- h s iu chnh c tr-ng cho s nh h-ng nhm vt liu gia cng.
B- chiu di ca phn l-i ct nh hnh tham gia ct, mm.
k
pi
= k

. k

. k
o
. k
vl
. k
d.d
.k
r
. kn (vi i = x, y, z).
k

- H s iu chnh c tr-ng cho s nh h-ng ca gc nghing chnh.


k

- h s iu chnh c tr-ng cho s nh h-ng ca gc tr-c


k
o
- h s iu chnh c tr-ng cho s nh h-ng ca gc sau
k
vl
- h s iu chnh c tr-ng cho s nh h-ng ca vt liu ang gia cng.
k.
d d
- h s iu chnh c tr-ng cho s nh h-ng ca dung dch trn ngui
k
r
- h s iu chnh c tr-ng cho s nh h-ng ca bn knh mi dao
k
m
- h s iu chnh c tr-ng cho s nh h-ng ca mn dao.
k
d
- h s iu chnh c tr-ng cho s nh h-ng ca hnh dng l-i ct.
Gi tr ca cc h s v s m cho trong cc s tay gia cng c kh hoc cc
bng trong [4].


3.5. Tc ct khi tin
Tc ct l mt trong nhng thng s c bn quyt nh nng sut gia
cng, cht l-ng b mt v gi thnh sn phm. Tng tc ct, nng sut gia
cng tng v thi gian my gim. Nh-ng tng tc ct lm tui bn dao gim
nhanh (2.11) do tng thi gian mi li dao, thi gian thay dao, tn vt liu lm
phn ct ca dao v mi, nhng chi ph ny lm gi thnh sn phm tng ln.
Ngoi ra tc ct cn b khng ch bi cc yu t khc nh- tnh cht c l vt
liu gia cng, chiu su ct v l-ng chy dao, thng s hnh hc phn ct ca
dao, s dng dung dch trn ngui. xc lp mi quan h gia tc ct v cc
yu t k trn, ng-i ta tin hnh nghin cu nh h-ng ca tng yu t n tc
ct sau lp biu thc thc nghim tng qut.
3.5.1. Cc yu t nh h-ng n tc ct
a. nh h-ng ca tui bn dao. Theo biu thc (2.11) chng ta c quan h
gia tc ct v tui bn l:
V = ] / [ ph m
T
A
m
(3.10a)
Trong h to vung gc (trc tung l V, trc honh l T), th ph-ng
trnh (3.10a) l -ng Hy-pec-bn (hnh 3-19). thun li cho qu trnh kho





Hnh 3-19. Quan h gia tc ct v tui bn ca dao

st ct, ng-i ta th-ng biu din hm V= f(T) d-i dng th logarit
(hnh 3-19b), v ph-ng trnh (3.10a) tr thnh ph-ng trnh -ng thng
c dng:
lgV = lgA - m lg T (3.10b)
-ng thng ca ph-ng trnh (3.10b) c gc nghing o v:
tg o = m
xc nh tc ct hp l (tc ct hp l l tc ct va m
bo cht l-ng, va bo m nng sut cao nht v gi thnh h nht theo
quan h V= f(T)), chng ta phi xc nh tui bn hp l. Hin nay ch-a c cng
thc xc nh -c tui bn hp l v tui bn T ph thuc rt nhiu yu t
(thng s hnh hc dao, vt liu gia cng, t, s v ...), ch xc nh -c tui bn
nng sut -Tns:

td s n
t
m
m
T .
1
.

= [pht] (3.11)
Vi tui bn ny cho nng sut chi tit gia cng l cao nht. V tui bn
kinh t -T
kt
:
|
.
|

\
|
+

=
E
e
t
m
m
T
td kt
.
1
[pht] (3.12)
Vi tui bn ny cho gi thnh chi tit gia cng l thp nht. Khi nghin
cu qu trnh cng ngh ng-i ta th-ng dng tui bn kinh t.
Da vo cc biu thc (3.11) v (3.12) chng ta c: tc ct nng sut- V
ns

-c tnh theo cng thc:
] / [ ph m
T
A
V
m
ns
ns
= (3.13)
V tc ct kinh t
] / [
.
ph m
T
A
V
m
t k
kt
= (3.14)
Trong cc cng thc (3.11), (3.12)
t
td
- l thi gian thay dao ca mt ln thay dao, ph
m- s m trong biu thc (3.10a)
e- chi ph lin quan n s dng dao ct trong khong tui bn T ca
dao, ng.
E- chi ph tin l-ng v hao mn my trong mt pht, ng
b. nh h-ng ca chiu su ct t v l-ng chy dao S. Tng chiu su ct
v l-ng chy dao th bin dng tng nn lc ct v nhit ct tng. tui bn
dao chn tr-c khng i, tc ct cho php cn thit phi gim. Quan h
gia tc ct vi chiu su ct v l-ng chy dao -c biu thi theo cng thc.

V V
y x
S t
C
V
.
1
= [m/ph] (3.15)
Trong C
1
- h s ph thuc vo tnh cht c l ca vt liu chi tit gia
cng, vt liu phn ct ca dao v iu kin gia cng.
t, mm; S, mm/vng
x
x
, y
v
- s m biu th mc nh h-ng ca chiu su ct v l-ng
chy dao.
Thng th-ng x
v
<y
v
, ngha l nh h-ng ca chiu su ct n tc ct
nh hn nh h-ng ca l-ng chy dao n tc ct. l v khi tng t hoc
tng S cng mt l-ng nh- nhau th khi tng t chiu di lm vic ca l-i ct
tng, cn khi tng S th chiu di phn lm vic ca l-i ct khng i nn nhit
truyn i tt hn, dao mn t hn.
3. nh h-ng ca dng c ct
* nh h-ng ca gc
tr-c v gc sau o. Nu
tng gc tr-c hoc gc
sau s gim ma st gia
phoivi mt tr-c v gia
b mt gia cng vi mt
sau nn gim lc ct,
cng ct do nhit ct
gim. Nh-ng nu hoc
o tng qu tr s gii hn
s lm cho gc sc gim,
iu kin truyn nhit
km nn nhit l-i
ct tng, dao chng mn,
lm tui bn gim ng


Hnh 3-20. Quan h gia gc tr-c v gc sau
vi tc ct
thi bn phn ct ca dao cng gim. Do mun gi nguyn tui bn
chn th phi gim tc ct, cho nn khi ct cn chn gc tr-c hp l (
h.l
) v
gc sau hp l (o
h.l
) (hnh 3-20).
tng tui bn ca dao ng-i ta th-ng mi thm cnh vt l-i ct vi
chiu rng f = a (chiu dy ct).
(chiu dy ct).
Gc
0
cnh vt c
gi tr
0
= 0
0
-5
0

i vi dao hp kim
cng, bng 0
0
5
0

i vi dao thp gi
(hnh 3-21)



Hnh 3-21. Dao tin c cnh vt f
* nh h-ng ca gc nghing chnh v gc nghing ph
1
. Nu l-ng
chy dao v chiu su ct khng thay i, khi gim gc nghing chnh th chiu
dy lp ct a gim cn chiu rng lp ct b v gc mi dao c tng nn iu kin
truyn nhit tt v vy nhit ti vng tip xc ca dao vi phoi v b mt gia
cng cng nh- p lc ring trn l-i ct gim. Do nu gi nguyn tui bn
ca dao chn (T = const), c th tng tc ct (hnh 3-22). Song khng th
gim gc qu nhiu v b hn ch bi cng vng ca h thng cng ngh
(gc cng gim s cng lm lm tng cc thnh phn lc P
y
, P
z
).

Hnh 3-22. Quan h gia tc ct v gc nghing chnh
Khi h thng MGDC c cng vng cao, khi gia cng bn tinh v gia
cng tinh c th chn = 10
0
30
0
; nu h thng cng ngh km cng vng, c
bit vi chi tit nh v di chn = 60
0
75
0.
Gc nghing ph
`1
nh h-ng ti tc ct khng ln, chn gc

1
= 5
0
10
0
l tt nht.
Quan h gia tc ct vi gc v
1
c th biu th bng cng thc thc
nghim sau:
2 1
2
.
x x
C
V

=
* nh h-ng ca bn knh mi dao r. Nu gi nguyn tui bn dao, khi tng
bn knh mi dao cho php tng tc ct v khi chiu rng lp ct tng,
chiu dy lp ct on cong gim nn nhit l-ng trn mt n v chiu di ca
l-i ct gim. Song khi tng r th rung ng tng, v vy ch trong tr-ng hp h
thng MGDC cng vng hoc khi gia cng tinh mi dng dao c bn knh
mi dao ln.
nh h-ng ca bn knh mi dao n tc ct c th biu th bng cng
thc thc nghim sau:
V = C
3
. r
uv
(m/ph)
* nh h-ng ca mt ct ngang thn dao. Kch th-c mt ct ngang thn dao
cng ln dao s thot nhit tt, cng vng dao tng, bin giao ng gim
nn cho php tng tc ct nu gi nguyn tui bn dao. Trong iu kin cho
php ( g dao, kch th-c l gia cng), c gng dng kch th-c ln nht.
3. nh h-ng ca vt liu
* nh h-ng ca vt liu gia cng. Cc vt liu c bn, cng cng cao,
h s truyn nhit thp th gim tc khi ct nu T = const.
* nh h-ng ca vt liu lm dao. Vt liu lm dao c chu nhit cao, h
s truyn nhit ln, h s ma st nh, cng v bn cao, kh nng chu ti
chu k tt th c th nng cao tc ct khi T = const.
4. nh h-ng ca iu kin gia cng
* nh h-ng ca cht trn ngui. Trong qu trnh ct, t-i trn ngui s lm
gim h s ma st, gim bin dng, qu trnh hnh thnh v thot phoi d hn, lc
ct gim, ng thi nhit sinh ra -c tn nhanh vo dung dch nn nhit trn
dng c gim. Do vy cho php tng tc ct khi gi nguyn tui bn dao
chn. c bit khi gia cng cc loi vt liu kh gia cng, c h s dn
nhit nh th vic t-i dung dch trn ngui cng c hiu qu. nh h-ng ca dung
ch trn ngui i vi qu trnh ct bng dao thp gi ln hn ct bng dao hp
kim cng. V d khi ct bng dao thp gi c t-i dung dch trn ngui c th tng
tc ct ln ti 40%, trong khi nu ct bng dao HKC ch tng -c t 3 12%
tu theo gia cng tinh hay gia cng th.
Hiu qu vic tng tc ct khi ct c t-i dung dch trn ngui cn ph
thuc vo thnh phn dung dch trn ngui, ph-ng php t-i dung dch trn ngui
(t-i p sut bnh th-ng, hay phun p sut cao, hay phun dng s-ng m,
hnh 3-23).

Hnh 3-23. mn ca dao ph thuc vo ph-ng php t-i
-ng 1- ng vi tr-ng hp phun dung dch trn ngui p sut bnh th-ng.
-ng 2- ng vi tr-ng hp phun dung dch trn ngui p sut cao
(200N/mm
2
) v -ng knh l vi phun d = 0,75mm dng tia.
* nh h-ng ca ph-ng php tin. Trong iu kin gia cng m kh nng
thot nhit cng km, thot phoi v t-i dung dch trn ngui kh th chn tc
ct thp. Nu ly tc ct khi tin mt tr ngoi c h s iu chnh K l 1 n
v th tc ct khi tin l c K = 0,8 0,95 tu theo -ng knh l gia cng;
tin rnh, tin ct t c K = 0,5 0,6; khi xn mt u c K = 1,05.
3.5.2. Cng thc tng qut tnh tc ct
Qua nghin cu, chng ta thy tc ct ph thuc rt nhiu yu t v rt
phc tp . n gin v ph hp vi thc t, khi lp cng thc tnh tc ct
ng-i ta da ch yu vo cc cng thc thc nghim (3.10a) v (3.15), cn nh
h-ng ca cc yu t khc -a vo h s iu chnh K
v
. Cng thc thc nghim
tnh tc ct c dng:
] ph / m [ K .
s . t . T
C
V
v y x m
v
v v
= (3.16)
Trong :
C
v
- h s iu chnh ph thuc nhm vt liu gia cng
m, x
x
, y
V
- biu th mc nh h-ng ca tui bn, chiu su ct v l-ng
chy dao n tc ct, ph thuc iu kin gia cng.
T- tui bn dao, ph
t- chiu su ct, mm
S- l-ng chy dao, mm/vg
K
V
= k
vl
. k

. k

. k
o
. k
m
. k
dd
...
- cc h s iu chnh tc do nh h-ng ca vt liu gia cng, gc
nghing chnh, gc tr-c, gc sau, bn knh mi dao, mn ca dng c v dung
dch trn ngui...
Tt c cc h s v s m u c th tra trong cc s tay cng ngh hoc
trong [4]
3.6. Xc nh cc thng s ct hp l
3.6.1. Thng s ct hp l v c s ban u xc nh
a. Khi nim v thng s ct hp l. Thng s ct hp l l thng s
m bo nng sut, gi thnh hp l nht trong iu kin sn xut c th
song phi bo m cht l-ng ca chi tit gia cng theo yu cu thit k
ra.
b. C s ban u xc nh thng s ct hp l. xc nh cc thng s
ct hp l tr-c ht cn bit:
* Vt liu v dng phi (phi rn, phi dp hay phi cn nng, phi cn
ngui...) ca phi gia cng.
* L-ng d- gia cng h
* Kch th-c v cc yu cu k thut ( nhm b mt, sai s hnh dng
v v tr ca cc b mt...) ca chi tit gia cng.
* iu kin trang thit b cng ngh v kh nng chuyn mn ca ni gia
cng. Ti liu k thut ca thit b.
c. Cc ni dung cn xc nh
* Chn dng c ct
* Xc nh cc yu t ch ct t, S, V sao cho m bo cht l-ng, nng
sut cao v gi thnh thp.
Trong sn xut c khi nim nng sut khi l-ng cng vic v nng sut
my (hay cn gi l nng sut cng ngh). Nng sut khi l-ng cng vic Q
-c xc nh theo cng thc:

ph
c
ct
c
T T
T
T
T
Q
+
= =
0
[chic]
Nng sut my Q
m
-c xc nh theo cng thc

0
1
T
Q
m
= [chic] (3.17a)
Trong :
Q- s chi tit sn xut -c trong mt ca, chic
T
c
- thi gian lm vic lin tc trong mt ca, ph
T
ph
- thi gian ph cn thit hon thnh nguyn cng cng ngh, ph
T
0
- thi gian my, ph
nng cao nng sut khi l-ng cng vic Q khng ch c cc yu t ct
m cn ph thuc rt nhiu cc yu t khc nh- trang b cng ngh, t chc sn
xut... Cc yu t ny do cc mn hc khc nghin cu gim T
ph
. y ta s
nghin cu nng sut my Q
m
.
nng cao nng sut my Q
m
, phi gim T
0
bng cch tng t, S, V (khi L,
h, D khng i) Tht vy, nu thay gi tr ca T
0
theo cng thc (1.12) vo cng
thc (3.17a) ta c:

h L D
V
Q
m
. . .
. t.S 10
3
t
= (3.17b)
Trong : D, L, h - ng vi chi tit gia cng cho. V nu t

0
3
. . .
. 10
A
h L D
=
t
, ph-ng trnh (3.17b) c dng:
Q
m =
A
0
. t. S . V (3.17c)

Theo (3.17C), nng sut my Q
m
l i l-ng t l thun vi tch chiu su
ct t, l-ng chy dao S v tc ct V. Mun Q
m
t gi tr ln nht th tch (t,
S,V) ln nht.Tc tng yu t t, V, S l ln nht. Tuy nhin trong thc t khng
th tng cc i l-ng ny mt cch tu v gia cc yu t ch ct c quan
h vi nhau theo (3.16). Ngha l nu tng chiu su ct t v l-ng chy dao S th
phi gim tc ct tui bn T khng i.
* Tnh ton chn my hoc kim nghim li kt qu xc nh v so snh
vi kh nng ca my.
3.6.2. Trnh t xc nh thng s ct
Cc yu t ch ct t, S, V u l cc yu t ch-a bit cn -c xc
nh. nng sut my Q
m
l ln nht, theo quan im tui bn dng c th
chn theo th t chiu su ct t, l-ng chy dao S v tc ct V. V tc
ct nh h-ng ti tui bn l ln nht, sau ti l-ng chy dao v chiu
su ct. Tht vy, chng ta xt v d sau: xc nh nng sut my trong hai
tr-ng hp:
Tr-ng hp mt: Tng chiu su ct ln 3 ln, gi nguyn l-ng chy dao S
(S= const)
Tr-ng hp hai: Tng l-ng chy dao ln 3 ln, gi nguyn chiu su ct t
(t= const)
C hai tr-ng hp T= const; x
v
=1/3 v y
v
= 2/3.
Gii: K hiu tc ct ban u (khng tng t hoc S) l V, tc ct
tr-ng hp mt l V
3t
v tr-ng hp hai l V
3s
, t-ng ng, nng sut my ln l-t
l Q
m
, Q
3t
v Q
3s
. Thay cc gi tr vo cng thc (3.16) ta c:
Tr-ng hp mt:
V
S t T
C
S t T
C
V
m
v
m
v
t
7 , 0
. .
7 , 0
. ) . 3 (
1
3 / 2 3 / 1 3 / 2 3 / 1
3
~ ~ =
Vy trong tr-ng hp mt, tc ct gim 30% so vi khi khng tng t v
nng sut my trong tr-ng hp ny:
Q
3t
= A
0
. 0,7V. 3t. S = 2,1 Q
m

Ngha l nng sut tng hn 2 ln.
Tr-ng hp hai:
V 5 , 0
S . t . T
C
5 , 0
. ) S . 3 .( t
C
T
C
V
3 / 2 3 / 1
v
3 / 2 3 / 1
v
m
v
s 3
~ ~ =
Trong tr-ng hp ny tc ct gim 50% so vi khi khng tng S v nng
sut my tr-ng hp ny l:
Q
3s
= A
0
x 0,5V x t x 3V = 1,5Q
m

Ngha l nng sut my tng 1,5 ln.
Qua v d trn chng ta cn thy, Q
m
ln nht theo quan im tui bn
th tr-c ht chn t ln nht trong iu kin c th, sau tnh ton chn S. Sau
khi chn t v S, trn c s tui bn chn, tin hnh tnh tc ct hp l
V. Song mt khc, nh- nhn xt mc (3.5.2) chiu su ct nh h-ng n lc
ct ln hn so vi l-ng chy dao nn theo quan im v lc ct v cng sut ct
th nn chn theo th t tc ct, l-ng chy dao, chiu su ct. Tuy nhin,
trong thc t t khi s dng ht cng sut my. V vy s chn ch ct theo
quan im tui bn dao sau kim nghim cng sut my.
C hai ph-ng php xc nh ch ct:
Ph-ng php xc nh cc yu t ch ct chn theo bng v ph-ng
php tnh ton. Ph-ng php chn theo bng -c s dng khi kt cu chi tit
khng phc tp hoc khi c chi tit t-ng t -c gia cng. y trnh by
theo ph-ng php tnh ton.
Cc b-c chn cc yu t ct hp l
a. Chn dng c ct, bao gm:
* Chn vt liu phn ct ca dng c, da vo tnh cht c l v dng phi
gia cng; iu kin ct (ct th-ng hay ct tc cao)...
* Chn thng s hnh hc ca dng c, chn da vo tnh cht c l vt liu
gia cng, vt liu phn ct ca dng c; dng gia cng (gia cng th hay gia cng
tinh); cng vng ca MGDC v cc iu kin khc.
* Kch th-c mt ct ngang ca thn dao v loi dao. Trong iu kin c
th, chn kch th-c mt ct ngang thn dao cng ln cng tt.
* Chn tui bn kinh t ca dao (chn theo tiu chun). Th-ng dao tin
ngoi u thng T = 30 60ph; dao tin nh hnh dao tin ren T = 120ph.
b. Xc nh chiu su ct: chn chiu su ct t da vo cng sut ca my v
cht l-ng b mt gia cng. Nu khng c yu cu g c bit, khi gia cng th
nn chn t = h (h- l-ng d- gia cng ca nguyn cng); khi gia cng bn tinh
bng dao thp gi nu l-ng d- gia cng hs 2mm th ct mt ln, nu h> 2 mm
th ct hai ln vi chiu su ct ln mt l t
1
= (2/3 3/4) h, cn li l ln hai; khi
gia cng tinh, chn t theo yu cu nhm b mt, nu nhm cn t l cp 5
(R
z
= 20m) th chn t = (0,5 2)mm, cn nu yu cu nhm l cp 6 7
(R
a
= 2,5 1,25m) th chn t = (0,1 0,4)mm.
c. Xc nh l-ng chy dao cho php ln nht. L-ng chy dao b hn
ch bi cc yu t sau: sc bn v cng vng ca thn dao, cng
vng ca chi tit gia cng v ph-ng php g t chng ln my, bn c
cu chy dao ca my, bn ca mnh HKC v vt liu gm nu l gia
cng th; cn gia cng tinh, l-ng chy dao b hn ch ch yu bi
nhm b mt chi tit gia cng.
* Tnh l-ng chy dao khi tin th
- Tnh l-ng chy dao theo sc bn ca thn dao. Khi ct, lc ct chnh Pz
lm dao b un (hnh 3-24). dao khng b ph hu do un th:
M
u
s [M
u
] (3.18)
Trong : M
u
- m men un do lc ct chnh P
z
gy ra trong mt phng
thng ng, v:
M
u
= P
z
. L [N.mm] (3.19)
Vi L- chiu di phn cng xn ca dao, mm
[M
u
]=[o
u
].W
u
[N.mm]
(3.20a)
Vi [o
u
] - ng sut un
cho php ca vt liu thn
dao, N/mm
2

W
u
- m men chng un
ca thn dao, mm
3
. Nu
mt ct ngang thn dao l

Hnh 3-24. S tnh m men un tc dng ln dao
hnh ch nht, c kch th-c chiu rngl B, mm v kch th-c chiu cao l
H, mm th: ] [
6
.
3
2
mm
H B
W
u
= (3.20b)
Nu mt ct ngang thn dao l hnh trn, c -ng knh l D, mm th:
] [
32
.
3
3
mm
D
W
u
t
= (3.20c)
Thay cc cng thc (3.9a), (3.19) v (3.20a) vo cng thc (3.18) ta c:
P
z
. L s [o
u
] . W
u
Hay C
Pz
. t
xpz
. S
ypz
. k
pz
. L s [o
u
]. W
u
(3.21)
Rt S t ph-ng trnh (3.21) v k hiu l-ng chy dao l S
1
. Ta -c:
Pz
y
pz
xpz
pz
u u
L k t C
W
S
. . .
]. [
1
o
s [mm/vng] (3.22)
- Tnh l-ng chy dao theo sc bn c cu chy dao. Nu k hiu lc chiu
trc cho php tc dng ln c cu chy dao l [P
m
] (tr s ny th-ng -c cho
trong l lch ca my). c cu chy dao khng b ph hu th lc [P
m
] phi ln
hn lc cn tc dng ln c cu chy dao, ngha l:
[P
m
] > P
x
+ f(P
y
+ P
z
) (3.23a)
Ly t-ng quan gia cc thnh phn lc ct:
2
1
~
z
y
p
p
v
3
1
~
z
x
p
p
, v chn h
s ma st f = 0,1. Thay cc gi tr vo cng thc (3.23a) theo lc P
x
, ta c:
[P
m
] > P
x
+ 0,1 [3P
x
+ 1,5P
x
) = 1,45P
x

Hay [P
m
] > 1,45 . C
px
. t
xpx
. S
ypx
.k
px
(3.23b)
K hiu l-ng chy dao ph-ng trnh (3.23b) l S
s
, ta c:

Pz y
Pz
Px
x
px
m
k t C
p
S
. . . 45 , 1
] [
2
s [mm/vng] (3.24)
- Tnh l-ng chy dao theo cng vng ca chi tit v ph-ng php
g t chi tit ln my. Khi tin nht l tin cc chi tit di c -ng knh
nh, lc Q =
y
2
z
2
y
P 2 , 2 P P ~ + (ly P
y
= 0,5P
z
) lm chi tit b un cong trong
mt phng cha lc Q, sau khi gia cng chi tit b sai s hnh dng. vng f do
lc Q gy ra -c tnh theo cng thc:

J . E . K
L . p 2 , 2
J . E . K
L . Q
f
3
y
3
= = [mm]
m bo chnh xc ca chi tit gia cng, vng f phi nh hn
vng cho php [f] ngha l:
| | f
KEJ
L P . 2 , 2
3
y
s
Hay: | | f K . S . t . C
KEJ
L . 2 , 2
y
Py Py
p
y x
Py
3
s (3.25)
K hiu l-ng chy dao ph-ng trnh (3.25) l S
3
, ta c

| |
Py
y
Py
y
p
x
K t L
f J E K
S
. . . 2 , 2
. .
3
3
s [mm/vng] (3.26)
Trong : E- m uyn n hi ca vt liu phi, N/mm
2
. i vi thp kt
cu E = 2,1 x 10
7
N/mm
2

J- m men qun tnh ca mt ct ngang ca chi tit gia cng, mm
4

L- chiu di ca chi tit gia cng (khng k on nm trong mm cp ca
ca my), mm
[f] - vng cho php ca chi tit gia cng. Nu bn v thit k
khng cho c th chn nh- sau: khi tin th: [f] = (0,2 0,4)mm, khi
tin bn tinh f = 0,1mm; khi tin tinh f = 0,2A. Vi A l dung sai kch
th-c ang gia cng.
K-h s ph thuc cch g chi tit. i vi chi tit hnh tr c th c ba
cch g trn my tin.
Mt u chi tit cp trn mm cp, u cn li t do (hnh 3-25a), k = 3

Hnh 3-25. Cc cch g chi tit tr ln my
- Hai u chng tm, K = 48 (hnh 3.25b)
- Mt u cp trong mm cp, u kia chng tm, K = 100 (hnh 3-25c).
Tr s nh nht trong cc l-ng chy dao S
1
, S
2,
, S
3
l l-ng chy dao cho
php ln nht m ta chn -c (tc l-ng chy dao hp l).- k hiu l S
hl
. Da
vo my, chn l-ng chy dao c trn my S
m
sS
h.l
- gi l l-ng chy dao thc
t (hay l-ng chy dao my)
Ch : Ch tin hnh tnh l-ng chy dao theo bn ca dao (S
1
) khi thy
c vn nghi ng (v d, khi phn cng xn ca dao qu ln m kch th-c mt
ct ngang thn dao li nh).
* Tnh l-ng chy dao khi tin tinh. L-ng chy dao khi gia cng tinh tnh
trn c s phi bo m nhm b mt chi tit gia cng t yu cu ca thit
k. L-ng chy dao -c tnh theo cc cng thc thc nghim sau:
Khi gia cng thp:
] vong / mm [
21 , 0
r . R
S
65 , 0
z .
s (3.27)
Khi gia cng gang:
] vong / mm [
89 , 0
r . R
S
z .
s (3.28)
Trong : R
z
- chiu cao trung bnh nhp nh, m.
r- bn knh mi dao, mm
d- Tnh tc ct v s vng quay. Sau khi xc nh -c t, S v tui bn
chn, tin hnh tnh tc ct. Tc ct -c tnh theo cng sut my v
theo tui bn ca dao.
* Tnh tc ct theo kh nng cho php ca cng sut my:
] ph / m [
P
. N
10 . 60 V
z
c . d 3
s . c
q
= (3.29)
Trong : N
c
- cng sut ng c ca my, kW
q- hiu sut my
P
z
- lc ct tip tuyn, N
* Tnh tc ct theo tui bn ca dao. Tc ct theo tui bn ca dao V
t

-c tnh theo cng thc (3.16)
So snh V
cs
v V
T
chn tc ct hp l- V
hl
. Nu:
V
T
>V
c.S
, chn V
h.L
= V
c.S
v tn dng ht tui bn ca dao nhm nng
cao tnh kinh t cn nh li tui bn ca dao cao hn hoc chn li dao c vt
liu phn ct c gi thnh thp hn.
V
T
< V
c,.S
, chn V
h.L
=V
T
, cn nu mun chn V
h.L
= V
c.S
tn dng ti a
cng sut my th phi chn li tui bn dao thp hn hoc chn dao c vt liu
phn ct tt hn.
* Tnh s vng quay ca my n. S vng quay cn thit ca trc chnh my
-c tnh theo cng thc:
] / [
1000
ph vong
D
V
n
t
= (3.30)
Trong :
V- tc ct hp l chn, m/ph
D- -ng knh ln nht b mt gia cng, mm
S vng quay tnh theo cng thc (3.30) c kh nng gia hai s vng
quay lin tip trn my l n
k
v n
k+1
, ngha l n
k
<n< n
k+1
(v hu ht my vn
nng c phm vi iu chnh tc l phn cp). m bo my lm vic
tt nn ly n = n
k
= n
m
- gi l s vng quay thc t trn my. Nu mun chn
n
m
= n
k+1
, th phi gim l-ng chy dao S
m
trnh qu ti. L-ng chy dao
mi S
m


-c tnh theo cng thc sau:

|
|
.
|

\
|
=
+1 k
k
m
'
m
n
n
S S [mm/vng] (3.30)
D nhin S
m

cng phi chn theo l-ng chy dao c trn my. Nn nh rng
chn S
m
v n
k
hay chn S
m

v n
k+1
phi bo m tch (n . S) l ln nht bo
m nng sut cao v gi thnh r nht.
Sau khi tnh -c n
m
, tnh li tc ct thc t. (V
tt
) in vo phiu
cng ngh theo cng thc:

1000
Dn
V
m
t . t
t
= [m/ph]
e. Kim nghim kh nng my theo kt qu tnh -c. iu kin
my ct chn ct -c theo cc yu t ch ct chn l: m men xon
tnh theo s vng quay ca trc chnh - M
x n
phi ln hn m men xon tnh theo
lc ct M
xpz
ngha l:
M
xn
> M
xpz
(3.32)
M men xon theo lc ct chnh P
z
-c tnh:

1000 . 2
D . P
M
z
x
Pz
= [N.m] (3.32b)
M men xon theo s vng quay trc chnh ca my n
m
-c tnh

m
dc
xn
n
N
M
05 , 1
. 10
4
q
= [N.m] (3.32c)
Nu iu kin trn khng tho mn, phi chn li t hoc S
* Cng sut ct N
c
s N
c
. q.
Trong :
D - -ng knh ln nht ca b mt gia cng, mm
P
z
, N
n
m
, vng/ph
N
c
- cng sut ng c ca my, kW
q - hiu sut ca my
g. Tnh thi gian my T
0
. Thi gian my tnh theo cng thc (1.12)
V d:
Xc nh cc yu t ct hp l tin chi tit hnh tr vi cc yu cu sau:
kch th-c -ng knh sau gia cng u30h8, nhm b mt R
a
= 2,5m, chiu i
chi tit gia cng: L = 200mm, vt liu thp cn C45 c -ng knh u35.
Gii: vi yu cu k thut: chnh xc kch th-c -ng knh l IT8 v
nhm cp 6 (R
a
= 2,5m), chi tit phi qua tin tinh. Vy qu trnh ct c hai
b-c: tin th v tin tinh. Chn my gia cng: My 1K62
V
D
l
~7 nn chn s g t l mt u chng tm u cn li kp vo
mm cp.
Qu trnh gia cng c dng dung dch trn - ngui
1. B-c 1: tin th
* Chn dng c ct:
- Vt liu phn ct ca dng
c thp P18.
- Kch th-c thn dao: V
tin ngoi v kh nng lp
dao, chn kch th-c mt ct
ngang thn dao: B x H = 16 x
25mm, bng 1 - trang 5 [4].
- Dng dao: dao tin u thng.
- Chn dng mt tr-c: gia cng thp c o
b
= 700900N/mm
2
nn chn
dng II - mt tr-c phng c cnh vt f = 0,5mm. Bng 2 - trang 6 [4].
- Chn thng s hnh hc phn ct u dao, v gia cng th v vt liu phn
ct dao l P18 nn chn o = 8
0
; = 30
0
v

= 0
0
, bng 3 - trang 7[4]; do tin ph
phi c cng vng thp nn chn = 70
0
v
1
= 20
0
, bng 4 trang 10 [4] v
v r = 1mm.
- Chn tui bn ca dao: T = 60ph,
* Chn chiu su ct t:
l-ng d- cho b-c ct tinh: h = 0,4mm, nn l-ng d- cho b-c ct th:
h
th
= h
tng
- h
tinh
=
2
1
(35-30) - 0,4 = 2,1mm
V gia cng th v l-ng d- khng ln nn chn t = h = 2,1mm
* Xc nh l-ng chy dao: do chn kch th-c mt ct ngang thn
dao ln, gia cng th (dung sai kch th-c ng vi IT12 nn gi tr ca
vng f ln), nn y chn l-ng chy dao m khng tnh. Theo bng 11
trang 46 [4] chn S = 0,5mm/vng v tr s trng vi gi tr trn my
nn S
m
= 0,5mm/vng.
* Tnh tc ct
Tnh tc ct theo tui bn dao, theo cng thc (3.16)

v
yv xv m
v
Gc
k
s t T
c
V .
. .
= [m/ph]
Theo bng 17 trang 53 [4]: C
v
= 56; x
v
= 0,25; y
v
= 0,66; m = 0,125
V: Kvl
v
= c
m
nv
b
|
|
.
|

\
|
o
750
. , bng 18 trang 57 [4]
C
m
= 1; n
v
= 1,75, bng 19 trang 57 [4]
Thp C45 c o
b
= 500N/mm
2

K
v.L
= 03 , 2
500
750
. 1
75 , 1
= |
.
|

\
|

K
nv
(tnh n trng thi b mt phi) = 1,0, bng 23 trang 60 [4]
K
0v
(nh h-ng ca dng gia cng) = 1,0, bng 23a trang 60 [4]
Kd . C
v
(nh h-ng ca vt liu phn ct dng c) = 1,0, bng 24 trang 61 [4]
K
v
= 0,8; K
1v
= 0,94; K
Tv
= 0,04; Kq
v
= 0,97, bng 25 trang 62 [4].
H s iu chnh :
K
v
- 2,03 x 1 x 1 x 1 x 0, 8 x 0,94 x 0,94 x 0,97 = 1,48
Vy ph / m 8 , 36 48 , 1 x
5 , 0 x 1 , 2 x 60
56
V
66 , 0 25 , 0 25 , 0
0 g
= =
Tnh s vng quay trc chnh theo cng thc (3.30)
ph / vg 8 , 334
5 , 3 xx
8 , 36 . 1000
n
tt
= =
t

Vy s vng quay tnh ton n
tt
nm gia hai gi tr vng quay lin tip trn
my 1K62 l n
k
= 315 vng/ph v n
k+1
= 400 vng/ph. bo m tui bn dng

c, chn n
n
= 315vng/ph.
Tnh li tc ct thc t theo (1.11) c
ph m
x x
V / 6 , 34
1000
315 35
= =
t

* Kim tra li kh nng ca my. My 1K62 c cng sut ng c N = 10kW v
hiu sut my q = 0,85.
- Kim tra theo iu kin m men xon ca my theo cng thc (3.32)
Tnh m men xon theo s vng quay theo (3.32c) c:
257
315 05 , 1
85 , 0 . 10 . 10
. 4
~ =
x
Mxn [N.M]
Tnh m men xon theo lc ct chnh P
z
. Lc ct chnh P
z
-c tnh theo
cng thc (3.9a)
P
z
= C
pz
. t
xpz
. S
ypz
. k
pz
[N]
Trong : C
pz
= 2000; x
pz
= 1,0; y
pz
= 0,75; n
pz
= 0, bng 6 trang 40 [4]. Cc
h s hiu chnh k
pz
nh- sau:

np
b
vl
750
K |
.
|

\
| o
= , bng 7 trang 43 [4]
Vi n
p
= 0,35, bng 8 trang 43 [4]
K
p
= 0,98; K

= 1,0; K
o
= 1,0; K

= 1,0; K
T
= 0,93, bng 10 . 25 trang [5].
Vy K
pz
=
35 , 0
750
500
|
.
|

\
|
x 0,98 x 1 x 1 x 1 x 0,93 = 1,76
Thay cc gi tr vo (3.9a) -c:
P
z
= 2000 x 2,1
1
x 0,5
0,75
x 34,6
0
x 1,76 = 5289,6N
Thay cc s liu vo cng thc (3.32b) ta c:
m . N 6 , 92
1000 x 2
35 x 6 , 5289
Mx
pz
~ =
Vy M
xpz
< M
xn
nn cc yu t ch ct chn tho mn -c iu kin
gia cng trn my 1K62 theo iu kin m men xon.
Kim tra my theo iu kin cng sut my. iu kin ct -c:
N
c
sN
c
. q
Cng sut ct N
c
:
7 , 1
10 x 60
6 , 34 x 6 , 5289
10 . 60
V . P
Nc
3 3
= = = kW
N
c
= 1,7kW < N
c
. q = 10 x 0,85 = 8,5 kW
Tho mn iu kin ct -c theo cng sut my.
Kt lun: vi cc yu t ch ct chn s gia cng -c trn my
chn (my 1K62)
* Thi gian my khi tin th - T
0

* T cng thc (1. 12) . T
01
=
t
h
.
s . n
l l l
2 1
+ +
[ph]
y : l = 200mm; chn l
2
= 2mm

l
1
= t . cotg = 2,1 . cotg70
0
= 2,1 x 0,577 ~ 1,2mm
h = 2,1mm; n
m
= 315vg/ph; s = 0,5vg/ph; t = 2,1mm
Thay s vo ta c:
T
01
= 3 , 1
1 , 2
1 , 2
5 , 0 . 315
2 , 1 2 200
=
+ +
ph
2. B-c 2: gia cng tinh
* Chn dao: - Vt liu lm dao: thp gi
- Cc thng s hnh hc phn ct, dao gia cng tinh nn chn o = 12
0
; = 25
0
;
bng 3 trang 7 [4]; = 30
0
;
1
= 5
0
, bng 4 trang 10 [4] v r = 2mm; kch th-c mt
ct ngang thn dao B x H = 16 x 25mm; dao tin u thng c mt tr-c dng II;
T = 60 ph.
* Chiu su ct: t = 0,4mm
* Chn l-ng chy dao. y l b-c gia cng tinh thp nn l-ng
chy dao -c tnh theo cng thc (3.27), hoc tra bng - Theo bng 16
trang 52 [4] c: S = 0,15mm/vng, gi tr ny trngvi mt gi tr trn
my nn S
m
= 0,15mm/vng.
* Tnh tc ct: Thay cc h s hiu chnh v s m vo (3.16) c:
V
o0
= ph m/ 6 , 46 48 , 1
15 , 0 4 , 0 60
56
66 , 0 25 , 0 125 , 0
~


S vng quay cn thit ca trc chnh my:
482
8 , 30
6 , 46 1000
~

=
t
n vg/ph
Chn theo s vng quay c thc trn my n
m
= 500vng/ph
* Thi gian my khi tin tinh - T
02
:
Nh- i vi tin th l = 200mm chn l
2
= 2mm
l
1
= 0,4 cotg30
0
= 0,4 x 1,73 = 0,7mm
7 , 2
4 , 0
4 , 0
15 , 0 500
2 7 , 0 200
02
=

+ +
= T ph
Thi gian my ca c hai b-c
T
0
= T
01
+ T
02
= 1,3ph + 2,7ph = 4 ph
3.7. My tin
3.7.1. Cc loi my tin v cng dng
a. My tin ren vt vn nng
Cc cm my c bn ca my tin ren vt vn nng -c th hin trn hnh 2-36.

Hnh 3-26. Hnh dng chung ca my tin ren vt vn nng
Thn my 2 -c t trn b tr-c 1 v b sau 12 l chi tit c s dng
b tr cc cm cng tc ca my. Bn trong b tr-c c b tr ng c in dn
ng cc chuyn ng cng tc cho my. B cha dung dch trn ngui -c t
trong b sau. Trn u tri ca thn my c b tr tr-c 6 mang hp trc chnh
cng hp tc to cho trc chnh ca my cc cp tc quay khc nhau.
Trn u trc chnh c lp mm cp kp cht chi tit gia cng. Mt tin ca
tr-c c bng iu khin 5 h-ng dn iu khin cc v tr tay gt t -c
cc cp tc mong mun.
Hp chy dao 3 -c b tr mt tr-c thn my pha bn tri. Trn hp
chy dao c cc tay gt iu khin cc cp truyn ng trong hp t c cc
tc chy dao mong mun. Chc bnh rng thay th 4 cn thit iu chnh
khi ct cc loi ren khc nhau -c b tr u bn tri ca thn my.
Bn dao dc 7 c th dch chuyn theo dn h-ng ca thn my to
chuyn ng chy dao dc cho i dao 8. Bn dao ngang c th dch chuyn theo
dn h-ng trn bn dao dc to chuyn dng chy dao ngag khi cn thit. Bn
dao trn 9 t trn bn dao ngang c th iu chnh xoay theo mt phng nm
ngang mt gc nht nh so vi -ng tm ca my tin cc b mt cn.
i dao 8 c bn v tr mang dao ct -c lp t trn bn dao trn. Hp xe
dao 10 -c gn lin khi vi bn dao dc. Trong hp xe dao c cc c cu
truyn chuyn ng t hp chy dao v c cu bin chuyn ng quay ca vt me
hoc trc trn thnh chuyn ng tnh tin ca cc bn dao. Pha u bn phi
ca thn my c ng 11. Mi tm v cc dng c gia cng l -c lp vo l
cn ca nng ng c th di chuyn cng nng ng thc hin cc thao
tc cn thit theo yu cu cng ngh. Chuyn ng tnh tin dc trc ca nng
ng -c thc hin bng tay nh v lng quay pha sau ng. Ton b ng
c th iu chnh di chuyn dc theo dn h-ng dc trn thn my tu thuc theo
chiu di ca chi tit gia cng ri -c kp cht li. Thn ng c th iu
chnh x dch t-ng i so vi ca n theo ph-ng ngang tin cc b mt
cn ngoi khi gia cng chng tm hai u.
My tin ren vt vn nng -c s dng rt rng ri trong sn xut v sa
cha c kh. Trn my tin ren vt vn nng c th thc hin tt c cc cng vic
v tin.
2. My tin revonve.
Cc cm my c bn ca my tin revonve -c th hin trn hnh 3-27.
Hnh 3-27. Hnh dng chung ca my tin revonve
Cc cm c bn ca my tin revonve bao gm : thn my 1, hp chy
dao 2, hp tc 3, hp trc chnh 4, bn dao ngang 5, bn dao revonve 7 c
u revonve 6, tang quay mang cc c pha sau 8, tang quay mang cc c pha
tr-c 9.
Khi iu chnh my tr-c khi gia cng, th iu chnh lp tt c cc dng
c gia cng cn thit ln i dao ca bn dao ngang v cc g dao ca i
dao revonve. Cc dao ln l-t tham gia ct hoc mt s dao tham gia ct ng
thi trong qu trnh gia cng tu thuc yu cu ca tin trnh cng ngh
iu chnh tr-c.
Gia cng bng nhiu dng c gia cng ng thi gim thi gian my v
tng nng sut gia cng v trong qu trnh gia cng c nhiu b mt -c gia
cng ng thi. Chu trnh gia cng trn my -c iu khin nh cc c lp trn
cc tang quay pha tr-c v pha sau cho nn nng sut ca my cao v to iu
kin thun li cho vic t ng ho chu trnh gia cng.
Nhng my revonve gia cng phi thanh dng gia cng cc phi
thanh c tit din trn, vung, lc lng v cc dng phi thanh khc. Khi
gia cng trn cc my dng ny, phi thanh -c lun qua l ca trc chnh
v kp cht bng chu bp n hi. Chi tit -c tin ct t khi phi sau
khi -c gia cng xong.
Nhng my revnve c mm cp dng gia cng phi n l dng phi
c, phi rn v cc loi phi n l khc.
Theo kt cu my tin revonve -c phn ra my c u revonve quay theo
tm quay thng ng, my c u revonve quay theo tm quay nm ngang v
my c u revonve quay theo tm quay nghing.
Cc dng c gia cng lp trn u revonve nhn chuyn ng chy dao dc,
cc dao lp trn bn dao ngang nhn chuyn ng chy dao ngang trong qu trnh
gia cng.
My tin revonve dng gia cng cc chi tit phc tp c nhiu b mt
cn gia cng. Trn my c th tin cc b mt tr ngoi, b mt tr trong, tin
mt u, khoan, khot, doa cc l bng cc dng c gia cng l t-ng ng, gia
cng cc b mt nh hnh dng trn xoay, tin rnh, ln kha nhm, ct cc ren
ngoi bng bn ren v cc ren trong bng mi ta r. Cc b mt cn -c gia
cng trn my bng dao tin rng bn hoc g chp hnh chuyn dng.
3. My tin ct.
My tin ct c cc cm v hnh dng chung gn ging nh- my tin ren vt
vn nng nm ngang tuy nhin ma c chiu di bng my ngn, -ng knh
mm cp ln (-ng knh ca mm cp ca cc my tin c ln c th ti 4 m) v
khng c ng.
My tin ct dng gia cng cc chi tit c -ng knh ln, chiu di nh,
trng l-ng trung bnh.
4. My tin ng.
My tin ng -c phn ra my c mt tr ng v my c hai tr ng.
c im ca my l my loi ny c bn quay theo tm quay thng ng, -ng
knh bn quay ln. -ng knh bn quay ca my tin ng nm trong phm vi
t 0,5 m ti 21 m.
S b tr cc cm ca my tin ng c hai tr ng -c th hin trn
hnh 3-28.
My c bn quay 12 quay trn dn h-ng ca thn my1. Hai tr ng 2
-c lin kt vi nhau bng dm ni 6 to cho my c kt cu khung cng
vng. X ngang 3 mang bn dao trn 5, bn dao revonve 7 c u revonve 8, hp
chy dao 4 v 9 c th di chuyn theo dn h-ng thng ng ca tr ng 2 tu
thuc vo chiu cao ca chi tit gia cng t trn bn my. Hp chy dao 4 v
hp chy dao 9 c cc xch chy dao c lp nhau. Trn tr ng bn phi c bn
dao ngang 10 cng hp chy dao 11.

Hnh 3-28. Hnh dng chung ca my tin ng hai tr
Dng c gia cng -c lp trn cc i dao ca bn dao bn, bn dao trn
v cc lp dao ca u revonve. Cc bn dao u c chuyn ng chy dao dc
v chuyn ng chy dao ngang. Cc bn dao c th hot ng ng thi hoc
c lp, c th dng chuyn ng chy dao dc hoc chuyn ng chy dao
ngang tu thuc vo tnh cht gia cng khi gia cng cc chi tit c th.
Trn my tin ng c th tin cc b mt tr ngoi, tr trong, cn ngoi,
cn trong, tin cc b mt nh hnh trn xoay, tin mt u, khoan, khot, doa
cc l. Khi c g chuyn dng c th tin cc loi ren, tin cc b mt nh
hnh phc tp theo d-ng, phay cc vu v rnh, mi mt phng v mt s dng
gia cng khc.
My tin ng dng gia cng nhng chi tit c trng l-ng ln, t l
chiu di trn -ng knh nh 7 , 0 3 , 0 =
D
l
nh- rto ca ng c hi n-c,
bnh , bnh rng c ln. My tin ng hai tr c th gia cng chi tit c
-ng knh ln nht l 24 m, cn my c mt tr ng c th gia cng chi tit c
-ng knh ln nht l 1,6 m.
5. My tin nhiu dao.
S th hin cc cm c bn ca my tin nhiu dao -c th hin trn
hnh 3-29.
Chi tit gia cng -c kp chng tm hai u nh l cn trc chnh
ca hp tc 2 v l cn ca nng ng 5. Hp tc -c lp trn
tr-c 3. Bn dao d-i 6 v bn dao trn 4 c th di chuyn dc theo dn
h-ng dc ca thn my 1.
Hnh 3-29. Hnh dng chung ca my tin nhiu dao
c im ca qu trnh gia cng trn my tin nhiu dao l cc dao lp trn
bn dao d-i ch thc hin chuyn ng chy dao dc, cc dao lp trn bn dao
trn ch thc hin chuyn ng chy dao ngang. Khi iu chnh my tr-c khi gia
cng cn g t v kp cht cc dao ct sao cho c th gia cng ng thi mt s
b mt trn chi tit gia cng.
My loi ny ch yu dng gia cng cc b mt ngoi trn xoay ca phi
nh- cc b mt tr, b mt cn, b mt nh hnh, xn mt u, tin cc rnh, tin
vt mp, tin ct t.
3.7.2. My tin ren vt vn nng 1K62
S ng ca my tin ren vt vn nng 1K62 -c th hin trn hnh3.30
Chuyn ng chnh bt ngun t ng c in c cng sut N=10kW vi
tc quay n=1450 vng/pht truyn qua cp truyn ai c -ng knh bnh ai
142-254 ti trc I ca hp tc . Trn trc I c cc bnh rng lp lng khng v
ly hp ma st M
1
. Tu thuc vo v tr ca ly hp ma st m khi bnh rng bn
tri hoc khi bnh rng bn phi tham gia truyn chuyn ng. Khi ly hp ma
st nm v tr tri th chuyn ng t trc I truyn qua mt trong cc cp bnh
rng 56-34 hoc 51-39 ti trc II to nn cc tc quay thun cho trc chnh.
Khi ly hp ma st nm v tr phi th chuyn ng t trc I truyn qua cc cp
truyn 50-24, 36-38 ca khi bnh rng trung gian ti trc II to nn cc tc
quay nghch cho trc chnh. Tip theo chuyn ng t trc II truyn qua mt
trong cc cp bnh rng 38-38 hoc 21-55 hoc 29-47 ti trc III.
T trc III chuyn ng -c truyn tip theo hai -ng truyn. Khi khi
bnh rng di tr-t hai bc B
5
trn trc chnh VI nm v tr tri (nh- hnh v) th
chuyn ng t trc III -c truyn trc tip ti trc chnh VI qua cp bnh rng
65-43. Khi khi bnh rng di tr-t B
5
nm v tr phi -a bnh rng 43 ra khi
khp vi bnh rng 65 v bnh rng 54 n khp vi bnh rng 27 trn trc V th
chuyn ng t trc III -c truyn ti trc IV qua mt trong cc cp truyn 22-
88 hoc 45-45, tip theo ti trc V qua mt trong cc cp truyn 45-45 hoc 22-
88, tip theo qua cp bnh rng 27-54 ti trc chnh VI. Nh- vy t mt tc
quay khng i ca ng c in, trc chnh ca my nhn -c 30 cp tc
quay thun: 6 cp qua -ng truyn trc tip v 24 cp qua -ng truyn i qua
nhm gp bi (nhm truyn gia trc IV v trc V). Tuy nhin thc t my 1K62
ch c 23 cp tc quay thun v 7 cp tc b lp li.
Chuyn ng chy dao bt ngun t trc chnh VI truyn qua cp bnh rng
60-60 ti trc VII. T trc VII chuyn ng truyn qua b o chiu c cc cp
bnh rng 42-42, 28-56 v 45-28-35, qua chc bnh rng thay th ti trc IX. Khi
tin ren h mt v ren Anh cng nh- khi cn to chuyn ng chy dao tin
trn th cc bnh rng trong chc bnh rng thay th -c lp l 42-95-50, khi ct
ren m un v ren Pit cc bnh rng thay th -c lp c s rng l 64-95-97.
Chuyn ng t trc IX -c truyn ti trc XI qua ly hp M
2
( khi ly hp
M
2
vo khp th bnh rng 35 trn trc X t ng ra khi khp vi bnh rng
trung gian 37). T trc XI chuyn ng truyn tip theo qua c cu Nooc-tng (
-ng truyn ny th khi cc bnh rng b tr theo hnh cn bc hnh thp ca c
cu ng vai tr l bnh rng ch ng) ti trc X, qua ly hp vu M
4
ti trc
XII, qua mt trong hai cp bnh rng 17-45 hoc 28-35 ti trc XIII, qua mt
trong hai cp bnh rng 35-28 hoc 15-48 ti trc XIV, qua cp bnh rng 28-
56 v ly hp siu vit M
0
ti trc XV v trc trn XVII. T trc XVII chuyn
ng truyn cp truyn bnh rng 27-20-28 v ly hp an ton M
n
ti trc
XVIII, qua cp truyn trc vt-bnh vt 4-20 ti trc XIX. T y chuyn ng
-c tch ra hai -ng truyn to chuyn ng chy dao dc v chuyn
ng chy dao ngang.
Khi ng ly hp M
6
trn trc XX, chuyn ng s truyn t trc XIX qua
bnh rng 40 ti bnh rng rng bn 45, qua bnh rng 37 ti trc XX. T trc
XX chuyn ng truyn qua cp bnh rng 14-66 ti trc XXI, qua cp bnh
rng-thanh rng c m un m=3 mm lm cho bn dao chuyn ng dc theo dn
h-ng ca thn my to nn chuyn ng chy dao dc. Khi ngt ly hp M
6
v
ng khp ly hp M
7
th chuyn ng s truyn trc tip t trc XIX qua cp
bnh rng 40-37 pha d-i ti trc XX m khng i qua bnh rng rng bn trung
gian lm o chiu chuyn ng chy dao dc ca bn dao.
Khi ly hp M
8
trn trc XXII vo khp th chuyn ng truyn t trc XIX
qua bnh rng 40 ti bnh rng rng bn 45, qua bnh rng 37 ti trc XXII, qua
cp bnh rng 61-20 ti vt me chy dao ngang c b-c ren bng 5 mm lm cho
bn dao ngang tnh tin theo dn h-ng trn bn dao dc to chuyn ng chy
dao ngang. Khi ngt ly hp M
8
v ng ly hp M
9
th chuyn ng t trc XIX s
truyn trc tip qua cp bnh rng 40-37 pha d-i, qua cc bnh rng 40-61-20
m khng i qua bnh rng rng bn trung gian lm o chiu chuyn ng chy
dao ngang ca bn my.
Chuyn ng to -ng xon khi ct ren. T-ng quan chyun ng gia chi tit
gia cng v dao ct -c m bo bng xch ct ren c khu u l trc chnh v khu
cui l vt me chy dao dc c b-c ren bng 12 mm.
Khi ct ren h mt v ren m un, -ng truyn t trc chnh ti trc XIV
t-ng t nh- -ng truyn to chuyn ng chy dao khi tin trn.






Hnh 3-30. S ng ca my tin ren vt vn nng 1K62
T trc XIV chuyn ng -c truyn qua ly hp vu M
5
(khi khi bnh
rng di tr-t b
10
ng sang phi) ti vt me chy dao dc XVI c ai c lp c
nh trn hp xe dao lm cho bn dao tnh tin dc theo dn h-ng ca thn my.
Nh- vy ct ren h mt v ren m un th cc ly hp M
2
, M
4
v M
5
phi vo
khp, ly hp M
3
ra khp.
Khi ct ren Anh, ren Pt th -ng truyn t trc chnh VI ti trc IX ca
hp chy dao vn nh- cc tr-ng hp trn. T trc IX chuyn ng -c truyn
ti trc X qua cc bnh rng 35-37-35 (khi ly hp M
2
-c ng sang phi).
Tip theo chuyn ng truyn qua c cu Nooc tng ti trc XI (cc bnh rng
xp theo dng cn bc khi ng vai tr l bnh rng b ng trong nhm
truyn). T trc XI chuyn ng truyn qua cc cp bnh rng 35-28 v 28-35 ti
trc XII (ly hp M
4
khi ra khp). Tip theo chuyn ng truyn qua mt trong
hai cp bnh rng 18-45 hoc 28-35 ti trc XIII, qua mt trong hai cp bnh
rng 35-28 hoc 15-48 ti trc XIV, qua ly hp M
5
ti vt me chy dao dc XVI.
Khi cn ct ren khuych i (ren c b-c ln) th chuyn ng t trc chnh
VI khng truyn trc tip ti trc VII nh- tr-ng hp m t trn m truyn qua
nhm khuych i t s truyn. -ng truyn i qua nhm khuych i th
khi bnh rng di tr-t B
6
-c gt sang phi lm cho bnh rng c s rng bng
45 ca n n khp vi bnh rng 45 lp trn trc III. Chuyn ng t trc chnh
VI truyn qua cp bnh rng 54-27 ti trc V, qua mt trong cc cp bnh rng
88-22 hoc 45-45 ti trc IV, qua mt trong cc cp bnh rng 45-45 hoc 88-22
ti trc III v qua cp bnh rng 45-45 ti trc VII. T trc VII chuyn ng
truyn tip theo theo xch nh- tr-ng hp tin cc b-c ren thng th-ng. -ng
truyn i qua nhm khuych i cho php cc b-c ren tng ln 2, 8 v 32 ln.
Hp chy dao -c thit k ch ct cc b-c ren tiu chun cho nn khi ct
ren phi tiu chun th xch ct ren b qua hp chy dao. Khi ct ren c yu cu b-c
c chnh xc cao th mong mun xch ct ren phi ngn nht trnh sai s tch
lu t s truyn bi vy -ng truyn ct ren khi cng b qua hp chy dao.
Xch ct ren rt gn dng tin cc ren phi tiu chun v ct ren c yu
cu b-c c chnh xc cao -c to nn khi ng khp cc ly hp M
2
, M
3
, M
4

v M
5
ni cc trc IX, XI, XIV v trc XVI thnh mt trc thng nht. Khu
iu chnh duy nht tin cc ren c b-c ren khc nhau khi dng xch tin ren
rt gn l chc bnh rng thay th. Ph-ng trnh ct ren ca xch ct ren rt gn
c th vit d-i dng:
1 vg. i
c
. i
tt
. k
v
. P
v
= k
c
. P
c
( mm ).
T ph-ng trnh trn c th rt ra cng thc tnh t s truyn ca chc bnh rng
thay th iu chnh my khi ct ren chnh xc v ren phi tiu chun nh- sau:
v v cd
c c
tt
P k i
P k
i
. .
.
=

c. iu chnh my tin ren vt vn nng tin ren
v tin cn
3.8.1. Khi nim
Trong qu trnh gia cng kim loi bng ct gt, bo m mi t-ng quan
chuyn ng gia cc c cu cng tc (chng hn gia c cu mang dao v c
cu mang phi) hoc m bo ch ct (tc ct, l-ng chy dao...)
chn chng ta tin hnh iu chnh my.
Hu ht cc tr-ng hp iu chnh my ct kim loi vn nng l thay i v
tr ca cc c cu iu khin (cc tay gt b tr trn my) mt cch thch hp .
Song cng c mt s tr-ng hp khi iu chnh my trn my ct kim loi vn
nng (iu chnh tin ren c b-c chnh xc trn my tin ren vt vn nng...)
v khi iu chnh my trn cc my chuyn mn ho (my gia cng bnh rng...)
bng cch thay i t s truyn ca cc cp bnh rng thay th nm trong xch
ng hc t-ng ng ca my, hoc thay i v tr t-ng i gia phi v dng c
ct (tin mt cn..).
d. iu chnh my tin ren vt vn nng tin cn
tin cn trn my tin ren vt vn nng c th dng mt trong cc
ph-ng php sau:
1. Tin cn bng dao rng bn. Thc cht y l ph-ng php tin
cn bng dao tin nh hnh n gin. tin -c mt cn bng
ph-ng php ny, l-i ct chnh ca dao to vi ph-ng -ng trc
ca thn dao mt gc o bng gc cn cn gia cng v chiu di l-i ct
chnh phi di hn -ng sinh mt cn gia cng (hnh 3-32).
Ph-ng php ny ch dng khi chiu di theo ph-ng dc trc ca b mt cn L
s50mm, chi tit cng vng v chnh xc khng cao. Khi g dao, trc thn
dao phi vung gc vi -ng tm trc chnh ca my.

Hnh 3-32. Tin cn bng dao rng bn
b. Tin cn bng ph-ng php nh lch bn dao trn. tin cn bng
ph-ng php ny, ng-i ta xoay bn dao trn (trong mt phng nm ngang) mt
gc o bng mt na gc nh cn cn gia cng (hnh 3-33) v cho chy dao bng
tay nh tay quay bn dao trn.

Hnh 3-33. Tin cn bng nh lch bn dao tin
Ph-ng php ny -c s dng trong tr-ng hp gc cn ln, chiu di mt
cn nh, chnh xc v gc v nhm b mt cn khng cao. Chiu di b mt
cn L ph thuc vo hnh trnh bn dao trn ca my dng gia cng, dng
ph-ng php ny gia cng mt cn trong v mt cn ngoi.
Gc xoay ca bn dao -c tnh nh- sau:
Tg o =
l
d D
2

[rad] (3.33)
Trong : D, d l -ng knh ln nht v nh nht ca b mt cn gia cng, mm.
l- chiu di b mt cn gia cng, o theo ph-ng dc trc, mm

Hnh 3-34. S nguyn l tin cn bng dch chuyn ng
c. Tin cn bng ph-ng php dch chuyn ng. gia cng b mt cn
c gc nh cn (2o) theo yu cu, ng -c dch chuyn theo ph-ng ngang
mt l-ng h so vi -ng tm trc chnh ca my (hnh 3-34). L-ng dch
chuyn h -c tnh theo cng thc:
h = L . sin o [mm] (3.34a)
Gc o -c tnh:
2l
d - D
= o tg (3.34b)
V gc o th-ng nh (do hn ch ca ph-ng php ny), nn: Sin o ~ tgo,
do vy thay (3-34b) vo (3-34a) ta c:
L h =
2l
d - D
[mm] (3.34c)
Trong : D, d - -ng knh ln nht v nh nht ca b mt cn gia cng, mm.
l- chiu di b mt gia cng, o theo ph-ng dc trc, mm
K- khong cch gia hai mi tm khi g phi; o theo ph-ng dc trc chi
tit, mm.
Ph-ng php ny c -u im: chy dao t ng nh bn dao dc nn
cht l-ng b mt gia cng n nh; c th tin -c b mt cn c chiu di
ln m khng cn g chuyn dng song c nh-c im: ch tin -c mt cn
ngoi c gc cn nh (th-ng os6
0
); b mt l tm trn chi tit d b ph hu
nn gy sai s.
d. Dng th-c chp hnh. Ph-ng php tin cn bng th-c chp hnh
da trn c s phi hp ng thi hai chuyn ng: chuyn ng chy dao
dc (t ng), v chuyn ng chy dao ngang (c-ng bc) trong qu trnh
gia cng. Chuyn ng chy dao dc nhn t xch chuyn ng chy dao dc
cn chuyn ng chy dao ngang do th-c cn (th-c chp hnh) to nn.
Gc xoay ca th-c chp hnh ( nghing ca rnh chp hnh) trong mt
phng ngang so vi -ng tm trc chnh ca my bng gc cn chi tit gia
cng (hnh 3-35)

Hnh 3-35. S nguyn l tin mt cn bng th-c chp hnh
Tm 1 trn c khc cc vch chia 4 -c c nh trn thn my ( pha
i din vi v tr ng-i iu khin my). Th-c cn 2 c th quay quanh cht 3
mt gc theo yu cu. Con tr-t 5 -c ni vi bn dao ngang 9 thng qua thanh
ko 6 lp trn bn dao ngang. Con tr-t 5 dch chuyn t do trong rnh ca th-c
chp hnh 2. bn dao ngang 7 chuyn ng t do theo ph-ng ngang, phi
tho b lin kt gia bn dao v vt me chy dao ngang ca my. ct ht
l-ng d- gia cng phi dch chuyn bn dao tin 8 theo ph-ng vung gc vi
-ng tm chi tit gia cng, do vy phi xoay bn dao trn trong mt phng nm
ngang mt gc 90
0
so vi -ng tm trc chnh ca my.
Gc xoay ca th-c chp hnh (th-c cn) 2 -c tnh theo cng thc sau:
* Nu thang chia 4 c vch chia l th gc xoay ca th-c l:

2l
d - D
= o tg [ra] (3.35a)
* Nu thang chia 4 c vch chia l mm th th-c phi xoay mt s vch
chia c l:

l
H
c =
2l
d - D
[s vch] (3.35b)
* Nu thang chia 4 c vch chia ng vi cn: 1/100, th s vch cn thit
phi xoay ca th-c 2 l:
C =
L
100
( D - d) [s vch] (3.35c)
Trong cc cng thc trn. D, d - -ng knh ln nht v nh nht ca b
mt gia cng, mm.
L - chiu di b mt cn cn gia cng, o theo ph-ng -ng trc chi
tit,mm
H- khong cch t tm quay 3 ti vch chia 4,mm.
Tin cn theo ph-ng php ny khc phc phn ln nh-c im ca
ph-ng php trn . Song n cng c nh-c im l cn c g chp hnh v g lp
phc tp. Do vy ph-ng php ny dng khi gia cng cc b mt cn c chiu di
ln, gc cn o = 10 12
0
vi sn l-ng ln.
Nu thay gc cn bng g chp hnh khc, c th gia cng -c cc b mt
nh hnh trn xoay t-ng ng.
3.8.3. iu chnh my tin ren vt vn nng tin ren
Khi iu chnh my tin ren vt tin ren phi thc hin cc cng vic sau:
a. Lp ph-ng trnh iu chnh tin ren: Khi tin ren c b-c tiu chun
trn my tin ren vt vn nng, tin cc loi ren c b-c khc nhau, ng-i ta tin
hnh thay i t s truyn trong hp chy dao nh h thng tay gt trn my.
tin ren c b-c khng tiu chun (khng c trong bn iu chnh trn my) v ren
c yu cu chnh xc v b-c (ren tiu chun v khng tiu chun), chng ta dng
xch tin ren rt gn trong my, xch ny khng dng cc b truyn sn c trong
hp chy dao bo m -ng truyn ng l ngn nht nhm gim sai s ng
hc tch lu ca cc b truyn. -c cc b-c ren c tr s khc nhau, phi thay
i t s truyn cc cp bnh rng thay th trong xch truyn ng.
Hnh 3-36 l s nguyn l ca xch tin ren rt gn trong my tin ren
vt vn nng.

Hnh 3-36. S nguyn l xch tin ren rt gn
Ph-ng trnh xch ng biu th mi t-ng quan gia t s truyn cc
cp bnh rng thay th (i
tt
= Z
a
/Z
b
x Z
c
/Z
d
) v b-c ren cn gia cng (P
c
)
(theo hnh 3-36):
1 vng trc chnh x
c x v v
d
c
b
a
2
1
p . k k . P .
Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
= (3.36)
Trong : P
v
,

K
v
- ln l-t l gi tr b-c ren v s u mi trc vt me dc
ca my; P
v
, mm/vng, trong my tin th-ng k
v
= 1.
P
c
, k
c
- ln l-t l gi tr b-c ren v s u mi ca ren cn gia cng; P
c
,
mm/vng
K hiu i
c
=
2
1
Z
Z
- t s truyn ca cc b truyn c sn trong my (cn
gi l t s truyn c nh), ng vi mi loi my c gi tr khc nhau nh-ng
th-ng i
c
= 1 hoc 1/2.
Z
a
, Z
b
, Z
c
, Z
d
- s rng ca cc bnh rng thay th.
Ph-ng trnh (3.36) c th vit d-i dng:

v v cd
c c
d
c
b
a
tt
p . k . i
p . k
Z
Z
.
Z
Z
i = = (3.38)
Ch : P
c
v P
v
trong cc cng thc trn phi cng n v o. Nu khng

cng n v o (v d my c trc vt me dc l ren h mt nh-ng li tin chi tit
ren Anh) phi -a v cng n v o.
- Nu ren M un th b-c P = t. m [mm/vng] (3.38b)
- Nu ren Anh th b-c P =
n
4 , 25
[mm/vng] (3.38c)
Trong cng thc (3.38b) v (3.38c) th:
m - gi tr m un, mm
n - s vng ren trong chiu di 25,4mm (1)
S l-ng bnh rng thay th tnh theo (3.38) khng nht thit l 4
bnh, c th t hn hoc nhiu hn.
Ph-ng trnh (3.38a) gi l ph-ng trnh iu chnh my tin ren vt
vn nng tin ren khng tiu chun v ren yu cu chnh xc v b-c.
1. Phn tch t s truyn i
tt
thnh s rng ca cc bnh rng thay th
Z
a
, Z
b
, Z
c
Z
d
. Khi phn tch t s truyn i
tt
t ph-ng trnh (3.38a) thnh s
rng cc bnh rng thay th lp vo my, s rng cc bnh rng thay th
phi tho mn cc iu kin sau:
* T s truyn cc cp bnh rng thay th sau khi chn phi bng hoc
gn bng t s truyn i
t t
tnh theo cng thc (3.38a) vi sai s trong phm vi
cho php.
* S rng cc bnh rng thay th -c chn phi c trong b cc bnh
rng thay th km theo my. Km theo mi my tin ren vt vn nng c
cc b bnh rng thay th sau:
+ B cc bnh rng c cc s rng chia ht cho 5: 20; 25; 30;...120 rng
+ B cc bnh rng c s rng chi ht cho 4: 20; 24; 28; ...........80 rng.
+ B cc bnh rng c s rng theo s t (cc bnh rng c bit):
47;57; 97; 127; 157 rng.
* trnh hin t-ng chm trc khi lp cc bnh tng thay th vo my, s
rng cc bnh rng thay th -c chn ng thi phi tho mn cc bt ng thc
sau (gi s dng hai cp bnh rng thay th nh- hnh 3.36):
Z
a
+ Z
b
> Z
c
+ (15 20) (3.39)
Z
c
+ Z
d
> Z
b
+ (15 20)
Phn tch t s truyn i
tt
thnh s rng cc bnh rng thay th Z
a
, Z
b
, Z
c

(gi s l 4 bnh), ng-i ta thc hin theo cc b-c.
* Phn tch i
tt
= i
tt 1 .
d
c
b
a
B
A
i
tt
= =
2
, l cc phn s ti gin.
* Bin i a, b, c, d thnh s rng cc bnh rng thay th bng cch nhn

c t s v mu s ca tng phn s vi cc s l bi s ca 4 hoc 5 ngha l:
i
tt
=
d
c
d
a
Z
Z
Z
Z
d n
c n
d m
a m
d
c
b
a
.
.
.
.
.
.
. = =
(3.40)
(m, n l cc s bi s ca 4 hoc 5)
Khi c th c cc kh nng sau:
- S rng cc bnh rng thay th Z
a
, Z
b
, Z
c
, Z
d
tho mn cc iu kin ca bnh
rng thay th nu trn. Nh- vy qu trnh tnh ton iu chnh xong.
S rng cc bnh rng thay th ch khng tho mn iu kin khng chm trc.
Khi phi bin i li bng cch hon v v tr ca cc phn s hoc chn li s rng
ca cc bnh rng tho mn cc iu kin nu.
Qu trnh bin i -c nh- trn gi l qu trnh bin i chnh xc.
* Nu (m . a), (m . b), (n . c), (n . d) > 120, ngha l khng th chn cc
gi tr ca m v n tho mn cc iu kin bnh rng thay th, khi ta phi
chn Z
a
, Z
b
, Z
c
, Z
d
theo ph-ng php bin i gn ng. Vi ph-ng php ny s
lm cho t s truyn gia cc cp bnh rng thay th -c chn v i
tt
tnh theo
(3.38) khc nhau. Sai s ny dn n sai s b-c ren gia cng. Bi vy sau khi
chn -c s rng cc bnh rng thay th phi kim tra li b-c ren ng vi Za,
Zb, Zc, Zd chn c nm trong phm vi cho php hay khng.
C nhiu ph-ng php phn tch gn ng, d-i y trnh by mt trong
nhng ph-ng php : ph-ng php phn s lin tc (hay cn gi l ph-ng
php chia ng-c). T t s truyn i
tt
= A/B tin hnh:
Chia A cho B -c a
0
d- C (a
0
= 1, 2, 3, 4,...)
Chia B cho C -c a
1
d- D (a
1
= 1, 2, 3, 4,...)
Chia C cho D -c a
2
d- E (a
2
= 1, 2, 3, 4,...), v c tip tc nh- vy n
khi s d- bng 0.
T s truyn i
tt
c th vit d-i dng phn s lin tc nh- sau:
an
an
a
a
a
a
B
A
i
tt
1
1
1
......
....
1
1
1
3
2
1
0
+
+
+
+ = =







n
n
a
a
1
1
+


Tu theo mc chnh xc yu cu ca b-c ren cn gia cng Pc m b bt phn ui
ca dy phn s lin tc trn cho ph hp. V nu gi
'
tt
i = A/B l t s truyn sau khi
b bt phn ui, th
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
tt
d . n
c . n
.
b . m
a . m
B
A
i = = Vi (m. a), (m. b), (n. c), (n . d) tho
mn cc yu cu ca bnh rng thay th nu.
iu kin b-c ca ren cn gia cng t yu cu:

] [ 1000 ) (
. .
'
p tt tt
c
v v cd
i i
p
p k i
o <
(3.41)
Trong : [op]- sai s tch lu ca b-c ren cn gia cng trn chiu di
1000 b-c ng vi mc chnh xc yu cu.
V d: phn tch t s truyn i
tt
thnh s rng cc bnh rng thay th trong
cc tr-ng hp sau:
1. i
tt
= 9/14.
Ta c:
70
30
32
48
10 . 7
10 . 3
16 . 2
16 . 3
7 . 2
3 . 3
14
9
= = = =
tt
i
Kim tra iu kin khng chm trc theo (3.39):
Z
a
+ Z
b
= 48 + 32 = 80 > Z
c
+ 20 = 30 + 20 = 50
Z
c
+ Z
d
= 30 + 70 =100 > Z
b
+ 20 = 32 + 20 =52
Kt qu kim tra thy bo m iu kin khng chm trc.
Vy vic chn s rng cc bnh rng thay th: Z
a
= 48, Z
b
= 32, Z
c
= 30 v
Z
d
= 70 tho mn cc yu cu.
2.
7
3
i
tt
=

Ta c
20
20
70
30
20 1
20 1
10 . 7
10 . 3
1 . 7
1 . 3
7
3
=

= = =
tt
i
Ta thy ngay Z
c
+ Z
d
= 20 + 20 = 40 khng ln hn 70 + 20. Nu ta hon
v nh- sau:

70
20
20
30
. =
d
c
b
a
Z
Z
Z
Z

Kim tra iu kin khng chm trc, theo (3.39):
Z
a
+ Z
b
= 30 + 20 = 50 > Z
c
+ 20 = 20 + 20 = 40
Z
c
+ Z
d
= 20 + 70 = 90 > Z
b
+ 20 = 20 + 20 = 40
Tho mn iu kin khng chm trc, vy:
Z
a
= 30, Z
b
= 20, Z
c
= 20, Z
d
= 70.
3.
B
A
i
tt
= =
67
30

V B = 67 l s nguyn t nn khng th tm s n hoc m no l bi s ca
4 hoc 5 n.67 (hoc m.67) s120 nn khng th dng ph-ng php phn tch
chnh xc. Ta dng ph-ng php phn s lin tc. y:
A: B = 30 : 67 = 0 D- 30 = C
B : C = 67 : 30 = 2 d- 7 = D
C : D = 30 : 7 = 4 d- 2 = E
D : E = 7 : 2 = 3 d- 1 = G
E : G = 2 : 1 = 2 d- 0
C th vit d-i dng phn s lin tc nh- sau:

2
1
3
1
4
1
2
1
0
67
30
+
+
+
+ = =
tt
i
Ta c th c cc t s truyn mc chnh xc khc nhau so vi
67
30
=
tt
i nh- sau:
2
1
2
1
0
1
= + =
tt
i (b s d- D = 7)
9
4
4
1
2
1
0
2
=
+
+ =
tt
i (b s d- E = 2)
29
13
3
1
4
1
2
1
0
3
=
+
+
+ =
tt
i (b s d- G = 1)
Trong ba t s truyn trn, i

tt3
khng p ng yu cu b bnh rng thay th
i theo my. Tu theo mc chnh xc ca b-c ren cn gia cng m chn i

tt1

hoc i

tt2
tho mn cng thc (3.41).
Khi tin ren, bo m chnh xc b-c ren, gc nh ren (gc
prphnen)o, bin dng ren, cht l-ng b mt ren... Ngoi vic phi bo m
chnh xc ng hc ca -ng truyn ng trong my, chn ch cng ngh
ng (chng hn b-c chy dao dc phi bng b-c xon cn gia cng, ngha l
S = k
c
. p
c,
, cn phi bo m chn gc dao tin ren v g dao phi chnh xc.
Dao tin ren phi bo m gc mi sao c bng gc nh ren cn gia cng (chng
hn nu tin ren h mt th gc c = 60
0
; khi tin ren Anh th gc c= 55
0
,...); cc
gc nghing =
1
= 1/2 (180
0
-c) v gc tr-c = 0
0
(c bit khi gia cng tinh).
Khi g dao phi bo m cc l-i ct phi nm trong mt phng y i qua tm
chi tit gia cng; -ng i xng ca mi dao phi vung gc vi -ng tm chi
tit. Nu khng bo m cc iu kin trn s gy sai s bin dng ren, gc nh
ren, ren b lch v sai s v b-c.
Ph-ng php tin dao khi tin ren cng l yu t quan trng khng nhng
nh h-ng n nng sut, iu kin ct... m cn nh h-ng ln ti nhm b
mt. Nu tin dao h-ng knh (hnh 3-37a) th t nhp nh b mt thp nh-ng
thot phoi kh v ch ct (t,V) thp, cn dng s tin dao xin (hnh 3-37b)
tuy d thot phoi, c th ct vi chiu su ct t v tc ct V cao hn (nn nng
sut cao hn) nh-ng nhp nh b mt cao (nhm b mt km) s ct ny
dng khi tin th ren v -ng chuyn dao cui cng phi tin dao h-ng knh
bo m nhm b mt tt.




Hnh 3-37. S tin dao khi tin ren














Ch-ng 4
Gia cng trn nhm my Bo-Xc-Chut
4.1. Gia cng trn my Bo, my Xc
4.1.1. Cng dng, kh nng, c im
a. Cng dng
Trn my bo c th gia cng cc mt phng nm ngang, mt phng thng
ng, mt phng nghing, cc mt bc, cc rnh ngoi...
Trn my xc c th gia cng cc b mt thng ng, cc l c tit din
ngang khc nhau, cc rnh trong v ngoi...
b. Kh nng
Khi gia cng trn my bo, my xc c th t cp chnh xc (IT12IT10),
nhm b mt cp (56); bo lng c th t nhm cp (78).
Hnh 4-1 S bo (a, b) v xc (c)
Bo c hiu qu cao khi gia cng cc b mt phng di v hp. Trong mt s
tr-ng hp c th dng bo lng thay cho ph-ng php co.
c. c im:
Qu trnh bo v xc c cc c im t-ng t nhau, trnh trng lp d-i
y ch nu cc c im ca qu trnh bo.
! c im ca ph-ng php:
Chuyn ng chnh (chuyn ng ct to ra phoi) l chuyn ng tnh tin do
u bo mang dao hoc phi thc hin (hnh 4-1). Trong mi chu trnh lm vic,
u bo thc hin mt hnh trnh ct v mt hnh trnh chy khng.
Chuyn ng chy dao l chuyn ng tnh tin khng lin tc, theo
ph-ng vung gc vi chuyn ng chnh v tin hnh cui hnh trnh
chy khng ca u bo hoc bn my mang phi (khng ng thi vi
chuyn ng chnh). V vy, thng s hnh hc ca dao (gc tr-c , gc
sau o) khng thay i trong qu trnh ct.
Tc ct khi bo khng cao v c tr s bin i (t 0 V
max
0 ). V vy,
khi bo to ra lc qun tnh khng c li cho qu trnh ct.
Bo c hnh trnh chy khng nn nng sut ct khng cao.
! c im ca qu trnh ct:
Cc hin t-ng vt l xy ra trong qu trnh ct khi bo c bn ging khi
tin. Tuy nhin, qu trnh ct khi bo c mt s c im ring nh- sau:
Qu trnh ct khng lin tc, do c hin t-ng va p khi dao vo
ct v ra khi b mt gia cng.
Nhit ct khng ln do dao t lm ngui hnh trnh chy khng.
Do nhit ct khng ln nn khi bo khng dng dung dch trn ngui.
4.1.2. Kt cu dao bo, dao xc
Kt cu v thng s hnh hc ca dao bo v dao xc v c bn ging
nh- dao tin. Song, v dao bo v dao xc lm vic trong iu kin chu ti
trng va p nn chng c mt s im khc nh- sau:
Tit din ngang ca thn dao ln chu -c lc va p trong qu trnh ct.
Gc nng l-i ct chnh ca dao -c ch to vi >0 tng kh nng
chu lc va p ca mi dao.
Dao bo c hai loi: dao bo u thng (hnh 4-2,a) v dao bo u cong (hnh 4-2,b).
Dao bo u thng d ch to hn dao bo u cong. Khi lm vic, d-i tc
dng ca ti trng, dao bo c xu h-ng b un cong v pha mt t ca dao vi
u bo to nn mt cung quay quanh im un o. Do , dao bo u thng khi
thc hin qu trnh ct c xu h-ng n su vo b mt gia cng (hnh 4-2,a).
bo v b mt gia cng, cung quay ny cn phi tip tuyn vi b mt gia
cng. Mun vy, mi dao phi nm trn mt phng i qua tm quay ca thn dao
(b mt t ca dao vi u bo) nh- trn hnh 4-2,b th hin. iu ny ch c
-c dao bo u cong. V vy, thc t th-ng s dng dao bo u cong.
Dao xc -c ch to dng thng. u dao c kt cu gn ging vi dao
tin ct t.










Hnh 4-2 Dao bo u thng (a) v u cong (b)

4.1.3. Cc yu t ch ct
Cc yu t ch ct khi bo, xc -c th hin trn hnh 4-3.
a. Chiu su ct
Chiu su ct khi bo t l khong cch gia b mt ch-a gia cng v b
mt gia cng o theo ph-ng vung gc vi b mt gia cng trong mt
-ng chuyn dao (hnh 4-3,a).
Khi xc chiu su ct t bng chiu rng ca l-i ct (hnh 4- 3,b).
Gi tr chiu su ct khi bo th v bo bn tinh -c xc nh tu thuc
vo l-ng d- gia cng. Nhn chung, khi xc nh chiu su ct khi bo th v
bo tinh c th dng nhng cn c xc nh ging nh- xc nh chiu su ct khi
tin.
O

O

l


l

R
R
a) b)
b. L-ng chy dao
L-ng chy dao s khi bo v khi xc l l-ng dch chuyn t-ng i gia
dao v phi theo ph-ng vung gc vi vc t tc ct sau mt hnh trnh
kp.
Khi gia cng trn my bo ngang v my xc th s l l-ng dch chuyn ca
chi tit sau mt hnh trnh kp ca u dao.
Khi gia cng trn my bo gi-ng th s l l-ng dch chuyn ca dao ct sau
mt hnh trnh kp ca bn my mang phi.
Chn l-ng chy dao khi bo, xc cn c vo tnh cht gia cng. Khi gia
cng tinh, l-ng chy dao chn tu thuc vo yu cu v cp nhm b mt gia
cng. Khi gia cng th l-ng chy dao chn ty thuc vo bn ca thn dao
cng nh- cng vng ca my. C th dng nhng ch dn v cc bng chn
l-ng chy dao khi tin xc nh l-ng chy dao cho bo v xc.
c. Tc ct
Tc ct V khi bo, xc l tc trung bnh ca u dao hnh trnh cng
tc (bo ngang v xc) hoc ca bn my mang chi tit gia cng (bo gi-ng).












Hnh 4-3 Cc yu t ct khi bo (hnh a) v xc (hnh b)
Tc ct khi bo, xc c th tnh theo cng thc tnh tc ct khi tin, sau
nhn thm vi h s hiu chun K
V
xt ti tnh cht va p ca qu trnh ct.
Khi gia cng trn my bo ngang: K
V
= 0,8
s
s
V
s
a
b
t
a)
a
b
t
s
V
b)
Khi gia cng trn my bo gi-ng: K
V
=1,0
Khi gia cng trn my xc: K
V
= 0,6
Sau khi xc nh -c tc ct, c th tnh s hnh trnh kp ca u bo
theo cng thc sau:

( ) 1
. 1000
+
=
k L
V
m
ct
[h.tr.k/ph] (4.1)
trong : - L l chiu di hnh trnh u bo, mm, L = l + l
1
+ l
2
;
- l l chiu di b mt gia cng, mm;
- l
1
+ l
2
l chiu di n dao v khong v-t qu ca dao, mm;
- k l t s t-ng quan gia tc hnh trnh ct v tc hnh trnh
chy khng ca dao hoc phi.
d. Cc yu t tit din ngang lp ct
Cc yu t tit din ngang lp ct khi bo -c th hin trn hnh 4-3,a v
khi xc -c th hin trn hnh 4-3,b.
e. Thi gian my





Hnh 4-4 S xc nh hnh trnh ca u bo
Thi gian my T
o
khi bo -c xc nh theo cng thc:

( )
S m
i b b b
S m
i B
T
o
.
.
.
.
2 1
+ +
= =
[ph] (4.2)
trong : - b l chiu rng ca b mt gia cng, mm;
- b
1
l chiu di n dao, mm, b
1
= t.cotg ;
- b
2
l khong v-t ca dao, th-ng ly b
2
= (25)mm;
- m l s hnh trnh kp ca dao hoc phi trong mt pht;
L
l
1
l
l
2
v
B
b
2
b
b
1
S
n
- i l s -ng chuyn dao trong qu trnh gia cng.
4.1.4. Lc ct v cng sut ct
T-ng t nh- tin, lc ct khi bo R c th phn tch theo ba thnh
phn (hnh 4-5):
Lc tip tuyn P
z
tc ng theo ph-ng vc t tc ct. P
z
quyt nh cng
sut ct v gy bin dng dao hnh trnh cng tc. Bi vy, bn thn dao
-c xc nh theo thnh phn P
z
.
Lc ngang P
x
tc ng theo ph-ng chuyn ng chy dao. P
x
l c s
tnh bn cc c cu chy dao.
Lc thng ng P
y
tc ng theo ph-ng ng. P
y
c xu h-ng y dao ra
khi phi. Bi vy, P
y
nh h-ng trc tip ti chnh xc kch th-c gia cng.
P
y
cn l c s tnh bn cho i dao.








Hnh 4-5 Cc thnh phn lc ct khi bo.
Cng sut ct khi bo -c tnh theo cng thc:

3
10 . 60
.V P
N
z
c
= [kW] (4.3)
trong : - P
z
l lc ct, N;
- V l tc ct, m/ph.
Cng sut ct tnh -c phi nh hn cng sut my:
N
c
< N
c
. q (4.4)
R
P
Z

P
y

P
x
y: q l hiu sut ca my.
4.1.5. My bo, my xc
a. My bo ngang
Cc b phn chnh ca my bo ngang -c th hin trn hnh 4-6.

Hnh 4-6 My bo ngang
1- B my; 2- Thn my; 3- X ngang; 4- Bn my; 5- i dao;
6- Bn dao ng; 7- u tr-t; 8- ng c in.
Trn my bo ngang, chuyn ng chnh do u bo mang dao thc hin,
chuyn ng chy dao do bn my mang chi tit gia cng thc hin.
c tnh c bn ca my bo ngang l hnh trnh cng tc ln nht ca u
bo. Cc my bo ngang thng th-ng -c ch to vi L
max
= (400 700)mm,
ch nhng my ln th hnh trnh ny c th ln ti 1200 mm.
My bo ngang -c dng trong sn xut lot nh, khi chi tit gia cng c
chiu di khng ln hn 1000mm. Trn my bo ngang c th gia cng cc mt
phng nm ngang, mt phng thng ng, mt phng nghing v gia cng cc rnh.
Theo tiu chun phn loi my ca Vit nam: nhm my bo -c k hiu
bng ch B, ch s tip theo ch kiu my v cc s tip theo ch hnh trnh lm
vic ln nht ca u bo trn my.
Theo tiu chun phn loi my ca lin bang Nga (Lin x c): my bo
thuc nhm 7; ch s tip theo ch kiu my v cc s tip theo ch hnh trnh
lm vic ln nht ca u bo trn my.
" My bo ngang 737
My bo ngang 737 dng h thng thu lc dn ng cho cc chuyn
ng cng tc. S ng ca my -c th hin trn hnh 4-7.
ng c in c cng sut N=9,1kW vi tc quay n=1440vng/pht dn
ng cho hai bm thu lc H
1
c l-u l-ng 100l it/pht v H
2
c l-u l-ng
50l it/pht. H thng thu lc dng 5 van tr-t iu khin.
Van tr-t
1
dng iu chnh thay i tc cng tc ca u bo. Tay
gt P v van tr-t
1
c ba v tr. Khi con tr-t nm v tr tn cng bn phi th
ch c du t bm H
2
-c -a ti h thng thu lc, du t bm H
1
qua van
tr-t
1
v van x chy v b v mt l-ng nh du -c y vo van tr-t

5
. Khi tc chuyn ng ca u bo c tr s ti thiu (V=3m/pht). Khi
con tr-t ca van
1
nm v tr gia th du t bm H
1
-c -a ln h thng
thu lc, du t bm H
2
qua van tr-t
1
v van x chy v b. Khi tc
chuyn ng ca u bo ln hn so vi tr-ng hp khi con tr-t ca van
1
nm v tr phi v l-u l-ng ca bm H
1
ln hn l-u l-ng ca bm H
2
. Khi
con tr-t ca van
1
nm v tr tn cng bn tri th du -c bm vo h
thng ng thi t c hai bm H
1
v H
2
to cho u bo tc chuyn ng ln
nht (V=37m/pht).
Van tr-t
2
dng o chiu chuyn ng ca u bo. Van tr-t
3
dng
iu khin v tr phi tri ca van tr-t
2
. Van tr-t
4
dng phanh hm u bo
khi o chiu chuyn ng. Van tr-t
5
cn thit iu chnh tr s l-ng chy dao.
Khi du -c -a vo khoang phi ca xi lanh cng tc th u bo thc
hin chuyn ng cng tc, khi du -c -a vo khoang tri ca xi lanh th u
bo thc hin hnh trnh chy khng. o chiu chuyn ng ca u bo -c
thc hin nh cc c lp trn u bo. Ti thi im cui hnh trnh cng tc,
c bn phi ca u bo tc ng ln n by P
1
y con tr-t ca van
3
chy sang phi m -ng du vo khoang tri ca xi lanh van tr-t
2
lm
con tr-t

Hnh 4-7 S ng ca my bo ngang 737
ca n tr-t sang phi. Khi , du chy vo khoang tri ca xi lanh cng tc y u
bo chy sang phi thc hin hnh trnh chy khng. Ti thi im cui hnh
trnh chy khng, c bn tri ca u bo tc ng ln n by P
1
y con tr-t
ca van
3
sang tri lm cho du chy vo khoang phi ca xi lanh cng tc y
u bo chy sang tri tip tc thc hin hnh trnh cng tc. Chiu di hnh
trnh ca u bo c th -c iu chnh bng cch thay i khong cch gia cc
c lp trn n. Van khi ng K
1
dng khi ng v dng my.
Khi kho van K
1
th tt c du trn -ng ng chnh -c x v b. Khi
, l xo ca van
4
y con tr-t ca n sang phi ng c hai ca dn du
vo xi lanh cng tc. Van tit l-u
1
dng iu chnh v cp tc hnh
trnh cng tc ca u bo trong pham vi tng cp tu thuc vo v tr ca
con tr-t trong van
1
.
Chuyn ng chy dao khng lin tc ca bn my cng -c duy tr bng
h thng thu lc. Du t rnh phi ca van tr-t
2
chy vo khoang tri ca van

5
y con tr-t ca n tin sang phi. Khi du t bm H
1
qua rnh phi ca
van
5
chy vo khoang trn ca xi lanh chy dao y piston ca n xung d-i.
Piston ca xi lanh chy dao -c ni vi thanh rng lm quay bnh rng 28. Tuy
nhin nh c ly hp siu vit M
01
m bnh rng 28 quay trn khng lm quay
trc I. Khi u bo thc hin hnh trnh chy khng, du t bm H
1
qua van tr-t

2
chy vo khoang phi ca van tr-t
5
y con tr-t ca n sang tri v du t
rnh phi ca van tr-t
5
chy vo khoang d-i ca xi lanh chy dao y piston
ca n ln trn. Khi thanh rng quay bnh rng 28 cng trc I theo chiu
ng-c li. T trc I chuyn ng qua c cu o chiu truyn ti trc vt me chy
dao ngang III c hai u mi vi b-c ren p=6mm qua cp bnh rng 27-26. Khi
bnh rng 27 trn trc II -c gt sang tri th chuyn ng t trc I qua c cu
o chiu truyn qua cp bnh rng 27-30, cp trc vt-bnh vt ti vt me chy
dao thng ng V c b-c ren p
V
=8mm. Tr s l-ng chy dao -c iu chnh
v cp, thc hin bng cch thay i hnh trnh piston ca xi lanh chy dao nh
v lng nm pha trn.
Chuyn ng chy dao nhanh ca bn my theo ph-ng ngang hoc theo
ph-ng thng ng -c thc hin nh ng c in c cng sut N=1kW vi
tc quay n=1425vng/pht qua hai cp bnh rng v ly hp siu vit M
02
.
b. My bo gi-ng:
Cc b phn chnh ca my bo g-ng hai tr -c th hin trn hnh 4-8.

Hnh 4-8 My bo g-ng hai tr.

1- Thn my; 2- Bn my; 3,8- Trng; 4,11- Bn dao bn; 5- X ngang;
6,9- Bn dao trn; 7- Thanh ging; 10- Hp chy dao.
Trn my bo gi-ng, chuyn ng chnh do bn my mang chi tit gia cng
thc hin, chuyn ng chy dao do i dao thc hin. My bo gi-ng c loi
mt tr ng v loi hai tr ng. Cc i dao -c lp trn cc tr ng v x
ngang ca my, chng nhn -c cc chuyn ng chy dao ph hp cho mi
tr-ng hp gia cng c th. Cc bn dao c th tham gia ct ng thi cng
mt lc gia cng nhiu b mt trn mt chi tit. Trn my bo gi-ng, chuyn
ng chnh do bn my mang chi tit gia cng thc hin, chuyn ng chy dao
do i dao thc hin. My bo gi-ng c loi mt tr ng v loi hai tr ng.
Cc i dao -c lp trn cc tr ng v x ngang ca my, chng nhn -c
cc chuyn ng chy dao ph hp cho mi tr-ng hp gia cng c th.
c tnh quan trng nht ca my bo gi-ng l chiu di hnh trnh ln nht
ca bn my. Thng th-ng cc my bo gi-ng -c ch to vi chiu di hnh
trnh ln nht ca bn my trong phm vi L
max
= (1,5 12)m .
My bo gi-ng dng gia cng cc chi tit ln c trng l-ng ln,
chiu di ln v c nhiu b mt cn gia cng. C th tn dng hnh trnh di
ca my bo gi-ng bng cch g kp ni tip cc chi tit ngn ln bn my
gia cng ng thi.
c. My xc
Chuyn ng chnh ca my xc do u xc mang dao thc hin theo
ph-ng thng ng, cn bn my mang chi tit gia cng nhn chuyn
ng chy dao khng lin tc theo ph-ng dc hoc ph-ng ngang. Ngoi
ra, bn my c th thc hin chuyn ng chy dao vng quay quanh tm
ca n theo trc quay thng ng.
c tnh c bn ca my xc l hnh trnh ln nht ca u xc. Cc my
xc th-ng -c ch to vi hnh trnh ln nht ca u xc l L
max
= 200mm.
4.2. Gia cng trn my chut
Chut l mt ph-ng php gia cng ct gt c nng sut cao, m bo
chnh xc hnh dng hnh hc v chnh xc kch th-c cao bng mt dng c
ct c nhiu rng dao. Dng c ct ny gi l dao chut. Trong qu trnh chut l,
dao chut nhn chuyn ng dc theo -ng tm ca chi tit gia cng, cn chi
tit gia cng ng yn (hnh 4-9)
4.2.1. Cng dng, kh nng, c im
a. Cng dng
Chut dng gia cng cc l, cc b mt ngoi c hnh dng khc nhau,
cc rnh trong v ngoi.
b. Kh nng
Chut c th gia cng -c l trn c -ng knh n 320mm; l then hoa c
-ng knh n 420mm; rnh then c chiu rng n 100mm. Chiu di l chut
c th t ti 1000mm.
Gia cng bng ph-ng php chut c th t cp chnh xc (IT8 I T7);
nhm b mt gia cng cp (6 10).
c. c im
Khi gia cng bng ph-ng php chut cn l-u nhng c im sau:
Chut ch c mt chuyn ng to hnh duy nht l chuyn ng chnh V
(chuyn ng ct) do dao thc hin v khng c chuyn ng chy dao.
Dao chut l dng c ct nhiu rng, c nhiu rng dao tham gia ct ng
thi. V vy, tng din tch lp ct khi chut ln, do lc ct rt ln v nng
sut gia cng khi chut cao.
Tng din tch lp ct khi chut c tr s bin ng, do lc ct cng bin
ng theo. V vy, qu trnh ct khi chut th-ng xut hin rung ng c chu k.
Chut ch gia cng -c nhng l thng -c gia cng s b tr-c.
Do lc ct ln nn chut ch gia cng -c nhng chi tit c chiu dy thnh
ln v mt ct t-ng i ng u trn sut chiu di chi tit m bo
cng vng.
Trong qu trnh chut l, chi tit t nh tm theo dao v mt u. V vy,
khng cn g.
Dao chut thuc loi dao chuyn dng, nh sn kch th-c, gi thnh cao.
Do , chut ch s dng trong sn xut lot ln v hng khi.













Hnh 4-9 S gia cng theo ph-ng php chut
1- Dao chut, 2- Chi tit gia cng, 3- Phin t t la,
4- Thnh my, 5- Phin t.
4.2.2. Dao chut
a. Phn loi dao chut
1. Theo tnh cht ca b mt gia cng, dao chut -c phn ra:
Dao chut trong: dng gia cng cc b mt trong.
Dao chut ngoi: dng gia cng cc b mt ngoi.
2. Theo hnh dng, dao chut -c phn ra:
V
Dao chut l trn.
Dao chut l then hoa.
Dao chut l then.
Dao chut l a cnh.
Dao chut mt tr ngoi.
Dao chut mt phng.

3. Theo ph-ng php truyn lc, dao chut -c phn ra:
Dao chut ko
Dao chut ng
b. Kt cu dao chut l
Dao chut l c nhng phn ch yu sau y (hnh 4-10,a):












Hnh 4-10 Kt cu dao chut l tr
1. u dao l
1
dng kp cht dao chut ln c cu ko ca my chut.
2. C dao l
2
l phn ni tip gia u dao vi phn nh h-ng pha tr-c.
Khi ch to dao chut, c dao ng vai tr l rnh thot dao khi gia cng phn
nh h-ng pha tr-c. Trn c dao, nh sn xut ng m s k hiu dao.
l
6
l
5
l
4
l
3
l
2
l
1
a)
c)

t
s
o
s
s
s
z

t
c
o
c

b)
3. Phn nh h-ng tr-c l
3
dng nh h-ng chi tit gia cng tr-c khi
vo ct (c phn cn pha tr-c tin li khi -a dao vo l gia cng).
4. Phn ct l
4
l phn trc tip ct kim loi. S l-ng rng dao ca phn ct
ph thuc vo l-ng d- ct v chiu dy ct. Cc rng dao c chiu cao tng dn
t rng u n cc rng tip theo mi rng dao u tham gia vo qu trnh
ct. to iu kin thun tin cho phoi thot ra khi rnh cha phoi khi rng
dao ra khi vng ct, trn cc rng dao c to nhng rnh chia phoi. Cc rnh
chia phoi ny -c x lch v tr vi nhau gia rng ny v rng tip theo.
5. Phn sa ng l
5
c t (38) rng. Hnh dng v kch th-c ca cc rng
sa ng ph hp vi hnh dng v kch th-c ca rng dao cui cng ca phn
ct. Phn sa ng c tc dng sa nhng ch cn li m phn ct ch-a ct ht
to cho b mt gia cng c chnh xc v cht l-ng b mt cao.
6. Phn nh h-ng sau l
6
dng nh h-ng v dao chut vo thi im
khi rng dao cui cng ra khi l gia cng. Phn nh h-ng sau c tc dng gi
cho chi tit khng b lt t-ng i vi rng dao cui cng, nh m b mt gia
cng khng b co x-c v rng dao chut khng b st m.
c. Thng s hnh hc ca dao chut l:
Cc yu t thng s hnh hc ca dao chut -c th hin hnh 4-10,b, c.
1. B-c rng dao t
C
B-c rng dao ca phn ct dao chut t
C
-c xc nh tu thuc vo chiu
di ca b mt gia cng. Khi tnh ton, cn l-u sao cho trong qu trnh ct c t
nht ba rng dao tham gia ct ng thi.
Thng th-ng, b-c rng phn ct -c tnh theo cng thc:
t
C
= (0,6 0,7). L [mm] (4.5)
B-c rng ca phn sa ng t
s
-c tnh theo cng thc:
t
s
= (0,6 0,7). t
c
[mm] (4.6)
2. Gc tr-c
Gc tr-c ca dao chut -c o trong mt phng vung gc vi l-i ct
chnh. Gc tr-c ca phn ct -c chn ph thuc vo tnh cht c l ca vt liu
gia cng v dao ng trong khong = (5
o
20
o
). Vt liu cng do chn gc tr-c
cng ln. Gc tr-c ca phn sa ng th-ng chn trong phm vi = (0
o
5
o
).
3. Gc sau o
Cng nh- gc tr-c , gc sau o ca dao chut cng -c o trong mt
phng vung gc vi l-i ct chnh. Gc sau ca cc rng phn ct -c
chn trong khong o = (2
o
4
o
)

khi chut trong v o = (5
o
10
o
) khi chut ngoi.
Gc sau ca cc rng phn sa ng o
s
=(302
o
). kch th-c ca dao chut
khng i khi mi theo mt tr-c ca dao, trn cc rng ca phn sa ng c
cnh vin vi chiu rng f = (0,21)mm.
4.2.3. Cc yu t ch ct
a. L-ng chy dao rng s
z

Trong qu trnh chut khng c chuyn ng chy dao, thay vo l-ng
chy dao rng s
Z
-c to nn v c tr s ng bng l-ng nng ca rng dao
( chnh v chiu cao gia hai rng k nhau).
Tr s s
Z
-c chn ph thuc vo vt liu gia cng. Thng th-ng, khi gia
cng thp chn s
Z
=(0,050,15)mm , khi gia cng gang chn s
Z
=(0,10,2)mm.
b. Chiu dy ct a
i vi nhng dao chut chiu dy ct a chnh l l-ng nng ca dao S
Z
(cng chnh l l-ng chy dao rng).
c. Chiu rng ct b
Chiu rng ct b bng chiu di phn l-i ct tham gia ct ca mt rng.
i vi dao chut then hoa th b bng tng chiu rng ca cc rnh then hoa,
cn i vi dao chut l tr th b bng chu vi ca -ng trn.
d. Tc ct V
Tc ct khi chut V l tc chuyn ng tnh tin t-ng i ca dao
chut so vi chi tit gia cng.
Tc ct V -c xc nh ph thuc vo tnh cht c l ca vt liu gia
cng, cp nhm b mt yu cu cn t -c. Thng th-ng, i vi
nhng dao chut -c ch to t thp dng c hp kim v thp gi, tc ct
chn trong khong V = (210)m/ph.
Tc ct tnh -c phi so snh vi tc cho php ca my.
Tc ct cho php ca my ph thuc vo cng sut my v -c tnh nh- sau:
| | q . . 61200
z
P
N
V = [m/ph] (4.7)
trong : - N l cng sut ca ng c, kw;
- P
z
l lc ct, N,
- q l hiu sut ca my.
e. Thi gian my
Thi gian my khi chut -c tnh theo cng thc:

V
L
T
ht
o
. 1000
= [ph] (4.8)
trong :
- V l tc ct, m/ph;
- L
ht
=l + l
c
+ l
s
+ l , mm, l chiu di hnh trnh cng tc ca dao chut;
l l chiu di b mt gia cng, mm;
l
c
l chiu di phn ct ca dao chut, mm;
l
s
l chiu di phn sa ng ca dao chut, mm;
4.2.4. Lc ct v cng sut
a. Lc ct
Lc ct tc dng ln mi rng dao chut -c phn tch theo hai thnh phn:
- p
Z
l thnh phn lc tc ng theo ph-ng dc trc dao.
- p
Y
l thnh phn lc tc ng theo ph-ong h-ng tm dao.
Tuy nhin, ch p
Z
l c

ngha thc t. Thnh phn lc p
Z
tc ng ng-c
chiu vi vc t tc ct to nn ng sut ko cho dao chut. Gi P
Z
l lc tng
hp ca cc thnh phn lc tc ng dc trc ln tt c cc rng dao tham gia ct
ng thi, c th tnh P
Z
bng cng thc thc nghim sau:
Khi chut l trn:

dd m l
x
z p z
K K K K Z D S C P
pz
z
. . . . . . . . 81 , 9
o
=
[N] (4.9)
Khi chut l then v then hoa:

dd m l
x
z p z
K K K K b n Z S C P
pz
z
. . . . . . . . . 81 , 9
o
=
[N] (4.10)
Trong cc cng thc trn:
- C
pz
l h s tnh ti nh h-ng ca vt liu phi v iu kin gia
cng ti lc ct;
- s
Z
l l-ng nng ca rng;
- x
Pz
l ch s m nu ln mc nh h-ng ca s
z
ti lc ct;
- D l -ng knh l gia cng [mm];
- Z
l
l s rng dao tham gia ct ng thi ln nht tnh theo (4.13);
- n l s rnh then;
- K

, K
o
, K
m
, K
dd
,... l cc h s tnh ti nh h-ng ca gc tr-c, gc sau,
mn dao, dung dch trn ngui,... ti lc ct.
Tt c cc h s v s m trong cng thc trn u -c cho cc s tay
cng ngh ch to my.
H s C
Pz
v ch s m x
Pz
c th tham kho cc s liu cho Bng 4-1.
H s K
m
c th ly th ly theo Bng 4-2.
Bng 4-1
H s C
pz
vi dao chut l
Vt liu phi
cng
[HB]
Then Then hoa Tr
Ch s x
pz
< 200 177 212 700 0,85
200230 202 230 762 0,85
Thp kt cu
(ct c dung dch
trn ngui)
230 250 284 842 0,85
< 200 215 152 300 0,73
Gang (ct khng c
dung dch trn ngui)
> 200 137 215 354 0,73
Bng 4-2
Tr s mn tnh theo [mm] 0 0,3 1,0
Tr s k
m
1,0 1,15 1,75
Khi gia cng thp v gang:
- Nu gc sau o = (2
o
3
o
) th ly h s K
o
=1.
- Nu o s 1
o
th ly K
o
=1,2 khi gia cng thp v K
o
=1,1 khi gia cng
gang.
H s K
dd
=1,13 khi dng dung dch trn ngui l munxi.
H s K
dd
=1,34 khi khng dng dung dch trn ngui.
C th tnh lc ct khi chut theo cng thc thc nghim nh- sau:

= b . p P
z
[N] (4.11)
trong : - p l lc ct n v (tc ng trn 1mm chiu di ca l-i ct), N/mm.
Tr s ca p ph thuc vo vt liu gia cng, l-ng nng mt rng dao chut s
Z

v -c cho trong cc s tay cng ngh ch to my.
- b l tng chiu di l-i ct ca cc rng dao tham gia ct ng
thi, mm v -c xc nh nh- sau:

=
l
c
Z
Z
b
b .
[mm] (4.12)
y: + b l chiu rng ct,
+ Z
C
l s rng dao trn mt vng rng,
+ Z
l
l s rng dao tham gia ct ng thi ln nht, c th tnh nh- sau:

c
l
t
L
Z =
+ 1 (4.13)
trong : - L l chiu di b mt gia cng, mm,
- t
c
l b-c rng phn ct ca dao chut, mm,.
Tr s Z
l
tnh -c phi lm trn ti s nguyn.
b. Cng sut
Sau khi tnh -c lc ct c th xc nh -c cng sut ct theo cng
thc sau:

3
10 . 60
.V P
N
z
c
=
[kW] (4.14)
trong : - P
Z
l lc ct, N;
- V l tc ct, m/ph.
4.2.5. My chut
a. My chut ngang
S my chut ngang -c th hin trn hnh 4-12.
Tr-c khi ct, phn u tr-c ca dao chut -c lun qua l gia cng
s b ca phi v -c kp cht vo u cp ca bn dao 4. Bn dao cng dao
chut nhn chuyn ng ct nh pistng ca xi lanh thu lc. Chi tit gia cng
trong qu trnh chut t mt u ca n vo mt ca phin t 5. Qu trnh gia
cng c tip tc cho n khi dao chut ra khi l gia cng. Sau gia cng, chi tit
ri xung mng 6, cn dao chut -c ly ra khi bn dao 4, sau bn dao
di chuyn v v tr ban u.
My chut ngang dng chut cc l c tit din ngang khc nhau.
Theo tiu chun phn loi my ca Vit nam: nhm my chut -c k hiu
bng ch Ch, s tip theo ch kiu my v cc s tip theo ch lc ko ln nht
trn my.
Theo tiu chun phn loi my ca lin bang Nga (Lin x c): my chut
thuc nhm 7; my chut ngang -c k hiu kiu bng ch s 5; s tip theo ch
lc ko ln nht trn my.
V d: my 7510 l my chut ng c lc ko ln nht P
max
=10.000 KG.
Hnh 4-12 My chut ngang
1-Thn my; 2-Trm bm thu lc; 3-Xi lanh thu lc; 4-Bn dao;
5-Phin t; 6-Mng .
b. My chut ng
S my chut ng -c th hin trn hnh 4-13.
My chut ng dng chut ngoi. Chi tit gia cng -c lp trn g
kp cht trn bn my. Dao chut -c lp trn bn dao nhn chuyn ng tnh
tin theo ph-ng thng ng nh xi lanh tu lc. Dao chut chuyn ng i
xung thc hin qu trnh ct. Sau khi ct chi tit -c ly khi v tr gia cng v
dao chut thc hin hnh trnh i ln tr v v tr ban u.
Theo tiu chun phn loi my ca lin bang Nga (Lin x c): my chut
ng -c k hiu bng ch s 7. Thng s quan trng ca my l lc chut ln
nht. V d: 7710 l k hiu my chut ng c lc y ln nht P
max
=10.000
KG.
Hnh 4-13 My chut ng.
1-B my; 2-Bn my; 3-Bn dao; 4-Trm bm; 5-Thn my.
c. My chut lin tc
S my chut ng -c th hin trn hnh 4-14.
Hnh 4-14 My chut lin tc.








Ch-ng 5
gia cng trn my khoan - MY doa
5.1 Cng dng, kh nng
5.1.1 Cng dng
Trn my khoan, my doa, vi cc dng c ct t-ng ng (nh- mi khoan,
mi khot, mi doa, mi ta r...) c th thc hin -c cc cng vic sau:
- Khoan l c, m rng l c sn;
- Khoan l thng v l khng thng;
- Kha mt u, vt mp cc l;
- Doa cc l tr v l cn c sn.
- Ct ren...
5.1.2. Kh nng
a. Khoan c th gia cng cc l c -ng knh u = (0,2580)mm
c hoc ch-a c l sn, t cp chnh xc (IT14IT12), nhm cp
(35).
Vi kh nng trn, khoan th-ng -c s dng gia cng th.
b. Khot c kh nng gia cng cc l t cp chnh xc (IT11IT10),
nhm cp (57). Khot th-ng -c dng m rng l c sn (do khoan hoc
do cc ph-ng php khc nh- c, rn... li) nhm nng cao chnh xc hnh
dng v cp nhm b mt gia cng.
Khot th-ng l nguyn cng trung gian hoc nguyn cng cui. L-ng d-
cho nguyn cng khot nh, th-ng ly (0,53)mm.
c. Doa c th t chnh xc (IT9IT7), nhm cp (810).
Doa th-ng -c s dng gia cng tinh cc l c sn. L-ng d- cho
nguyn cng doa rt nh, th-ng ly (0,050,5)mm.
Khi khoan, khot, doa trn my khoan, my doa, phi -c kp c nh
trn bn my, cn dng c ct m nhim c hai chuyn ng:
- Chuyn ng chnh l chuyn ng quay trn quanh trc dao (chuyn
ng ct),
- Chuyn ng chy dao l chuyn ng tnh tin dc trc dao.
5.2. Dng c ct trn my khoan, my doa
5.2.1. Mi khoan
a. Cc loi mi khoan
Dng c ct khi khoan -c gi l mi khoan.
Theo kt cu v chc nng mi khoan -c phn loi nh- sau: mi khoan
rnh xon, mi khoan dt, mi khoan l tm, mi khoan l su, mi khoan
chp mnh hp kim cng...
b. Kt cu ca mi khoan xon
Mi khoan xon (cn gi l mi khoan rut g) -c chia lm ba phn:
cn dao, c dao v phn lm vic (hnh 5-1).
1. Cn dao l
1
: l phn nh tm mi khoan vo l cn ca trc chnh
hoc tm ca bu cp mi khoan v nhn m men xon. Phn cn dao
c th l tr hoc cn. i vi mi khoan c -ng knh nh
(D<12mm) phn cn l hnh tr; mi khoan c -ng knh ln
(D>16mm) phn cn l hnh cn.
2. C dao l
2
: l phn ni gia cn dao v phn lm vic ca mi khoan.
Thng th-ng c dao l ni dng ng du k hiu mi khoan (-ng
knh mi khoan v vt liu ch to). Trong ch to mi khoan, c dao l ni
thot dao khi gia cng phn cn dao v phn lm vic.









Hnh 5-1 Cu to ca mi khoan xon
3. Phn lm vic bao gm phn nh h-ng v phn ct:
Phn nh h-ng l
3
: dng nh h-ng mi khoan khi ct v cng l ni d tr
mi li mi khoan khi mn. Phn nh h-ng c cc c im sau:
- C hai cnh vin (-ng me). Khi khoan, cnh vin tip xc vi b mt gia
cng gi cho mi khoan khng b nghing, ng thi lm gim ma st gia mi
khoan v b mt gia cng. Chiu rng cnh vin trong khong f = (0,62,6)mm.
- -ng knh phn nh h-ng gim dn v pha cn to thnh gc nghing
ph
1
gim ma st gia mt sau ca dao v b mt gia cng. cn
ng-c phn nh h-ng khong (0,040,09)mm trn chiu di 100mm k t
phn ct cho ti phn cn ca dao.
- C hai rnh thot phoi dng xon vt.
- Ni lin gia hai rnh xon l li khoan. Khi -ng knh mi khoan trong
khong D = (1,8 80)mm th -ng knh li khoan l d
li
=(0,190,125)D.
-ng knh li ln dn v pha cn mi khoan.
Phn ct l
4
l phn trc tip tham gia
ct to nn phoi. Phn ct ca mi
khoan v c bn ging dao tin, ngha
l cng bao gm cc mt, cc l-i v
cc gc dao, nh-ng n phc tp hn do
c nhng im khc d-i y:
- Phn ct mi khoan c nm l-i ct,
bao gm hai l-i ct chnh ab v cd,
hai l-i ct ph be v df, mt l-i ct
ngang ac.
- Hai mt tr-c l hai phn mt xon
ca hai rnh xon. Hai mt sau chnh
c dng mt xon (t-ng ng vi
l-i ct chnh), mt cn hoc mt
phng ty theo cch mi. Hai mt
sau ph l hai cnh vin.

Hnh 5-2 Cc yu t c bn phn
ct ca mi khoan xon.

c. Thng s hnh hc tnh ca mi khoan xon
1. Gc tr-c
Gc tr-c ca rng dao mi khoan -c o trong mt ct chnh N-N v
-c nh ngha nh- sau:
Gc tr-c ca rng dao mi khoan l gc gia -ng tip tuyn vi mt
tr-c ca rng dao ti im kho st v -ng php tuyn vi mt phng tip tuyn
vi b mt quay trn ca l-i ct quanh tm ti im .
Tr s gc tr-c ti mt im bt k trn l-i ct chnh
x
-c xc nh
theo cng thc sau:

X
sin
tg
.
D
D
tg
X
= [radian] (5.1)
trong : - D
x
l -ng knh vng trn i qua im kho st, mm,
-
x
l gc tr-c ti im kho st trn l-i ct chnh ca mi khoan,
,
- D l -ng knh mi khoan, mm
- e l gc xon,
- l gc nghing chnh,
T (5.1) c nhn xt: Gc tr-c ca mi khoan thay i theo h-ng gim
dn t ngoi vo tm mi khoan. Th-ng chn
D
= (18
o
30
o
).
2. Gc sau chnh o
Gc sau chnh o ti mt im ca l-i ct chnh l gc hp bi mt
phng tip tuyn vi mt sau ti im kho st ca l-i ct v mt
phng tip tuyn vi -ng trn qu o ca im quanh tm mi
khoan, o trong mt ct dc trc A-A.
T-ng quan gia gc sau chnh tit din chnh o
N
v gc sau chnh
mt ct dc trc o
X
c th biu th qua cng thc:
tgo
N
= tgo
X
.sin (5.2)
trong : - o
X
l gc sau chnh ti im kho st, o trong mt ct dc trc
A-A,
- o
N
l gc sau chnh o trong mt ct chnh N-N
T-ng t gc tr-c, gc sau cng c tr s thay i dc theo l-i ct chnh
theo h-ng gim dn t ngoi vo tm mi khoan. V vy, khi mi dao cn
ch sao cho tr s gc sau ng nhng im gn tm m bo iu
kin ct -c.
Th-ng chn tr s gc sau tnh nh- sau:
- Ti chu vi khi D
x
= D th o = (8
o
5
o
).
- gn tm khi D
x
0 th o = (20
o
25
o
).
Gc sau ph o
1
= 0
o
.




N
A A
Phng to
A
A
N
N
N
Dx

X

o
X


X
D
N N
Phng to
N N
Phng to









Hnh 5-3 Cc gc phn ct ca mi khoan
3. Gc nghing l-i ct chnh
Gc nghing l-i ct chnh l gc gia hnh chiu l-i ct chnh trn
mt y v ph-ng chy dao. i vi mi khoan ng-i ta cn dng khi
nim gc nh dao 2. Tr s gc nh dao 2 tu thuc vo tnh cht vt
liu gia cng v dao ng trong phm vi 2 = (80
o
140
o
). Vt liu cng dn
chn gc 2 cng nh, vt liu cng do chn gc 2 cng ln. Chng
hn:
Khi gia cng hoa chn: 2 = 80
o
Khi gia cng thp c cng trung bnh chn: 2 = (116
o
120
o
).
Khi gia cng thp c cng cao chn: 2 = 125
o
.
Khi gia cng nhm chn: 2 = 140
o

Gc nghing l-i ct ph
1
-c to nn do cn ng-c ca phn dn
h-ng. i vi mi khoan lm bng thp dng c th-ng chn
1
= (2
o
4
o
).
4. Gc nghing l-i ct ngang +
Gc nghing l-i ct ngang + l gc gia hnh chiu ca l-i ct ngang v
l-i ct chnh trn mt phng vung gc vi -ng tm mi khoan.
i vi nhng mi khoan tiu chun th-ng chn:
+=55
o
nu -ng knh mi khoan D>15mm;
+=50
o
nu -ng knh mi khoan Ds15mm.
5. Gc xon rnh thot phoi e
Gc xon rnh thot phoi e l gc gia -ng tm ca mi khoan v
-ng tip tuyn vi -ng xon rnh thot phoi ti chu vi (hnh 5-1). Gc
e nh h-ng n lc ct, qu trnh to phoi, bn v tui th ca mi
khoan. Khi e tng mc bin dng do ca phoi v ma st gia mt tr-c
dao vi phoi gim, phoi thot d. Nh-ng nu tng e v-t qu tr s hp l
th iu kin ct li xu i, v khi chiu di on -ng chuyn ng ca
phoi tng, phoi c th ta vo tjnh rnh xon nn ma st v nhit
thnh rnh xon tng. Ngoi ra, khi tr s gc e ln th gc sc | nh nn
bn v tui th mi khoan gim.
Gc e ca mi khoan thp gi chn ph thuc vo vt liu gia cng:
- Khi gia cng thp, gang c cng trung bnh chn: e = (25
o
30
o
)
- Khi gia cng nhm, ng chn: e = (35
o
40
o
).
Cng gn tm mi khoan gc e cng nh.
6. Gc nng l-i ct chnh
Gc nng l-i ct chnh (xc nh t-ng t dao tin) l gc gia l-i ct
chnh v php tuyn vi vc t tc ct o trong mt phng ct.
C th xc nh gc nng l-i ct chnh theo cng thc:
sin = sin+.sin (5.3)
Tr s gc nng l-i ct chnh chn trong khong = (7
o
2012
o
20)
d. Thng s hnh hc ca mi khoan trng thi lm vic
Khi lm vic, ngoi chuyn ng chnh, mi khoan cn nhn chuyn ng
chy dao dc theo tm ca n. Bi vy, mt phng ct thc t s thay i so vi
mt phng ct gi nh khi kho st thng s hnh hc ca dao trng thi
tnh. Do mt phng ct thay i nn cc gc tr-c v gc sau ca mi khoan cng
thay i v s thay i ny c th tnh -c nh- sau (hnh 5-3,b):


= + v o

= o (5.4)
trong : - l gc nghing ca qu o ct, tg =
D
S
t
;
- s l l-ng chy dao khi khoan, mm/vng;
- D l -ng khnh mi khoan ti im kho st, mm.
Nhn xt: Nu l-ng chy dao s cng ln v im kho st trn l-i ct
chnh cng gn tm th tr s gc cng ln, ngha l tr s gc sau ng o

cng nh. Bi vy, khi mi dao cn ch phi chn gc sau o ti nhng
im cng gn tm cng ln trnh hin t-ng o

c tr s nh hn
khng.
5.2.2. Mi khot
Khot dng gia cng nhng l c sn (l c, l dp hoc l khoan)
vi mc ch m rng kch th-c, to chnh xc kch th-c v nng cao cp
nhm b mt. Ngoi ra, khot cn dng to cc l u bu lng dng tr hoc
cn, kha mt u, vt mp...
a. Kt cu mi khot
Cu to ca mi khot t-ng t mi khoan xon (hnh 5-5) song mi khot
c mt s c im ring sau y:
- Mi khot c nhiu rng ct hn mi khoan, t Z = 3 (khi D s 35mm) n
Z = 4 (khi D>35mm). Do , mi khot c cng vng ln, kh nng
nh h-ng tt trong qu trnh lm vic, cho php nng cao nng sut
ct.
- Mi khot khng c l-i ct ngang.
- Rng ct ca mi khot c ba l-i: l-i ct chnh, l-i ni tip v l-i ct
ph (hnh 5-4). Chiu di lm vic ca l-i ct ph bng
Z
S
, trong s l l-ng
chy dao vng (mm/vng), cn Z l s rng ct ca dao. tng kh nng nh
h-ng cho mi khot, trn rng ct ca dao c cnh vin, chiu rng cnh vin
f = (0,81,2)mm.
- Mi khot c -ng knh Ds32mm -c ch to lin khi. Cc mi khot
c -ng knh D = (32 100)mm -c ch to d-i dng rng chp.






o







Hnh 5-4 Mi khot
1- Phn ct. 2-Phn dn h-ng. 3- Phn c dao. 4- Phn cn.
b. Thng s hnh hc ca mi khot
Thng s hnh hc ca cc rng mi khot -c o trong mt ct chnh N-N
(mt ct vung gc vi hnh chiu ca l-i ct chnh trn mt phng i qua tm
ca mi khot, xem hnh 5-4).
1. Gc tr-c
Gc tr-c ca mi khot c tr s -c chn tu thuc vo tnh cht ca vt
liu ch to dao v vt liu gia cng.
i vi nhng mi khot c rng dao bng thp gi th-ng chn:
Khi gia cng thp: = (8
o
15
o
)


Khi gia cng gang: = (6
o
8
o
)


Khi gia cng kim loi mu: = (25
o
30
o
)

2. Gc sau o
Gc sau ca mi khot c tr s -c chn tu thuc vo tnh cht c l ca
vt liu gia cng. Th-ng chn o = (8
o
10
o
).
3. Gc nghing l-i ct chnh c tr s -c chn tu thuc vo tnh cht
c l ca vt liu ch to dao.
Cc mi khot ch to t thp gi c: = (45
o
60
o
).
Cc mi khot ch to t hp kim cng c: = (60
o
75
o
).
4. Gc nghing l-i ct ph ( cn ng-c) c tr s:
1
= (1
o
2
o
).
5. Gc xon rnh thot phoi c tr s: e = (10
o
25
o
)
5.2.3. Mi doa
Doa l ph-ng php gia cng tinh cc l sau khot hoc sau tin mc l.
C th phn loi mi doa theo cc ch tiu sau:
- Theo ph-ng php gia cng c: mi doa tay, mi doa my.
- Theo kt cu c: mi doa ui cn, mi doa ui tr.
- Theo b mt gia cng c: mi doa l tr, mi doa l cn.
- Theo ph-ng php kp cht rng dao c: mi doa rng lin, mi doa rng
chp.
- Theo kh nng iu chnh -ng knh gia cng c: mi doa iu chnh
-c v mi doa khng iu chnh -c.
a. Kt cu mi doa l tr
Kt cu ca mi doa l tr (hnh 5-5) gm ba phn: phn lm vic, phn c
dao v phn cn.
1. Phn lm vic l
1
gm c:
Cn dn h-ng c gc cn nh bng 90
o
.
Phn ct l
4
thc hin hu ht khi l-ng cng vic ct.
Phn sa ng l
5
dng dn h-ng mi doa trong qu trnh ct v sa
ng cho l gia cng. Ngoi ra, phn sa ng cn l ni d tr mi li mi
doa khi mn.
Phn cn ng-c l
6
c tc dng lm gim ma st gia mt sau ca dao v b
mt gia cng ca l.
2. C dao l
2
l phn ni gia cn dao v phn lm vic ca mi doa.
Trong qu trnh ch to mi doa, c dao l rnh thot dao khi gia cng phn
cn dao v phn lm vic.
3. Cn dao l
3
-c ch to dng tr c u vung i vi mi doa tay.
i vi mi doa my, cn dao -c ch to c dng ui cn hoc ui
tr.
Nhn chung, kt cu mi doa l tr t-ng t mi khot, song c mt s
c im khc nh- sau:
! Mi doa c nhiu rng ct hn mi khot nn mi doa c cng vng ln
hn, kh nng nh h-ng tt hn khot trong qu trnh ct. Thng th-ng, s
rng ca mi doa trong khong Z = (6 16) v c th xc nh theo cng thc:
Z = 1,5 D + K (5.5)
trong : - D l -ng knh l cn doa (-ng knh phn sa ng), mm;
- K l hng s ph thuc vt liu gia cng. Ly K = 2 khi gia cng vt
liu do, K = 4 khi gia cng vt liu dn.
! Mi doa khng c l-i ct ngang.
! Ni chung, rng dao doa -c lm thng. thot phoi tt, c bit l khi
gia cng vt liu do, ng-i ta ch to mi doa rng nghing. Thng th-ng,
gc xon ca rng dao doa -c chn trong khong e = (10
o
45
o
). Vt liu gia
cng cng do chn tr s gc xon cng ln. Khi doa l thng nn ch to rng
nghing trnh phoi thot v pha mt gia cng. Phn ct rng dao -c
mi nhn, cn phn sa ng rng dao -c mi li cnh vin c chiu rng
f=(0,080,5)mm (tu thuc vo -ng knh) to nn phn tr dn h-ng.


Hnh 5-5 Kt cu mi doa l tr
b. Thng s hnh hc ca mi doa l tr
1. Gc nghing chnh
T-ng t mi khoan, i vi mi doa ng-i ta cng dng khi nim gc
nh dao 2. Gc ny chn tu thuc vo loi mi doa v tnh cht gia
cng:
- Khi doa l thng chn:
= (301
o
30) i vi mi doa tay;
= (12
o
15
o
) i vi mi doa my, khi gia cng vt liu do;
= (3
o
5
o
) i vi mi doa my, khi gia cng vt liu cng, dn v vt
liu kh gia cng;
= (30
o
45
o
) i vi mi doa gn mnh hp kim cng.
- Khi doa l khng thng chn:
= 45
o
i vi cc mi doa tay;
= 60
o
i vi cc mi doa my;
= 75
o
i vi cc mi doa c rng bng hp kim cng.
2. Gc tr-c v gc sau ca rng dao:
Gc tr-c v gc sau o ca mi doa -c o trong mt ct chnh. Tr s
ca , o -c xc nh tu thuc tnh cht vt liu gia cng v tnh cht vt liu
lm dao. C th chn nh- sau:
= 0
o
i vi cc mi doa thp gi dng doa tinh;
= (5
o
10
o
)

i vi cc mi doa thp gi dng doa th;
= (0
o
5
o
) i vi cc mi doa bng hp kim cng.
Gc sau ca phn ct ly trong phm vi o = (5
o
10
o
).
5.3. c im ca qu trnh ct khi khoan
Cc hin t-ng vt l xy ra trong qu trnh ct v to phoi khi khoan c nhiu
im t-ng t qu trnh ct v to phoi khi tin. Nh-ng do kt cu ca dng c ct
v iu kin ct c khc vi tin nn qu trnh khoan c mt s c im ring
nh- sau:
! Dng c ct c nhiu rng ct v mi khoan li c l-i ct ngang vi gc
trc m nn iu kin ct rt xu, lc h-ng trc ln, l-i ct ph c bn
km, gc sau ph o
1
= 0
o
, tc ct t-ng i cao, chiu su ct ln, nhit ct
ln nn dao d b mi mn. Ngoi ra, gc sau o v tc d ct thay i dc theo
l-i ct chnh, iu kin ma st cng khc nhau, do h s co rt phoi cng
tng dn t ngoi vo tm.
! Khi mi cc l-i ct kh t -c yu cu v tnh i xng, do khi
ct d gy ra rung ng, l sau khi gia cng c -ng knh ln hn -ng knh
dng c ct (hin t-ng lay rng l). Mi khoan di c cng vng km,
ng tm gia phn ui mi khoan v phn lm vic ca n khng cao, hai
l-i ct mn khng i xng, nn khoan d b lch, chnh xc v cp
nhm b mt khng cao.
! So vi tin, kh nng thot phoi khi khoan, khot, doa kh hn nhiu,
khong khng gian cha phoi li na kn nn thi gian tip xc gia phoi v chi
tit gia cng di; vic t-i dung dch trn ngui vo vng ct kh v khi n vng
ct dung dch b nung nng do phi qua phoi nn hiu qu lm ngui khng cao;
mt khc, do tn nhit kh khn nn kh nng nng cao tc ct b hn ch.
! Mi khoan chu m men xon v lc dc trc.
5.4. Cc yu t ct khi khoan- khot -doa
5.4.1. Cc yu t ch ct
a. Chiu su ct t
Khi khoan l c chiu su ct -c xc nh nh- sau:
t =
2
D
[mm] (5.6)
Khi khoan m rng l, khot, doa chiu su ct -c xc nh nh- sau:
t =
2
d D
[mm] (5.7)
trong : - D l -ng knh l gia cng, mm;
- d l -ng knh l tr-c khi gia cng, mm.
c. L-ng chy dao s
Khi khoan, khot (gia cng th, bn tinh) m bo iu kin bn rng dao,
ng-i ta quan tm n l-ng chy dao rng s
Z
[mm/rng].
Khi doa (gia cng tinh) dm bo yu cu cht l-ng b mt gia cng,
ng-i ta quan tm n l-ng chy dao vng s [mm/vng].
c. Tc ct V
Tc ct khi khoan -c chn l tc vng ca im xa tm nht trn
l-i ct:
V =
1000
. . n D t
[m/ph] (5.8)
trong : - D l -ng knh ca l gia cng, mm;
- n l tc vng quay ca dao, vng/pht.
d. Thi gian my T
O

Thi gian my khi khoan -c tnh theo cng thc:
T
O
=
S n
L
.
=
S n
l l l
.
2 1
+ +
[ph] (5.9)
trong : - L l chiu di hnh trnh lm vic ca dao, mm;
- l l chiu di l gia cng, mm;
- l
1
l khong v-t qu ca dng c, mm, th-ng chn l
1
= (13)mm;
- l
2
l chiu di n dao, mm, th-ng chn l
2
~ 0,3.D mm.
5.4.2. Thng s tit din ngang lp ct















Hnh 5-6 Thng s hnh hc ca lp ct
a) Khi khoan l c b) Khi khoan m rng l, khot , doa

a. Chiu dy ct a
Chiu dy ct a -c xc nh theo cng thc:
D
t
n
s

b
s
z

a
a)
s
n
t
D
a
b

s
z

d
b)
a = s
Z
.sin =
Z
S
.sin [mm] (5.10)
trong : - l na gc nh dao;
- S
Z
l l-ng chy dao rng, mm/rng;
- Z l s rng dao.
- S l l-ng chy dao vng, mm/vng;
b. Chiu rng ct b
Khi khoan l c chiu rng ct b -c xc nh nh- sau:
b =
sin . 2
D
[mm] (5.11)
Khi khoan m rng, khot, doa chiu rng ct b -c xc nh nh- sau:
b =
sin
t
=
sin . 2
d D
[mm] (5.12)
c. Din tch tit din ngang lp ct F
Khi khoan l c, din tch tit din ngang lp ct -c xc nh nh- sau:
F
Z
= a.b =
4
.D S
[mm
2
] (5.13)
Khi khoan m rng, khot, doa, din tch tit din ngang lp ct -c xc
nh nh- sau:
F
Z
= a.b =
Z
t S.
[mm
2
] (5.14)
5.5. Lc ct
5.5.1. Lc ct khi khoan
a. Cc thnh phn lc tc dng ln mi khoan
Cc thnh phn lc tc dng ln mi khoan khi ct -c th hin nh-
hnh 5-7. Trong : P
Z
l lc tip tuyn, P
Y
h-ng knh, P
X
h-ng dc trc mi
khoan. Thnh phn lc dc trc tc dng trn l-i ngang -c k hiu l P
ng.

Gi s mi khoan c hai l-i ct -c mi i xng tuyt i v cc
iu kin khc l l t-ng, th cc lc t-ng ng tc dng ln cc l-i ct c
tr s nh- nhau. Khi , trn mi khoan ch c lc chiu trc P
O
l tng ca
cc lc chiu trc v m men xon M
X
l tng m men ca cc lc tip tuyn
thnh phn trn hai l-i ct, cn cc lc h-ng knh tng i mt trit tiu
nhau, ngha l P
Y
= 0.
Thnh phn lc P
Z
gy m men xon ln nht (khong 80%M
X
), k l
thnh phn P
Z1
(khong 12%M
X
).
Thnh phn P
ng
chim khong 57%P
O
,
P
X
chim khong 40%P
O
, cn li l thnh
phn ma st khong 3%P
O
.
b. Cc yu t nh h-ng
nh h-ng ca cc yu t ch ct,
tnh cht vt liu gia cng, dung dch
trn ngui v cc iu kin khc n m
men xon M
x
v lc dc trc P
O
t-ng t
nh- tin. y ch phn tch thm mt s
yu t c bit i km qu trnh khoan.
1. nh h-ng ca gc xon e
Tng e s lm tng (xem 5.1), cng
vlc lm bin dng kim loi gim, do P
O

v M
x
gim. Tuy nhin, khng nn ly
e>30
o
(thc nghim khoan thp cho thy: khi
ly e >30
o
th P
O
v M
x
gim khng ng k).

2. nh h-ng ca gc nghing chnh
T-ng t nh- tin, khi gim lm chiu

Hnh 5-7 Cc thnh phn lc
tc dng ln mi khoan
dy ct gim, cn chiu rng ct tng nn P
O
v P
Z
tng, nh-ng mt khc, gim
lm mi khoan nhn hn nn d i su vo kim loi gia cng, do gim
-c lc chy dao P
O
v l-ng gim li nhiu hn l-ng tng ni trn. V
vy, khi gim lm M
X
tng cn P
O
gim.
3. nh h-ng ca l-i ct ngang
Gc tr-c ca l-i ct ngang m nn iu kin ct khi khoan rt xu v chiu
di li ct ngang cng ln th P
O
v M
X
cng tng, nh-ng P
O
tng rt nhiu trong
khi M
X
tng t. Mt khc, khi chiu di l-i ngang tng lm gc nh i nn P
O

li tng. Do , mi ngn l-i ngang l mt trong nhng bin php gim P
O
.
4. nh h-ng ca -ng knh mi khoan:
-ng knh mi khoan D nh h-ng ln n P
O
v M
X
. Mc d khi tng
D th din tch tit din ngang ca rnh xon tng nn phoi thot d, nh-ng
P
X
P
Z
P
Z

P
Y

P
Y
P
X
P
ng
b
Nhn theo b
M
X
khi chiu su ct t cng tng v din tch tit din ngang lp ct tng nn
P
O
v M
X
tng.
Qua nghin cu nh h-ng ca cc yu t n P
O
v M
X
(ch yu cho khoan)
ng-i ta thnh lp -c cc cng thc tnh P
O
v M
X
nh- sau:
Khi khoan l c:
P
O
= C
P
.D
xp
.S
yp
.K
p
[N] (5.15)
M
X
= C
M
.D
xm
.S
ym
.K
m
[N.mm] (5.16)
Khi khoan m rng l:
P
O
= C
P
.D
xp
.S
yp
.t
up
.K
p
[N] (5.17)
M
X
= C
M
.D
xm
.S
ym
.t
up
.K
m
[N.mm] (5.18)
5.5.2 Lc ct khi khot v doa
i vi khot v doa, do khng c l-i ngang nn P
ng
= 0 v P
zng
= 0,
cn cc thnh phn khc so vi khoan nh hn nhiu nn th-ng b qua, ch tnh
cho dao lm bng hp kim cng.
Khi khot v doa bng dao hp kim cng:
P
O
= C
P
.D
xp
.S
yp
.t
up
.K
p
[N] (5.19)
M
X
= C
M
.D
xm
.S
ym
.t
up
.K
m
[N.mm] (5.20)
Trong cc cng thc (5.15), (5.16), (5.17), (5.18), (5.19), (5.20) trn y, cc
h s C
P
, C
M
k ti tnh cht ca vt liu gia cng v iu kin ct.
Ch : Khi tra C
P
, C
M
cc ti liu dng n v lc l kG v mmen xon l
kG.m cn nhn gi tr C
P
, C
M
tra -c vi 9,8 ph hp vi cc cng thc
(5.15), (5.16), (5.17), (5.18), (5.19), (5.20).
5.5.3. Cng sut ct
Cng sut ct khi khoan, khot, doa c th tnh theo cng thc:
N
C
=
9554
.n M
X
[kW] (5.21)
y: M
X
tnh theo N.mm, n tnhtheo vng/pht.
5.6. Tc ct
5.6.1. Cc yu t nh h-ng n mn dao v tui bn
a. Tui bn ca dng c
1. Mi mn ca dng c v cc ph-ng php mi dng c tng tui bn:
T-ng t nh- tin trong qu trnh lm vic, phn ct ca mi khoan, mi
khot, mi doa b mi mn theo thi gian. Nguyn nhn mi mn l do ma
st gia mt sau v cnh vin ca dng c ct vi b mt ang v gia
cng; gia phoi vi mt tr-c. Tuy nhin, mi khoan lm vic trong iu
kin rt khng thun li do thot phoi v thot nhit gp nhiu kh khn, do
tc ct ca tng im trn l-i ct c tr s khc nhau, gc tr-c v gc
sau c tr s thay i theo tng im dc theo l-i ct chnh. Chnh v nhng
yu t ny m mi khoan mn nhanh. Th-ng mi khoan, mi khot c cc
khu vc mi mn nh- sau (hnh 5-8):
- Mi mn ng thi c mt sau v mt tr-c. Dng mn ny xut hin khi
gia cng thp kt cu. Mi mn mt sau tng dn t tm ra mp ngoi.
- Mi mn l-i ct ph. Dng mn ny xut hin khi gia cng vt liu do.
- Mi mn gc ni tip l-i ct chnh vi -ng vin. Dng mn ny xut
hin khi gia cng vt liu dn v hp kim chu nhit. y l dng mi mn nguy
him nht, v ti ng sut ln nht, tc ct cao nht, nhit v ma st u
ln nn c-ng mn ln. Khi cnh vin b mi mn, mi khoan mt cn
ng-c nn d b m, gy l-i ct v lm tng M
X
, P
O
.
- Mi mn l-i ngang. Dng mn ny xut hin khi l-i ct ngang qu di
v nhit luyn khng ng. Mi mn l-i ngang nh nn ng-i ta t ch .




Hnh 5-8 Cc dng mi mn ca mi khoan
nh h-ng ca cc yu t n mn ca mi khoan thp gi khi gia cng
thp c th tnh theo cng thc:
h
s
= C
h
.V
4,85
. s
2,35
.T
1,42
[mm] (5.22)
trong : - h
s
l mn mt sau ca mi khoan;
- C
h
l h s ph thuc vt liu gia cng v iu kin ct;
- V l vn tc ct, m/ph;
- s l l-ng chy dao, mm/vng;
- T l tui bn dng c ct, ph.
T (5.22) c nhn xt: Tc ct c nh h-ng ln nht n mn ca mi
khoan, sau l l-ng chy dao v tui bn dng c ct. V vy, c li cho
bn mn nn chn tc ct nh, cn l-ng ghy dao ln. Gi tr bn mn
ca mi khoan, mi khot, mi doa -c cho trong cc s tay ch to my.
i vi doa, do chiu dy lp ct nh v tc ct thp nn mi mn ch
yu mt sau v vng ni tip gia phn ct v phn nh h-ng.
Thng th-ng ng-i ta ly mn theo mt sau lm ch tiu nh gi mn.
Tr s mn cho php c th ly:
- i vi mi khoan: [h
s
] = (13)mm;
- i vi mi khot: [h
s
] = (0,21,5)mm;
- i vi mi doa: [h
s
] = (0,60,8)mm.
2. Cc ph-ng php mi dng c tng tui bn
- Mi ngn l-i ngang hoc mt hn l-i ngang:
Nh- phn trn nu, do gc tr-c l-i ngang m nn iu kin ct xu v
chiu di l-i ngang cng ln th P
O
v M
X
cng tng. Do , mi ngn l-i
ngang (hnh 5-9,a,b) hoc mi mt hn l-i ngang (hnh 5-9,c), c th gim lc
chy dao P
O
, nh c th tng tui bn ca mi khoan. Mi ngn l-i ngang
cn lm gc tr-c tm d-ng, gi l-i ct chnh l -ng thng nn lc P
O

gim ti (3035)%. Khi khoan vt liu mm cho php mi ngn l-i ngang ti
50%, khi khoan vt liu cng c th mi ngn l-i ngang ti 30%.
- Mi mi khoan c gc sau ph o
1
(hnh 5-9,e):
i vi mi khoan tiu chun o
1
= 0 nn khi ct ma st ln, do dao mn
nhanh. Khi gia cng cc l c -ng knh D > 12mm trn chi tit c cng cao
nn mi mi khoan c gc sau ph o
1
trn phn lm vic v chiu rng cnh vin
cn li f = (0,20,4)mm.
Cc mi khoan mi nh- vy c th tng tc d ct ln (1015)% nu gi
nguyn tui bn T.

















Hnh 5-9 Cc ph-ng php mi mi khoan
- Mi mi khoan c l-i ni tip:
i vi cc mi khoan c -ng knh D>12mm dng khoan chi tit bng gang
hoc thp c gii hn bn cao (o >550MPa) nn mi c l-i ni tip. Mi khoan
mi c l-i ni tip (hnh 5-9, d) c th tng tui bn ln gp (23) ln khi gia
cng thp v (36) ln khi gia cng gang. Do c l-i ni tip nn kh nng thot
nhit tt, ng thi do chiu di ct tng nn lc ct trn mt n v di ca l-i
ct gim, v vy c th tng tc ct ln (1530)% khi ct thp v 85% khi ct
gang nu gi nguyn tui bn T.
A- A
b)
a)
c)
o
A A
0
,
2
-
0
,
3

e)
h)
B B
g)
d)
1
1
8
o

70
o
75
0
D

3. Quan h gia tui bn v tc ct
Quan h gia tui bn v tc ct ca mi khoan -c xc nh nh- sau:
V =
m
T
A
[m/phut] (5.23)
trong : - m l h s v c gi tr m = 5 i vi dao ch to bng thp gi;
- A l hng s ng vi ch gia cng xc nh.
Trong thc t c th chn tui bn ca mi khoan theo kinh nghim nh- sau:
Khi khoan thp: T = D.
Khi khoan gang: T = 2D.
y: - D l -ng knh mi khoan, mm;
- T l tui bn, pht.
C th nng cao tui bn ca mi khoan bng cc bin php sau y:
- Lm ngn chiu di l-i ct ngang.
- Mi kp l-i ct chnh vi 2 =120
o
v 2
O
= 75
o
. Khi mi nh- vy s
lm tng tui bn mi khoan ln 8 ln trong khi c th tng tc ct ln 30%.
b. nh h-ng ca l-ng chy dao v chiu su ct
Chiu su ct t v l-ng chy dao s cng ln th tc ct V cng gim, v
khi lc ct, nhit ct u tng lm cho dng c ct mn nhanh. Nu gi
nguyn tui bn dng c (T = const) cn gim tc ct.
c. nh h-ng ca -ng knh mi khoan
-ng knh mi khoan cng tng tc ct cng ln. iu ny -c gii
thch nh- sau: Khi tng -ng knh D lm chiu su ct tng nn nhit ct tng,
do tui bn dng c gim. Nh-ng mt khc, do tng D kch th-c dng c
tng ln nn kh nng thot nhit tt, hn na th tch rnh thot phoi tng, phoi
thot d, vic -a dung dch tn ngui vo vng ct thun li hn, cng vng
dng c tng nn tui bn dng c tng nhanh hn so vi gim do tng chiu
su ct ni trn. Nu gi nguyn tui bn dng c (T = const) th c th tng V.
d. nh h-ng ca vt liu chi tit gia cng v vt liu dng c ct
Vt liu gia cng v vt liu dng c ct c nh h-ng ln n tc ct.
Cc nh h-ng -c tnh theo cc h s K
vl
, K
vld
v c th xc nh nh- sau:
i vi K
vld
:
- Mi khoan lm t vt liu thp gi c K
vld
= 1;
- Mi khoan lm bng thp dng c c K
vld
= 0,5;
- Mi khoan lm bng thp dng c hp kim c K
vld
= 0,65;
- Mi khoan lm bng hp kim cng c K
vld
= 2 3.
i vi K
vl
:
- Khi ct thp: K
vl
=
V
n
b
750
|
|
.
|

\
|
o
(5.24)


- Khi ct gang: K
vl
=
V
n
HB
1900
|
.
|

\
|
(5.25)
trong : - o
b
l gii hn bn ca vt liu gia cng, MPa;
- HB l cng ca vt liu gia cng, MPa.
- Ch s m n
V
ph thuc tr s c th ca o
b
, HB v -c cho trong
cc s tay cng ngh ch to my.
e. nh h-ng ca iu kin gia cng
- Dung dch trn ngui nh h-ng ng k n tc ct. Nu s dng ng
dung dch trn ngui trong qu trnh ct c th tng tc ct ln (1,41,5) ln.
Khi khoan thp c th dng dung dch munxi (1015)%; khi khot, doa dng
du l-u ho hoc dung dch munxi 5%.
- L gia cng cng su tc ct cng thp. V khi chiu su l gia cng
cng tng kh nng thot phoi, thot nhit cng kh. Mt khc, ma st gia phoi
v thnh rnh xon tng lm gim hiu qu bi trn lm ngui nn tui bn dng
c gim.
5.6.2. Cng thc tng qut xc nh tc ct
Tc ct khi khoan, khot, doa cng ging nh- tin, ngha l n cng ph
thuc vo mt lot cc yu t nh-: ch ct, thng s hnh hc ca dng c ct,
tnh cht ca vt liu gia cng v vt liu lm dao, iu kin ct...
C th tnh tc ct theo tui bn dng c nh- sau:
Khi khoan l c:
V =
V
V
y m
q
V
S T
D C
.
.
. K
V
[m/ph] (5.26)
Khi khoan rng l, khot, doa:
V =
V V
m
V
x y
q
V
t S T
D C
. .
.
.K
V
.K
Vl
[m/ph] (5.27)
trong cc cng thc trn:
- C
V
l h s ng vi tng nhm vt liu gia cng;
- K
Vl
l h s ph thuc tnh cht vt liu gia cng;
- K
V
= K
d
.K
Vld
.K
mm
.K
dd
l h s tnh n nh h-ng ca thng s hnh
hc ca dng c ct, vt liu phn ct ca dng c, mn ca dng c,
dung dch trn ngui.
T (5.25), (5.26) c nhn xt: Tui bn cng cao th tc ct cng gim.
5.7. Xc nh cc yu t ch ct hp l
5.7.1. Chn dng c ct
Tu theo tnh cht c l ca vt liu gia cng v yu cu cng ngh m chn
vt liu dng c ct v cc thng s hnh hc ca n cho thch hp, nht l i vi
mi khoan hp kim cng v n c nhiu dng (xem s tay thit k dng c ct).
Chn tui bn T ca dng c ct theo bng (xem s tay cng ngh ch to
my) tu thuc vo vt liu dao v -ng knh l khoan.
5.7.2. Chn chiu su ct
Chiu su ct t -c chn ph thuc vo cng sut ca my gia cng.
i vi l gia cng c -ng knh D s 35mm c th khoan mt ln, khi
chiu su ct c tr s:
t =
2
D
[mm] (5.28)
Nhng l c -ng knh D > 35mm th khoan lm hai ln vi:
t
1
=
( )
2
. 7 , 0 5 , 0 D
[mm] (5.29)
t
2
= t - t
1
[mm] (5.30)
Khi khot v doa nn tn dng ct mt ln ht l-ng d-.
Khi khot bng dao hp kim cng, chn: t = (0,51)mm
Khi khot bng dao thp gi, chn: t = (0,30,8)mm
Khi doa, chn: t = (0,050,1)mm
5.7.3. Xc nh l-ng chy dao
L-ng chy dao khi ct ph thuc ch yu vo bn ca dng c ct,
bn v cng vng ca c cu chy dao, cht l-ng b mt cn gia cng v
tnh cht l gia cng. Vic xc nh l-ng chy dao cho php khi khoan t-ng
t nh- tin, ngha l c th tra bng hoc tnh ton theo sc bn ca dng c ct,
bn ca c cu my v iu kin gia cng.
a. Xc nh l-ng chy dao theo bn ca dng c ct
Trong qu tnh ct, mi khoan chu m men xon M
x
v lc P
o
. M men
xon M
x
gy nn ng sut tip trn mi khoan l:

o
X
W
M
= t
(5.31)
trong : - M
X
l m men xon tc dng ln mi khoan, Nmm;
- W
o
l m men chng xon, c th ly W
o
= 0,02.d
3
[mm
3
].
Do nh h-ng ng thi ca lc dc trc v m men xon nn ly:

3
.
max
. 02 , 0
. . . . 7 , 1 . 7 , 1
7 , 1
D
K S D C
W
M
m
Ym Xm
m X
= = = t t s [t] (5.32)
dy: - [t] l ng sut tip cho php ca vt liu mi khoan, [MPa].
T t-ng quan (5.32) rt ra:
s
| |
Ym
m m
Xm
K C
D
1
3
max
. . 7 , 1
. . 02 , 0
|
|
.
|

\
|
=

t
(5.33)
trong : s
max
l l-ng chy dao ln nht cho php dm bo sc bn dng c.
Cng thc (5.33) c th vit d-i dng tng qut nh- sau:
s
max.1
= C
S
.D
Xs
[mm/vg] (5.34)
Trong , tr s ca h s C
S
v s m x
S
-c chn c tnh ti cng vng
ca mi khoan, v cng thc (5.33) mi ch tnh cho mi khoan c ln.
i vi mi khoan bng thp gi c -ng knh D = (10 60)mm, c th xc
nh l-ng chy dao theo cng thc sau:
s
1
= C
S
.D
0,6
[mm/vg] (5.35)
Tr s C
S
ph thuc vo vt liu gia cng v -c ly theo Bng 5-1.
Bng 5-1
Vt liu gia cng
o
b
[Mpa]

C
S
Vt liu gia cng C
S
Thp kt cu < 900 0,064
Thp kt cu 900 1100 0,050
Gang c HB < 170
v kim loi mu
0,125
Thp kt cu >1100 0,038 Gang c HB > 170 0,075
b. Xc nh l-ng chy dao theo bn c cu my
1. Xc nh l-ng chy dao theo bn trc chnh:
trc chnh khng b ph hng v xon, l-ng chy dao -c chn phi tho
mn iu kin:
M
x
= C
M
.D
xm
. s
ym
.K
m
< [M
x
] (5.36)
trong : - [M
x
] l m men xon cho php ca trc chnh.
- M
x
l m mn xon -c to nn do qu trnh ct.
T (5.36) rt ra:
s
2
=
| |
M
M
y
M
x
M
x
K D C
M
1
. .
|
|
.
|

\
|
[mm/vg] (5.37)
2. Xc nh l-ng chy dao theo bn ca b truyn bnh rng-thanh rng:
m bo bn cho b truyn bnh rng-thanh rng cn tha mn iu kin:
P
max
< [P
m
]
trong : - [P
m
] l lc cho php ca b truyn bnh rng-thanh rng theo my.
- P
max
l lc dc trc ln nht ng vi l-ng chy dao tnh ton s.
s
3
s p
p
y
p
x
p
K D C
Pm
. .
] [
[mm/vg] (5.38)
Sau khi tnh -c s
1
, s
2
, s
3
chng ta chn tr s nh nht trong cc gi tr
trn lm l-ng chy dao hp l v hiu chnh theo my.
Nh- vy, ta tnh -c gii hn trn ca l-ng chy dao theo cc ch tiu
c bn. Tuy nhin, trong thc t tnh ton ng-i ta ch yu tnh l-ng chy dao
theo bn ca mi khoan s
1
v kim tra gi tr s
1
theo bn ca c cu my.
Ch : Thng th-ng, nu D < 12mm, khng tnh s theo bn ca my.
Khi yu cu v chnh xc v nhm b mt gia cng cao, l-ng chy
dao cng ngh s
gc
-c xc nh nh- sau:
s
gc
= s
1.
K
gc
[mm/vg] (5.39)
trong : - s
1
tnh theo (5.35);
- K
gc
l h s iu chnh v -c xc nh nh- sau:
Nu chi tit gia cng c cng vng thp; hoc sau khi khoan phi ta r
ngay; hoc sau khi khoan tin hnh khot hoc doa hai ln mi t chnh xc
th chn K
gc
= 0,75.
Nu sau khi khoan ch cn khot hoc doa mt ln vi l-ng chy dao rt
nh l t yu cu th chn K
gc
= 0,5.
Tnh s theo ch tiu th nht mi ch tnh ti bn ca mi khoan n
khi gy, cn trong thc t iu kin lm vic ca mi khoan cn b rng buc
bi nhiu yu t khc na. Mt s yu t c th tnh ti l:
- Nu khoan l thng th phi gim l-ng chy dao (2540)%.
- Khoan l cng su th iu kin thot phoi v thot nhit cng kh cho
nn khi tnh l-ng chy dao phi -a thm h s suy gim k
l
nh- Bng 5.2.
- L-ng chy dao khi doa v khot th-ng chn tu theo vt liu lm dao:
- Doa bng dao hp kim cng chn: s = (0,10,2)mm/vg
- Doa bng dao thp gi chn: s = (0,050,2)mm/vg
- Khot bng dao hp kim cng chn: s = (0,10,3)mm/vg
- Khot bng dao thp gi chn: s = (0,050,2)mm/vg
Ni chung, l-ng chy dao khi khot, doa ln hn khi khoan.
Bng 5.2
Chiu su l l 3D 5D 7D 10D
H s suy gim k
l

1,0 0,85 0,75 0,5

5.7.4. Tnh tc ct v s vng quay
Sau khi xc nh -c t, s v tui bn T th tc ct -c tnh theo cng
thc (5.26) hoc (5.27).
S vng quay cn thit ca trc chnh -c tnh theo V v -ng knh l gia
cng nh- sau:

D
V
n
.
. 1000
t
=
[vg/ph] (5.40)
5.7.5. Kim nghim kt qu tnh ton theo my
my lm vic bnh th-ng th m men xon tnh theo s vng quay phi
ln hn m men xon tnh theo lc ct P
Z
v cng sut ct phi nh hn cng sut
ca ng c. iu kin kim nghim nh- sau:
M
Xn
> M
XPz
(5.43)
hoc N
C
< N

. q

(5.44)
(i vi khot, doa v ta r khng cn kim nghim mc ny).
5.7.6. Tnh thi gian my
Thi gian my T
O
-c xc nh theo cng thc (5.9) mc 5.4.1,d.

5.8. My khoan, my doa
5.8.1. Cc loi my khoan v cng dng
My khoan thuc nhm th hai trong bng phn loi my ct kim loi.
Nguyn l hot ng ca cc loi my khoan -c m t qua s cu trc ng
hc hnh 5-10.
Chuyn ng chnh l chuyn ng quay trn ca trc chnh mang dao. Khu
u ca xch l ng c in, khu cui l trc chnh mang dao. Ph-ng trnh
xch ng c dang:
n
i
= n

.i
V
[vg/ph]
Chuyn ng chy dao l chuyn ng tnh tin dc trc ca nng trc chnh
mang dao. Khu u l trc chnh, khu cui l cp bnh rng - thanh rng c
thanh rng uc ch to lin khi vi nng trc chnh. T-ng quan chuyn ng:
s = 1vng.i
S
.t.m.Z [ mm/vg].
Hnh 5-10 S cu trc ng hc ca my khoan.
a. My khoan bn
Hnh dng chung ca my khoan bn -c th hin qua hnh 5-11 .
c im ca my khoan bn l chng c kch th-c v trng l-ng nh,
th-ng -c t trn bn nn c tn gi l my khoan bn, my c tc quay
ca trc chnh ln, thay i tc bng b truyn ai, chy dao bng tay.
My khoan bn -c ch to c cc c theo -ng knh l khoan ln nht
cho php D
max
= 3; 6; 12; 16mm.
My khoan loi ny dng khoan cc l c -ng knh nh hn 16mm khi
yu cu chnh xc khng cao. My -c dng trong sn xut n chic v
trong cc n v sa cha c kh.

Hnh 5-11 Hnh dng chung ca my khoan bn
1- B my; 2- Trc chnh; 3- X ngang; 4- Tr ng;
5- B truyn ai: 6- ng c in.
b. My khoan ng
Cc cm c bn ca my khoan ng -c th hin qua hnh 5-12.

Hnh 5-12 Hnh dng chung ca my khoan ng.
1-B my; 2-Thn my; 3-Bn my; 4-Trc chnh;
5-Hp chy dao; 6-Hp tc
My khoan ng -c t trn mng my. My c trc chnh thng ng,.
c hp tc v hp chy dao, khi khoan c th cho chy dao t ng hoc chy
dao bng tay.
Chi tit gia cng -c g trn g hoc kp trc tip trn bn my. iu
chnh v tr tm l cn khoan bng cch x dch g hoc chi tit trn bn my.
Bn my v cm trc chnh c th di chuyn thng ng theo bng my khi iu
chnh khoan cc l trn nhng chi tit c chiu cao khc nhau.
My khoan ng dng gia cng cc l, ta r ren trn cc chi tit c trng
l-ng khng ln.
c. My khoan cn
Cc cm c bn ca my khoan cn -c th hin qua hnh 5-13. Cm trc
chnh 6 ca my c th di tr-t theo dn h-ng trn x ngang 4. X ngang cng
tr quay 3 c th quay quanh tr ng 2 mt gc bt k trong phm vi 360
o
. Kt
hp hai chuyn ng iu chnh ny c th -a mi khoan v v tr bt k trng
vi tm l cn khoan trn chi tit gia cng t trn bn my 10. Tu theo chiu
cao ca chi tit gia cng m x ngang -c iu chnh nng h nh c cu nng
h x ngang 5. X ngang v cm trc chnh phi -c kp cht ti v tr -c
iu chnh tr-c khi khoan. Ngoi ra x ngang v hp trc chnh mt s my
khoan cn c th xoay theo mt phng thng ng khoan cc l c tm
nghing mt gc bt k so vi ph-ng ng.
Hnh 5-13 Hnh dng chung ca my khoan cn.
1-B my; 2-Tr ng; 3-Tr quay; 4-X ngang; 5-C cu nng h x ngang;
6-Cm trc chnh; 7-Hp tc ; 8-Hp chy dao; 9-Trc chnh; 10-Bn my
My loi ny dng gia cng cc l trn cc chi tit c trng l-ng ln, gia
cng nhiu l trn cng mt b mt v gia cng cc l trn cc b mt nghing so
vi ph-ng nm ngang.
d. My khoan nhiu trc chnh
Hp trc chnh ca my khoan loi ny c nhiu trc chnh -c b tr theo
yu cu cng ngh ng thi khoan nhiu l trn b mt ca mt loi chi tit
c th. Cng theo nguyn tc ny c th thit k mt u trc chnh c nhiu trc
chnh lp trn u trc chnh ca my khoan ng.
e. My khoan t hp
Hnh 5-14 Hnh dng chung ca my khoan t hp.
My khoan t hp l mt loi my chuyn dng -c lp rp theo yu cu
cng ngh t cc cm my -c tiu chun ho. B cc ca my rt a dng tu
thuc vo hnh dng, kch th-c ca chi tit cn gia cng v c tnh cng vic
gia cng trn my. Trn hnh 5-14 th hin hnh dng chung ca mt trong nhng
b cc ca my khoan t hp.
Chi tit gia cng -c kp cht trn g lp trn bn my 3. Cng cic gia
cng -c tin hnh ng thi t ba pha nh cc dng c gia cng l lp trn cc
u lc 2. Chuyn ng chnh l chuyn ng quay trn ca cc trc chnh mang
dng c cn chuyn ng chay dao l chuyn ng tnh tin ca cc u lc theo
cc dn h-ng trn cc thn my 1.
Cc cm my -c tiu chun ho trong my khoan t hp trn y l thn
my 1, u lc 2 v bn my 3.
g. My khoan l su
My khoan l su dng khoan cc l c chiu di ln hn nm ln -ng
knh bng dng c khoan l c bit gi l mi khoan l su. S nguyn l
ca my khoan l su -c th hin trn hnh 5-15,a.
Hnh 5-15 S khoan l su.
Chuyn ng chnh l chuyn ng quay trn ca chi tit gia cng 2 -c
kp cht trn mm cp 1 v -c mt u bng gi 3. Chuyn ng chy
dao l chuyn ng tnh tin ca bn dao 6 mang mi khoan 9. Mi khoan 9 -c
kp cht bng ren vi ng ni 5. u th hai ca ng ni -c lp vo bn dao 6.
Dung dch trn ngui t b 8 -c bm -a ti vng ct vi mt p sut cao
qua cc ng dn v ct ni 4. Nh c p sut ln m dung dch trn ngui y
phoi qua l trong thn mi khoan, qua ng 5 v khoang cha phoi 7. Phoi -c
gi li ti khoang cha phoi cn dung dch trn ngui chy v b 8 tip tc
-c bm -a vo vng ct.
Tt c phn kim loi -c ct i theo s khoan hnh 5-15,a u bin thnh
phoi v l khoan c dng hnh 5-15,b.
Cc l su c -ng knh ln hn 100mm -c khoan bng mi khoan
vnh khuyn. Ch phn kim loi nm trong vng vnh khuyn khi khoan mi
bin thnh phoi, cn phn li bn trong vn c th dng ch to cc chi
tit khc. L khoan bng mi khoan vnh khuyn c dng nh- hnh 5-15,c.

5.8.2. My khoan ng 2H135A
S ng ca my khoan ng 2H135A -c trnh by trn hnh 5-16.
Chuyn ng chnh bt ngun t ng c in c cng sut N=4,5kW vi
tc quay n = 1440 vng/pht truyn qua cp bnh rng 28- 40 ti trc II ca hp
tc . T trc I chuyn ng truyn qua mt trong cc cp bnh rng 25-35
hoc30-30 hoc 35-25 ti trc III. Tip theo, chuyn ng truyn qua mt trong
cc cp bnh rng 35-35 hoc 15-42 ti trc IV. T trc III chuyn ng truyn ti
trc V qua cp bnh rng 25-50, qua cp bnh rng 15-60 hoc 50-25 ti trc rng VI.
T trc rng VI chuyn ng truyn ti trc chnh VI I qua mi lp then hoa.
Nh- vy, trc chnh ca my c th nhn -c 12 cp tc t mt tc
quay c nh ca ng c in. i chiu quay ca ng c in khi cn thit
-c thc hin bng cch o chiu quay ca ng c in.
Chuyn ng chy dao l chuyn ng tnh tin dc trc ca trc chnh
mang dao. Chuyn ng bt ngun t trc rng VI truyn qua cp bnh rng 30-53
ti trc VIII, qua cp bnh rng 17- 48 ti trc IX. T trc IX chuyn ng truyn
qua mt trong mt trong cc cp bnh rng 42- 20 hoc 31- 31 hoc 46-16 ti trc X.
Tip theo chuyn ng truyn qua mt trong cc cp bnh rng 36 - 26 hoc
31- 31 hoc 26-36 ti trc XI. Trc XI v trc XII -c ni vi nhau bng ly hp
in t M. T trc XII chuyn ng truyn qua cp trc vt- bnh vt 1-60 ti trc
mang bnh rng 14. Bnh rng 14 quay y thanh rng c mun m=3mm trn
nng trc chnh cng trc chnh tnh tin dc trc thc hin chuyn ng chy
dao. Nh- vy, xch chy dao cung cp 9 cp tc chy dao khc nhau t mt
tc quay trn ca trc chnh.
Chuyn ng chy dao nhanh ca trc chnh -c thc hin nh ng
c chy dao nhanh c cng sut N=0,4kW vi s vng quay
n=1000vng/pht qua cp bnh rng 31-31 ti trc XIII, qua cp bnh rng
cn 23-44 ti trc XII. Tip theo chuyn ng -c truyn theo -ng truyn
ca xch chy dao cng tc.
Dch chuyn trc chnh dc trc bng tay -c thc hin nh v lng lp
trn u trc XVII. Chuyn ng t trc XVII truyn qua cp bnh rng 20-47 lm
quay a khc vch kim tra su ca l khoan.
Hnh 5-16 S ng ca my khoan ng 2H135A
Nng h bn my khi cn thit -c thc hin nh tay quay lp trn trc XV.
Chuyn ng t tay quay truyn qua cp bnh rng cn 20-60 lm vt me nng h
bn my quay.
5.8.3. Cc loi my doa v cng dng
a. My doa ngang vn nng
Hnh dng chung ca my doa ngang vn nng -c th hin trn hnh 5-17.
Cm trc chnh 3 c hp tc v hp chy dao c th di chuyn ln xung
theo dn h-ng trn tr ng 2 lp c nh trn thn my 1. Trc chnh ca hp
tc c dng trc rng, trn u trc chnh c lp mm cp hoa mai 4. Bn dao
h-ng knh 5 c th di chuyn dc theo rnh h-ng knh trn mm cp.
Trc chnh 6 mang dng c gia cng l -c b tr bn trong l trc chnh
ca hp tc . Tr ng mang gi 8 c th di chuyn dc theo dn h-ng ca
thn my c th -a gi tnh tin vo ra tu thuc vo chiu di ca trc g
dao. Gi 8 dng trc g dao c th iu chnh tnh tin ln xung theo
dn hung trn tr ng 7 ng b vi chuyn ng ln xung ca cm trc
chnh 3 lun m bo ng tm ca tm gi vi tm ca trc chnh 6.
Chi tit gia cng -c g kp trc tip hoc thng qua g trn bn quay 11.
Bn quay 11 -c t trn bn tr-t ngang 10 trn bn tr-t dc 9. Dng c gia
cng -c g trn bn dao h-ng knh 5 hoc trn trc chnh 6.
Hnh 5-17 Hnh dng chung ca my doa ngang vn nng.
Chuyn ng chnh l chuyn ng quay trn ca trc chnh 6 hoc mm
cp hoa mai 4. Tu thuc vo c tnh ca b mt gia cng m chuyn ng
chy dao c th l chuyn ng tnh tin ca bn my mang chi tit gia cng
theo ph-ng dc hoc ph-ng ngang hoc chuyn ng tnh tin dc trc ca
trc chnh 6 hoc chuyn ng tnh tin h-ng knh ca bn dao h-ng knh
5 hoc chuyn ng tnh tin ln xung ca cm trc chnh 3 theo dn h-ng
ca tr ng 2.
Cng vic thc hin trn my doa ngang vn nng rt a dng. Mt s dng
cng vic th-ng -c thc hin trn my doa ngang vn nng -c trnh by
nh- trn hnh 5-18.
Tin mc l tr: Cc l -c tin mc trn my doa ngang vn nng bng
cc dao tin lp trn trc g dao. Trc g dao c th -c lp conson hoc hai
u. Dng trc g dao dng conson khi gia cng nhng l c chiu di l khng
ln hn nm ln -ng knh. Hnh 5-18,a trnh by s tin mc l c chiu di
khng ln bng dao tin hnh phin bng hp kim cng lp trn trc g dao con
xn. Chuyn ng chnh do trc chnh mang trc g dao thc hin. Phi -c kp
cht trn bn my nhn chuyn ng chy dao dc theo tm ca trc g dao. Mc
l bng s ny m bo chnh xc hnh hc ca l cao v chiu di v-n ra
ca trc g khng i trong qu trnh gia cng.
Nhng l c chiu di ln hn nm ln -ng knh v nhng l nm cc v
tr khc nhau yu cu m bo ng tm vi nhau -c gia cng trn my doa
ngang bng nhng dao tin n g trn trc g gi hai u. Hnh 5-18,b th
hin s gia cng ng thi hai l c yu cu m bo ng tm. Chuyn
ng chnh do trc chnh mang trc g dao thc hin, chuyn ng chy dao do
bn my mang phi thc hin. S mc ng thi nhiu l bng nhiu dao n
m bo nng sut cao. Tuy nhin, s ny c chnh xc gia cng khng
cao, bi vy thng th-ng ch dng gia cng th. Khi gia cng tinh nn tin
hnh gia cng ring tng l.
Nhng l c -ng knh ln v chiu di nh -c gia cng bng dao
tin n g trn bn dao h-ng knh ca mm cp hoa mai (hnh 5-18,c).
Chuyn ng chnh l chuyn ng quay trn ca mm cp mang dao cn
chuyn ng chy dao l chuyn ng tnh tin dc theo tm my ca bn
my mang chi tit gia cng.
Tin mc cc l c tm song song hoc vung gc vi nhau: Cc l ny
-c gia cng bng mt ln g trn my doa ngang vn nng. gia cng cc l
c tm song song vi nhau th sau khi gia cng xong mt l phi y bn my
tnh tin theo ph-ng ngang mt l-ng ng bng khong cch tm gia hai l
gia cng l th hai v c tip tc nh- vy gia cng cc l tip theo. Khi cn gia
cng hai l c tm vung gc vi nhau th sau khi gia cng xong l th nht cn
xoay bn my mt gc bng 90
o
gia cng l th hai.
Tin mc l cn: Nhng l cn c -ng knh ln hn 80mm -c gia cng
bng dao tin nh g vn nng lp trn bn dao h-ng knh ca mm cp hoa mai
(hnh 5 - 18,d). Chuyn ng chnh l chuyn ng quay trn ca mm cp cn
chuyn ng chy dao l chuyn ng tnh tin ca dao ct theo dn h-ng
nghing ca g. Cc l cn c -ng knh v chiu di ln -c gia cng nh
g lp trn trc g hai u.

Hnh 5-18 Cc s gia cng trn my doa ngang vn nng.
Khoan, kht doa, vt mp v ta r ren trn cc l: Cc nguyn cng khoan,
khot, doa, vt mp v ta r cc l trn my doa ngang vn nng cng -c thc
hin t-ng t nh- thc hin chng trn my khoan ng. Dng c gia cng l
t-ng ng -c lp trn trc chnh ca my va nhn chuyn ng chnh l
chuyn ng quay trn va nhn chuyn ng chy dao l chuyn ng tnh tin
dc trc. Chi tit gia cng -c kp cht trn bn my v khng chuyn ng
trong qu trnh gia cng.
Tin b mt tr ngoi: S tin b mt tr ngoi trn my doa ngang vn
nng -c th hin trn hnh 5-18,g. Dao tin -c g trn bn dao h-ng knh
ca mm cp hoa mai nhn chuyn ng chnh l chuyn ng quay trn quanh
tm my. Chi tit gia cng -c kp cht trn bn my v cng bn my nhn
chuyn ng chy dao dc theo tm my.
Xn mt u: Xn mt u trn my doa ngang vn nng c th -c thc
hin theo hai cch. Hoc chy dao theo ph-ng vung gc vi trc chnh hoc
chy dao song song vi trc chnh (khi kch th-c b mt gia cng nh).
Trn hnh 5-18,h th hin s xn mt u bng dao tin n kp trn bn
dao h-ng knh ca mm cp hoa mai. Chuyn ng chnh l chuyn ng quay
trn ca mm cp, chuyn ng chy dao do bn dao thc hin theo ph-ng
h-ng knh. S gia cng ny m bo chnh xc cao.
Nhng mt phng c kch th-c khng ln c th -c gia cng bng dao
hnh phin nh- th hin trn s hnh 5-18,m. Chuyn ng chnh trong s
gia cng ny l chuyn ng quay trn ca trc chnh mang dao, chuyn ng
chy dao l chuyn ng tnh tin dc trc ca bn thn trc chnh.
Phay mt phng: Cc mt phng thng ng c th -c gia cng trn my
doa ngang vn nng bng dao phay mt u nh- th hin trn hnh 5-18,n.
Chuyn ng chnh l chuyn ng quay trn ca trc chnh mang dao phay,
chuyn ng chy dao l chuyn ng tnh tin ca cm trc chnh dc theo dn
h-ng ca tr ng. Trc chnh 5 ca u doa 4 nhn chuyn ng chnh l
chuyn ng quay trn v chuyn ng chy dao l chuyn ng tnh tin dc
trc t hp tc 3 lp trn u trn ca tr ng 2.
b. My doa ta
My doa ta dng gia cng nhng l c yu cu chnh xc kch
th-c v chnh xc v tr t-ng quan gia cc l vi nhau cao. Hnh dng
chung ca my doa to -c th hin trn hnh 5-19.
Bn my 6 mang chi tit gia cng c th -c iu chnh tnh tin theo hai
trc to t-ng ng vung gc theo dn h-ng ca bn tr-t 7 v dn h-ng
ca thn my 1 -a tm l gia cng v v tr trng vi tm ca dng c gia
cng l. Chuyn ng tnh tin ca bn my -c dn ng bi h thng dn
ng 8. My -c trang b cc thit b quang hc o chiu di dch chuyn
ca bn my theo cc trc to . chnh xc iu chnh v tr ca bn my
theo cc trc to t ti 0,001mm.
My doa ta c cng vng cao hn so vi cc my doa thng th-ng
khc. m bo chnh xc gia cng trn my cao, yu cu mng my phi
cng vng v phi -c t cch ly khi nh h-ng rung ng ca cc my
ln cn. My phi -c t trong phn x-ng c nhit n nh t
o
=(201)
o
C.


Hnh 5-19 Hnh dng chung ca my doa ta .








Ch-ng 6
Gia cng trn my phay
6.1. Cng dng, kh nng, c im khi phay
6.1.1. Cng dng my phay
Phay l mt trong nhng ph-ng php gia cng kim loi v phi kim loi
-c dng kh ph bin, c kh nng cng ngh rng ri. Trn my phay c th
gia cng -c cc mt phng v tr nm ngang, thng ng v xin; cc loi mt
nh hnh khng trn xoay; gia cng cc loi rnh ngoi thng hoc xon c mt
ct ngang khc nhau; gia cng -c cc loi bnh rng tr c rng thng, nghing
hoc ch V, cc loi bnh rng cn rng thng c rng ngoi, trc then hoa bng
ph-ng php chp hnh; phay ren v ct t.
C th tin hnh khoan, khot, doa khi lp cc dng c t-ng ng;
nu trang b thm g lp c th tin l chnh xc v ct rng theo ph-ng
php ln rng.
6.1.2. Kh nng cng ngh ca my phay
Cc b mt gia cng trn my phay c th t -c chnh xc v kch
th-c v nhm b mt nh- sau:
Khi phay th t chnh xc kch th-c t IT13 IT10 v nhm b
mt cp 3 4 (R
z
= 80 40m)
Khi phay bn tinh t chnh xc kch th-c t IT11 IT9 v nhm b
mt cp 5 7 (R
z
= 20m, R
a
= 2,5 1,25m).
Khi phay tinh t chnh xc kch th-c t IT8 IT7 v cp nhm t
cp 7 8 (R
a
= 1,25 0,63m).
Hin nay, hu nh- phay thay cho cc ph-ng php bo - xc v nng sut
v cht l-ng ca phay cao hn. Phay l mt trong nhng ph-ng php cng ngh
t nng sut cao nht.
6.1.3. c im khi phay
Qu trnh phay v cc hin t-ng vt l xy ra khi phay nh- to phoi, co rt
phoi, nhit ct... c bn nh- tin. Song cng c mt s c im sau:
a. Phi hp gia chuyn ng chnh v chuyn ng chy dao. C hai
ph-ng php phi hp gia chuyn ng ct chnh v chuyn ng chy
dao khi phay mt dng b mt.
* Chuyn ng chnh (chuyn ng quay trn ca dao) v chuyn ng
chy dao (chuyn ng tnh tin ca bn mang phi) cng chiu nhau - gi l
phay thun (hnh 6-1a)


Hnh 6-1. S phi hp cc chuyn ng to hnh
a) phay thun b) phay nghch
* Chuyn ng chnh v chuyn ng chy dao ng-c chiu nhau - gi l
phay nghch (hnh 6-1b).
c im ca hai s ct trn nh- sau:
- Khi phay thun: chiu dy ct ca mi rng dao thay i t dy (a = a
max
)
n mng (a = a
mim
= 0) nn gy ra va p gia rng dao v b mt gia cng, lc
ct tng t ngt do dao d v, nh-ng thi im l-i ct tip xc vi b mt
gia cng khng xy ra s tr-t, nn dao t mn v tui bn ca dao c th tng.
Tri li khi phay nghch, chiu dy ct a tng t 0 n a
max
nn lc ct tng t t
v vy trnh -c va p nh-ng li b tr-t nn mau mn.
- Khi phay thun, thnh phn lc thng ng tc dng ln chi tit gia cng
c chiu h-ng xung d-i (hnh 6-1, v cc thnh phn lc tc dng ln dao)
nn c xu h-ng p chi tit xung bn my do gim -c rung ng khi phay,
gim -c bin cng b mt v gim -c nhp nh b mt (trong cng iu kin
gia cng, c th tng -c nhm b mt mt cp), gim lc kp chi tit ln
bn my. Trong cng iu kin gia cng, thnh phn lc ny ca phay thun ln
hn phay nghch.
- Thnh phn lc nm ngang (P
n
) ca mi rng khi phay thun c chiu
cng chiu chy dao, y chi tit theo ph-ng chuyn ng chy dao, nn khng
khc phc -c khe h gia vt me v ai c ca c cu dn ng bn my lm
chuyn ng ca bn my c th khng lin tc, b git cc, khng m dn n
rung ng.
T nhng c im trn, khi phay tinh c chiu dy ct khng ln c bit
l gia cng kim loi do bng my c cng vng cao v c b phn kh r
gia vt me v ai c bn my nn phay thun. Khi phay th, c bit phay cc
kim loi kh gia cng nn dng phay nghch.
b. Dng c. Dao phay l dng c ct c nhiu rng, cc rng b tr
khng lin tc trn thn dao. Rng dao c th b tr trn b mt tr hoc
trn mt u ca dao cng c th ng thi c mt tr v mt u ca dao.
Thn dao ln.
c. iu kin gia cng
* Rng dao ct khng lin tc, thi gian tip xc gia rng dao v vng ct
ngn (th-ng 1 2%Sec) hn na thn dao ln lm thot nhit tt nn gim nhit
vng ct. Song do tc phay kh cao, c nhiu rng cng ct, thot phoi kn...
nn nhit ct t-ng i cao.
* Cc rng dao lm vic theo chu k nn rng dao b va p (nu phay
thun) do rng dao d b st m hoc b tr-t trn b mt b bin cng (nu
phay nghch) dao s mau mn; kh nng sut hin lo dao t; iu kin lm vic
ca my khng tt, d gy rung ng khi ct; chiu dy lp cng ngui ln (khi
phay nghch).
* Din tch mt ct ngang lp ct lun thay i do s rng ng thi tham
gia ct v cc thng s lp ct thay i nn lc phay khng n nh, gy rung
ng khi phay.
* Khi phay c nhiu rng dao cng tham gia ct nn tng chiu di l-i ct
tham gia ct ng thi ln, do vy nng sut phay cao.
6.2. Dao phay
6.2.1. Cc loi dao phay
Dao phay l loi dng c ct c hnh dng trn xoay, c nhiu rng. Tu
theo yu cu to hnh b mt chi tit v iu kin gia cng m c nhiu loi dao
phay c kt cu khc nhau (hnh 6-2)
a. Dao phay tr: rng dao phay tr b tr trn mt tr, ph-ng ca rng c
th song song vi trc dao - gi l dao phay tr rng thng, cng c th to vi
trc dao mt gc e v pha phi hoc tri - gi l dao phay tr rng xon (hnh
6-2a). Hin nay dao phay tr rng thng t s dng.
Dao phay tr c loi ui lin hnh tr hoc hnh cn (hnh 6-2e), hoc dao
phay tr ui ri (hnh 6-2a). Rng dao c th lin hoc rng chp.
Dao phay tr ui ri dng gia cng mt phng nm ngang trn my
phay vn nng nm ngang (gi tt l my phay ngang). Dao phay tr ui lin
dng gia cng cc mt bc hp nh-ng c chiu cao ln trn my phay ng.
b. Dao phay mt u. Rng dao phay mt u c th b tr trn mt u
(th-ng l dao c phn ct lm bng HKC) hoc b tr c mt u v mt tr
(th-ng l dao c phn ct lm bng thp gi) (hnh 8-2b)
Dao phay mt u dng gia cng mt phng nm ngang, thng ng hoc
nghing trn my phay ng vn nng (gi tt my phay ng) cng c khi dng
trn my phay ngang gia cng mt phng thng ng.


Hnh 6-2. Cc loi dao phay hay s dng
Dao phay mt u dng rng ri hn dao phay tr, v:
* Vi dao phay mt u, c kh nng dng dao c -ng knh ln do
khng b khng ch bi x ngang ca my v vy chiu su phay ln (tc chiu
rng b mt gia cng ln) dn n nng sut cao hn phay bng dao phay tr.
* cng vng khi dng dao mt u cao hn khi dng dao phay tr do
khng cn dng trc g dao di.
* Trong cng iu kin, s rng ng thi tham gia ct khi phay bng dao
phay mt u ln hn khi phay bng dao phay tr nn qu trnh phay t rung
ng, m v nng sut cao.
* C th dng nhiu dao phay nhiu b mt cng mt lc trn my phay
gi-ng.
* D ch to dao phay rng chp bng cc mnh hp kim cng hn dao
phay tr.
* Qu trnh mi dao d hn so vi dao phay tr
c. Dao phay a. Rng dao phay a c th b tr trn mt tr hoc b
tr va mt tr va mt hoc c 2 mt bn gi l dao mt mt, hai mt
hoc ba mt ct (hnh 8-2c)
Dao phay a dng gia cng cc loi rnh su, cc loi mt bc hp
t-ng ng vi chiu rng dao trn my phay ngang.
d. Dao phay ct. Dao phay ct t-ng t dao phay a nh-ng c chiu rng B
nh, dng ct rnh v ct t chi tit (hnh 6-2d).
e. Dao phay gc. Dao phay gc c loi 1 gc (hnh 6-2h) hoc 2 gc i
xng hoc khng i xng. Rng dao b tr c mt u v mt chu vi.
Dng phay cc rnh gc (nh- rnh mang c), to rng ca dng c ct,
cc rnh xon ln... trn my phay ng hoc ngang.
g. Dao phay rnh then. Rng b tr mt u v mt tr. Dng gia cng
rnh then loi then bng trn trc m khng cn khoan l tr-c.
h. Dao phay ngn. Rng dao b tr trn mt tr. Dng gia cng cc
loi rnh.
Tt c cc loi dao trn c c im chung l mt tr-c v mt sau ca
dao u mt phng, do vy ch to n gin hn cc loi dao phay khc. Loi dao
ny cn -c gi l dao phay rng nhn.
i. Dao phay nh hnh. Dao phay nh hnh dng gia cng cc b mt,
cc rnh nh hnh. Prphin ca rng dao ph hp vi prphin ca b mt gia
cng (hnh 6-2g).
Dao phay nh hnh th-ng c mt tr-c l mt phng, cn mt sau -c
ch to l mt xon Acsimet khi mi li dao, gc sau nh rng dao v
prphin rng dao khng thay i. Khi mi ch mi li mt tr-c ca dao. Loi dao
ny cn gi l dao phay ht l-ng.
6.2.2. Kt cu v thng s hnh hc ca dao phay
Dao phay c nhiu loi nh- xt trn, nh-ng y chng ta ch kho
st kt cu v thng s hnh hc ca dao phay hnh tr rng xon ri v dao phay
mt u lm c tr-ng, v chng c nhng nt chung m khi kho st cc loi dao
phay khc ta c th suy ra t .
a. Dao phay tr rng xon. Rng dao phay tr rng xon ri c
ph-ng to vi trc dao mt gc e. C th coi mi rng dao phay tr t-ng
t nh- mt con dao tin, ngha l kt cu mi rng dao gm c: Mt tr-c
1; mt sau chnh 2; cnh vin 3, l-i ct chnh 4, v l-ng dao 5. Trn mi
rng cng c gc tr-c v gc sau o (hnh 6-3)



Hnh 6-3. Kt cu dao phay tr ri rng xon.
Gc tr-c v gc sau dao phay trc rng xon c th o trong mt ct NN
vung gc vi l-i ct chnh (, o) v o trong mt ct vung gc vi trc dao
(mt u:
1
, o
1
) - cc gc
1
v o
1
dng iu chnh dao khi mi mt tr-c v
mt sau; cc gc v o nh h-ng n co rt phoi, mn rng dao, lc ct, cht
l-ng b mt gia cng... ngha l nh h-ng ln n qu trnh ct.
Quan h gia cc gc nh- sau:
tg = tg
1
cose (6.1)

e
o = o
cos
1
tg tg
1
(6.1)
Ngoi cc thng s trn, cn mt s thng s khc:
* Gc nghing ca l-i ct (gc xon) e (gc ny t-ng t gc trong dao
tin). Th-ng chn e = 10
0
60
0
tu tng loi dao.
* d - -ng knh l g dao, -c tiu chun ho, mm
* S rng dao Z, rng
* Chiu cao rng dao h, mm
* Gc tm gia hai rng dao k nhau c

z
0
360
= c
[] (6.3)

* B-c vng T
v
- l khong cch gia hai rng k nhau o theo cung trn
-ng knh D.

Z
D
T
v
t
= [mm] (6.4)
D- -ng knh dao phay, mm
* B-c chiu trc T
tr
- l khong cch gia hai rng k nhau o theo -ng
tm dao.

e
t
g
Z
D
T
tr
cot =
[mm] (6.5)
*B-c php tuyn T
N
- l khong cch gia hai rng k nhau o theo ph-ng
vung gc vi l-i ct.
e
t
cos
Z
D
T
N
= [mm] (6.6)
b. Dao phay mt u

Hnh 6-4. Kt cu dao phay mt u
Nh- dao phay tr, dao phay mt u c th l rng lin hoc rng chp.
Th-ng dao phay lm bng thp gi -c ch to rng lin, cn dao phay lm
bng hp kim cng ch to rng chp. Ngoi mt s thng s kt cu t-ng t
dao phay tr rng xon, dao phay mt u cn mt s c im kt cu sau:
* Dao phay mt u lm bng thp gi, mi rng dao c 3 l-i ct: 1-2,
1-3 v 2- 4 (hnh 6-4a) Khi gia cng mt phng nm ngang, l-i ct 1-2 s l l-i
ct chnh, l-i ct 1-3 s l l-i ct ph, cn l-i ct 2- 4 khng tham gia ct. Khi
phay mt phng thng ng, ch c l-i ct 2- 4 tham gia ct, v khi dao phay
mt u lm vic nh- dao phay tr rng xon.
* Dao phay mt u lm bng HKC ch c mt l-i ct chnh v mt l-i
ct ph. tng sc bn ca l-i ct v tui bn ca dao, ng-i ta c th lm
thm mt l-i ct ni tip c chiu di f
0
= 1 1,5 mm vi gc nghing
0
= 0,5
hoc thay bng cung trn c bn knh r.
Gc tr-c v gc sau o c th o trong mt ct chnh NN hoc mt ct
vung gc vi -ng trc ca dao (mt u).
Mi nh ngha v gc ca dao nh- i vi dao tin. Qu trnh ct gc
ca dao cng thay i nh-ng khng ln (th-ng <1
0
) do c th b qua.
6.3. Cc yu t ct khi phay
6.3.1. Cc yu t ch ct (hnh 6-2 v hnh 6-5a, c)
a. Chiu su ct t - Kch th-c lp kim loi -c ct ng vi mt ln chy
dao o theo ph-ng vung gc vi b mt gia cng, mm.


Hnh 6-5. Cc yu t ct khi phay
b. L-ng chy dao. Dao phay l loi dng c ct c nhiu rng nn
ng-i ta phn bit cc loi l-ng chy dao sau:
* L-ng chy dao rng S
z
- L-ng dch chuyn ca bn my mang phi
theo ph-ng chuyn ng chy dao sau khi dao quay -c mt gc rng,
mm/rng. L-ng chy dao rng c tr-ng cho c-ng ti trng tc dng ln
rng dao phay. Th-ng khi gia cng th ng-i ta s dng S
z.
* L-ng chy dao vng S - L-ng dch chuyn ca bn my mang phi theo
ph-ng chuyn ng chy dao khi dao quay -c mt vng, mm/vng. L-ng
chy dao vng nh h-ng n nhm b mt gia cng, phay tinh chn theo S.
*L-ng chy dao pht S
ph
- L-ng dch chuyn ca bn my mang phi theo
ph-ng chuyn ng chy dao trong mt pht, mm/ph. L-ng chy dao pht c
tr-ng cho nng sut khi phay, s dng S
ph
tnh thi gian my T
o
.
Quan h gia cc l-ng chy dao nh- sau:
S
ph
= S. n = S
z
. n . Z [mm/ph] (6.7)
Trong : Z - s rng ca dao phay, rng
n - S vng quay ca dao, vng/ph
c. Tc ct V. Chuyn ng to hnh khi phay gm chuyn ng quay
trn ca dao v chuyn ng tnh tin ca phi gia cng nn qu o mt im
ca l-i ct vch ln b mt gia cng l cung Xi- cl - it (cung 0A hnh 6.5b).
V tc ct tng hp ti mt im trn l-i ct:

s n c
V V V + =
Th-ng thnh phn tc ct do chuyn ng chy dao to nn (V
s
) rt nh
so vi thnh phn tc ct do chuyn ng chnh to nn (V
n
) nn b qua. Do
vy cng thc tnh tc ct c dng:

1000
. . n D
V V
c
t
= = [m/ph] (6.8)
V qu o mt im ca l-i ct trn b mt gia cng l -ng trn.
Trong cng thc (6.8):
D- -ng knh dao phay, mm.
n- s vng quay ca dao phay, vng/ph
d. Thi gian my T
0
. Thi gian my khi phay -c tnh theo cng thc:


t
h
n Z S
l l l
t
h
S
L
T
z ph

+ +
= =
. .
2 1
0 [ph] (6.9)
Trong : n- s vng quay ca dao phay, vng/ph
L- chiu di ton b qung -ng dch chuyn ca bn mang phi theo
ph-ng chuyn ng chy dao, mm.
l- chiu di b mt gia cng, mm
l
2
- l-ng chy qu ca dao, mm. Th-ng ly l
2
= 1 5mm
l
1
- l-ng chy ti, -c tnh theo cng thc:
Dao phay tr (hnh 6-5e):
) t D ( t l
0 0 1
= [mm] (6.9b)
Dao phay mt u:
Phay i xng (hnh 6-5g):
( ) ) t D ( D
2
1
l
2
0
2
1
= [mm] (6.9c)
Phay khng i xng (hnh 6-5h)
) (
0 0 1
t D t l = [mm] (6.9d)
h- l-ng d- gia cng ng vi mt nguyn cng, mm
t
0
- chiu su phay, mm
t- chiu su ct, mm

e) g) h)

Hnh 6-5. S xc nh l-ng chy ti l
1
khi phay
6.3.2. Cc yu t lp ct (hnh 6-2 v hnh 6-5)
a. Chiu su phay t
0
- kch th-c lp kim loi -c ct trong mt ln
chy dao o theo ph-ng vung gc vi trc dao phay, ng vi gc tip xc +
mm.
b. Gc tip xc + - Gc tm dao chn cung tip xc l gia dao v
phi. Gc tip xc -c tnh nh- sau:
i vi dao phay tr, dao phay a, dao phay nh hnh (hnh 6.5b)
cos+ =
D
t
0
2
1 (6.10a)
hay sin +/2 =
D
t
0
(6.10b)
* Khi phay bng dao phay mt u:
- Phay i xng (hnh6-5c): sin
D
t
0
2 / = + (6.10c)
- Phay khng i xng sin |
.
|

\
|
+ = + 1
2
sin
2
0
D
t
ac
t
(6.10d)
c. Chiu rng phay B - Kch th-c lp kim loi -c ct o theo ph-ng trc
dao, mm.
d. S rng ng thi tham gia ct Z


* i vi dao phay tr rng xon:

D
tg Z B
Z Z
t
e . .
.
360
0
'
+ = [rng dao] (6.11a)

* i vi dao phay mt u, dao phay tr rng thng v cc dao t-ng t c
gc e nh:
Z Z .
360
0
'

= [rng dao] (6.11b)
Trong :
Z- s rng dao
B- chiu rng phay, mm
e- gc xon ca rng dao,
D- -ng knh dao phay, mm
- gc tip xc,
Trong cng iu kin ct nh- nhau, s rng ng thi tham gia ct dao phay
tr rng xon ln hn cc loi dao phay khc.
e. Chiu dy lp ct a - Khong cch gia hai v tr lin tip ca qu o
chuyn ng ca mt im trn l-i ct ng vi l-ng chy dao rng S
z
, o theo
ph-ng vung gc vi l-i ct, mm.
Chiu dy ct khi phay lun bin i t khi l-i ct ca mt rng bt u
tham gia ct n khi ra khi vng ct. Ta kho st chiu dy ct i vi dao phay
tr v dao phay mt u.
* Chiu dy ct a i vi dao phay tr. T hnh 6-5b chng ta thy,
chiu dy ct s bin i t a
min
n a
max
nu phay thun v ng-c li. K
hiu chiu dy ct ti mt im M bt k trn cung tip xc ng vi gc tip
xc u
i
do mt rng ct l a
M
, gn ng coi cung CN l thng (v cung CN
nh), ta c:
a
M
= S
z
. sinu
i
(6.12)
Cng thc (6.12) cho ta quan h gia chiu dy ct a v gc tip xc tc
thi u
i,
. Nu u
i
= 0 th a
M
= a
min
= 0; nu u
i
= + th chiu dy ct s ln nht
a
M
= a
max
= S
z
. Sin .
i vi dao phay tr rng xon, chiu dy ct ca mt rng dao ang
tham gia ct chng nhng bin i t khi rng bt u ct n khi kt thc
qu trnh ct (i vi mt vng quay ca dao), m ti thi im tc thi
ang xt, chiu dy ct cn thay i dc theo chiu di phn rng ang tham
gia ct.
* Chiu dy ct i vi dao phay mt u. Hnh 6-5c th hin chiu dy
ct ti mt im M bt k trn cung tip xc ng vi gc tip xc tc thi u
i
ca
mt rng ang ct. Nu chn trc 0K l gc ca gc tip xc th ti = 0 v
gc K0
1
B = /2, gc K0D = - /2. Vy chiu dy ct ti im M bt k:
a
M
= S
z
. sin . cos u
1
(6.13)
Vy, chiu dy ct nh nht khi u
1
= /2 (ti im B v D), ti :
a
M
= a
min
= S
z
. Sin . cos /2, v t gi tr ln nht khi u = 0 (ti im
K). Ti a
M
= a
max
= S
Z
. Sin.
g. Chiu rng lp ct b
* i vi dao phay mt u, chiu rng lp ct khi phay bng dao phay mt
u tnh ging nh- khi tin, ngha l:
Nu gc nng l-i ct chnh =0, b =
cos sin
B
[mm] (6.14a)

Nu gc nng l-i ct chnh =0, b =
sin
B
[mm] (6.14b)
* i vi dao phay tr rng thng:
b = B [mm]
* i vi dao phay tr rng xon. i vi dao phay tr rng xon mt rng
dao phay khng ng thi vo ct hoc ra khi vng ct cng mt lc trn sut
chiu di rng m vo dn dn tng im mt. Do vy chiu rng lp ct bin i
theo gc u
i
ca tng rng t 0 ri t n tr s c nh bng chiu di rng tham
gia ct, sau d li gim dn n 0 khi dao thot ra khi vng ct.
Chiu rng lp ct ln nht ca mt rng ti thi im tc thi:

e cos
B
b =
[mm] (6.14c)
Trong cc cng thc (6.14):
B- chiu rng phay, mm
e- gc xon ca rng dao,
- gc nghing l-i ct chnh,
- gc nng ca l-i ct chnh,
h. Din tch mt ct ngang lp ct F
Tu theo kt cu dao phay, kch th-c lp ct m s rng dao ng thi
tham gia ct khc nhau -c tnh theo cng thc (6.11) lm F khc nhau.
Din tch mt ct ngang lp ct F ca cc rng ng thi tham gia ct l:

=
=
'
1
Z
i
i
f F [mm
2
] (6.15a)
Trong f
i
l din tch mt ct ngang lp ct ca rng th i tham gia
ct, v:
f
i
= a
i
. b
i
[mm
2
] (6.15b)
* i vi dao phay tr rng thng.
Din tch ct do mt rng ct:
f
i
= B
.
S
z
. sinu
i
[mm
2
] (6.15c)
V din tch mt ct ngang lp ct do z

s rng ng thi tham gia ct:


F = B . S
z
. sin
'
1

=
Z
i
u
i
[mm
2
] (6.15d)
* i vi dao phay mt u
Din tch ct do mt rng ct f
i
-c tnh nh- sau, thay cc cng thc (6.13)
v (6.14b) vo (6.15b) c:
f
i
= B . S
z
. cosu
i
[mm
2
] (6.15e)
Tng din tch mt ct ngang lp ct do Z

rng ng thi tham gia ct:


F = B . S
z
.
i
Z
i
u

=
'
1
cos [mm
2
] (6.15g)
* i vi dao phay tr rng xon. Do chiu dy ct a ca mt rng dao ang
tham gia ct bin i ph thuc vo gc ct tc thi u
I
(cng thc (6.12)) v bin
i dc theo chiu rng ct b, thm vo gc tip xc tc thi ca mt rng u
i

khng n nh m bin i t u rng n cui rng trong phm vi
d
i
u n
c
i
u ,
do vy din tch mt ct ngang lp ct ca mt rng ang tham gia ct -c tnh:
=
i
f u u
e
u
u
d . sin
sin 2
S . D
C
i
d
1
i
z
}
[mm
2
] (6.15h)
V tng din tch mt ct ngang lp ct do Z


rng ng thi tham gia ct:
F = ) cos (cos
sin 2
.
'
1
d
i
Z
i
c
i
z
S D
u u
e

=
[mm
2
] (6.15k)
Trong cc cng thc (6.15)
B- chiu rng phay, mm
S
z
- l-ng chy dao rng, mm/rng;
D - -ng knh dao phay, mm;
e- gc xon ca rng dao,

c
i
d
i
u u , - gc tip xc tc thi, ng vi im u rng v cui rng ca rng
ang tham gia ct th i ca dao phay tr rng xon.
T cc cng thc (6.15) chng ta nhn thy: trong qu trnh phay, din tch
mt ct ngang lp ct lun lun bin i ph thuc vo gc tip xc tc thi,
nh-ng mc bin i khi ct bng dao phay tr rng xon nh v t t hn so
vi khi ct bng dao phay mt u v dao phy tr rng thng. Do din tch lp
ct bin i dn n lc ct bin i lm cho tui th ca my v dao gim, cp
nhm b mt gia cng gim, nng sut gim. khc phc tnh trng din tch
ct bin i khi phay, ng-i ta nghin cu v thy nu thit k v ch to mt loi
dao phay tr rng xon tho mn iu kin:
K. T
tr
= B (6.16a)
Ngha l mt loi dao m im u rng dao ny trng vi im cui ca
rng dao kia th tng din tch mt ct ngang lp ct l mt i l-ng khng i
(F = const), v khi nu c mt rng bt u vo ct th c mt rng ra khi
vng ct. Gi tr-ng hp l phay cn bng (hnh 6.5d)
Thay cng thc (6.5) vo cng thc (6.16a) ta c:

t
e
.
cot .
K
B
Z
g D
=
(6.16b)
Trong : T
tr
- b-c chiu trc ca dao, mm
e - gc xon ca rng dao,
Z - s rng dao phay
D- -ng knh dao phay, mm
B - chiu rng phay, mm
K- s nguyn, d-ng (K= 1, 2, 3, ..., n)
Vy c phay cn bng, khi thit k dao phay tr rng xon cn thay i
gc xon e v s rng Z (cn -ng knh dao l thng s -c tiu chun
ho) tho mn (6.16a).
Tng din tch mt ct ngang lp ct do Z

rng ng thi tham gia ct trong


iu kin phay cn bng s l:

e t cos . .
. .
0
D
t S Z B
F
Z
=
[mm
2
] (6.17)
Khi phay cn bng, F = const nn lc ct n nh do vy tui th ca dao
v my -c nng cao, cht l-ng b mt gia cng tt hn v nng sut phay
tng. Cng cn phi nhc li rng ch c dao phay tr rng xon mi c th thit
k hoc chn dao tho mn iu kin phay cn bng. (6.12a)
Phay cn bng ch s dng trong tr-ng hp sn xut lot ln v hng khi
v nh- vy mi c hiu qu kinh t.
6.4. Lc ct khi phay
6.4.1. Cc thnh phn lc tc dng ln dao khi phay
Cc thnh phn lc tc dng ln dao khi phay -c th hin trn hnh 6-1.
Lc tc dng ln chi tit v my cng ph-ng t-ng ng nh-ng chiu ng-c li.
Tr s v ph-ng ca cc thnh phn lc tng thi im khc nhau trong gc
tip xc +
1
l khng nh- nhau. Cng ging nh- khi nghin cu lc ct khi tin,
lc ct tng hp R tc dng ln rng dao phay -c phn thnh cc thnh phn
theo nhu cu. Lc tng hp khi phay bng dao phay tr rng thng:

r
z P P R + =
Hoc
d n
P P R + =

Trong :
P
z
- Thnh phn lc tip tuyn (hay cn gi l lc vng). Lc ny l lc ct chnh
to phoi. Khi thit k hay kim tra ng lc hc ca my, ng-i ta tnh theo P
z
.
P
r
- Thnh phn lc h-ng knh. Lc ny tc dng vung gc vi -ng
tm trc chnh ca my phay. Lc ny c xu h-ng lm vng trc g dao ng
thi qua n to ra mt p lc trn cc ca trc chnh ca my, do gy ra
m men ma st ph trn trc chnh. Khi tnh sc bn trc g dao cng nh- tnh
ton trc chnh phi dng lc ny.
P

- Thnh phn lc thng ng. Tu theo phay thun hay phay nghch m
n c tc dng chi tit xung hay nng chi tit ln khi bn my. Da vo lc
ny tnh lc kp, g phay v p lc ln b mt sng tr-t bn my phay.
P
n
- Thnh phn lc nm ngang (hay cn gi l lc chy dao). Lc ny c
ph-ng trng vi ph-ng chy dao. Tu theo phay thun hay phay nghch m n
c tc dng lm tng hay kh r ca b truyn vt me - ai c chy dao dc.
Lc ny dng tnh ton c cu chy dao cng nh- g chi tit gia cng.
Khi phay bng dao phay tr rng xon, ngoi cc thnh phn lc trn cn c
thnh phn lc nh- hnh (6-6a).
P
0
- Lc chiu trc, lc ny tc dng vo trc chnh hoc bc trc g
dao, tu thuc ph-ng rnh xon ca dao v cch g dao.
P
s
- Lc dc theo l-i ct ca dao, lc ny -c to ra do ma st ca phoi
trn mt tr-c ca dao theo ph-ng rnh xon, do gy co rt phoi.






Hnh 6-6. Cc thnh phn lc P
0
v P
s
tc dng ln dao
phay tr rng xon v cch g dao.

P
N
- Thnh phn lc tc dng vung gc vi l-i ct.
Vy lc tng hp khi phay bng dao phay tr rng xon:

0
P Q R + =

Hoc
S N
P P R + =
Vi:
R Z
P P Q + =
Cc thnh phn lc tc dng ln dao phay mt u khi phay cng t-ng t nh-
khi phay bng dao phay tr rng xon.
Quan h gia cc thnh phn lc trn nh- bng 6-1
Quan h gia cc thnh phn lc khi phay
Bng (6-1)
Dao phay mt u
Dao phay tr
Phay khng i xng
Cc
thnh
phn
lc
Phay thun
Phay
nghch
Phay i
xng
Phay thun
Phay
nghch
P
r

(0,6 0,8)P
z
- - -
P
n
(0,8 0,9)P
z

(1,0
1,1)P
z

(0,3 0,4)P
z
(0,15 0,30)P
z

(0,6
0,9)P
z

P

(0,7 0,9)P
z

(0,2
0,3)P
z

(0,85
0,95)P
z

(0,9 0,1)P
z

(0,45
0,70)P
z

P
0

0,28P
z
. tg e (0,5 0,55)P
z

P
s

0,72P
z
. tge
- - -
6.4.2. Tnh lc ct khi phay
Thng th-ng tnh lc ct khi phay, ng-i ta tnh thnh phn lc P
Z
cn cc
thnh phn lc khc -c tnh theo quan h bng 6-1.
Cng thc thc nghim tnh lc ct P
z
khi phay cho mi loi dao phay
(tr dao phay nh hnh) c dng:

Pz
W q y
z
x U
z
K n Z D S t B C P
Pz Pz Pz Pz Pz
Pz
. . . . . . .
0

=
[N] (6.18)
Trong : C
Pz
- h s iu chnh nh h-ng ca tnh cht c l ca nhm vt
liu gia cng ti lc P
z
.
K
Pz
- h s iu chnh nh h-ng ca cc yu t cn li khng c mt trong
cng thc (vt liu gia cng, thng s hnh hc phn ct ca dng c ...) ti lc
ct P
z.
.
n - s vng quay ca dao, vng/ph
S
z
- l-ng chy dao rng, mm/rng
Z - s rng dao phay
Cc h s iu chnh v s m trong cng thc tra bng 51 trang 112 [4]
hoc trong cc s tay v cng ngh ch to my.
T cng thc (6.18) chng ta thy nh h-ng ca cc yu t ct n lc ct
nh- sau:
1. Lc ct tng gn nh- t l thun vi chiu rng phay B (u
Pz
~1) v s rng
Z ca dao v khi phay B v Z tng, din tch lp ct ca Z

rng ng thi tham


gia ct tng theo quan h (6.15) v (6.17).
2. Khi tng l-ng chy dao rng S
z
lc vng tng do din tch ct tng. Tuy
nhin mc tng ca P
z
chm hn S
z
(x
Pz
~ 0,65 0,8), v khi S
z
tng ng thi
a
tb
tng (a
tb
= S
z
. Sin +/2) nn lc ct n v gim.
3. Tng chiu su phay t
0
lm lc P
z
tng. Khi tng t
0
, nu cc yu
t khc khng thay i th s rng ng thi tham gia ct Z

tng do gc
tip xc + tng theo quan h (6.10) v (6.11) lm cho tng din tch lp
ct ca cc rng ng thi tham gia ct Z

tng nn lc P
z
tng. Song
mc tng lc P
z
do nh h-ng ca t
0
ca dao phay tr rng xon t
hn dao phay mt u (vi dao phay tr x
Pz
= 0,63 0,86, cn i vi
dao phay mt u x
Pz
= 1,1 1,14).
4. Tng -ng knh dao phay (nu cc yu t khc khng i) th lc ct
gim v -ng knh dao tng lm s rng ng thi tham gia ct gim nn din
tch mt ct ngang lp ct F gim do vy lc ct gim.
5. nh h-ng ca s vng quay n ca dao. nh h-ng ca s vng quay
n n lc ct khng ng k (W
Pz
~0 0,2). Khi dng dao phay tr rng xon, cn
phi ch n chiu ca lc P
0
. Th-ng ng-i ta g dao chiu ca lc P
0

h-ng vo trc chnh ca my, khi tr-t trc g dao khng b ph hu
bi lc P
0
. Nu dao c gc xon e ln v P
z
ln, trnh p lc ln trn do lc
P
0
gy nn, ng-i ta lp hai dao c h-ng xon ca rng tri chiu nhau kh
lc P
0
tc dng vo trc chnh ca my (hnh 6-6b).
M men ct trn trc chnh -c tnh theo cng thc:

3
10 . 2
.D P
Mx
z
=
[N.m] (6.19)
Cng sut ct c th tnh theo cc cng thc:

3
10 . 60
.V P
N
z
c
=
[kW] (6.20a)
hoc theo cng thc thc nghim:

N
q x y
Z N c
k D n t S Z B C N
N N v
. . . . . . .
0
=
[kW] (6.20b)
Trong :
P
z
- lc vng, N
V- tc ct khi phay, m/ph
n- s vng quay ca dao, vng/ph
S
z
- l-ng chy dao rng, mm/rng
B- chiu rng phay, mm
t
0
- chiu su phay, mm
Z- s rng dao phay,
D- -ng knh dao phay, mm
Cc h s v s m tra bng X.46 trang 380[5] v trong cc s tay cng
ngh ch to my khc
6.5. Tc ct khi phay
6.5.1. Mi mn v tui bn ca dao
Mc v c tnh mn ca rng dao ph thuc vo iu kin phay,
cc yu t ct, vt liu gia cng v vt liu lm dao, thng s hnh hc phn
ct ca dao, cng vng ca h thng cng ngh, dung dch trn ngui.
Rng dao phay c th mn ch yu theo mt sau, hoc mn ch yu theo
mt tr-c hoc mn ng thi c mt tr-c v mt sau, hoc cc mnh
HKC b st. Dao phay tr, dao phay a, dao phay ct rnh, dao phay nh
hnh khi ct vi chiu dy ct mng v gia cng gang, mn ch yu mt
tr-c v mt sau (hnh 6-7b)



Hnh 6-7. S mi mn rng dao phay

Dao phay mt u th-ng mn ng thi c mt tr-c v mt sau khi ct. S
d nh- vy l do th-ng chiu dy ct khi phay bng dao mt u ln, chiu di
cung tip xc ln nn thi gian tr-t trn mt tr-c lu hn (hnh 6-7c). Nu
dng dao phay mt u HKC ct tc cao, cc mnh HKC hay b st v cc
vt nt t vi sinh ra khi mi hoc khi hn s pht trin nhanh khi b va p hoc
rung ng khi phay.
D mi mn theo mt no i na, tiu chun nh gi mn ca mi loi
dao phay vn theo mt sau, v k hiu l [h
s
]. Gi tr mi mn trung bnh [h
s
]
c th tham kho theo bng 6-2.
Gi tr mn cho php [h
s
] ca dao phay
Bng 6-2
Loi dao
Dao tr ri
Dao tr ui
lin, dao phay ngn
Dao phay mt u
Thp gi HKC Thp gi HKC Thp gi HKC
Vt
liu gia
cng
Gi tr mn cho php, mm
Thp
0,150,6 0,40,7 0,10,5 0,10,5 0,81,5 0,6 3,0
Gang
0,20,8 0,50,8 0,30,5 0,30,5 1,62,0 1,5 2,0
Trong bng 6.2. Gi tr nh t-ng ng vi gia cng tinh; gi tr ln ng vi
gia cng th.
Tui bn T ca dao phay dao ng trong phm vi rt rng v ph thuc vo tc
ct, kiu v -ng knh dao phay, vt liu dao, dng gia cng... Chng hn tui
bn ca dao phay tr thp gi gia cng thp l T = 120 180ph; tui bn ca dao
phay mt u HKC gia cng thp l T = 180 420ph.
Khi tnh ton thc t c th s dng s liu bng X.45 trang 380[5] hoc
cc bng trong cc s tay cng ngh khc.
Gia tc ct v tui bn ca dao quan h vi nhau theo cng thc:

m
T
A
V = [m/ph] (6.21)
Vi dao thp gi, m = 0,15 0,33; vi dao HKC, m = 0,2 0,6

6.5.2. Tc ct khi phay
Ging nh- tin, tc ct ph thuc vo vt liu gia cng v vt liu dao,
cc yu t kt cu v thng s hnh hc phn ct ca dao phay, cc yu t ct,
iu kin gia cng...
Cng thc thc nghim tnh tc ct nh- sau:
V
p u y
Z
X m
q
V
K
Z B S t T
D C
V
V V V V
v
.
. . .
.
0
=
[m/ph] (6.22)
Trong :
C
v
- h s hiu chnh, ph thuc vo nhm vt liu gia cng
K
v
= K
vl
. K
vd
. K
bm
. K
hh
. K
dd
. K
hs
...
K
vl
- h s tnh n nh h-ng ca tnh cht c l ca vt liu gia cng.
H s K
vl
-c tnh nh- sau:
- Khi phay thp:
b
vl
K
o
750
=
- Khi phay gang:
25 , 1
180
|
.
|

\
|
=
HB
K
vl

Trong :
o
b
- gii hn bn ca vt liu gia cng, N/mm
2
HB- cng ca gang gia cng, N/mm
2

K
vd
- h s tnh n nh h-ng ca vt liu lm dao
K
bm
- h s tnh n nh h-ng ca trng thi lp b mt ca phi gia cng
(rn, c, cn...);
K
hh
- h s k n dng hnh hc ca dao;
K
hs
- h s tnh n mn ca dao;
K
dd
- h s tnh n nh h-ng ca dung dch trn ngui;
D- -ng knh dao phay, mm;
T- tui bn dao, ph;
t
0
- chiu su phay, mm;
S
z
- l-ng chy dao rng, mm/rng;
B- chiu rng phay, mm;
Z- s rng dao
Cc h s v s m tra trong bng X.44 trang 375 [5] hoc s tay cng ngh
ch to my t-ng ng.
T cng thc trn chng ta c nhn xt nh h-ng ca mt s cc yu t
n tc ct nh- sau (khi xt nh h-ng ca mt yu t, coi cc yu t cn li
l khng i).
1. nh h-ng ca tui bn T n tc ct V khi phay ging nh- tin, ngha
l tui bn cng cao tc ct cng gim v ng-c li. Mc nh h-ng theo
cng thc (6.21)
2. -ng knh dao D cng ln tc ct cng cao v khi b-c vng ca
dao T
v
tng, s rng ng thi tham gia ct Z

gim v thi gian mi rng dao


khng tham gia ct trong mt vng quay ca dao tng ln, nn nhit sinh ra trong
mt n v thi gian gim. Mt khc khi l-ng kim loi thn dao ln do
truyn nhit tt, ng thi cng vng dao v trc g dao tng nn c th tng
tc ct. Ngoi ra khi tng -ng knh D, chiu dy ct trung bnh gim theo
quan h a = S
z
.
D
t
nn lc ct trn mt n v chiu di ca l-i ct gim, iu
ny cng cho php tng tc ct.
3. Nu tng s rng dao Z (khi D c nh) s lm tng s rng ng thi
tham gia ct Z

. iu lm tng nhit ct v lc ct. Mt khc tng Z lm l-ng


kim loi thn dao gim dn n truyn nhit km. gi nguyn tui bn
chn, phi gim tc ct.
4. Tng cc thng s chiu rng phay B, chiu su phay t
0
v l-ng chy dao
rng S
z
s lm tng th tch lp ct, ng thi khi tng t
0
, gc tip xc + v s
rng ng thi tham gia ct Z

tng nn thi gian tham gia ct ca mt rng tng.


Thm na, nu S
z
tng th lc tc dng ln rng dao tng lm dao mau mn.
gi nguyn T chn, phi gim tc ct V.
5. Nu dng dung dch trn ngui, tc ct khi phay c th tng
ng k, v d khi phay thp bng dao phay thp gi, nu t-i dung dch
-mun - xi th c th tng tc ct ln 20 30%. Vt liu lm dao cng
nh h-ng ln n tc ct, chng hn khi phay thp c gii hn bn
o
b
= 750N/mm
2
bng dao BK8 ly h s hiu chnh K
vd
=1 th khi phay bng
dao phay T15K6 h s K
vd
= 1,26.
nh h-ng cc yu t cn li c qui lut ging nh- tin.

6.6. Chn yu t ct hp l khi phay
iu kin ban u, th t v ni dung chn yu t ct hp l khi phay
t-ng t nh- i vi qu trnh ct khi tin. Song cng c mt s ch trong
b-c chn.
a. Chn dao phay. Chn dao phay da vo vt liu gia cng, yu cu k
thut v dng b mt cn phay.
* Chn loi dao. Chn loi dao da vo kiu my, kch th-c v dng b
mt cn phay.
* Chn cc thng s kt cu dao (kch th-c -ng knh D, s rng Z...) da
vo kch th-c c th ca b mt cn phay cng nh- kch th-c khng ch ca
my chn gia cng.
* Chn vt liu phn ct ca dao da vo tnh cht c l ca vt liu phi
gia cng.
* Chn tui bn ca dao. Dao cng phc tp, vt liu phn ct cng tt
chn tui bn T cng ln.
b. Chn chiu su ct t. C gng chn chiu su ct t sao cho s ln chy
dao l t nht tng nng sut phay. Trong iu kin cng vng ca h thng
cng ngh v cng sut my cho php, nu l-ng d- nguyn cng hs5mm th
phay mt ln ht l-ng d-; nu l-ng d- h>5mm c th phay nhiu hn mt ln
v chiu su ct ln cui t = 1,0 1,5mm.
c. Chn l-ng chy dao
* Chn l-ng chy dao rng S
z
da vo nhm v chnh xc b mt gia
cng, tnh cht c l vt liu gia cng (vt liu cng bn, cng cng, dn nhit
cng km chn S
z
cng nh), bn phn ct v tui bn ca dao, bn ca trc
g dao v ca c cu chy dao, cng vng ca h thng cng ngh, cng sut
my v c bit l bn ca rng dao. L-ng chy dao rng cng ln th thi
gian my T
0
cng gim.
* Chn l-ng chy dao vng S da ch yu vo nhm b mt gia
cng. V d khi phay bn tinh thp ( nhm cp 5cp 6), c th chn l-ng
chy dao vng S = 0,2 0,9mm/vng; khi phay tinh thp ( nhm cp
7cp 8) chn S= 0,15 0,30mm/vng.
d. Tnh tc ct v s vng quay ca dao phay
* Tnh tc ct V khi phay theo cng thc (6.22)
* Da vo tc ct tnh tnh s vng quay n ca dao theo cng thc:

D
V
n
.
1000
t
=
[vng/pht]
Trong D- -ng knh ca dao phay, mm
Hiu chnh s vng quay tnh theo my (n
m
)
* Tnh li tc ct thc (V
t
) theo n
m
theo cng thc (6.8)
* Tnh l-ng chy dao pht (S
ph
) theo n
m
theo cng thc (6.7) v hiu
chnh theo my (S
ph.m
)
* Tnh li l-ng chy dao rng S
z
theo l-ng chy dao pht v s vng
quay ca dao hiu chnh theo my:

Z n
S
S
m
m ph
Z
th

=
.
[mm/rng]
e. Tnh lc ct, cng sut ct v mmen xon theo cc cng thc t-ng
ng (6-18), (6-19) v (6-20). Sau so snh vi cc ch tiu ng lc hc t-ng
ng trn my. c th phay -c: N
c
s N
.c
. q, trong q l hiu sut ca
my; v M
x
s [M
x
]. Nu khng t yu cu th chnh li cc yu t trong cng
thc (6-18) t yu cu.
g. Tnh thi gian my T
0
theo cng thc (6.9a)
6.7. My phay
6.7.1. cc loi my phay v cng dng
My phay thuc nhm 6 trong bng phn loi my ct kim loi, chng
-c dng phay cc mt phng nm ngang, mt phng thng ng, mt
phng nghing, phay cc rnh c mt ct ngang khc nhau, phay trc then
hoa, phay bnh rng ngoi... .Nhm my phay ca Vit nam -c k hiu
bng ch P ng u, my phay ca Lin X (c) -c k hiu bng con s
6 ng u. Con s tip theo trong k hiu th hin kiu my, con s ng
cui ch mt trong nhng c tnh quan trng nht ca my, th-ng c tnh
ny l s hiu ca bn my phay. Bnmy phay -c tiu chun ho v c
kch th-c nh- cho trong bng d-i y:
Kch th-c ca bn my phay Bng 6-3
S hiu bn my 0 1 2 3 4 5
Kch th-c
axb (mm)
200 x
800
250 x
1000
320 x
1250
400 x
1600
500 x
2000
650
x2500
C nhiu loi my phay v chng -c phn loi theo nguyn tc phn loai
chung nh- trnh by ch-ng 1. Trong phn ny ch cp ti my phay vn
nng. My phay vn nng bao gm: my phay nm ngang, my phay ng, my
phay vn nng rng v my phay gi-ng.
a. My phay vn nng nm ngang.
Cc b phn c bn ca my phay vn nng nm ngang -c th hin trn
hnh 6-8.







Hnh 6-8. Hnh dng chung ca my phay ngang vn nng.
Trc chnh mang dao phay nhn chuyn ng quay trn vi cc tc quay
khc nhau nh hp tc 2 t trong thn my 1. Chi tit gia cng -c kp trc
tip hoc qua t hoc g trn bn dc 4 c th nhn chuyn ng chy dao
dc nh chuyn ng ca bn dc 4 theo dn h-ng trn bn ngang 6, chuyn
ng chy dao ngang nh chuyn ng ca bn ngang 6 theo dn h-ng ca bn
con xn 7, chuyn ng chy dao thng ng nh chuyn ng ca bn con xn
7 theo dn h-ng thng ng ca thn my 1. Tr s l-ng chy dao khc nhau
-c iu chnh nh hp chy dao 8 t bn trong bn con xn. X ngang 3 lp
pha trn ca thn my kt hp vi gi 5 c nhim v trc g dao phay. Ga
5 c th iu chnh di chuyn theo dn h-ng ca x ngang 3 tu thuc vo
chiu di ca trc g dao.
Kiu my phay nm ngang -c k hiu bng con s 8, v d: trong k hiu my
my 6H81 con s 6 ch nhm my phay, con s 8 ch my phay c trc chnh nm
ngang, ch H ch my -c ci tin, con s 1 ch my c bn my s 1.
My phay vn nng nm ngang dng phay cc mt phng nm ngang
bng dao phay tr, phay cc rnh bng dao phay a, phay mt phng thng ng
bng dao phay mt u, phay bnh rng tr rng thng, rng nghing bng dao
phay a m uyn, phay cc b mt nh hnh bng dao phay nh hnh.
b. My phay ng vn nng.

Cc b phn c bn ca my phay ng vn nng -c th hin trn hnh 6-9



Hnh 6-9. Hnh dng chung ca my phay ng vn nng.
My phay ng vn nng c nhiu cm ging nh- my phay ngang vn
nng. Trc chnh 4 ca u phay 3 nhn cc tc quay trn khc nhau t hp
tc 2 lp trn thn my1. u phay c th iu chnh xoay theo mt phng
thng ng -a tm trc chnh nghing mt gc cn thit khi phay cc mt
phng nghing. Chuyn ng chnh l chuyn ng ca trc chnh mang dao
phay. Chuyn ng chy dao l chuyn ng tnh tin ca bn my mang chi tit
gia cng theo cc ph-ng chy dao. Chuyn ng chy dao dc -c thc hin
nh chuyn ng ca bn dc 5 theo dn h-ng trn bn ngang 6. Chuyn ng
chy dao ngang -c thc hin nh chuyn ng ca bn ngang 6 theo dn
h-ng ca bn con xn 7. Chuyn ng chy dao thng ng -c thc hin nh
chuyn ng ca bn con xn 7 theo dn h-ng ca thn my 1. Hp chy dao 8
nm bn trong bn con xn dng to ra cc tr s l-ng chy dao khc nhau.
Kiu my phay ng -c k hiu bng con s 1, v d: trong k hiu 612
con s 6 ch nhm my phay, con s 1 ch kiu my phay ng, con s 2 cho bit
my c bn my s 2.
My phay ng vn nng dng phay cc mt phng nm ngang,
mt phng nghing bng dao phay mt u; phay cc mt phng thng
ng bng dao phay ngn; phay cc rnh bng dao phay ngn hoc dao
phay gc; phay cc bnh rng tr c rng thng, rng nghing bng dao
phay ngn m uyn.
c. My phay vn nng rng.
My phay vn nng rng l my phay vn nng tng hp ca my phay
ng vn nng v my phay ngang vn nng trn nn ca my phay phay ngang
vn nng. Hnh dng chung ca my ging nh- my phay ngang vn nng song
phn u ca x ngang c thm u phay ng. V d my phay 6M82l my
phay ngang vn nng, sau khi ci tin -c trang b thm u ng n tr thnh
my phay vn nng rng v c k hiu l 6M82...
My phay vn nng rng dng gia cng cc chi tit c trng l-ng trung
bnh. Trn my phay vn nng rng c th thc hin tt c cc cng vic nh- trn
my phay ng v my phay ngang vn nng.
d. My phay gi-ng.
My phay gi-ng c kt cu kiu khung cng vng, c th c mt hoc hai tr
ng. Trn hnh 6-10 th hin s b tr cc cm ca my phay gi-ng hai tr ng.

Hnh 6-10. Hnh dng chung ca my phay gi-ng hai tr
1. Thn my; 2. Bn my; 3. u phay
4. Tr ng; 5. X ngang; 6. Dm ni
My c nhiu u phay c lp nhau -c b tr trn tr ng v x ngang.
X ngang c th nng ln h xung theo yu cu. Cc u phay trn c th di
chuyn dc theo dn h-ng ca x ngang, cc u phay bn c th di chuyn dc
theo dn h-ng ca tr ng thc hin chuyn ng chy dao. Ngoi ra cc
trc chnh mang dao c th di chuyn dc theo tm trong phm vi 200 mm
thc hin chuyn ng n dao. Cc u phay c th -c nh nghing mt gc
trong phm vi 30
0
phay cc mt phng nghing.
Chi tit gia cng -c kp cht trn bn my v cng bn my thc
hin chuyn ng chy dao dc. Bn my -c ch to vi kch th-c di
12502000 mm, rng 4005000 mm.

c tnh quan trng nht ca my l chiu di hnh trnh ln nht ca bn
my H
Max
. Th-ng my -c ch to vi H
Max
= 12506800 mm.
Kiu my phay gi-ng mt tr -c k hiu bng con s 3, v d 6308.
Kiu my phay gi-ng hai tr -c k hiu bng con s 6, v d 6608.
My phay gi-ng dng phay cc mt phng trn cc chi tit c kch
th-c v trng l-ng ln. My c trung bnh cho php gia cng chi tit c trng
l-ng1200 2500 kg, my c ln cho php gia cng chi tit nng 30.000 kg.
My phay gi-ng dng kinh t khi cn phay cc mt phng c chiu di ln.
Nu chi tit c chiu di nh th c th g nhiu chi tit ni tip nhau tn dng
ht hnh trnh ca bn my. C gng tn dng tt c cc u phay
hot ng ng thi ng thi gia cng nhiu b mt trn chi tit gia
cng.
Trn myphay gi-ng c th phay cc mt phng ngang, ng, nghing bng
dao phay mt u, dao phay tr hoc dao phay ngn; phay cc rnh bng dao phay
ngn hoc dao phay a; phay cc b mt nh hnh.
e. My phay lin tc.

Hnh 6-11. Hnh dng chung ca my phay lin tc hai trc chnh
My phay lin tc dng phay mt phng trn mt lot cc chi tit mt cch lin
tc bng dao phay mt u. Qu trnh g kp phi v tho g chi tit sau gia cng -c
thc hin nhng v tr nht nh trong khi cc v tr khc qu trnh gia cng vn tip
tc bi vy nng sut gia cng trn my cao. Trn hnh 6-11 th hin s b tr cc
cm ca my phay lin tc c hai trc chnh dng bn quay.
u phay 3 c th iu chnh tnh tin ln xung dc theo dn h-ng ca
tr ng 2 tu thuc vo chiu cao ca chi tit gia cng. u phay c hai trc
chnh c th iu chnh quay vi tc quay khc nhau. Mt trc chnh dng
phay th v trc chnh th hai dng phay tinh. Cc chi tit gia cng thng
qua g -c kp cht trn bn my 4 c tm quay thng ng. Bn tr-t 5
mang bn my 4 c th iu chnh dch chuyn theo dn h-ng ca thn my 1.
Chuyn ng chnh trong qu trnh phay l chuyn ng quay trn ca cc
trc chnh mang dao phay. Chuyn ng chy dao l chuyn ng quay trn ca
bn my mang cc chi tit gia cng.
My phay dng ny -c ch to c -ng knh bn quay nm trong phm
vi D=7502000 mm. My -c s dng trong sn xut hng khi v sn xut
lot ln.
g. My phay chp hnh.
My phay chp hnh dng gia cng cc chi tit c b mt gia cng phc tp
bng dao phay ngn v d-ng chp hnh. My phay chp hnh -c phn ra my phay
chp hnh chu tuyn v my phay chp hnh khng gian.
My phay chp hnh chu tuyn dng gia cng cc b mt nh hnh c
-ng sinh l -ng thng nh- bin dng ca cc cam a, cam thng, cc d-ng
chp hnh. My phay chp hnh khng gian dng gia cng cc b mt nh
hnh khng gian phc tp c -ng sinh khng phi l -ng thng nh- cnh
tuc bin, khun dp.
Hnh 6-12. S nguyn l phay chp hnh.

Chuyn ng chnh khi phay chp hnh chu tuyn l chuyn ng quay trn
ca dao phay ngn, chuyn ng chy dao l chuyn ng tnh tin t-ng i
gia dao v phi (thng th-ng do bn my mang phi thc hin) ng thi theo
c trc to X (chuyn ng chy dao dc) v trc to Y (chuyn ng chy
dao ngang) theo mt quy lut ph thuc vo bin dng ca d-ng chp hnh
(hnh 6-12.a). Mt trong hai chuyn ng chy dao c tc chuyn ng khng
i -c iu chnh tr-c (trn hnh 6-12.a chuyn ng chy dao c tc
khng i l chuyn ng chy dao dc S
d
), chuyn ng chy dao cn li l
chuyn ng ph thuc c tr s thay i tu thuc vo bin dng ca d-ng chp
hnh. Bin dng ca b mt -c to nn sau gia cng ph thuc vo t-ng quan
gia l-ng chy dao iu chnh tr-c v l-ng chy dao ph thuc. Vc t chy
dao tng hp S ca chuyn ng chy dao dc v chuyn ng chy dao ngang
lun tip tuyn vi b mt gia cng ti mi thi im.
Khi phay chp hnh khng gian (hnh 6-20.b) th dao phay gia cng ln l-t
tng di b mt nh hnh. Chiu rng ca mi di gia cng c tr s t-ng ng
vi -ng knh ca dao phay ngn. Sau khi gia cng -c mt di b mt nh
hnh theo ph-ng php phay chp hnh chu tuyn th dao phay (hoc bn my)
nhn chuyn ng chy dao theo trc to Z mt l-ng ng bng chiu rng
ca cc di gia cng tun t. Di gia cng tip theo -c phay theo chiu ng-c
vi chiu phay ca di tr-c . Cc di b mt nh hnh -c gia cng ln l-t
c th -c xp xp theo mt phng thng ng hoc theo mt phng nm ngang.
duy tr chuyn ng chy dao khi phay chp hnh ng-i ta s dng c
cu chp hnh. u d ca c cu chp hnh lun tip xc vi b mt d-ng chp
hnh ghi nhn nhng thay i v bin dng v kp thi pht ra nhng tn hiu
cn thit iu khin chuyn ng t-ng i gia dao v phi trong qu trnh
phay. My phay chp hnh c th -c trang b c cu chp hnh c kh, c cu
chp hnh c in hoc c cu chp hnh thu lc. Khi gia cng trn cc my
phay chp hnh c c cu chp hnh c kh th s thay i v hnh dng bin dng
ca d-ng chp hnh -c truyn ln u d lin kt cng vi dao phay do
d-ng chp hnh b tc ng trc tip ca lc ct. Trong cc my phay c c cu
chp hnh c in hoc thu lc, khi u d di chuyn theo d-ng chp hnh n
tip nhn s thay i v bin dng ca d-ng v bin i s thay i ny thnh
cc i l-ng ph hp ri truyn cc lnh iu khin qua c cu khuych i ti
c cu chp hnh di chuyn cc c cu cng tc ca my do p lc tc
dng ln d-ng khng ln.
Trn hnh 6-13. th hin s b tr cc cm ca my phay chp hnh
phay chp hnh khng gian.




Hnh 6-13. Hnh dng chung ca my phay chp hnh.
Chi tit gia cng v d-ng chp hnh -c kp cht trn bn my 6. Bn my 6
c th di chuyn theo dn h-ng dc ca thn my 1. u phay 3 cng c cu chp
hnh 4 mang u d 5 c th di chuyn theo dn h-ng ca tr ng 2 v dc theo tm
trc chnh. u d 5 lun p vo d-ng chp hnh vi mt lc P=1,52 N trong qu
trnh gia cng. Khi lc p thay i th trong c cu chp hnh 4 xut hin cc tn hiu
in iu khin chuyn ng ca u phay 3 sao cho ph hp vi bin dng ca d-ng
chp hnh.
6.7.2. My phay ngang vn nng 6M82.
S ng ca my phay ngang vn nng -c th hin trn hnh 6-14. Chuyn
ng chnh l chuyn ng quay trn ca trc chnh V mang dao phay. Chuyn ng bt
ngun t ng c in c cng sut N = 7 kW vi tc quay n=1440 vng/pht truyn ti
trc I ca hp tc . T trc I chuyn ng truyn ti trc II qua cp bnh rng 27-53. Tip
theo chuyn ng truyn qua mt trong ba cp bnh rng 19- 35 hoc 22-32 hoc 16-38 ti
trc III, qua mt trong ba cp bnh rng 27-37 hoc 17-46 hoc 38-26 ti trc IV. T trc IV
chuyn ng truyn ti trc chnh V qua mt trong hai cp bnh rng 19-69 hoc 82-38.








Hnh 6-14. S ng ca my phay ngang vn nng 6M82

Nh- vy t mt tc quay khng i ca ng c in qua hai nhm truyn ba
cp v mt nhm truyn hai cp m trc chnh ca my nhn -c 18 cp tc quay
khc nhau. o chiu quay ca trc chnh -c thc hin nh o chiu quay ca ng
c in.
Chuyn ng chy dao l chuyn ng tnh tin ca bn my mang chi tit gia cng
theo ph-ng dc, ph-ng ngang hoc theo ph-ng thng ng. Chuyn ng chy dao
bt ngun t ng c in c cng sut N=1,7 kW vi tc quay n=1420 vng/pht
truyn qua cc cp bnh rng 26- 50 v 26-57 ti trc VIII ca hp chy dao. Tip theo
chuyn ng truyn qua mt trong ba cp bnh rng 27-27 hoc 36-18 hoc 18-36 ti trc
IX. T trc IX chuyn ng truyn tip theo qua mt trong ba cp bnh rng 21-37 hoc
18-40 hoc 24-34 ti trc X. T trc X chuyn ng truyn ti trc rng mang bnh rng
rng bn lp lng khng trn trc XI theo mt trong hai -ng truyn: truyn trc tip qua
cp bnh rng 40-40 khi bnh rng lng khng 40 trn trc X gt sang phi ng ly hp
M
1
hoc truyn qua cc cp bnh rng 13-45, 18-40, 40-40 khi bnh rng lng khng 40
trn trc X gt sang tri lm cho ly hp M
1
ra khp (v tr nh- biu th trn s ng).
Trc rng mang bnh rng 40 c th truyn chuyn ng ti trc XI khi ng ly hp M
2
.
Trn u phi ca trc XI c ly hp ma st M
3
dng truyn chuyn ng cho bnh
rng 33. Ly hp M
3
v ly hp M
2
-c kha ln nhau v -c iu khin ng m bng
chung mt tay gt iu khin. C cu kho ln nhau ch cho php ng mt ly hp, khi
mt ly hp ng khp th ly hp th hai bt buc phi m khp v ng-c li. Khi ng
ly hp M
3
th trc XI nhn chuyn ng quay nhanh trc tip t ng c chy dao qua cc
cp bnh rng 26-50, 50-67 v 67-33 m khng i qua hp chy dao thc hin chuyn
ng chy dao nhanh cho bn my. T trc XI chuyn ng truyn theo cc -ng truyn
khc nhau to nn cc chuyn ng chy dao theo cc ph-ng chy dao cn thit trong
cc tr-ng hp c th.
Chuyn ng chy dao dc -c tuyn t trc XI qua cc cp bnh rng tr 28-35,
18-33, 33-37, qua cc cp bnh rng cn 18-16, 18-18 ti trc vt me chy dao dc XII c
b-c P= 6 mm.
Chuyn ng chy dao ngang -c truyn t trc XI qua cc cp bnh rng tr 28-
35, 18-33, 33-37 v 37-33 ti vt me chy dao ngang c b-c P=6 mm khi ly hp M
5

ng khp.
Chuyn ng chy dao thng ng thc hin khi ly hp M
4
trn trc XIII ng khp.
Chuyn ng truyn t trc XI qua cc cp bnh rng tr 28-35, 18-33 ti trc XIII qua cp
bnh rng tr 22-33 cp bnh rng cn 23-46 ti vt me chy dao thng ng c b-c ren
P=6 mm. Tr s l-ng chy dao dc v l-ng chy dao ngang nm trong phm vi t 25 ti
1250 mm/pht
6.8. Mt s g vn nng trang b km theo my phay
6.8.1. Trc g dao
Trc g dao dng g dao ln my phay. Trc g dao phay c hai loi c
bn: loi dng trn my phay ngang g cc loi dao phay tr ri, cc loi dao
phay a (hnh 6-15), v loi trc g dng ch yu trn my phay ng g kp
cc loi dao phay mt u (hnh 6-16a, b). Phn kt cu v kch th-c ca trc g
trc tip g dao v g vo c trc chnh ca my phay -c tiu chun ho.
Mi c my c hai n ba trc g dao km theo, c kch th-c ph hp vi ng
lc hc ca my v cn trc chnh ca my.



Hnh 6-15. Cu to trc g dao phay trn my phay nm ngang.



a) b)

Hnh 6-16. Cu to trc g dao phay trn my phay ng.
a. Trc g dao phay ngn ui cn;
b. Trc g dao phay mt u.
6.8.2. Bn g quay (mm chia)
Bn g quay l mt loi g vn nng km theo my phay, dng g v
quay trn phi trong khi gia cng; v d khi phay mt cong n gin, phay rng li
hp, khi g nhiu phi phay lin tc... Bn g quay cng -c s dng nh- u
chia kiu ng (c vnh khc vch chia hoc c mm chia).
C hai loi bn g quay: bn g quay truyn chuyn ng quay cho bn
bng tay gi l bn quay bng tay v bn g quay truyn chuyn ng quay cho
bn bng cch s dng -ng truyn trong my thng qua cc b truyn trung
gian bn ngoi gi l bn g quay t ng. Hnh 6-17 - S ng bn g quay
t ng: bn g chi tit gia cng 1; b truyn trc vt bnhvt 2; trc cc ng
nhn chuyn ng t xch chy dao dc 3; tay quay truyn chuyn ng bng tay
4. Khi g chi tit phay cc mt cong n gin, phi -c nh tm trn l ca
a quay 1.







Hnh 6-17. S ng bn g quay t ng
6.8.3. u phn vn nng c a chia
a. Cng dng. u phn c cc loi: u phn trc tip, u phn
khng c a chia, u phn c a chia.... D loi no, u phn u l
mt loi g vn nng dng trn my phay g v chia b mt gia cng thnh
cc phn bng nhau hoc khng bng nhau theo quy lut nht nh, chng hn
khi gia cng cc b mt ca ai c, u bu lng hay cc rnh trn trc then hoa,
cc rnh ca bnh rng tr rng thng... hoc to chuyn ng quay lin tc cho
phi trong qu trnh phay gia cng cc rnh xon nh- rnh trn mi khoan,
mi khot, bnh rng tr rng xon....
Cng nh- cc g khc, u phn vn nng chng nhng gp phn
nng cao nng sut v cht l-ng b mt chi tit gia cng m cn c tc dng m
rng tnh nng ca my phay.
Khi gia cng, u phn -c g trn bn my phay cn phi -c g
kp trn mm cp ca u phn hoc chng tm hai u v dng tc truyn
m men xon v chuyn ng quay (hnh 6-17).
b. Cu to v truyn ng ca u phn vn nng c a chia .









Hnh 6-18. Cc b phn ca u phn vn nng
v cch g chi tit ln u phn .
* Cc b phn ca u phn vn nng c a chia (hnh 6-18)
- a chia 1: a chia l mt a trn, hai mt c khoan cc hng
l ng tm, c s l khc nhau. L trn cc hng l khng thng v cch u
nhau. a lp lng khng trn trc I (hnh 6-18b). Chng hn u phn N
0
40
ca Vit Nam hoc u phn I-135 (ca Lin x c), c 16 hng l trn hai
mt, s l trong mi hng l l: 16; 17; 19; 21; 23; 29; 30; 31 mt mt; v 33;
37; 39; 41;43; 47; 49; 54 mt hai.
Nh c a chia , chng ta c th xc nh gc quay cn thit ca tay
quay 2 chnh xc.
- Tay quay 2 lp c nh trn trc I truyn chuyn ng quay cho phi
thng qua trc I, b truyn Z
1
/Z
2
- trc II, b truyn trc vt bn vt K/Z
bv
- trc
III (trc chnh u phn ).
- Cht nh v 3 c nh v tr ca tay quay 2 trn a chia 1 sau
khi phn . Khi c nh cht 3 vo mt l ca a chia th cht 3 - tay
quay 2 v a chia 1 thnh mt khi. Cht nh v 3 c th x dch h-ng
knh theo rnh ca thn tay quay 2 c th nh v ti bt k mt hng l
no trn a chia .
- Trc chnh 6 (trc III) ca u phn c th xoay trong mt phng
thng ng v pha trn mt gc 90
0
v phad-i mt gc 10
0
gia cng cc vu
trn mt u (ly hp vu) hoc cc rng ca bnh rng cn c rng thng. u
trc chnh c th lp mm cp hoc mi tm g kp chi tit gia cng.
- Cp c s 4 c th iu chnh to thnh mt gc o theo yu cu nh
du s l trn a chia khi phn , mc ch l to thun li khi phn v
trnh nhm ln.
- Thn u chia 5 cha cc b truyn trc vt bnh vt c t s truyn
bv
Z
K
(K - s u mi trc vt; Z
bv
- s rng ca bnh vt) v cc b truyn bnh
rng, th-ng c t s truyn i = 1.
- ng ( sau) phi gia cng 9 tng cng vng cho phi
gia cng.
* Truyn ng ca u phn . Trc chnh 6 (trc s III trong s ng
u phn , hnh 6.18b) c th chuyn ng quay gin on (khi phn ) bng
tay hoc quay t ng lin tc trong qu trnh phay (to rnh xon).
Mun chuyn ng phn (chuyn ng khng lin tc), gii phng
lin kt gia cht 3 v a chia 1, quay tay quay 2, trc I quay, truyn chuyn
ng qua b truyn Z
1
- Z
2
, trc II, b truyn trc vt c K - u mi - bnh
vt c Z
bv
rng lm trc chnh III mang chi tit 9 quay mt cung theo yu
cu. (hnh 6-18b).
Mun trc chnh III quay lin tc t ng, gia a chi 1 - tay quay 2 v
cht 3 lin kt thnh mt khi v truyn ng -c nhn t trc vt chuyn ng
chy dao dc ca bn my qua cc b truyn Z
a1
- Z
b1
, Z
c1
- Z
d1
ti trc IV, cp
bnh rng cn Z
3
- Z
4
, trc V, b truyn Z
5
- Z
6
lm a 1, cht 3 v tay quay 2
quay (v cng khi "cng"), trc I quay v qu trnh lp li ti trc III nh- chuyn
ng phn (hnh 6-20).
c. Tnh ton iu chnh u phn
* Tnh ton iu chnh u phn gia cng rnh thng. Gi s cn gia
cng Z rnh thng trn mt tr. Sau khi phay xong rnh th nht, mun ct rnh
tip theo phi quay phi 9 i
Z
1
vng (cng c ngha l xoay trc chnh III ca
u phn i
Z
1
vng) bng cch quay tay quay 2 mt l-ng l n
tq
vng. Truyn ng
t tay quay thng qua cc b truyn - ti trc chnh III (hnh 6 -18b). Vy c t-ng quan
chuyn ng ca -ng truyn: u xch truyn ng l n
tq
v cui xch truyn ng
l n
tc
.
Ph-ng trnh xch ng s l:

Z
1
Z
K
Z
Z
n
bv 2
1
tq
= (vng phi) (6 . 23)
T ph-ng trnh xch ng (6 - 23) rt ra s vng quay cn thit n
tq
ca tay
quay phi quay
Z
1
vng:

Z
N
Z
1
K
Z
Z
Z
n
bv
1
2
tq
= = [vng quay tay quay] (6 .24a)
Trong :
1
2
Z
Z
= 1 v N =
K
Z
bv
- gi l c tnh ca u phn v
th-ng N = 40 (cng c tr-ng hp N = 60; 80; 120). Cc loi u phn c k
hiu N
0
40, - 135 u c c tnh N = 40.
C th vit ph-ng trnh (6 - 24a) theo dng:
n
tq
= A +
b . m
a . m
(6 . 24b)
Trong : m - s nguyn, d-ng (1, 2, 3, ..., n)
A- S nguyn, khng m

b
a
- l phn s ti gin.
y c hai tr-ng hp xy ra:
Tr-ng hp mt: Tch (m.b) trng vi mt hng l c trn a chia 1.
iu c ngha l: sau khi phay xong rnh th nht mun quay phi
Z
1
vng
tip tc phay rnh th hai, ta phi quay tay quay 2 ca u phn mt l-ng:
A vng v mt cung cha (m. a) l trn hng c (m.b) l ca a chia 1. V c
tip tc nh- th cho n rnh cui cng. Ta gi tr-ng hp l phn
n gin.
V d 1: Tnh ton s vng quay tay quay ca u phn c k hiu N
0
40
gia cng rng ca bnh rng tr rng thng c 30 rnh trn my phay c k
hiu 6M82.
Gii: Theo cng thc (6 . 24a), thay cc s liu t-ng ng ta c:
n
tq
=
30
40
= 1 +
3
1

Do trn a chia d khng c hng l c 3 l, nh-ng c hng l c 21
hoc 30 l (l bi s ca 3) nn theo cng thc (6 . 24 b) chn m = 7 (hoc
10) ta -c:
n
tq
= 1 +
3 . 7
1 . 7
= 1 +
21
7

iu c ngha: sau khi phay rnh th nht, mun phi quay
30
1
vng
phay rnh tip theo ta phi quay tay quay 2 ca u phn 1 vng v 7 l
trn hng 21 l.
trnh nhm v thun li khi phn , ta iu chnh cung gia hai nhnh
ca c s 4 ng vi hng 21 l l 7 l lm c khi quay s l khng chn vng.
Tr-ng hp th hai: Khng th c mt gi tr m tch (m . b) trng vi
mt hng l c trn a chia 1, tc khng th phn n gin -c. phn
, chng ta tin hnh nh- sau: chn mt gi tr Z gn bng vi gia tr Z cho,
k hiu Z
td
c th phn n gin -c, ta tnh s vng quay tay quay ng

vi Z
t
k hiu l n
tq1
v nh- vy l sau khi gia cng xong khng phi -c Z rnh
m nhn -c Z
t
rnh (ngha l b sai s) - Tm cch khc phc sai s . C th
nh- sau:
B-c mt: chn Z
td
~ Z v tnh s vng quay tay quay n
tq1
chia phi
thnh Z
td
phn bng nhau theo cng thc (6 . 24a)
n
tq1
=
td
Z
N
= A
0
+
0
0
b . m
a . m
[vng quay tay quay] (6 . 24c)
Trong (m.b
0
) trng vi mt hng l c trn a chia 1.
Do chn Z
td
= Z nn mi ln phn , vng quay ca tay quay s quay
tng ln hoc gim i (tu thuc chn Z
td
nh hn hay ln hn Z) mt l-ng k
hiu l n
tq2
v n
tq2
-c tnh nh- sau:
n
tq2
= n
tq
- n
tq1
=
td
Z
N
Z
N
= N
|
|
.
|

\
|

td
Z
1
Z
1
[vng ca tay quay] (6.25)
V dn n phi cng s quay tng ln hoc gim i mt l-ng l A
-c tnh theo cng thc:
A =
|
|
.
|

\
|

td
Z
1
Z
1
[vng ca phi]
B-c 2: kh sai s. Mun kh sai s A, phi tng s vng quay tay quay 2
(nu Z
td
> Z) hoc gim s vng quay tay quay 2 (nu Z
td
< Z) mt l-ng n
tq2

theo cng thc (6 . 25). Khi , cht 3 c th c nh -c vo mt l ca
hng (m . b
0
) l theo cng thc (6.24 c), trong khi ang phn , a chia 1
cng phi quay mt l-ng n
tq2
t-ng ng. Mun vy phi lp thm b bnh rng
thay th c s rng Za, Zb, Zc, Zd nh- hnh 6-19. L-ng dch chuyn n
tq2
ph
thuc vo t s truyn
d
c a
tt
Z
Z
Z
Z
i .
b
=
.
Tnh t s truyn i
tt
v s rng ca cc bnh rng thay th b sai s A
ca phi.


Hnh 6-19. S ng u phn khii phn vi sai
Theo nh- s ng hnh 6-19, t-ng quan chuyn ng gia phi (hoc
trc III) v a chia 1 l: khi phi quay 1/Z vng phi, a chia phi quay
-c n
tq2
vng. Ph-ng trnh xch ng ca quan h trn:

6
5
4
3
d
c a
Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
1

b
= n
tq2
= N
|
|
.
|

\
|

td
Z
1
Z
1
(6 . 26)
Th-ng t s truyn cc cp bnh rng c nh
6
5
4
3
cd
Z
Z
Z
Z
i = = = 1, t
ph-ng trnh xch ng (6 . 26) rt ra:

d
c a
tt
Z
Z
Z
Z
i .
b
=
= N
|
|
.
|

\
|
td
td
Z
Z Z
(6 . 27)
Ph-ng php phn nh- trn gi l phn vi sai. Sau khi tnh i
tt

theo (6 - 27), tnh s rng cc bnh rng thay th nh- tnh cho tin. Khi phn
vi sai, tay quay 2 thc quay mt l-ng
n
tq
= n
tq1
+ n
tq2
??
n
tq1
- tnh theo (6 . 24c)
n
tq2
- tnh theo (6 . 25)
V d 2: Tnh ton iu chnh u phn vn nng c a chia kiu
N
0
40 gia cng rng ca bnh rng tr rng thng c s rng Z = 69 rng trn
my phay c k hiu 6M82.
Gii: B-c 1: Tnh s vng quay ca tay quay chia b mt tr thnh 69
phn bng nhau.
ng vi Z = 69 khng phn n gin -c nn ta dng phn vi sai.
Chn Z
td
= 70
Theo cng thc (6 - 24c), thay cc gi tr t-ng ng ta c:
n
tq1
=
49
28
7 7
4 7
7
4
70
40
Z
N
td
=

= = = vng
Nh- vy, sau khi phay mt rnh, phay rnh tip theo, phi quay tay
quay 2 mt cung ng vi 28 l trn hng 49 l v khi phi quay -c
70
1

vng.
B-c 2: Tnh b tr sai s (tnh xch vi sai)
Thay cc gi tr t-ng ng vo cng thc (6 . 27) ta c:
i
tt
= 40
7
4
70
40
70
69 70
= =
|
.
|

\
|


Phn tch i
tt
thnh s rng cc bnh rng thay th Z
a
, Z
b
, Z
c
, Z
d
(tin hnh
nh- 3.8.3
b
)
Chn:
70
20
20
40
1 20
1 20
10 7
10 4
=

=
d
c a
Z
Z
Z
Z
b

Vi Z
a
= 40, Z
b
= 20, Z
c
= 20, Z
d
= 70 tho mn iu kin khng chm
trc, thc vy:
Z
a
+ Z
b
= 40 + 20 = 60 > Z
c
+ 20 = 20 + 20 = 40
Z
c
+ Z
d
= 20 + 70 = 90 > Z
b
+ 20 = 20 + 20 = 40
Vy: gia cng bnh rng c s rng Z = 69 rng trn my phay vn
nng c u phn kiu N
0
40, phi lp thm cc bnh rng thay th c s rng
nh- tnh vo u phn theo s hnh 6-13 v sau khi phay mt rnh,
phay rnh tip theo ta phi quay tay quay 2 mt cung ng vi 28 l trn hng 49
l ca a chia 1.
* Tnh ton iu chnh u phn gia cng rnh xon trn mt tr.
chia b mt thnh Z phn bng nhau, tin hnh phn nh- i vi
phay rnh thng trnh by trn.



Hnh 6-20. S ng phay rnh xon.
Mun to rnh xon trong qu trnh ct phi phi va quay va tnh tin
theo -ng tm ca n. t -c iu ta phi lp thm b bnh rng c s
rng: Z
a1
, Z
b1
, Z
c1
v Z
d1
vo u phn nh- s ng hnh 6-20. Tnh t s
truyn ca cc bnh rng Z
a1
, Z
b1
, Z
c1
v Z
d1
bo m quan h: khi trc chnh
III mang phi 9 quay 1 vng th bn my mang phi tnh tin mt l-ng bng
b-c xon P
c
cn gia cng. Ph-ng trnh xch ng ca quan h trn nh- sau:
1 vng phi
C V
a
b
c
d bv
P P
Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
K
Z
=
1
1
1
1
3
4
5
6
1
2

Chuyn v v vit gn li ta c:
i
tt
=
C
V
d
c
b
a
P
P
N
Z
Z
Z
Z
=
1
1
1
(6.27)
Trong :
- N c tnh u phn
- P
V
b-c xon vt me dc ca my phay, mm
- P
C
b-c xon cn gia cng
Sau khi tnh -c i
tt
theo cng thc (6 . 27), tin hnh phn tch i
tt

chn bnh rng c s rng Z
a1
, Z
b1
, Z
c1
, Z
d1
. Ph-ng php tnh nh- vi tin. Khi
phay rnh xon c th phay trn my phay ng vn nng bng dao phay ngn
hoc phay trn my phay nm vn nng bng dao phay a. Khi phay bng dao
phay a trn my phay nm, vc t tc ct trng vi ph-ng ca rnh xon
ta phi xoay bn my trong mt phng nm ngang mt gc | so vi ph-ng
chuyn ng chy dao ban u. Khi trc dao nm trong mt phng vung gc
vi -ng xon ca rnh cn gia cng (hnh 6-21a). Gc xoay bn my bng gc
xon ca rnh (| = e). Nu ch-a bit gc xon ca rnh c th tnh gc | nh-
sau. Theo hnh 6-21b c:
tg | =
c
P
D t
(6 . 28)



Hnh 6 - 21. S xoay bn my
Trong :
- D -ng knh t-ng ng ca rnh, mm
- P
C
b-c xon cn gia cng
Khi phay bng dao phay ngn trn my phay ng khng cn phi xoay
bn my.
V d 3: Tnh ton iu chnh phay 3 rnh xon c gc xon e = 45
0

trn my phay vn nng nm ngang kiu 6M82 c u phn kiu N
0
40. Bit
-ng knh phn rnh xon ca chi tit gia cng d = 45 mm, b-c vt me chy
dao dc ca bn my phay P
v
= 6 mm.
Gii: Tnh s vng quay tay quay gia cng 3 rnh xon trn mt tr.
Thay s vo cng thc (6 - 24a) c:
n
tq
=
3
40
= 13 +
3
1
= 13 +
21
7

Vy sau khi gia cng xong mt rnh, mun phi quay
3
1
vng gia cng
rnh tip theo, tay quay ca u phn phi quay 13 vng v 7 l trn hng 21
l ca a chia .
Tnh bnh rng thay th to rnh xon c b-c xon theo yu cu. Theo
yu cu cho, b-c xon ca rnh xon cn phay s l: thay s liu vo cng
thc (6 - 28) c:
P
c
=
0
45
45
tg
t
= 157 [mm]
Tnh t s truyn ca cc bnh rng thay th: thay cc s liu t-ng ng
vo cng thc (6 - 27) ta c:
i
tt
= 40 .
157
6

phn tch i
tt
thnh cc bnh rng c s rng Z
a1
, Z
b1
, Z
c1
, Z
d1

i
tt
=
157
60
20
80
20 1
20 3
157
2 40
1
1
1
1
=

=
d
c
b
a
Z
Z
Z
Z

Cc bnh rng c s rng Z
a1
= 80; Z
b1
= 20
;
Z
c1
= 60 v Z
d1
= 157 tho
mn iu kin khng chm trc.
V gia cng trn my phay vn nng nm ngang kiu 6M82 nn phi phay
bng dao phay a. Gc xoay bn my: | = e = 45
0
.




















Ch-ng 7
Gia cng trn my mi
7.1. Cng dng, kh nng, c im ca mi
Mi l mt ph-ng php gia cng cc chi tit my bng mt loi dng c
c bit gi l dng c mi. Cc phn t ct ca dng c mi l cc ht mi, mi
ht mi t-ng -ng vi mt rng dao (hnh 7-1).

Hnh 7-1. S ct ca cc ht mi
7.1.1. Cng dng ca mi
Mi l ph-ng php gia cng -c dng rt ph bin gia cng tinh, c
bit i vi nhng chi tit -c ch to bng thp ti hoc hp kim cng.
Bng ph-ng php mi c th gia cng cc b mt tr trong, tr ngoi, cn
trong, cn ngoi, mt phng, cc b mt nh hnh, b mt ren, b mt rng.
Mi cn -c p dng mi sc cc dng c ct.
7.1.2. Kh nng ca mi
Gia cng tinh bng ph-ng php mi c th t cp chnh xc IT7IT6,
nhm b mt c th t cp 711.
7.1.3. c im ca mi
Dng c ct khi mi c nhiu ht mi, mi ht mi trn b mt lm vic ca
dng c t-ng -ng vi mt rng dao. Cc ht mi -c sp xp khng theo quy
lut cho nn gc ct ca chng th-ng khng hp l nn gy nh h-ng khng
tt ti qu trnh ct.
Tc ct ca cc ht mi rt cao, c th t ti V= (3050) m/s. Do tc
ct ln v c nhiu ht mi tham gia ct ng thi nn mi c nng sut cao.
Do tc ct cao cho nn nhit ti vng ct rt cao, t=(10001500)
0
C. Nhit
ti vng ct cao lm cho cc ht kim loi b t chy to nn chm tia la h-ng v
pha vc t tc ct.
Trong qu trnh ct, cc ht mi tc dng ln b mt gia cng vi mt p lc
ln gy bin dng do lp b mt nn to nn lp trai cng v ng sut d- trn b
mt sau gia cng.
Dng c mi c kh nng t mi sc trong qu trnh gia cng.
7.2. Dng c mi
Dng c ct khi mi l mi, u mi, thanh mi, thi mi... . Cc dng c
ny -c ch to bng cc ht mi -c lin kt vi nhau bng cht dnh kt.
Dng c mi dng ph bin nht l mi. Dng c mi -c c tr-ng bi
nhng thng s kt cu -c trnh by mc d-i y.
7.2.1. Cc yu t kt cu ca dng c mi
a. Vt liu ht mi.
Ht mi trc tip tham gia vo qu trnh ct nn chng phi m bo
cng cao, c kh nng chu nhit cao, c bn cao chu -c lc n v
ln. Ht mi dng ch to mi -c phn ra ht mi thin nhin v ht mi
nhn to.
Ht mi thin nhin -c dng ch yu l cc loi sau:
Kim c-ng c cng cao nht so vi mi vt liu khc.
Corun l vt liu cha (8090)% Al
2
O
3
.
Cacborodun l vt liu cha (2060)% Al
2
O
3
.
Thch anh l vt liu cha SiO
2
.
Kim c-ng thin nhin dng ch to cc mi dng sa cc mi
khc. Cacboradun v thch anh dng ch to cc thanh mi cm tay v giy
rp hoc vi rp.
Ht mi nhn to dng ch to dng c mi bao gm nhng loi ch
yu sau:
Kim c-ng nhn to l loi vt liu -c ch to t grafit trong l chuyn
dng c p sut v nhit cao (p =9810 MH/m
2
, t=23002500
0
C). Thnh phn
ho hc ca kim c-ng nhn to gn ging nh- kim c-ng thin nhin (99,7%
cc bon v 0,3% tp cht).
C ranh ng in l nhng ht tinh th Al
2
O
3
-c ch to t qung bc xt
trong l in. C hai loi c ranh ng in: c ranh ng in nu v c ranh
ng in trng. C ranh ng in nu -c k hiu l C
n
( Nga k hiu l ).
y l vt liu cha (9295)% Al
2
O
3
. Loi ny -c Nga sn xut ra theo cc k
hiu: 2, 2K, 3, 4, 5. C ranh ng in trng -c k hiu l C
t
( Nga k
hiu l ). y l vt liu cha (9699)%Al
2
O
3
, c kh nng ct cao hn c
ranh ng in nu. Loi ny -c Nga sn xut ra theo cc k hiu: , 6, 7,
8, 9, 9A.
Ccbt silic SiC -c ch to bng cch thiu kt than vi thch anh
trong l in. C hai loi cc bt silic: cc bt silic xanh v cc bt silic en. Cc
bt silic en -c k hiu l S

( Nga k hiu l ), cha (9598)% SiC. Cc


bt silic xanh -c k hiu l S
x
( Nga k hiu l ), cha (9699)% SiC. Cc
bt silic xanh dng mi sc cc dng c ct bng hp kim cng, cc bt silic
en dng ch to cc dng c mi mi cc chi tit bng gang xm, hp
kim ng, hp kim nhm.
Cc bt Bo B
4
C cha ti 94% tinh th cc bt Bo. Vt liu ny dng ch yu
ch to bt mi dng nghin cc chi tit my v nghin cc b mt lm vic
ca dng c ct.
b. ht.
ht ca ht mi l i l-ng c tr-ng cho kch th-c ht mi. Tiu
chun nh n-c Vit nam TCVN10- 64 qui nh cc nhm c ht mi nh- cho
trong bng 7-1.
Bng 7-1
ht ca ht mi.

K hiu
Kch th-c ht,
m
K hiu
Kch th-c ht,
m
8
10080
Ht mi
6
8063
200
25002000
5
6350
160
20001600
4
5040
125
16001250
3 40
100
12501000
80
1000800
Bt mi mn
63
800630
M40
4028
50
630500
M28
2820
40
500400
M20
2014
32
400320
M14
1410
25
320250
M10
107
20
250200
M7
75
16
200160
M5
53
M3
31
Bt mi

12
160125

10
125100


Kch th-c ht mi ca cc nhm c ht mi -c la chn bng cch sng cc
ht mi qua nhng ry kim loi c kch th-c l mt ry khc nhau, v d: ht 50
bao gm nhng ht mi lt qua ry c kch th-c l mt ry ln hn 0,50 mm.
C th chn ht ca ht mi theo cc ch dn sau:
Ht mi c s hiu 12580 dng cho cc nguyn cng mi ph : mi lm
sch phi, vt c, vt rn, vt cn, cc chi tit rn dp.
Ht mi c s hiu 8025 dng cho cc nguyn cng mi phng bng mt
u ca , mi sc cc dao tin, sa cc , mi ct t.
Ht mi c s hiu 4016 dng cho cc nguyn cng mi th v mi tinh
cc chi tit my v mi sc dng c ct.
Ht mi c s hiu 2512 dng cho cc nguyn cng mi tinh, mi cc b
mt nh hnh, mi sc cc dng c c kch th-c nh, mi cc chi tit bng vt
liu gm.
Ht mi c s hiu 126 dng cho cc nguyn cng mi r, c dng c ct,
mi khn th, mi sc cc l-i ct phc tp.
Ht mi c s hiu 64 dng mi r cc chi tit bng kim loi v thy
tinh, mi ren, mi khn tinh.
Ht mi c s hiu M40 v nh hn dng cho cc nguyn cng mi khn
ln cui, mi siu tinh, mi r cc l-i ct phc tp, mi cc b mt ca calip o,
mi cc b mt ren c b-c nh.
c. Cht dnh kt
Cc ht mi -c lin kt vi nhau thnh mt khi thng nht khi ch to
dng c mi bng cht dnh kt. Bi vy, cht dnh kt quyt nh kh nng
chu va p, kh nng chu mi mn, bn ho hc v tc quay cho php
ca . C th dng cht dnh kt v c v cht dnh kt hu c ch to cc
dng c mi.



Bng 7-2
Mt s cht dnh kt th-ng gp

Tn gi v k
hiu
Thnh phn c bn Phm vi s dng
Silicat C
Thu tinh ho tan,cht
n (oxit km,phn, t
xt )
Mi phng thp ti, mi sc
dng c c l-i ct mnh, mi
mt u cc bi a ca ln.
Gliptan
Nha tng hp t
glyxrin v anhydrit
ftalat
Mi ln cui cc chi tit bng
thp ti.
Hu c O
Cht n:bt mi, bt
kim loi, nha hu c.
Mi tinh hp kim cng, thp
ti, mi siu tinh, mi sc dng
c ct.
Kim loi M
ng, thic, nhm, bt
mi
Mi hp kim cng, Kramic,
thu tinh quang hc, pherit, cc
loi qu, b tng, gang, cc
lp bc nhm, hp kim nhm.

Cht dnh kt v c -c dng ph bin nht l ceramic (gm) -c k hiu
bng ch G (Nga k hiu bng ch K ). Cht dnh kt ny -c ch to t t st
chu la v thy tinh lng. mi ch tao bng cht dnh kt loi ny c -u im
l c bn cao, chu nhit tt, c bn ho hc cao, khng s m, gi -c
hnh dng. Tuy nhin, cht dnh kt ceramic c nh-c im l dn.
Cht dnh kt hu c -c dng ph bin nht l Baklit v Vunganhit.
Cht dnh kt Baklit cn -c gi l nha cy nhn to -c k hiu bng
ch B (Nga k hiu bng ch ). Cht dnh kt ny -c ch to t axit ccbolit
v fomalin. mi ch to bng cht dnh kt Baklit c -u im l c bn
cao, co dn tt, chu -c tc ct cao. Tuy nhin, cht dnh kt loi ny c
nh-c im l bn nhit km (n bt u suy gim bn nhit
t=(180200)
0
C), b ph hu trong mi tr-ng kim 1,5%. mi ch to bng
cht dnh kt Baklit -c dng mi phng bng mt u ca , mi ct t,
mi rnh, mi sc dng c, mi khn, mi ren v mi khng tm.
Cht dnh kt Vunganit -c k hiu bng ch V (Nga k hiu bng ch B).
Cht dnh kt ny bao gm 70% cao su v 30% l-u hunh. mi ch to bng
cht dnh kt Vunganit c -u im l c bn cao, co dn tt, tc ct ti a
cho php l V=75 m/s. Nh-c im ca cht dnh kt loi ny l bn nhit
km (n bt u suy gim bn nhit t=(150200)
0
C). mi ch to
bng cht dnh kt Vunganit dng mi tinh ln cui, mi nh hnh, mi ct
t, mi cc rnh v dng lm dn trong mi trn khng tm.
Ngoi nhng cht dnh kt nu trn, trong thc t sn xut cn dng mt
s loi cht dnh kt khc. Tn gi v phm vi s dng cc loi cht dnh kt ny
cho trong bng 7-2.
d. T chc ca dng c mi
T l t-ng quan gia th tch m cc ht mi v cht dnh kt chim gi
vi th tch ca cc l hng -c gi l t chc ca dng c mi. T chc dng
c mi l ch tiu nh gi xp ca dng c mi. C ba nhm t chc ca
dng c mi bao gm 13 cp -c k hiu bng nhng ch s t 0 n 12 theo
th t xp tng dn.
Bng 7-3
T chc ca cc dng c mi

T chc S hiu t chc
Hm l-ng cc ht mi
theo th tch %
Xt cht 0, 1, 2, 3 62, 60, 58, 56
Trung bnh 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 54, 52, 50, 48, 46
Xp lng 9, 10, 11, 12 44, 42, 40, 38

mi c s hiu t chc 4 v 5 dng mi trn ngoi, s hiu t chc 6
dng mi trn trong, s hiu t chc 7 v 8 dng mi phng, s hiu t 9 ti
12 dng mi ct t v mi cc rnh. S hiu t chc v hm l-ng cc ht
mi trong tng cp -c cho trong bng 7-3.
e. cng ca dng c mi
cng ca dng c mi l ch tiu nh gi kh nng chng li s vng ra
khi dng c mi ca cc ht mi d-i tc dng ca ngoi lc (lc ct). Dng c
mi -c ch to theo cc thang cng cho trong bng 7-4. Cc ht mi mn
dn trong qu trnh ct lm cho lc ct tng ln. Lc ct tng ti mt mc no
th cc ht mi cn b y vng ra khi dng c mi. Khi cc ht mi cn
vng ra u trn ton b b mt lm vic ca dng c mi th cc ht mi mi sc
s thay th cc ht mi cn vng ra. Hin t-ng ny gi l kh nng t mi sc
ca dng c mi. Nu cng ca dng c mi qu ln th lc ct khng y
-c cc ht mi cn ra khi v tr ct. Khi trn b mt lm vic ca dng
c mi xut hin hin t-ng kt bn lm gim cht l-ng b mt gia cng
(chy b mt v lm tng nhm b mt). Tuy nhin, cng khng nn chn dng
c mi c cng qu thp v s nhanh mn v phi chi ph nhiu thi gian
sa .
Bng 7-4
Thang cng ca dng c mi

K hiu thang cng
cng
Vit nam Nga
Mm M
1
, M
2
, M
3
M
1
, M
2
, M
3
Mm va MV
1
, MV
2
CM
1
, CM
2
Trung bnh V
1
, V
2
C
1
, C
2
Cng va CV
1
, CV
2
CT
1
, CT
2

Cng C
1
, C
2
T
1
, T
2

Rt cng - BT
1
, BT
2

Cng c bit
-
T
1
, T
2
Khi chn cng ca dng c mi cn ch nguyn tc sau: khi mi vt
liu c cng cng cao th chn cng mm, tuy nhin khi mi cc vt liu
qu mm (kim loi mu) th cng chn mm v phoi ca kim loi mu d bt
vo cc l hng ca mi lm cho mt kh nng ct. Khi mi cc b mt
nh hnh nn dng cng gi -c bin dng lm vic ca .
f. Hnh dng, kch th-c ca dng c mi
Dng c mi -c phn ra : mi, thi mi, cc mnh ghp. Kiu, tn gi,
cc kch th-c c bn v phm vi s dng ca tng kiu trong cc loi dng c
mi -c cho trong cc s tay cng ngh ch ta my.
7.2.3. K hiu dng c mi
Sau khi ch to xong, ng-i ta ghi cc k hiu cn thit trn b mt khng
lm vic ca dng c mi. K hiu dng c mi bao gm cc yu t: nh my sn
xut ra dng c mi, vt liu ht mi, ht ca ht mi, cng ca ca dng
c mi, cht dnh kt, i khi c thm s hiu t chc v hnh dng ca dng c
mi , tip n l kch th-c ca dng c v sau cng l tc vng cho php ln
nht. V du.:
MHD-C
t
-40V
1
.G.405x60x127x30 l k hiu mi do nh my mi
Hi d-ng ch to c vt liu ht mi l c ranh ng in trng ( C
t
), ht 40,
cng va ( V
1
) cht dnh kt l gm (G ), -ng knh ngoi ca l 405 mm,
chiu dy ca l 60 mm, -ng knh l l 127 mm, tc vng cho php l
30m/s.
40 35 300x50x65x35 m/cek l mi do nh my ch to
mi Trelebin (Nga) sn xut c vt liu ht mi l c ranh ng in trng, ht
40, cng va (CT3), t chc c s hiu 5, mi phng (-
), -ng knh ngoi ca l 300 mm, chiu dy ca l 50 mm, -ng
knh l 65 mm, tc vng cho php l 35 m/s.
7.2.4. Lp mi v sa mi
mi lm vic vi tc ct rt ln cho nn tr-c khi xut x-ng phi -c
cn bng ng. phng c th b v trong qu trnh lm vic gy tai nn ng
tic th tr-c khi lp mi ln my phi kim tra bn ca n trn b th chuyn
dng. Phi kim tra bn ca vi tc vng ln hn tc cng tc (5060)%
trong thi gian (510) pht.
Khi lp mi ln my phi m bo sao cho mi c th di chuyn nh
nhng trn trc g. Mun vy, -ng knh l ca phi ln hn -ng knh ca trc
g mt l-ng (0,20,8) mm. Phi lt tm m bng cao su hoc cc tng dy
(0,53) mm vo hai mt bn ca tr-c khi xit cht.
mi s mn dn trong qu trnh mi. Tc mn ph thuc vo vt
liu gia cng, tnh cht ca mi (vt liu v ht ca ht mi, cng ca
mi) v cc yu t ch ct. mi b mn v mt kh nng ct l do mn cc
ht mi, do bi kim loi in y vo cc l hng gia cc ht mi. mi
th-ng khng mn u trn ton b b mt cng tc cho nn lm gim s l-ng
ht mi tham gia ct ng thi. Thng th-ng tui bn trung bnh ca cc khi
mi trn ngoi l T= 15 pht. Khi mt kh nng ct nu khng sa kp thi s
lm tng nhm b mt gia cng, gim chnh xc gia cng, lm chy b mt gia
cng, lm gim nng sut ct v tng ting n. Bi vy phi nh k sa mt
cch hp l.
Mc ch ca cng vic sa l tch nhng ht mi cn ra khi
cc ht mi mi chim lnh v tr ct v to cho mi c mt hnh dng hnh hc
hp l ng thi sa cn gp phn lm cn bng . Sa c th -c thc
hin bng mi c cc ht mi l cc bt silic vi cht dnh kt l ceramic, cc
dao sa mi c hnh dng v kch th-c khc nhau, bt kim c-ng... . Dng
bt kim c-ng sa (hnh 7-2a) m bo cht l-ng tt, th-ng bt kim
c-ng dng sa cc mi mi cc b mt nh hnh phc tp.




Hnh 7-2. S sa mi

7.3. Cc ph-ng php mi
7.3.1. Mi trn ngoi
mi cc b mt tr ngoi c th dng mt trong cc s mi trn ngoi
th hin trn hnh 7-3
a. Mi chy dao dc
S mi chy dao dc -c th hin trn hnh 7-3a. Chuyn ng chnh
trong s mi l chuyn ng quay trn ca mi V

. Chi tit gia cng nhn


chuyn ng quay trn V
ct
v cng bn my nhn chuyn ng tnh tin qua li
dc theo -ng tm to nn chuyn ng chy dao S
d
. mi nhn chuyn ng
chy dao h-ng knh S
hk
ti thi im cui mi hnh trnh ca bn my tip
tc ct mt lp kim loi tip theo. Qu trnh ct c tip tc nh- vy cho ti khi b
mt gia cng t kch th-c yu cu.
S mi chy dao dc dng mi cc chi tit di khi yu cu chnh
xc v cht l-ng b mt cao.
b. Mi su
S mi su -c th hin trn hnh 7-3b. Cng nh- s mi chy dao
dc, chuyn ng chnh trong s ny l chuyn ng quay trn ca mi,
chuyn ng chy dao l chuyn ng quay trn ca chi tit gia cng v chuyn
ng tnh tin ca bn my mang chi tit gia cng. Tuy nhin s mi su,
ton b l-ng d- ct -c ct ht ch trong mt -ng chuyn dao cho nn khng
cn chuyn ng chy dao h-ng knh.
mi dng cho s mi su -c to phn cn c chiu di (812) mm
pha tr-c to iu kin thun li cho ct ton b l-ng d- ct trong mt ln
ct. Phn cn pha tr-c ca mi ct hu ht ton b lp kim loi trong qu
trnh mi cn phn tr ca ch yu lm nhim v s- ng v lm gim
nhm b mt gia cng.

Hnh 7-3. Cc s mi trn ngoi
S mi su c nng sut cao v qu trnh ct -c thc hin ch trong mt
ln n dao. Tuy nhin, do lc ct ln nn s ny ch p dng gia cng
nhng chi tit cng vng khi yu cu cht l-ng b mt khng cao.
c. S mi ct
S mi ct -c th hin trn hnh 7-3c. Chuyn ng chnh l chuyn
ng quay trn ca mi, chuyn ng chy dao l chuyn ng quay trn ca
chi tit gia cng v chuyn ng tnh tin h-ng tm chi tit ca mi. Chuyn
ng chy dao h-ng knh S
hk
ca mi -c thc hin mt cch lin tc cho
ti khi b mt gia cng t kch th-c yu cu. mi trong s mi ny phi
c chiu rng ln hn chiu di ca b mt gia cng.
S mi ct -c s dng mi cc chi tit c chiu di b mt cn mi
nh, cc b mt ca c trc, mi cc b mt nh hnh, cc rnh trn trc.
mi ng thi c mt tr ngoi v mt u ca vai trc ng-i ta sa v nh
nghing mi i mt gc nht nh nh- hnh 7-3d. B mt tr ngoi -c mi bng
b mt cn ca theo s mi t-ng t nh- s trnh by trn hnh 7-3a. Mt
u ca vai trc -c mi kt thc bng ph-ng php cho chy dao bng tay.






7.3.2. S mi cn
Cc b mt cn c th -c mi bng mt trong nhng s nu trn
hnh 7-4.

Hnh 7-4. S mi cn ngoi
Ph-ng php nh lch bn my (hnh 7-4a) dng mi nhng b mt cn
ngoi c chiu di ln. Chi tit gia cng -c chng tm hai u nhn chuyn
ng quay trn. Phn trn ca bn my -c nh lch i mt gc o sao cho
-ng sinh ca b mt cn cn gia cng song song vi ph-ng chuyn ng chy
dao dc ca bn my. Cc chuyn ng chy dao dc v chy dao ngang -c
thc hin t-ng t nh- s mi b mt tr ngoi.
Ph-ng php nh lch tr-c (hnh 7-4b) -c dng mi cc b mt
cn c chiu di khng ln. Chi tit gia cng -c kp cht trn mm cp ba chu
hoc mm cp bn chu lp trn tr-c ca bn my. nh lch tr-c i mt
gc o sao cho -ng sinh ca b mt cn cn gia cng song song vi ph-ng
chuyn ng chy dao dc ca bn my. Cc chuyn ng chy dao dc v chy
dao ngang -c thc hin t-ng t nh- s mi b mt tr ngoi.
7.3.3. Mi trn trong
Mi trn trong dng gia cng tinh cc l gia cng ct gt v qua
nhit luyn. C th mi cc l thng v khng thng, cc l tr, l cn v cc l
nh hnh. -ng knh ca mi khi mi trn trong ly bng (0,70,9) -ng
knh l gia cng. Mi trn trong c th -c thc hin bng mt trong cc s
th hin trn hnh 7-5.

Hnh 7-5. Cc s mi trn trong
a. S mi phi v cng quay
Chi tit gia cng khi mi trn trong theo s trn hnh 7-5a -c kp ln
mm cp ba chu hoc mm cp bn chu nhn chuyn ng quay trn quanh
-ng tm ca l cn gia cng. mi nhn chuyn ng quay trn to tc
ct V. Ngoi cc chuyn ng trn, cn c chuyn ng chy dao dc S
d
tnh tin
qua li dc theo -ng tm l gia cng mi ht ton b chiu di l, chuyn
ng chy dao ngang S
ng
-c thc hin sau mi hnh trnh dc ca c
th tip tc ct i mt lp kim loi tip theo. Qu trnh ct c tip tc nh- vy n
khi l gia cng t kch th-c yu cu.
b. S mi hnh tinh
Mi l theo s mi hnh tinh -c th hin trn hnh 7-5b. Chi tit gia
cng trong s mi ny khng quay trong qu trnh gia cng. mi va nhn
chuyn ng quay trn quanh -ng tm ca to tc ct V

va nhn
chuyn ng quay trn quanh -ng tm l gia cng to chuyn ng chy
dao vng V
ph
. Cc chuyn ng chy dao dc S
d
v chuyn ng chy dao ngang
cng sy ra t-ng t nh- s mi phi v cng quay.
S mi hnh tinh dng mi l trn cc chi tit c trng l-ng ln v
mi cc l c tm nm cch xa trng tm ca chi tit gia cng.
mi cc l cn, cn nh lch chi tit gia cng mt gc nht nh sao
cho -ng sinh ca n song song vi ph-ng chuyn ng chy dao dc.
7.3.4. Mi phng
Cc s mi mt phng -c th hin trn hnh 7-6.
a. Mi bng mt chu vi ca
S mi mt phng bng mt chu vi ca khi gia cng trn my c bn
ch nht -c th hin trn hnh 7-6a. Chi tit gia cng -c kp cht trn bn
my nhn chuyn ng chy dao dc tnh tin qua li. mi nhn chuyn ng
chnh quay trn V v chuyn ng chy dao nh k cui mi hnh trnh ca
bn my theo ph-ng thng ng S

. Nu chiu rng ca b mt gia cng ln hn


chiu rng ca th mi cn nhn chuyn ng chy dao nh k theo
ph-ng ngang S
n
.

Hnh 7-6. Cc s mi phng
Mi mt phng bng mt chu vi ca trn my mi c bn quay -c thc
hin theo s hnh 7-6c. Chi tit gia cng (hoc mt s chi tit gia cng 2) -c
kp cht trn bn my 1 nhn chuyn ng quay trn cng bn my. mi nhn
chuyn ng quay trn V v chuyn ng chy dao dc tnh tin qua li S
d
. Cui
mi hnh trnh kp ca chuyn ng tnh tin qua li, mi nhn chuyn ng
chy dao khng lin tc theo ph-ng ng S

.
Ngoi ra s mi phng bng chu vi trn my c bn ch nht cn
-c dng mi cc rnh thng c mt ct ngang khc nhau.
b. Mi bng mt u ca
Mt phng trn nhng chi tit c cng vng tt c th -c gia cng
bng mt u ca . S mi mt phng bng mt u ca trn my c bn
ch nht -c th hin trn hnh 7-6b. Chi tit gia cng -c kp cht trn bn
my nhn chuyn ng chy dao dc tnh tin qui li S
d
cng bn my. mi
nhn chuyn ng quay trn to tc ct V v chuyn ng chy dao theo
pj-ng ng S

sau mi hnh trnh ca bn my mang chi tit gia cng. Cc


chuyn ng cn thit khi mi mt phng bng mt u ca khi gia cng trn
my mi c bn quay -c th hin trn hnh 7-6d.
Mi phog bng mt u ca c nng sut cao in v trong qu trnh ct
s l-ng ht mi tham gia ct ln hn, tuy nhin do s l-ng ht mi tham gia ct
ng thi ln nn lc ct ln bi vy s ny ch dng mi nhng chi tit
cng vng$v dng mi mt phng c yu cu chnh xc v cht l-ng b
mt khng cao.
7.3.5. Mi khng tm
Hnh 7-7. S mi khng tm
c im ca mi khng tm l chi tit gia cng khng -c nh tm v
kp cht trong qu trnh mi m nm trng thi t do. S mi khng tm
-c th hin trn hnh 7-7.
Chi tit gia cng 3 -c t trn gi 2 nm gia mi 1 v dn 4.
mi v dn quay cng chiu song vi tc quay khc nhau. Th-ng mi
quay vi tc V
m
=(30 40) m/s, dn quay vi tc V
.d
=(10 80) m/pht.
Gi 2 lun c xu h-ng y chi tit gia cng 3 tip xc vi dn 4 dn
dn ng chuyn ng quay trn cho chi tit. to nn chuyn ng chy dao
dc, -ng tm dn -c nh nghing so vi -ng tm quay ca chi tit
mt gc u (th-ng gc ny ly trong phm vi 1
0
7
0
). Vc t tc ca dn c
th phn tch thnh hai thnh phn. Thnh phn S
v
to chuyn ng quay trn cho
chi tit gia cng, thnh phn tc dng dc theo -ng tm chi tit to nn chuyn
ng chy dao dc S
d
. Nh c S
d
m chi tit trong qu trnh gia cng va tr-t
trn gi va chuyn ng tnh tin dc trc mi ht ton b chiu di ca
b mt gia cng. Tc chuyn ng chy dao dc ph thuc vo tr s gc u.
Gc u cng ln th tc chuyn ng chy dao dc cng ln.
Cc trc ngn, cc g trc v cc b mt nh hnh trn xoay -c mi khng
tm theo ph-ng php mi ct bng mi c chiu rng ln hn chiu di ca b
mt gia cng. S mi khng tm theo ph-ng php ny (hnh 7-7b) khng c
chuyn ng chy dao dc m c thm chuyn ng chy dao ngang S
n
. dn 4
tr-c khi mi -c y sang phi, chi tit gia cng 3 -c t mn gi 2 lun
c xu l-ng p st dn. dn trong s mi ny khng nh lch tm so
vi -ng tm quay ca chi tit. Trong qu trnh mi, mi v dn vn quay
cng chiu nh- s mi khng tm c chy dao dc, tuy nhin c thm chuyn
ng!chy dao ngang. Chuyn ng chy dao ngang -c duy tr mt cch lin
tc cho ti khi t -c kch th-c mong mun ca b mt gia cng. C cu y
ca my s y chi tit gia cng ra khi vng ct sau khi kt thc qu trnh gia
cng.
Mi khng tm c -u im l khng lm chi tit b cong vnh, khng phi
to l tm trn chi tit gia cng bi vy s ny -c p dng mi nhng chi
tit c -ng knh nh v nhng chi tit c cng vng thp.
7.4. Lc ct v cng sut khi mi
Lc ct tng hp P tc dng ln chi tit$gia cng khi mi (hnh 7-8 ) c
th phn tch thnh cc thnh phn: lc tip tuyn P
Z
, lc dc trc P
X
v lc
h-ng knh P
Y
. T-ng quan gia lc h-ng knh v lc tip tuyn khi mi c th
ly P
Y
= (1,53,0).P
Z
.
Thnh phn lc P
Z
c th -c xc nh theo cng thc thc nghim sau:

5 , 0 7 , 0 7 , 0
. . . t S V C P
ph P Z
=
[N] (7.1)
Khi mi trn ngoi bng mi 4015 c chiu rng 40 mm, -ng
knh D=(300400) mm vi tc ct V

=30 m/s, ly C
P
=22 khi gia cng thp
ti v C
P
=21 khi gia cng cc chi tit bng thp khng qua nhit luyn, C
P
=20 khi
gia cng gang.
Cng sut tiu hao cho trc chnh mang mi c th tnh:

1000
.
d Z
d
V P
N =
[kw] (7. 2)
Cng sut tiu hao cho trc chnh mang chi tit gia cng -c tnh:

| | kw
V P
N
ph Z
ph
60000
.
=
(7.3)
Trong cc cng thc trn lc P
Z
-c tnh theo n v N.
Do tc quay khng ln nn cng sut tiu hao cho trc chnh mang chi
tit nh hn cng sut tiu hao cho trc chnh mang mi khong (60100) ln.
Hnh 7-8. S lc ct khi mi.
7.5. Cc yu t ch ct khi mi
to hnh cho bt k b mt gia cng no bng ph-ng php mi cn phi
c cc chuyn ng sau: chuyn ng quay trn ca mi to nn tc ct
v cc chuyn ng to dch chuyn t-ng i gia chi tit gia cng v mi
theo cc trc ta (hnh 7-9). Chuyn ng to dch chuyn t-ng i c th
-c thay th bng chuyn ng quay trn quanh trc ta .
7.5.1. Chiu su ct t
Chiu su ct l chiu dy lp kim loi -c mi ct i trong mi -ng
chuyn dao o theo ph-ng vung gc vi b mt gia cng. Chiu su ct khi mi
th th-ng ly trong phm vi (0,010,08) mm, khi mi tinh ly trong phm vi
(0,0050,015) mm.

Hnh 7-9. S biu th cc yu t ct khi mi
7.5.2. L-ng chy dao
L-ng chy dao dc S
d
l l-ng dch chuyn t-ng i theo ph-ng dc ca chi
tit gia cng (hoc mi) sau mt vng quay ca chi tit gia cng. n v o ca
l-ng chy dao dc l mm/vng. L-ng chy dao dc -c ly theo t l ca chiu
rng B. Ly S
d
=(0,30,7)B mm/vng khi mi th v S
d
=(0,20,4)B mm/vng khi
mi tinh.
L-ng chy dao ngang S
ng
l l-ng dch chuyn ca mi h-ng v pha
chi tit gia cng u mi hnh trnh cng tc ca bn my mang chi tit gia
cng mi c th tip tc bc i mt lp kim loi. L-ng chy dao ngang c
tr s ng bng chiu su ct t.
L-ng chy dao vng chnh l tc vng ca chi tit gia cng. Khi bit s
vng quay th tc vng ca chi tit -c tnh:

1000
. .
ph ph
ph
n D
V
t
=
[m/ph] (7.4)
Trong cng thc: D
ph
- -ng knh chi tit gia cng, mm
n
ph
-Tc quay ca chi tit, vng/pht.
Tu thuc vo vt liu gia cng v iu kin gia cng m tc vng cho
php ca chi tit trong qu trnh gia cng -c tnh theo cng thc thc nghim
sau:
Khi mi bng mt chu vi ca :

Y X m
ph
ph
S t T
D C
V
. .
.

=
[m/ph] (7.5)
Bng 7-5.
Tr s ca h s v cc s m trong cng thc tnh V
Ph
.

Dng gia cng Vt liu C m x y z
Thp ch-a ti 0,27 0,3 0,5 1,0 1,0 -
Mi trn vi l-ng
chy dao ngang sau
mi hnh trnh kp
ca bn my.
Thp ti 0,24 0,3 0,5 1,0 1,0 -
Thp ch-a ti 0,055 0,3 0,5 1,2 1,0 -
Mi trn vi l-ng
chy dao ngang sau
mi hnh trnh ca
bn my
Thp ti 0,050 0,3 0,5 1,2 1,0
Thp ch-a ti
0,95
Mi ct
Thp ti
0,85
0,3 0,5 0,7 - -
Thp ch-a ti
15,5
Mi khng tm
Thp ti
13,5
0,3 0,5 1,0 1,0 -
Thp ch-a ti
0,054
Mi trong
Thp ti
0,050
0,5 0,6 0,9 0,9 -
Mi phng bng chu
vi trn my c
bn ch nht
Thp ch-a ti 2,5 - 0,7 0,75 1,0 -
Thp ch-a ti
9,0 - 0,83 1,0 - 0,9
Mi phng bng mt
u ca trn my
c bn trn
Thp ti 14,7 - 0,65 1,0 - 0,7

Khi mi bng mt u ca :
Z X m
ph
B t T
C
V
. .
=
[m/ph] (7.6)
Trong : D
ph
- -ng knh ca chi tit gia cng, mm
t - chiu su ct, mm
S - l-ng chy dao dc, mm/vng
B - chiu rng mi, mm
T - tui bn ca mi, pht.
H s C v cc s m trong cc cng thc trn cho trong bng 7-5.
Thng th-ng ly tc vng ca chi tit gia cng V
ph
= (2070) m/pht khi
mi th b mt tr ngoi, V
ph
=(1550) m/pht khi mi tinh b mt tr ngoi,
V
ph
=( 25115) m/pht khi mi trn trong v V
ph
=(2070) m/pht khi mi phng.
7.5.3. Tc ct V
Tc ct khi mi l tc vng ca cc ht mi nm trn b mt lm vic
ca mi. Tc ct khi mi bng b mt chu vi ca c th tnh theo cng
thc:

60 . 1000
. .
d d
n D
V
t
=
[m/s] (7.7)
Trong cng thc: D
d
- -ng knh ca mi, mm
n
d
- s vng quay ca , vng/pht.
Thng th-ng khi mi ly tc ct cng ln cng tt song khng -c
v-t qu tc vng ti a cho php ca mi. Tc vng cho php ca
mi th-ng -c ghi trn k hiu mi, vi mi dng cht dnh kt ceramic
th tc vng ly trong khong (2040) m/s.
Trn c s tc ct V chn, da vo -ng knh ca c th tnh ra
s vng quay cn thit cho trc chnh mang mi.
7.5.4. Thi gian my T
0

Thi gian my khi mi trn c chy dao dc -c tnh theo cng thc:

t S n
K h L
T
ph
. .
. . . 2
0
=
[pht] (8.8)
trong :
L- Chiu di hnh trnh ca bn my ( hoc ), mm.
h- L-ng d- gia cng, mm.
n
ph
-tc quay ca chi tit gia cng, vng/pht.
S- L-ng chy dao dc, mm/vng.
t- Chiu su ct, mm
K-H s tnh ti s hnh trnh chy thm ca bn my khi dng
chuyn ng chy dao ngang, ly K=1,21,4 khi mi th v K=1,251,7 khi mi
tinh.
Cng thc tnh thi gian my trn tnh cho tr-ng hp khi chuyn ng
chy dao ngang -c thc hin cui mi hnh trnh kp ca bn my. Nu
chuyn ng chy dao ngang -c thc hin cui mi hnh trnh n ca bn
my th cn b con s 2 trn t s ca cng thc.
Nhim v ca cng vic xc nh thng s ct hp l khi mi l phi chn
-c mi hp l v xc nh -c cc yu t ch ct. Chn mi theo cc
yu t kt cu ca nh- trnh by mc 7. 2.1 v cc h-ng dn c th trong
cc s tay cng ngh ch to my. Cng vic tip theo l xc nh chiu su ct,
l-ng chy dao dc, tc quay ca chi tit v tc quay ca . Tc quay
ca chi tit v tc quay ca phi -c quy i ra s vng quay v ly theo
tr s vng quay c thc gn nht trn my. Khi xc nh tc quay ca phi
ht sc ch ti tc gii hn cho php ca mi chn. Sau khi xc
nh -c cc yu t ch ct, cng vic tip theo l xc nh cng sut cn
thit mi v tnh thi gian my. Cng sut ct tnh -c phi nh hn cng
sut ng c trc chnh mang mi.
7.6. Mt s ph-ng php gia cng tinh khc dng
ht mi
7.6.1. Mi khn

Hnh 7-10. S mi khn l

Mi khn dng gia cng tinh cc l c yu cu chnh xc kch th-c
v cp nhm b mt cao. Mi khn cn dng to ra bin dng t vi c bit
dng l-i trn b mt gia cng. B mt t vi dng ny rt cn thit gi -c
du bi trn trn b mt cng tc ca chi tit trong qu trnh hot ng (v d cc
chi tit trong ng c t trong).
Dng c ct mi khn l cc thanh mi -c ch to bng cc ht mi
nh mn gn ln dng c g chuyn dng gi l u khn. S mi khn l
-c th hin trn hnh 7-10.
Chi tit gia cng trong qu trnh mi khn thng th-ng ng yn cn u
khn va nhn chuyn ng quay trn vi tc V
1
va nhn chuyn ng tnh
tin ln xung V
2
dc theo -ng tm l cn gia cng. T-ng quan chuyn ng
gia V
1
v V
2
nm trong phm vi 1,510,0. Tc vng ca u khn khi gia
cng thp ly trong phm vi V
1
=(4560) m/pht, khi gia cng gang v ng ly
V
1
=(6075) m/pht. Ngoi chuyn ng V
1
v V
2
ra cc thanh mi cn -c
bung ra theo ph-ng h-ng knh tip tc bc i mt lp kim loi sau mi hnh
trnh ca u khn. C th dng cc c cu c kh, thu kh hoc kh nn to
chuyn ng bung ra theo ph-ng h-ng knh cho cc thanh mi. Tu thuc vo
ph-ng php y cc thanh mi theo ph-ng h-ng knh m phn ra s mi
khn vi p sut khng i v s mi khn c chy dao nh l-ng. Mi khn
vi p sut khng i l s mi khn m cc thanh mi lun -c y p st
vo b mt gia cng vi mt p sut khng i. Mi khn c chy dao nh l-ng
l s mi khn m cc thanh mi -c nh l-ng y bung ra theo ph-ng
h-ng knh sau mi hnh trnh kp ca u khn c th tip tc bc i mt lp
kim loi hnh trnh lm vic tip theo.
Ng-i ta phn ra mi khn s b v mi khn tinh. Mi khn s b dng
sa cc sai s do cc nguyn cng tr-c li cn mi khn tinh dng to nn
cht l-ng b mt cao cho b mt gia cng.
Trn hnh 7-10b l s tri phng ca b mt l gia cng bng ph-ng
php mi khn. Tng hp ca hai chuyn ng V
1
v V
2
to nn nhng vt x-c
t vi dng xon vt trn b mt l gia cng. Nhng vt x-c ny l do vt di
chuyn ca cc ht mi trong qu trnh mi khn to nn. Gc giao nhau ca cc
vt x-c ny (gc u) ph thuc vo t-ng quan tc ca cc chuyn ng V
1

v V
2
. Phi iu chnh v tr d-i cng 1 v v tr trn cng 2 ca thanh mi sao
cho to nn khong v-t n mi hnh trnh cng tc. iu ny ht sc cn thit
m bo thng -ng sinh ca l gia cng.
Cc thanh mi dng mi khn -c ch to t nhng ht mi c ranh
ng in hoc cc bit silc vi cht dnh kt l Ceramic hoc Baklit. ht ca
ht mi th-ng ly 38 hoc M20 v M28. Ngy nay mi khn bng cc ht kim
c-ng -c dng rng ri v dng bt kim c-ng cho kh nng sa sai s hnh
hc cao hn. Thanh mi -c gn ln cc guc khn bng keo axeton hoc thy
tinh lng. Cc guc khn mang thanh mi -c gn u trn b mt tr ca u
khn. Mt trong nhng kt cu ca u khn -c th hin trn hnh 7-11.
Cc guc khn 2 mang thanh mi 3
-c lp vo rnh ca thn u khn 1. L xo
7 lun p b mt cn ca cc guc 2 vo b
mt lm vic ca bc 5 lp trn thanh y 4.
Thanh y 4 c l hnh ch nht ti v tr lp
cht 8. Bc cn 6 dng nh tm u khn
vo l cn gia cng.
Ti thi im cui mi hnh trnh kp
ca u khn, thanh y 4 nhn chuyn ng
tnh tin t-ng i so vi v 1 lm cho bc 5
y cc guc khn mang thanh mi bung ra
mt l-ng nht nh ph hp vi l-ng chy
dao h-ng knh -c iu chnh tr-c.
Qu trnh mi khn -c t-i mt lin
tc. Dung dch trn ngui dng cho mi khn
c th l du ho, hn hp du ho (80 90)%
v du sut (20 10)% hoc munxi. Dung Hnh 7-11. Kt cu u khn.
dch trn ngui c nhim v lm gim nhit
vng ct v ra sch cc ht mi bm trn b mt gia cng.
B mt l tr-c khi mi khn phi -c tin mng hoc mi bng cc
ph-ng php mi l thng th-ng. L-ng d- tng li cho mi khn th-ng
nm trong phm vi (0,010,2) mm.
Mi khn c th sa -c cc sai s hnh hc do cc nguyn cng tr-c
li nh- van, cn, khng tr... , tuy nhin n khng sa -c sai s v
tr t-ng quan gia cc b mt trn chi tit gia cng v trong qu trnh mi khn
u khn t la theo l gia cng. Mi khn c th t cp chnh xc IT7IT6,
nhm b mt t cp 913.




7.6.2. Mi nghin
Mi nghin l mt ph-ng php gia cng tinh cc b mt ca chi tit my
bng cc bt mi mn hoc bt kim c-ng trn vo cht lng dnh kt ri bi ln
b mt ca dng c nghin c hnh dng hnh hc ph hp tip xc vi b mt gia
cng. Chi tit gia cng v u nghin nhn nhng chuyn ng cng tc ng-c
chiu nhau trong qu trnh gia cng. Cht l-ng b mt s l tt nht nu cc
chuyn ng cng tc m bo sao cho qu o chuyn ng ca mi ht mi
khng lp li trong qu trnh nghin.

Hnh 7-12. Cc s mi nghin
Qu trnh nghin l qu trnh san bng cc nh nhp nh t vi trn b mt
gia cng nh tng hp cc tc ng c hc v ho hc. Ti thi im u qu
trnh nghin ch ct i cc nh nhp nh t vi, tip sau n s tch b nhng
mng mng xy ho to nn trn b mt gia cng. nht ca cht lng dnh
kt c vai tr ht sc quan trng. Chiu dy lp cht lng dnh kt nm gia b
mt ca dng c nghin v b mt gia cng phi nh hn chiu cao v-n ra khi
b mt lm vic ca cc ht mi. Nu chiu dy ca lp cht lng ln hn kch
th-c ca cc ht mi th qu trnh mi nghin kt thc v cc ht mi khng th
tip xc vi b mt gia cng.
Vt liu ch to dng c nghin th-ng l gang xm, ng , hp kim
mu i khi cn dng cht do hoc g. Khi nghin th dng dng c nghin
bng hp kim mu v ng v loi vt liu ny gi -c cc ht mi c kch
th-c ln, khi nghin tinh dng dng c nghin bng gang xm v gang xm c
kh nng gi -c cc ht mi nh mn. Cht lng dnh kt th-ng dng l du
cng nghip, du ho hoc vazlin. Bt mi dng mi nghin -c ch to t
ht c ranh ng in, cc bt silc, cc bt bo, xit nhm, xit st v mt s loi
vt liu khc. S mi nghin -c th hin trn hnh 7-12.
Dng c nghin 1 nghin mt tr ngoi (hnh 7-12a) c dng bc x rnh
lun -c p st vo b mt tr cn gia cng 2 nh lc P. Dng c nghin nhn
chuyn ng quay lc V
1
v chuyn ng tnh tin qua li V
2
dc theo -ng tm
ca b mt gia cng.
Dng c nghin nghin b mt l (hnh 7-12b) cng c dng bc x rnh,
tuy nhin lc P lun y t pha trong p st b mt cng tc ca dng c
nghin vo b mt l cn gia cng. Cc chuyn ng cng tc cn thit ca u
nghin cng t-ng t nh- khi nghin b mt tr ngoi.
Qu trnh mi nghin c th -c tin hnh bng tay hoc trn cc my
cng c. S mi nghin mt phng trn my cng c chuyn dng -c th
hin trn hnh 7-12c. Cc chi tit gia cng 4 -c b tr u trong cc l ca vng
cch 5 t gia hai a nghin bng gang 3. B mt cng tc ca cc a nghin l
mt phng mt u. Cc a nghin nhn chuyn ng quay trn ng-c chiu
nhau v c tc quay khc nhau. Vng cch 5 -c t lch tm so vi cc a
nghin mt l-ng bng e chi tit gia cng c th nhn -c qu o chuyn
ng tr-t phc tp khi cc a nghin quay. Kt qu ca qu trnh mi nghin
ny l mt lp kim loi mng -c ng thi bc i hai mt u ca chi tit 4
to cho chng nhm b mt cao.
Mi nghin l ph-ng php gia cng tinh nhm nng cao chnh xc v
nhm cho b mt gia cng sau khi gia cng th bng cc ph-ng php gia
cng ct gt truyn thng. Ph-ng php ny c th sa -c cc sai s hnh hc
song khng sa -c sai s v tr t-ng quan do cc nguyn cng tr-c li.
chnh xc kch th-c sau khi nghin c th t cp IT6IT5, nhm b mt c th
t cp 1014. Tuy nhin, t -c cp chnh xc v cp nhm b mt trn
th yu cu b mt gia cng tr-c khi nghin phi m bo cp chnh xc
IT6IT7 v nhm b mt cp 79.

7.6.3. Mi siu tinh
Mi siu tinh l ph-ng php gia cng tinh ln cui bng nhng thanh mi
c ht nh hoc bt kim c-ng gn ln dng c g chuyn dng c chuyn
ng rung.
Mi siu tinh ch yu dng gia cng nhng b mt qua mi s b vi
mc ch gim nhm b mt. Kt qu ca mi siu tinh khng nhng ch lm
gim chiu cao nhp nh t vi m cc nh nhp nh t vi cn -c v trn lm
cho b mt gia cng tr nn rt nhn. Ph-ng php mi ny ch ct i mt lp jim
loi rt mng trong phm vi chiu cao nhp nh t vi cho nn n hu nh- khng
sa -c sai s kch th-c v sai s hnh dng do nguyn cng tr-c li.
Ph-ng php mi siu tinh c th gia cng cc b mt tr, b mt bn, b it
cu trn cc chi tit ch yu bng thp qua nhit luyn vi mc ch nng cao
cp nhm b mt. Chi tit tr-c khi mi siu tinh phi -c mi s b t
nhm cp 78, sau khi mi siu tinh c th t n`m cp 1014. Hnh 7-13
th hil s li siu tinh b mt tr ngoi.

Hnh 7-13. S mi siu tinh
Cc chuyn ng cng tc trn s mi siu tinh bao gm: Chuyn ng
quay trn ca chi tit gia cng S
V
, chuyn ng tnh tin qua li ca cc thanh
mi S
d
v chuyn ng rung ca cc thanh mi V. Chuyn ng rung ca cc
thanh mi c bin (1,56,0) mm, tn s 4001200 ln trong mt pht. Tc
ca chuyn ng rung V b hn ch bi lc qun tnh khi o chiu nn th-ng
ly trong phm vi V=(57) m/ph. T-ng quan chuyn ng gia chuyn ng
quay trn ca phi v chuyn ng tnh tin qua li ca cc thanh mi c mt
ngha quan trng. Nu gim t-ng quan K=S
V
/V th cc thanh mi d phc hi li
ton b kh nng ct v qu trnh ct kim loi s c hiu qu hn song nhm b
mt s tng. Bi vy, tt nht l thc hin qu trnh gia cng vi tr s K bin i
bng cch thay i tc chuyn ng quay S
V
. Ly K=(24) ti u chu k gia
cng v K=(816) ti cui chu k gia cng.
Chuyn ng tnh tin qua li S
d
cn thit thc y qu trnh ct kim loi
v nng cao tnh ng nht cho b mt gia cng. Th-ng ly S
d
=(12) m/pht.
Trong qu trnh mi siu tinh cc thanh mi lun -c p vo b mt
gia cng vi mt p lc khng ln, th-ng p=(0,53,0).10
5
N/m
2
. Khi gia
cng vt liu cng ly tr s p lc ln hn, khi gia cng vt liu mm ly
tr s p lc nh hn.
Mi siu tinh lun -c t-i mt bng dung dch trn ngui cha (8090)%
du ho v (2010)% du tuc bin hoc du sut. Tuy b mt gia cng -c lp
mng du bao bc nh-ng cc nh nhp nh t vi cao nht ca n vn nh ra
khi mng du v b cc ht mi ct i (xem hnh 7-13b). Qu trnh gia cng
tip tc v p lc thanh mi tc dng ln b mt gia cng gim i v s l-ng
nh nhp nh t vi -c ct i cng nhiu. n mt thi im no khi p lc
ca cc thanh mi khng th ph v mng du (hnh 7-13c) th qu trnh mi t
ng kt thc.
Cc thanh mi dng cho mi siu tinh phi m bo kh nng mi tt
mi i nhng nh cao nhp nh t vi do nguyn cng tr-c li ng thi phi
m bo kh nng nh bng nh bng b mt gia cng t nhm yu
cu. Dng cc thanh mi ch to t cc ht c ranh ng in khi mi siu tinh
cc b mt chi tit bng thp. Dng cc thanh mi ch to t cc ht cc bit silc
khi mi siu tinh cc b mt chi tit bng gang v kim loi mu. Cc thanh mi
-c ch to trn nn cht dnh kt l Ceramic hoc Ba k lit. cng ca cc
thanh mi cng nh h-ng ng k ti qu trnh mi. Khi gia cng mt vt liu
c th no , nu cng ca cc thanh mi qu ln th cc thanh mi d b bt
bn lm gim kh nng ct, nu cng thp hn so vi yu cu th cc thanh
mi s mn rt nhanh do hin t-ng t mi sc sy ra khng ngng v cht l-ng
b mt gia cng t -c khng cao.
Dng cc thanh mi ch to t bt kim c-ng khng nhng ch nng cao
nng sut gia cng m cn nng cao tui bn ca cc thanh mi ln (80100) ln.
Ch mi siu tinh khi s dng cc thanh mi kim c-ng cng t-ng t nh- khi
dng cc thanh mi t cc ht mi c ranh ng in v cc bt silc, tuy nhin p
lc ca cc thanh mi tc dng ln b mt gia cng ly ln hn (3050)%.
Hnh dng v kch th-c cc thanh mi dng mi siu tinh tu thuc vo
hnh dng, kt cu v kch th-c c th ca b mt gia cng. Khi mi nhng
on ngn khng b chn hai u trn chi tit my th chiu di ca cc thanh mi
phi bng hoc ln hn chiu di ca b mt gia cng, nu c bc hai u th
chiu di cc thanh mi ly nh hn chiu di ca b mt gia cng mt cht. S
l-ng thanh mi th-ng dng mi siu tinh l hai nh-ng khi mi nhng chi tit
ln th s l-ng thanh mi c th l ba hoc bn.
7.6.4. nh bng
nh bng l ph-ng php gia cng tinh b mt ca cc chi tit my bng
cc bt mi nh mn hoc bt kim c-ng trn vi du nht bi ln b mt lm
vic ca dng c nh bng chuyn ng vi tc cao. Dng c nh bng
th-ng l nhng bnh nh bng n hi c chuyn ng quay trn hoc cc
bng nh bng mang ht mi.
Chi tit gia cng -c y st vo b mt lm vic ca dng c nh bng
v nhn cc chuyn ng ph hp sao cho ton b b mt gia cng c th -c
gia cng. Khi nh bng cc b mt nh hnh phc tp th chi tit -c di
chuyn bng tay cn cng vic nh bng cc b mt tr, b mt cn v mt
phng c th -c thc hin trn my nh bng.

Hnh 7-14. Cc s nh bng
Trong vng nh bng ng thi xy ra cc qu trnh sau: qu trnh ht i
mt lp kim loi mng, qu trnh bin dng do lp b mt, cc phn ng ho hc
do cc nguyn t ho hc c hot tnh cao c trong bt nh bng tc dng ln
kim loi. Cht l-ng v cc tnh nng s dng ca b mt sau khi nh bng ph
thuc vo tnh tri ca mt qu trnh no trong cc qu trnh nu trn. Kh
nng chuyn ng t do ca cc ht mi khi nh bng bng giy rp (cc bng
nh bng mang ht mi) c ngha ht sc quan trng. Do c kh nng chuyn
ng t do m trong qu trnh gia cng cc ht mi khng li cc vt x-c t
vi c chiu su qu khc nhau.
Th-ng s dng bt mi t vt liu c ranh ng in v xt st khi nh
bng cc chi tit bng thp, bt mi t vt liu cc bt silic v xit st khi nh
bng cc chi tit bng gang, bt mi t vt liu xit crm v ccboroun khi
nh bng nhng chi tit bng nhm hoc cc hp kim ng. Bt nh bng -c
trn vo du nht c c cha hn hp sp, m, parafin v du ho. Bt nho
nh bng c th cha cc vt liu mi nh- bt mi st xit, xit crm, vi vin
v mt s vt liu khc.
Cc bnh nh bng c th ch to bng da p, vi p, capron, g v mt s
vt liu khc. Bnh nh bng bng g dng nh bng s b, loi ny c
bn nh nn khi c lc ly tm n d b cong vnh. Bnh nh bng bng vi th
dng ht mi ln ch gia cng th nhng chi tit ln. Bnh nh bng bng vi
mm dng rt rng ri nh bng tinh. Bnh nh bng bng vi p dng
nh bng rt tinh nh- nh bng cc dng c y hc, nh bng thu tinh.
Cc bnh nh bng trong qu trnh gia cng chuyn ng vi tc V
t-ng i ln (c th t ti V= 40m/s50 m/s). B mt cn gia cng ca chi tit
-c p vo b mt cng tc ca dng c nghin bng lc P (hnh 7-14a) v nhn
chuyn ng chy dao S
d
v chuyn ng quay V
ph
ph hp vi bin dng ca b
mt gia cng. S nh bng bng bng nh bng mang ht mi ( hnh 7-14b)
c -u im l b mt cng tc ca bng nh bng ln hn b mt cng tc ca
bnh nh bng rt nhiu cho nn d thot nhit hn. Bng nh bng c th co
dn m ly ton b b mt gia cng cho nn c th b qua cc chuyn ng
chy dao.
i khi chi tit gia cng nhn chuyn ng chnh trong qu trnh nh
bng, v d nh- chi tit 3 c b mt cn nh bng dng rnh vng trong nh
hnh (hnh 7-14c). Bng nh bng mang ht mi 1 -c p st vo b mt gia
cng bng lc P thng qua trc nh bng 2 v nhn chuyn ng chy dao S
d

khng lin tc theo chu k.
nh bng ch yu dng lm gim nhm b mt do cc nguyn cng
tr-c li. nhm b mt sau khi nh bng c th t ti cp 1213. nh
bng khng sa -c sai s hnh dng hnh hc, khng sa -c cc sai s v v
tr t-ng quan, khng sa -c cc khuyt tt do cc nguyn cng tr-c li
trn b mt.
Tr-c khi nh bng chi tit phi -c qua mi hoc cc ph-ng php gia
cng tinh khc. nh bng ch lm tng nhn bng b mt. N c th l
nguyn cng tr-c khi m. L-ng d- nh bng nh, ch khong 0,005 mm.
7.6.5. Gia cng tinh bng dng cht lng mang ht mi
Gia cng tinh cc b mt nh hnh khng gian phc tp bng cc ph-ng php
thng th-ng gp nhi kh khn. N i hi my phi c s ng phc tp v
dng c ct t tin. Bi vy, gia cng nhng b mt phc tp ny ng-i ta dng
ph-ng php gia cng tinh bng dng cht lng mang ht mi. S nguyn l hot
ng ca ph-ng php nh bng ny -c th hin trn hnh 7-15.
Dng cht lng chng n mn c mang theo cc ht mi -c y ti b
mt gia cng vi mt p lc v tc ln (hnh 7-15a). Cc ht mi p vo b
mt gia cng v l phng cc nh nhp nh t vi to nn hiu ng nh bng.
C-ng tch kim loi khi b mt gia cng c th -c iu chnh bng ht
ca ht mi, bng p lc dng cht lng v gc nghing | ca vi phun. Thay i
tc bay v kch th-c ca cc ht mi t do c th lm tng hoc gim mc
bin dng do v nhm b mt. Ngoi kh nng cho php nhn -c b mt t vi
hp l, ph-ng php ny cn to nn lp ho bn b mt c li cho hot ng ca
chi tit. Mc ho bn b mt tng t l thun vi mc tng kch th-c cc
ht mi.
Lp mng mng cht lng bo v b mt gia cng ng mt vai tr ht sc
quan trng. Cc ht mi ri vo cc nh nhp nh t vi d dng v-t qua sc cn
ca mng du ct kim loa, trong khi nhng ht mi ri vo y ca cc
nhp nh t vi gp sc cn ln ca cht lng v qa trnh ct kim loi khng sy
ra. Kt qu ca cc hot ng t-ng tc ca cc ht mi nh v y ca cc
nhp nh t vi lm cho nhm b mt gim.
Bt mi dng gia cng tinh bng dng cht lng mang ht mi l ht c ranh
ng in. Ht mi chim khong (3040)% theo trng l-ng ton b cht lng
cha ht mi.
S thit b nh bng bng dng cht lng mang ht mi -c th hin
trn hnh 7-15b. Chi tit gia cng 3 c bin dng b mt cn gia cng phc tp
-c t trong bung chuyn dng 4. Chi tit 3 nhn chuyn ng (V
1
, S
d
) phc
tp sao cho c th nh bng ton b b mt yu cu. Hn hp cht lng v ht
mi 1 t trong b 2 -c bm 6 ht ln v y vo bung cng tc qua vi bng
hp kim cng 5. Sau khi bn ph b mt gia cng, cc ht mi -c thu hi tr
li b 2 li tip tc hnh trnh tip theo ca mnh mt cch tun hon lin tc.


Hnh 7-15. S gia cng bng dng cht lng mang ht mi
a. S l phng cc nhp nh t vi; b. S lp t thit b.
Ph-ng php nh bng bng dng cht lng mang ht mi cng nh-
ph-ng php nh bng dng cc a nh bng n hi ch dng vi mc ch
lm gim nhm b mt do nguyn cng tr-c li, n khng sa uc sai s
kch th-c v cc sai s v v tr t-ng quan.
7.7. My mi
7.7.1. Cc loi my mi v cng dng
My mi thuc nhm th ba trong bng phn loi my ct kim loai. Theo
tiu chun ca Vit nam my mi -c k hiu bng ch ci M ng u, cn
theo tiu chun ca cc n-c thuc Lin x c my mi -c k hiu bng ch s
3 ng u. Ch s tip theo k hiu ca my ch kiu my mi, mt hoc hai
ch s tip theo nu ln mt trong nhng c tnh quan trng nht ca my.
a. My mi trn ngoi
My mi trn ngoi dng mi cc b mt tr ngoi, b mt cn ngoi, b
mt nh hnh trn xoay v mt u theo cc s mi trnh by trn hnh 7-3 v
hnh 7-4. Kiu my mi trn ngoi -c k hiu bng ch s 1. c tnh quan
trng nht ca my mi trn ngoi l -ng knh v chiu di chi tit gia cng
ln nht cho php trn my. i vi cc my mi trn ngoi thng dng th
-ng knh gia cng ln nht trn my nm trong phm vi (100160) mm, chiu
di chi tit gia cng ln nht trn my nm trong phm vi (1501250) mm.
My mi trn ngoi -c chia ra my mi n gin, my mi vn nng v
my mi ct. My mi trn vn nng c tr-c v mi c th xoay i mt
gc cn thit so vi trc thng ng. My mi n gin khng -c trang b cc
xoay. My mi ct khng c chuyn ng chy dao dc ca bn my, qa trnh
mi trn my ny -c thc hin nh mi c chiu rng ln hn chiu di
-ng sinh ca b mt cn mi vi chuyn ng chy dao h-ng knh.
Cc b phn chnh ca my mi trn ngoi -c trnh by trn hnh 8-16.
Hnh 7-16. Hnh dng chung ca my mi trn ngoi.
1.Thn my; 2.Bn my; 3. sn phm; 4. mi;
5. ng; 6. H thng truyn ng cho bn my.
My mi trn ngoi th-ng dng cc c cu thu lc duy tr cc chuyn
ng chy dao. Chuyn ng tnh tin qua li ca bn my mang chi tit gia cng
-c thc hin nh xi lanh thu lc cng c cu o chiu chuyn ng ca bn
my ti cc v tr cui hnh trnh. Chuyn ng chy dao khng lin tc ca
mi theo ph-ng ngang cng -c thc hin nh c cu xi lanh thu lc. H
thng truyn dn thu lc cho php thay i v cp cc tc chy dao.
Chi tit gia cng -c kp cht trn my nh mm cp hoc chng tm hai
u. Chuyn ng quay trn ca phi trong qu trnh gia cng -c dn ng
nh mt ng c in c bit cho php thay i v cp tc quay.
mi -c dn ng chuyn ng quay trn t ng c in qua cp
truyn ng bnh ai c th thay i -c t s truyn. Cn thit phi thay i s
vng quay ca mi khi mn i mt l-ng ng k sau mt thi gian lm
vic m bo tc vng ti a cho php ca .
b. My mi trn trong
My mi trn trong dng mi cc l tr, l cn thng hoc khng thng
v mi mt u trong l. Kiu my mi trn trong -c k hiu bng ch s 2.
c tnh quan trng nht ca my l -ng knh l gia cng ln nht c th mi
-c trn my. My mi trn trong -c ch to mi -ng knh l ln nht t
25mm ti 800 mm.
B cc tng th ca my mi trn trong cng t-ng t nh- my mi trn
ngoi tuy nhin chng khng c ng. Chi tit gia cng -c kp cht trn
mm cp ca sn phm lp trn thn my nhn chuyn ng quay trn. mi
-c lp trn trc chnh ca mi cng nhn chuyn ng quay trn. Bn thn
mi -c lp trn bn tr-t ngang ca bn my cng bn my nhn chuyn ng
tnh tin qua li theo ph-ng chuyn ng chy dao dc v c th thc hin
chuyn ng chy dao ngang theo bn tr-t ngang cui mi hnh trnh kp ca
bn my.
-ng knh ca mi th-ng ly bng (0,70,9) -ng knh ca l cn
gia cng, bi vy trc th-ng phi quay vi tc cao m bo tc vng
cn thit. V tc quay ca cao khi mi l, trc nh li v-n ra di theo
chiu di l nn cng vng km, bi vy mi trn trong lm vic vi l-ng
chy dao v chiu su ct nh dn n nng sut khng cao. Do kh -a dung
dch lm mt vo vng ct cho nn mi chng mn, nn khi mi trn trong
phi th-ng xuyn sa li mi.
c. My mi khng tm
My mi trn khng tm -c dng rt ph bin trong sn xut hng khi
v trong sn xut lot ln. Ph-ng php mi trn khng tm cho nng sut cao.
S mi trn khng tm -c trnh by trn hnh 7-7. Cc b phn c bn ca
my mi trn khng tm c th hin trn hnh 7-17.
Cm mi 2 v cm dn 4 -c t trn thn my 1. mi 2 nhn
chuyn ng chnh vi tc ct cn thit. Chi tit cn mi -c t ln gi 6
v -c gi ny lun p st vo b mt lm vic ca dn. dn 4 nhn
chuyn ng quay dn ng chuyn ng quay cho chi tit gia cng. Tm
dn -c nh lch so vi tm mi mt gc nht nh khi gia cng cc chi tit
di to cho chi tit chuyn ng dc trc. Khi gia cng theo s mi ct,
dn khng nh nghing m n nhn thm chuyn ng chy dao h-ng knh
theo dn h-ng ca thn my ti mt v tr -c iu chnh tr-c mi t
-ng knh cn thit cho chi tit gia cng.
Hnh 7-17. Hnh dng chung ca my mi trn ngoi v tm.
1.Thn my; 2. mi; 3 . C cu sa mi; 4. dn;
5. C cu sa dn; 6. Gi chi tit.
d. My mi phng
My mi phng dng mi mt phng theo cc s mi phng nh- -c
trnh by trn hnh 7-6. My mi phng -c phn ra my mi phng dng chu vi
ca v my mi phng dng mt u ca . Trong mi loi my ny u c
my c bn hnh ch nht v my c bn trn. Trong sa cha c kh ch yu
dng my mi phng c bn ch nht mi bng mt chu vi ca . Hnh dng
chung ca my mi loi ny -c th hin trn hnh 7-18.
Hnh 7-18. Hnh dng chung ca my mi phng c bn ch nht .
Bn my 2 t trn dn h-ng ca thn my 1 nhn chuyn ng tnh tin
qua li t cn piston 5 ca xi lanh cng tc. Trn bn my c cc rnh ch T
kp cht chi tit gia cng hoc kp cht g hay bn t 3 mang chi tit gia
cng. Cc c 4 c th iu chnh v kp cht cc v tr cn thit iu chnh
chiu di hnh trnh L ca bn my. Cui mi hnh trnh sang tri hoc sang phi
cc c 4 lm xoay cn o chiu 6 o chiu chuyn ng ca bn my. u
mi -c lp trn tr ng 8 c th di chuyn theo mt phng thng ng v mt
phng nm ngang nh v lng 9 v v lng 10. Bng nm iu khin 7 dng
khi ng v dng my. Bn my mang chi tit gia cng nhn chuyn ng chy
dao dc tnh tin qua li cn u mi mang mi nhn chuyn ng chy dao
ngang trong qu trnh mi.
My mi phng dng mt u ca c th c bn trn quay hoc bn ch
nht chuyn ng tnh tin qua li. My mi phng dng ny c nng sut cao
hn so vi nhng my mi trn bng mt chu vi ca . My mi c bn quay
dng gia cng nhng chi tit khng ln th-ng -c kp cht trn bn t, my
c bn ch nht tnh tin qua li dng mi mt phng trn nhng chi tit ln.
Trn hnh 8-19 th hin hnh dng chung ca my mi phng c bn quay mi
bng mt u ca .
u mi 6 mang mi 7 c th di chuyn theo ph-ng thng ng dc
theo dn h-ng ca tr ng 5 lp trn thn my 1. Bn quay 4 cng bn t 9
-c t trn bn tr-t tr-t trn dn h-ng ca thn my. Bn my -c dn
ng chuyn ng quay trn nh ng c in 3. Bng nm iu khin 8 dng
khi ng v tt my. Tay gt 2 dng iu khin xch dn ng chuyn ng
ca bn my. V lng 10 dng di chuyn u mi khi iu chnh my.

Hnh 7-19. Hnh dng chung ca my mi phng c bn trn .
7.7.2. S ng my mi trn ngoi kiu 3150
S ng ca my mi trn ngoi 3150 -c trnh by trn hnh 8-20.
a. Chuyn ng chnh
Chuyn ng chnh l chuyn ng quay trn ca mi. Chuyn ng bt
ngun t ng c in 4, qua cp truyn ng dy ai ti trc chnh II mang
mi 19.
b. Chuyn ng quay ca phi
Chuyn ng quay ca phi -c bt ngun t ng c in 1 qua hai cp
truyn ng dy ai v trc I ti trc chnh 2 mang chi tit gia cng. Chi tit gia
cng c th -c lp trc tip ln mm cp ca trc chnh hoc chng tm hai
u.
c. Chuyn ng chy dao dc
Chuyn ng chy dao dc ca bn my mang chi tit gia cng -c thc
hin nh h thng truyn dn thu lc. Bm du 17 y du theo -ng ng 22
vo con tr-t o chiu 28. Khi con tr-t 28 nm v tr nh- trn hnh v th du
t con tr-t -c -a vo khoang phi ca xi lanh cng tc 3 qua -ng ng 26
lm cho trc III cng bn my chuyn ng t phi sang tri. Du x t khoang
tri ca xi lanh 3 -c y qua -ng ng 27, qua con tr-t 28, con tr-t iu
khin 29, van tit l-u 30 ri tr v b du. Cui hnh trnh sang tri, c hnh trnh
39 lp trn bn my tc ng vo cn quay 22. Cn quay nn cht nh v 23
xung v tr v v tr th hai ca mnh, kt qu l con tr-t o chiu 18 tr-t
sang bn tri. Khi du t bm 17 qua con tr-t o chiu 28 -c -a vo
khoang tri ca xi lanh 3 theo -ng ng 27 lm cho trc III cng bn my
chuyn ng t tri sang phi. Du x t khoang phi ca xi lanh 3 -c y qua
-ng ng 26, con tr-t o chiu 28, con tr-t iu khin 29, van tit l-u 30 tr
v b du.
Du t bm du 17 qua con tr-t iu khin 29, theo -ng ng 31 lun
-c -a vo xi lanh 32 lm cho cn ca piston ny di tr-t y bnh rng 36
ca xch chy dao bng tay ra khi khp vi bnh rng 37. ngng chuyn
ng chy dao dc t ng ca bn my ch cn ko tay gt 24 sang phi ng
-ng du ti van tit l-u 30. Khi du t xi lanh 32 -c y ng-c tr li
b du. Cn piston -c l xo y v v tr ban u -a bnh rng 36 tr li n
khp vi bnh rng 37. Chuyn ng chy dao bng tay ca bn my bt
ngun t v lng 33 qua cc cp bnh rng 34-35 v 36-37 n cp truyn
bnh rng- thanh rng 38.




Hnh 8-.20. S ng ca my mi trn 3150




d. Chuyn ng chy dao ngang
C cu y ca xch chy dao ngang l vt me IV. Con tr-t trong van tr-t
20 b y xung d-i cui mi hnh trnh cng tc ca bn my d-i tc ng
ca c lp trn bn my. Du t bm 17 qua -ng ng 22 -c -a vo van
tr-t 20, qua -ng ng 21 ti xi lanh 15 y piston ca xi lanh ny tin ln pha
tr-c. Piston ca xi lanh 20 qua c cu con cc y bnh cc 11 quay. Chuyn
ng quay khng lin tc theo chu k -c truyn t bnh cc 11 qua cc cp
bnh rng 9-10 v 7-8 ti v me chy dao ngang IV.
Chuyn ng chy nhanh -a u mi vo ra -c thc hin bng cch dch
chuyn nhanh vt me IV theo ph-ng dc trc. ui ca vt me IV -c lp t do
trong xi lanh 5. Du t bm du theo -ng ng 18 -c -a n van tr-t ba v
tr 6. Ti hai v tr bin con tr-t h-ng -ng du vo cc khoang cng tc ca
xi lanh 5 y hoc ko vt me IV cng u mi vo ra.
Bi trn trc chnh ca my v cc cm khc ca my -c thc hin nh
bm bnh rng 40. H thng thu lc s dng van an ton 16.





















Ch-ng 8
GIA CNG rng ca BNH RNG
8.1. c im qu trnh gia cng rng ca bnh rng
8.1.1. Cc ph-ng php to prfin rng
Truyn ng bnh rng -c dng rt rng ri trong nghnh c kh. Cht
l-ng truyn chuyn ng v m men xon ca cp truyn bnh rng ph thuc
vo cht l-ng ch to chng. chnh xc ca cp truyn bnh rng bao gm
nhiu yu t nh- chnh xc ca prfin rng, chnh xc b-c rng, ng
tm ca vng chia vi tm quay ca bnh rng vv.
Bnh rng c th -c ch to bng mt s ph-ng php sau:
a. Cn rng. Ph-ng php cn rng th-ng -c dng ch to cc bnh
rng c m un nh.
b. c rng. Ph-ng php c rng dng ch to cc bnh rng c m
un ln vi yu cu chnh xc khng cao.
c. Ct rng. Phung php ct rng ch yu dng ch to bnh rng
trong nghnh sn xut c kh. Qu trnh ct rng l qu trnh ct b phn kim loi
ca cc rnh rng gia hai rng to nn prfin rng.
Theo ph-ng php ct c th c cc bin php ct rng sau: phay rng, bo
rng, xc rng, chut rng, c rng, nghin rng, mi rng.
Cc ph-ng php ct rng bng phay rng, bo rng, xc rng, chut
rng l cc ph-ng php ct th bnh rng, tuy nhin bng nhng ph-ng
php ny c th to nn cc bnh rng thnh phm trong nhng tr-ng
hp yu cu cht l-ng ca bnh rng cn t -c khng cao. C rng,
nghin rng, mi rng l cc ph-ng php gia cng tinh cc bnh rng
-c ct th bng mt trong nhng ph-ng php ct trn vi mc ch
nng cao chnh xc v cht l-ng b mt rng.
Theo ph-ng php to -ng sinh cho b mt rnh rng c th phn ra
ph-ng php gia cng chp hnh v ph-ng php gia cng bao hnh.
Gia cng chp hnh l ph-ng php gia cng m -ng sinh ca b mt
cn gia cng (b mt rng) -c to nn bng cch chp li nguyn hnh bin
dng l-i ct ca dao. Theo ph-ng php gia cng ny, dao phi c bin dng
l-i ct ging nh- bin dng -ng sinh ca bin dng rnh rng. Sai s bin
dng ca l-i ct nh h-ng trc tip ti chnh xc ca bin dng rnh rng
cn gia cng.
Gia cng bao hnh l ph-ng php gia cng m -ng sinh ca b mt gia
cng (b mt rng) -c to nn bng -ng bao dy lin tip cc v tr hnh hc
ca dao khi n chuyn ng t-ng i vi phi. Theo ph-ng php gia cng ny
dao khng cn phi c bin dng l-i ct ging nh- bin dng ca rnh rng cn
gia cng.
Hnh 8-1. S to prfin rng bng ph-ng php bao hnh
Trong qu trnh gia cng dao v phi nhn cc chuyn ng c-ng bc t-ng i
vi nhau nh- mt cp truyn n khp thc s. iu ny c ngha l trong qu trnh ct
-ng trn c s ca bnh rng cn ct v ca dao ct ln t-ng i vi nhau. Trong
qu trnh ln cc l-i ct ln l-t i qua mt lot cc v tr to nn prfin rng. Qu
trnh to prfin rng -c th hin qua hnh 8-1.
8.1.2. c im cn ch khi gia cng rng ca bnh rng
Nh- trnh by trn, chnh xc ca cp truyn bnh rng bao gm
nhiu yu t, bi vy khi gia cng bnh rng cn c bit ch ti cc yu t c
th lm suy gim cc ch tiu v chnh xc ca bnh rng.
Khi ct bnh rng theo nguyn l chp hnh cn ch ti chnh xc bin
dng ca l-i ct, iu chnh dao sao cho m bo chnh xc chiu cao ca rng
v phn chnh xc sau mi ln gia cng xong mt rnh rng v qu trnh ct
cc rnh rng -c thc hin mt cch ln l-t tng rnh mt.
Khi ct bnh rng theo nguyn l bao hnh cn c bit ch ti vic iu
chnh xch bao hnh mt cch chnh xc sao cho m bo t-ng quan chuyn
ng gia dao v phi nh- chuyn ng t-ng i ca mt cp truyn bnh rng
trong qu trnh n khp thc s.
Ngoi nhng yu cu chnh xc v bin dng rng cn phi ch ti
chnh xc v tr t-ng quan gia cc b mt lm vic ca bnh rng trong
qu trnh lp rp v truyn m men xon. Cng vic chun b phi tr-c khi
ct rng ng mt vai tr ht sc quan trng. Nhng phi dng ch to
cc bnh rng c chnh xc cao cn phi -c gia cng cc mt chun nh-
b mt l lp vi trc v cc b mt u mt cch chnh xc. Cc bnh
rng dng trong t, my ko yu cu gia cng cc l chnh xc vi dung sai
trong phm vi (0,020,03) mm, khng vung gc gia tm ca l so vi mt
u khng v-t qu (0,020,04) mm, khng song song gia hai mt bn
khng v-t qu (0,010,02) mm.
8.2. Ct rng bng dao phay m un
8.2.1. Nguyn l gia cng
Ct rng bng dao phay m un da trn nguyn l gia cng chp hnh. Dao
phay m un dng trong gia cng rng c bin dng l-i ct ging nh- bin dng
ca rnh rng trn bnh rng cn gia cng. Dao phay a m un dng ct
bnh rng trn my phay ngang vn nng, dao phay ngn m un dng ct
bnh rng trn my phay ng vn nng.

Hnh 8-2. Gia cng rng ca bnh rng bng dao phay m un
a) Dng dao phay a m un; b)Dng dao phay ngn m un
Trong qu trnh gia cng, dao phay m un 1 (hnh 8-2) nhn chuyn ng
quay trn to tc ct V, chi tit gia cng 2 -c g trn u phn vn nng
cng bn my nhn chuyn ng chy dao S dc theo -ng tm chi tit. Sau khi
gia cng xong mt rnh rng th bn my -a chi tit gia cng v v tr ban u,
u phn quay chi tit gia cng i mt gc o=360
0
/Z, trong Z l s rng
ca bnh rng cn ct.
Sau khi phn , bnh rng cn gia cng li -c -a vo v tr ct ct
rnh rng tip theo. Qu trnh ct c tip tc trn tng rnh mt cho ti khi ct ht
ton b cc rnh rng trn bnh rng cn gia cng.
8.2.2. Dao phay m un
a. Dao phay a m un
Hnh dng ca dao phay a m un -c th hin trn hnh 8-3.




Hnh 8-3. Dao phay a m un
Dao phay a m un l loi dao phay a nh hnh ba mt ct, lui ct ca
cc rng dao c bin dng ph hp vi bin dng ca rnh rng cn gia cng. Mt
tr-c ca cc rng dao l mt phng, mt sau ht l-ng. Thng s hnh hc ca
dao -c o trong mt ct chnh. Dao gia cng th c gc tr-c > 0, dao gia
cng tinh c gc tr-c = 0.
Dao phay a m un dng ct bnh rng tr c rng thng v rng
nghing vi m un m s 10 mm trn my phay ngang vn nng.
b. Dao phay ngn m un
Hnh dng ca dao phay ngn m un -c th hin trn hnh 8-4.

Hnh 8-4. Dao phay ngn m un
Lui ct ca cc rng ca dao phay ngn m un c bin dng ph hp vi
bin dng ca rnh rng cn gia cng. Mt tr-c ca cc rng dao l mt phng,
mt sau ht l-ng.
Dao phay ngn m un dng ct bnh rng tr rng thng v rng
nghing c m un m>10mm v ct cc bnh rng c rng hnh ch V.
c. Chn dao phay m un
Prfin ca cc rnh rng khng nhng ch ph thuc vo m un m cn ph
thuc vo s rng ca bnh rng. Nh- vy, gia cng chnh xc th mi mt dao
phay m un ch ct -c mt loi bnh rng c m un v s rng t-ng ng.
p ng -c yu cu v chnh xc bin dng rng th s l-ng dao
phay m un cn thit qa ln nn ng-i ta ch to loi dao ny theo b dao.
Mi b dao c nhiu dao c cc s hiu khc nhau, c th c: b 8 dao, b 15
dao v b 26 dao. S l-ng dao trong mt b cng nhiu th chnh xc bin
dng ca rng ca bnh rng cn ct cng cao. Mi dao trong mt b ch ct
-c cc bnh rng c m uyn t-ng ng c s rng dao nm trong gii hn
cho trong bng 8-1 d-i y:
Bng 8-1
Bng s hiu dao phay m uyn
S rng ca bnh rng gia cng tu thuc vo b dao
S hiu dao
B 8 dao B 15 dao B 26 dao
1 12 - 13 12 12
1 - 13 1
2 14 - 16 14 14
2
1
2 - 15 - 16 15
4
3
2 - - 16
3 17 - 20 17 - 18 17
4
1
3 - - 18
2
1
3 - 19 - 20 19
4
3
3 - - 20
4 21 -25 21 - 22 21
4
1
4 -
-

22
2
1
4 - 23- 25 23
4
3
4 - - 24 - 25
5 26 - 34 26 - 29 26 - 27
S rng ca bnh rng gia cng tu thuc vo b dao
S hiu dao
B 8 dao B 15 dao B 26 dao
4
1
5 - - 28 - 29
2
1
5 - 30 - 34 30 - 31
4
3
5 - - 32 - 34
6 35 - 54 35- 41 35 - 37
4
1
6 - - 38 - 41
2
1
6 - 42 - 54 42 - 46
4
3
6 - - 47 - 54
7 55 - 134 55 - 79 55 - 65
4
1
7 - - 66- 79
2
1
7 - 80 - 134 80 - 102
4
3
7 - - 103 -134
8
> 135 > 135 > 135
Cc dao trong b 8 dao dng ct cc bnh rng c m un m s 8mm, cc
dao trong b 15 dao dng ct cc bnh rng c m un m >8mm, cc dao
trong b 26 dao dng ct cc bnh rng c yu cu chnh xc cao.
Chn dao phay m uyn ct bnh rng c rng nghing theo s
rng quy i ca bnh rng cn ct. S rng quy i c th tnh theo cng
thc:

|
3
Cos
Z
Z
qd
=
(8.1)
Trong : | l gc nghing ca rng,
Z l s rng ca bnh rng cn gia cng.
8.2.3. u, nh-c im ca ph-ng php
Gia cng bnh rng theo ph-ng php chp hnh dng dao phay m
un c nhng -u im: ch to dao phay m uyn n gin, t tn km,
cng ngh gia cng rng t phc tp, c th gia cng trn cc my phay vn
nng thng dng.
Tuy nhin, gia cng bnh rng theo ph-ng php ny c nhng nh-c im
sau:
chnh xc gia cng khng cao v ph thuc vo dao, g, s rng cn
ct trn bnh rng. Nh- ta thy trong bng chn dao m un, dao s 4 trong b 8
dao dng ct cc bnh rng c Z= 2125, tuy nhin n ch c th to bin
dng rnh rng chnh xc cho bnh rng c Z=21. Nng sut gia cng thp v qu
trnh ct khng lin tc. S l-ng dao cn thit km theo my nhiu. Cn bc th
cao v chnh xc gia cng khng nhng ch ph thuc vo nhng yu t nu
trn m cn ph thuc vo tay ngh ca th ng my.
8.3. Ct rng bng dao phay ln rng
8.3.1. Nguyn l ct rng bng dao phay ln rng
Ct rng bng dao phay ln rng da trn nguyn l gia cng bao hnh. Dao
phay ln rng c dng mt trc vt. Trong qu trnh gia cng dao v phi nhn
cc chuyn ng quay c-ng bc nh- mt cp trc vt-bnh vt n khp thc s.
Cc chuyn ng cn thit khi phay ln rng bao gm:

Hnh 8-5. S phay ln rng
Chuyn ng chnh l chuyn ng quay trn ca dao phay to tc ct
cn thit V, chuyn ng bao hnh l chuyn ng quay phi hp ca dao phay v
chuyn ng quay trn ca phi sao cho m bo t-ng quan chuyn ng nh-
mt cp trc vt- bnh vt n khp thc s, chuyn ng chy dao S dc theo
-ng tm ca phi cn ct ht phn kim loi trn ton b chiu di ca rng.
T-ng quan chuyn ng ca xch bao hnh phi m bo sao cho khi dao
phay quay -c 1 vng th phi phi quay -c k/ Z vng, trong Z l s rng
ca bnh rng cn ct, k l s u mi ca dao phay ln rng.
Ngoi cc chuyn ng nu trn, khi ct bnh rng tr c rng nghing cn c
thm chuyn ng to -ng xon cho rng. to -ng xon cho rng th phi phi
quay thm mt l-ng quay ph cng chiu hoc ng-c chiu vi chiu ca chuyn
ng quay chnh chuyn ng bao hnh (tu thuc chiu xon ca rng). Chuyn
ng to -ng xon phi m bo t-ng quan sao cho khi dao tnh tin dc theo
-ng tm ca phi mt l-ng bng b-c xon ca rng trn bnh rng gia cng th
phi phi quay ph thm -c mt vng.
Nh- vy, khi ct bnh rng tr rng nghing, phi cng mt lc nhn hai
chuyn ng quay t hai xch ng hc khc nhau bi vy hai chuyn ng ny
phi -c phi hp vi nhau qua c cu cng tc (c cu vi sai) tr-c khi -a
ti tm quay ca phi.
8.3.2. Dao phay ln rng
a. Kt cu dao phay ln rng

Hnh 8-6. Dao phay ln rng
Kt cu ca dao phay ln rng -c th hin trn hnh 8-6. Dao phay ln
rng c c dng trc vt v tn. Mt tr-c ca dao -c to nn bng cch x cc
-ng rnh vung gc vi -ng xon vt. Mt ct dc trc ca dao c dng thanh
rng. Mt tr-c ca rng dao l mt phng, mt sau ht l-ng. Gc tr-c v gc
sau o ca cc rng dao -c o trong mt ct vung gc vi -ng tm dao.
Thng th-ng dao phay ln rng -c ch to lin khi bng thp gi. Dao
phay ln rng c th -c ch to c mt hoc nhiu u mi. S u mi cng
nhiu th nng sut ct cng cao song chnh xc gia cng li gim. Dao phay ln
rng nhiu u mi th-ng dng ct th, dao mt u mi dng ct tinh.
b. G dao phay ln rng
Dao phay ln rng -c g ln my sao cho n ct -c chiu su ct yu
cu v chuyn ng chy dao trong qu trnh ct lun h-ng xung d-i ct
ht phn kim loi trn ton b chiu di ca rng.
H-ng -ng xon rng ca dao phay phi trng vi h-ng ca rnh rng
cn gia cng. Bi vy, phi g dao phay ln rng nghing mt gc nht nh tu
thuc vo gc nng -ng xon ca dao phay v gc nghing | ca rng cn
ct. Gc g dao phay -c xc nh theo cc s g t trn hnh 8-7.

Hnh 8-7. S g dao phay ln rng
G dao gia cng bnh rng tr rng thng bng dao phay nghing phi -c
trnh by trn hnh 8-7a, bng dao nghing tri -c trnh by trn hnh 8-7b. G dao
gia cng bnh rng c rng nghing phi bng dao phay nging phi -c trnh
by trn hnh 8-7c, bng dao nghing tri -c trnh by trn hnh 8-7d. G dao
gia cng bnh rng c rng nghing tri bng dao phay nging phi -c trnh by
trn hnh 8-7e, bng dao nghing tri -c trnh by trn hnh 8-7f.
8.3.3. Cc yu t ct khi phay ln rng
a. Chiu su ct t
Chiu su ct khi phay ln rng l chiu dy lp kim loi -c ct i trong
mi ln ct. Thng th-ng nu my cng sut v cng vng th khi gia
cng th ct mt ln. Khi my khng cng sut v cng vng th gia cng
th ct lm hai ln vi chiu su ct ln th nht t
1
=1,4m v ln th hai t
2
=0,7m,
trong m l m un ca bnh rng cn ct tnh bng mm.
b. Tc ct
Tc ct V l tc chuyn ng quay trn ca dao phay

1000
. . n D
V
d
t
= [m/ph] (8.2)
Trong : D
d
l -ng knh ca dao phay ln rng tnh bng mm
n l s vng quay ca dao phay trong mt pht.
i vi cc dao phay ln rng -c ch to bng thp gi th tc ct
th-ng ly trong phm vi V=(1520) m/ pht.
c. L-ng chy dao
L-ng chy dao thng ng S
d
l l-ng dch chuyn thng ng dc theo
-ng tm phi ca dao tnh bng mm sau khi phi quay -c mt vng. Tr s
l-ng chy dao ly theo cc nh mc trong cc s tay tu thuc vo s rng cn ct,
nhm b mt v chnh xc yu cu. Th-ng khi ct th ly S
d
=(0,74) mm/vng,
khi ct tinh ly S
d
=(0,3 1,2 ) mm/ vng.
d.Thi gian my T
0

Thi gian my khi phay ln rng -c tnh theo cng thc:
i
K S n
Z L
T .
. .
.
0
= [pht] (8.3)
Trong : Z- S rng ca bnh rng cn ct.
n- S vng quay ca dao phay trong mt pht.
S- L-ng chy dao, mm/ vng.
K- S u mi ca dao phay.
i- S ln n dao.
L- Tng chiu di -ng i ca dao phay theo ph-ng chy dao, mm.
Tng chiu di -ng i ca dao phay -c tnh:
L= q.b +l
1
+l
2
(8.4)
Trong : b - Chiu rng cu bnh rng cn ct, mm
q - S l-ng cc bnh rng tham gia ct ng thi.
l
1
- Chiu di n dao, mm.
l
2
- Khong v-t, th-ng ly bng (25) mm.
Chiu di n dao c th tnh:

( )
e Cos
t D t
l

=
1
(8.5)
Trong : t- Chiu su ct, mm.
D- -ng knh dao phay, mm.
e- Gc g dao phay khi ct bnh rng tr c rng thng.
8.3.4. Kh nng ng dng ca ph-ng php
Phay ln rng dng ct rng ca bnh rng tr rng thng v rng xon
n khp ngoi, ct bnh vt trong cp truyn trc vt-bnh vt.
chnh xc ca rng t -c bng ph-ng php phay ln rng l cp
(79), nhm b mt rng t cp 5.
8.4. Ct rng bng dao xc rng
8.4.1. Nguyn l ct rng bng dao xc rng

Hnh 8-8. Nguyn l xc rng
Ct rng ca bnh rng bng dao xc rng da trn nguyn l n khp ca
mt cp bnh rng, trong mt bnh rng l dao xc rng cn bnh rng th hai
l bnh rng cn ct (hnh 8-8).
Trong qu trnh gia cng, dao xc v phi nhn cc chuyn ng sau:
a. Chuyn ng chnh
Chuyn ng chnh l chuyn ng tnh tin ln xung ca dao xc to tc
ct V.
b. Chuyn ng chy dao vng
Chuyn ng chy dao vng S
V
l chuyn ng quay trn ca dao xc
quanh -ng tm ca n.
c. Chuyn ng bao hnh
Chuyn ng bao hnh l chuyn ng quay phi hp ca bnh rng cn ct
v dao xc sao cho m bo t-ng quan chuyn ng nh- mt cp bnh rng n
khp thc s. T-ng quan chuyn ng ny -c th hin qua s rng ca dao
xc v s rng ca bnh rng nh- sau:

ph
dao
dao
ph
Z
Z
n
n
=
(8.6)
Trong cng thc trn: n
dao
- s vng quay ca dao xc trong mt pht.
n
ph
- s vng quay ca bnh rng cn ct trong mt pht.
Z
dao
- s rng ca dao xc.
Z
ph
- s rng ca bnh rng cn ct.

d. Chuyn ng chy dao h-ng knh
Chuyn ng chy dao h-ng knh S
hk
l chuyn ng tnh tin ca dao
xc theo chiu h-ng v tm ca bnh rng cn ct. Chuyn ng ny cn
thit ct ht chiu su ca rnh rng. Sau khi dao tin ti v tr chn rng
th chuyn ng chy dao h-ng knh dng li, tuy nhin qu trnh gia cng
vn tip tc cho ti khi phi quay thm -c mt vng ct ht chiu su
ca cc rnh rng cn li.
e. Chuyn ng nh-ng dao
Chuyn ng nh-ng dao N l chuyn ng tnh tin qua li ca bn my
mang phi -a phi ra khi v tr ct khi dao xc thc hin hnh trnh ng-c
v -a dao vo v tr ct khi dao xc thc hin hnh trnh cng tc.
f. Chuyn ng to -ng xon khi gia cng bnh rng tr rng xon
Chuyn ng ny l chuyn ng quay ph thm ca dao xc phi hp vi
chuyn ng tnh tin ln xung ca n to nn -ng xon cho rng ca bnh
rng (hnh 8- 9a)
Chuyn ng ny c th -c to nn bng cch lp mt b d-ng trn trc
chnh ca dao xc v trn phn c nh ca u xc nh- th hin trn hnh 8-9b.
Hnh 8-9. B d-ng xcrng ca bnh rng xon
8.4.2. Dao xc rng
Kt cu ca dao xc rng -c th hin trn hnh 8-10.
Dao xc rng c dng mt bnh rng c cng m uyn vi bnh rng cn
ct. Cc rng dao c bin dng thn khai. Mt tr-c ca dao -c to cn to
nn gc tr-c. Thng th-ng gc tr-c =(5 10)
0
. Gc sau -c to nn do b
mt cn ng-c. Th-ng gc sau o = (4 7)
0
. Dao xc -c ch to lin khi
bng thp gi.
Hnh 8-10. Dao xc rng
8.4.3. Cc yu t ct khi xc rng
a. Chiu su ct
Cng nh- gia cng bnh rng bng dao phay ln rng, chiu su ct khi
xc rng l chiu dy lp kim loi -c ct i trong mi ln ct. Thng th-ng
nu my cng sut v cng vng th khi gia cng th ct mt ln. Khi
my khng cng sut v cng vng th gia cng th ct lm hai ln vi
chiu su ct ln th nht t
1
=1,4 m v ln th hai t
2
=0,7m, trong m l m un
ca bnh rng cn ct tnh bng mm.
Khi ct tinh bng dao xc rng, ch p dng hai ln ct ct nhng bnh
rng c yu cu nhm b mt khng nh hn cp 6, chnh xc khng thp
hn cp 7 v m un khng nh hn 6mm. Trong tr-ng hp ny ng-i ta s
dng cam c hai l-ng nng thc hin chy dao h-ng knh.
b. L-ng chy dao vng S
v

L-ng chy dao vng l l-ng dch chuyn ca l-i ct ca dao xc tnh
theo -ng trn c s ca n sau khi dao xc thc hin -c mt hnh trnh kp.
L-ng chy dao vng ca dao xc -c chn tu thuc vo vt liu gia
cng, vt liu ch to dao v m un bnh rng cn ct v th-ng nm trong
phm vi S
v
= (0,150,5) mm/hnh trnh kp.
c. L-ng chy dao h-ng knh S
hk

L-ng chy dao h-ng knh S
hk
l l-ng dch chuyn ca dao xc theo
chiu h-ng tm ca phi sau khi dao xc thc hin -c mt hnh trnh kp.
L-ng chy dao h-ng knh ca dao xc -c chn tu thuc vo vt liu
gia cng, vt liu ch to dao v m un bnh rng cn ct v th-ng ly
S
hk
=(0,10,3)S
v
.

d. Tc ct V
Tc ct V l tc chuyn ng tnh tin ln xung ca dao xc, n
-c tnh theo cng thc:

1000
. . 2 n L
V = [m/ph] (8.7)
Trong: L l chiu di hnh trnh ca dao xc, mm.
n l s hnh trnh kp ca dao xc [ htkp/ph]
Tc ct V -c xc nh tu thuc vo vt liu gia cng, tui bn ca
dao, l-ng chy dao. Khi dao xc -c ch to bng thp gi th th-ng ly tc
ct trong phm vi V= (1430 )m/ph.
e. Thi gian my T
0

Thi gian my T
0
khi xc bnh rng theo ph-ng php bao hnh -c xc
nh theo cng thc:
i
S n
Z m
S n
h
T
v hk
.
.
. .
.
0
t
+ = [pht] (8.8)
Trong cng thc trn:
h - chiu cao rng, mm
n - s hnh trnh kp ca dao xc, htkp/pht
S
hk
- l-ng chy dao h-ng knh, mm/htkp
m - m un ca bnh rng cn ct, mm
Z - s rng ca bnh rng cn ct
S
v
- l-ng chy dao vng, mm/htkp
i - s ln n dao.
8.4.4. Kh nng ng dng ca ph-ng php
Ph-ng php xc bao hnh dng ct rng ca cc bnh rng tr c
rng thng n khp trong v n khp ngoi, cc khi bnh rng c nhiu bnh
rng nm st nhau, ct cc bnh rng tr c rng xon nu c thm g to
-ng xon.
Gia cng bng ph-ng php xc rng c th t chnh xc bnh rng cp 6
ti cp 8, nhm b mt rng t cp 6.
Khi ct cc bnh rng c m un m< 2,5mm th phay ln rng c nng sut
cao hn xc, khi ct cc bnh rng c m un m> 5mm th xc rng c nng sut
cao hn phay ln rng.
8.5. u, nh-c im ca ph-ng php gia cng bao hnh
Gia cng bnh rng theo ph-ng php bao hnh c nhng -u im:
chnh xc gia cng cao hn ph-ng php gia cng bng dao phay chp
hnh m un v n khng ph thuc vo bin dng l-i ct ca dao v s rng ca
bnh rng cn gia cng.
Mt dao phay ln rng hoc dao xc rng c th gia cng -c nhiu bnh
rng cng m un c s rng yu cu khc nhau.
Khng yu cu bc th cao.
Tuy nhin gia cng bnh rng theo ph-ng php bao hnh c nh-c im:
Ch to dao ct phc tp, t tin.
Cn my chuyn mn ho.
8.6. Cc ph-ng php gia cng tinh rng ca bnh rng
8.6.1. Nghin rng
a. Nguyn l nghin rng
Nghin rng l mt ph-ng php gia cng tinh rng ca cc bnh rng sau nhit
luyn bng cch bo mn b mt ca rng nh dng c nghin v bt nghin nh mn
nng cao nhm b mt cng tc ca rng. C hai s nghin: nghin bng mt dng
c nghin c tm quay song song vi tm quay ca bnh rng cn gia cng v nghin
bng ba dng c nghin c tm quay lch vi tm quay ca bnh rng cn gia cng.
Hnh 8-11. S nghin rng ca bnh rng.
Hnh 8-11a th hin cc chuyn ng cn thit ca s nghin bng mt
dng c nghin. Bnh rng cn gia cng nhn chuyn ng quay chm quanh
tm v chuyn ng tnh tin ln xung dc theo -ng tm vi s hnh trnh kp
n=(70100) ht/ph. Dng c nghin -c bnh rng gia cng dn ng chuyn
ng quay trn ng thi nhn chuyn ng tnh tin qua li theo ph-ng vung
gc vi -ng tm. B mt lm vic ca dng c nghin -c bi mt lp bt
nghin trn vi du nht theo t l 1: 2. Qu trnh nghin -c thc hin do
chuyn ng tr-t t-ng i gia b mt rng ca bnh rng gia cng v rng ca
u nghin.
S nghin bng ba dng c nghin -c th hin trn hnh 8-11b. Bnh
rng cn gia cng nhn chuyn ng quay trn quanh tm v ng thi dn ng
cho ba dng c nghin . Ngoi chuyn ng quay, bnh rng cn nhn chuyn
ng tnh tin ln xung dc theo -ng tm. Sau mt thi gian nht nh, bnh
rng gia cng v cc dng c nghin t ng i chiu thc hin qu trnh
nghin mt bn cn li ca rng. Dng c nghin pha trn c tm quay song
song vi tm quay ca bnh rng cn tm quay ca cc u nghin khc -c
nh lch so vi tm quay ca bnh rng mt gc t 3
0
6
0
.
b. Dng c nghin
Dng c nghin l cc u nghin -c ch to d-i dng bnh rng c
cng m uyn vi bnh rng cn gia cng. u nghin -c ch to bng gang
xm c cng HB=160. Chiu dy ca u nghin (bnh rng mu) -c ch
to ln hn chiu dy ca bnh rng cn gia cng khong (410) mm.
c. Kh nng ca ph-ng php nghin rng
Ph-ng php nghin rng dng gia cng tinh rng ca cc bnh rng
qua nhit luyn. Nhm b mt rng rng sau nghin c th t cp 8 ti cp 9.
Nghin rng cn c kh nng sa -c mt s sai s to nn do nhit luyn.
8.6.2. Mi rng
a. Nguyn l mi rng
Hnh 8-12. S mi rng theo nguyn l chp hnh.
Mi rng c th -c thc hin theo nguyn l chp hnh v nguyn l bao
hnh. Cc chuyn ng cn thit mi rng theo nguyn l chp hnh cng t-ng t
nh- khi phay bnh rng theo nguyn l ny v -c th hin trn hnh 8-12.
Mi rng theo nguyn l bao hnh da trn c s n khp ca mt cp bnh
rng- thanh rng (hnh 8-13).
Hnh 8-13b th hin s mi rng bng mi c hai mt vt ph hp vi
bin dng rng ca thanh rng.
Chuyn ng chnh l chuyn ng quay trn ca mi to tc
ctV

. Bnh rng gia cng ng thi nhn chuyn ng quay n v chuyn ng


tnh tin V. T-ng quan gia chuyn ng quay v chuyn ng tnh tin ca
bnh rng gia cng phi m bo sao cho nh- bnh rng ln khng tr-t trn b
mt ca thanh rng. Mi chu k nh- vy gia cng -c mt rnh rng. Sau khi
gia cng xong mt rnh rng th phi (bnh rng gia cng) tr v v tr ban u v
-c quay i mt rng. Tip qu trnh gia cng li tip tc gia cng rnh
rng tip theo. Qu trnh gia cng c tip tc nh- vy cho ti khi gia cng xong
ton b cc rnh rng.

Hnh 8-13. S mi rng theo nguyn l bao hnh.
Mi rng bng hai a -c th hin trn hnh 8-13a. Hai a -c t
nghing i mt gc bng gc n khp ca rng so vi ph-ng nm ngang. Trong
qu trnh ct, hai a ny nhn chuyn ng quay trn to tc ct cn
thit V

. Bnh rng gia cng nhn chuyn ng quay trn n v chuyn ng tnh
tin V ph hp sao cho nh- bnh rng ln khng tr-t trn b mt ca thanh rng.
Ngoi cc chuyn ng nu trn, bnh rng cn nhn chuyn ng tnh tin
qua li dc theo -ng tm ca n mi b mt rng trn ton b chiu di.
Mi chu k gia cng nh- vy gia cng -c hai mt bn ca hai rng khc nhau.
Sau bnh rng gia cng li tr v v tr ban u ri nhn chuyn ng phn
tip tc chu k gia cng tip theo.
b. Dng c
Dng c dng mi rng l mi. Khi mi rng theo nguyn l chp hnh
th hnh dng phn lm vic ca phi -c sa sao cho c bin dng ph hp vi
bin dng ca rnh rng cn gia cng. Khi mi bnh rng theo nguyn l bao hnh
th bin dng phn lm vic ca -c sa theo bin dng ca rng mt thanh rng
(hnh 8-13b) hoc dng hai a g lch tm mt gc sao cho b mt lm vic ca
hai to nn hai mt bn ca mt rng ca thanh rng (hnh 8-13 a).
c. Kh nng ng dng ca ph-ng php mi rng
Mi rng dng gia cng tinh rng ca cc bnh rng bng thp ti vi
mc ch nng cao chnh xc ca bnh rng v nhm b mt rng.
8.6.3. C rng
a. Nguyn l c rng
C rng l ph-ng php gia cng tinh rng ca cc bnh rng ch-a qua nhit
luyn bng cch co i mt lp phoi rt mng trn b mt bn ca rng bng mt
dng c c bit gi l dao c rng.
S nguyn l ca ph-ng php c rng -c th hin trn hnh 8-14

Hnh 8-14. S c rng.
Dao c rng 1 c dng mt bnh rng -c g ln trc chnh ca my v
nhn chuyn ng quay trn khin bnh rng cn gia cng 2 quay theo. Bnh
rng 2 -c g ln trc g phi g chng tm hai u trn bn my 3. -ng tm
ca dao c rng -c g nghing so vi -ng tm ca bnh rng mt gc
khong (1015)
0
to kh nng ct cho cc rng dao. Cc chuyn ng cn
thit cho qu trnh c rng bao gm:
Chuyn ng chnh l chuyn ng quay trn ca dao c rng 1 lm cho
bnh rng gia cng 2 quay theo.
Chuyn ng tnh tin qua li ca bn my mang bnh rng gia cng. Chiu
di hnh trnh ca chuyn ng ny -c tnh sao cho trong qu trnh chuyn
ng bnh rng khng ra khi v tr n khp vi dao c rng.
Chuyn ng chy dao thng ng -c thc hin cui mi hnh trnh ca
bn my. L-ng chy dao ny th-ng ly S

=(0,020,04)mm/ht.
b. Dao c rng
Dao c rng c dng mt bnh rng bng thp ti. Hai mt bn ca cc
rng dao c c ct cc rnh nh to nn l-i ct (xem hnh 8-14b). c cc
bnh rng tr rng thng ng-i ta dng dao c c rng nghing, c bnh rng
tr rng nghing ng-i ta dng dao c c rng thng.
c. Kh nng ng dng ca ph-ng php c rng.
Ph-ng php c rng dng gia cng tinh rng ca cc bnh rng c rng
thng hoc rng nghing ch-a nhit luyn.
Ph-ng php c rng c th t -c chnh xc bnh rng cp 67, nhm
b mt rng c th t cp 78.
8.6.4. Ln rng
a.Nguyn l
S nguyn l ln rng -c th hin trn hnh 8-15. Bnh rng cn gia
cng 3 ng thi n khp vi ba bnh rng mu 1, 2 v 4. Mt trong nhng bnh
rng mu ny nhn chuyn ng quay t ng c in dn ng cho bnh
rng cn gia cng v cc bnh rng mu cn li. B mt rng ca cc bnh rng
lun -c p st nhau nh cc l xo nn ln cc bnh rng mu 1 v 2. Qu trnh
ln rng lin tc o chiu san bng v nn u c hai b mt ca mi rng.
Hnh 8-15. S ln rng
b. Dng c gia cng
Dng c gia cng dng khi ln rng l cc bnh rng bng thp ti t
cng HRC= 6063. Chiu rng ca bnh rng mu (dng c) ln hn chiu rng
ca bnh rng cn gia cng.
c. Kh nng ng dng ca ph-ng php ln rng
Ph-ng php ln rng dng gia cng tinh rng ca cc bnh rng bng
thp ch-a qua nhit luyn thay cho nguyn cng c rng i vi nhng bnh rng
khng quan trng. Ph-ng php ny c th sa -c sai s hnh dng rng trong
phm vi nh, nng cao cp nhm b mt mt rng. Cp nhm b mt rng
t -c bng ph-ng php ny ph thuc vo p lc nn ln b mt rng trong
qu trnh gia cng v thi gian ln.

8.6.5. Khn rng
a. Nguyn l khn rng
Khn rng l qu trnh gia cng tinh rng ca bnh rng bng cch cho
bnh rng cn gia cng quay n khp vi mt dng c khn c dng mt bnh
rng. S nguyn l ca qu trnh khn rng -c th hin trn hnh 8-16.

Hnh 8-16. S khn rng ca bnh rng.
Qu trnh khn bnh rng c nhng im t-ng t vi qu trnh c rng
nu mc trn. -ng tm quay ca dng c khn -c nh lch so vi -ng
tm quay ca bnh rng mt gc (1518)
0
to nn hin t-ng tr-t t-ng i
trn b mt rng trong qu trnh dng c khn v bnh rng cn gia cng quay
t-ng i vi nhau nh- mt cp bnh rng n khp ( hnh 8-16a). Do c hin
t-ng tr-t t-ng i ny m cc ht mi trn dng c khn ht i mt lp kim
loi rt mng trn b mt rng ca bnh rng (hnh 8-16b). Tc quay ca dng
c khn v bnh rng khi khn ln hn nhiu so vi chuyn ng t-ng ng khi
c rng. Ngoi chuyn ng quay phi hp vi dng c khn, bnh rng cn
nhn chuyn ng tnh tin qua li dc theo -ng tm ca n. Chiu quay ca
cp n khp -c t ng thay i sau mi hnh trnh kp ca bn my mang
bnh rng gia cng. Dng c khn lun p st vo bnh rng nh l xo hoc xi
lanh thu lc.
b. Dng c khn
Dng c khn l mt bnh rng ch to t vt liu lm mi. S rng ca
dng c khn khng -c chia ht cho s rng ca bnh rng cn gia cng.
Nh- th hin trn hnh 8-16b, nh rng ca bnh rng lun tip xc vi
rnh rng ca dng c khn nn lm hn ch tc mi mn dng c khn, hn
na do bnh rng lun -c p st vo dng c khn nn rng ca dng c khn
-c t ng khi phc. Khi mn ng-i ta ch cn sa dng c khn theo -ng
knh ngoi m bo khe h cn thit A.
khn cc bnh rng c rng thng dng dng c khn c rng nghing,
khi khn cc bnh rng c rng nghing dng dng c khn c rng thng.
c. Kh nng ng dng ca ph-ng php khn rng
Khn rng l mt ph-ng php gia cng tinh dng nng cao nhm b
mt rng. nhm b mt rng sau khi khn c th -c nng ln cao hn hai
cp. Ngoi kh nng nng cao nhm b mt rng, khn cn lm sch cc ba
via c kch th-c nh hn 0,25mm, nng cao tui th ca b truyn bnh rng.
Khn rng hu nh- sa -c rt t sai s hnh dng rng v ch ct -c mt
lp (0,010,02)mm trn b mt rng cho nn bnh rng tr-c khi khn phi -c
gia cng chnh xc.
8.7. My chuyn mn ho dng gia cng rng ca bnh
rng
8.7.1. My phay ln rng
1. Cc b phn chnh ca my phay ln rng
Hnh 8-17. Hnh dng chung ca my phay ln rng.
1.Thn my; 2.Tr ng c nh; 3.u phay; 4. X ngang;5.Gi ; 6.Tr ng
di ng; 7.Bn my; 8.Bn tr-t;9. Chc bnh rng thay th ca xch tc ;
10. Chc bnh rng thay th ca xch vi sai;11. Chc bnh rng thay th ca
xch phn .
Cc b phn chnh ca my phay ln rng -c th hin trn hnh 8-17.
Tr ng c nh 2 -c lp trn thn my 1. Tr ng 2 c dn h-ng
thng ng dn h-ng chuyn ng cho u phay 3. Dao phay ln rng -c
lp trn trc g dao v nhn chuyn ng quay trn t trc chnh ca u phay 3.
u phay cng dao phay nhn chuyn ng tnh tin dc theo -ng dn h-ng
ca tr ng c nh 2 thc hin chuyn ng chy dao thng ng. Bnh rng
cn gia cng -c g trn trc g phi ca bn quay 7. Pha trn trc g phi
-c bng gi 5. Bn my 7 v tr ng di ng 6 c th chuyn ng tnh
tin theo ph-ng ngang nh bn tr-t 8. X ngang 4 ni tr ng 2 v tr ng 6
to nn kt cu khung cng vng. Thn my 1 c nhim v tt c cc cm
my v cc c cu cng tc ca my.
b. S ng ca my phay ln rng 5K32A
S ng ca my phay ln rng 5K32A -c th hin trn hnh 8-18.
Xch chuyn ng chnh
Chuyn ng chnh l chuyn ng quay trn ca dao phay. Chuyn ng
ny bt ngun t ng c in c cng sut N=7,5kw vi s vng quay n=1460
vng/pht truyn qua cp truyn ng ai 116-234, cp bnh rng thay th a-b v
cc b bnh rng trong hp truyn ng ti trc chnh mang dao phay. Ph-ng
trnh xch ng ca xch tc c th vit nh- sau:

68
17
.
29
29
.
29
29
.
29
29
. . 985 , 0 .
234
116
. 1460
tt
i n
dao
=
[vg/ph]
Bng cch thay i cc bnh rng ca cp bnh rng thay th a-b m xch
chuyn ng chnh c th to cho trc chnh mang dao 9 cp tc quay khc
nhau trong phm vi t 50 vng/pht ti 310 vng/pht.
Xch chuyn ng bao hnh
Chuyn ng bao hnh l chyn ng quay phi hp ca dao phay v bnh
rng cn ct sao cho m bo t-ng quan chuyn ng nh- mt cp trc vt-bnh
vt n khp thc s. Ph-ng trnh xch ng ca xch bao hnh c th vit d-i
dng tng qut sau:
1 vng dao .
17
68
.
29
29
.
29
29
.
27
27
. i
VS
.
58
58
.
f
e
.
1
1
b
a
.
1
1
d
c
.
33
33
.
35
35
.
96
1
=
Z
k

Trong cng thc trn:
k l s u mi ca dao phay
Z l s rng ca bnh rng cn ct
i
VS
l t s truyn ca c cu vi sai.
Khi ct bnh rng tr c rng thng th ly t s truyn ca c cu vi sai:
1
27
27
.
27
27
= =
VS
i
Khi s rng ca bnh rng cn ct Zs 161 th ly cp truyn
54
54
=
f
e
, khi s
rng ca bnh rng cn ct Z> 161 ly
72
36
=
f
e
.
T ph-ng trnh xch ng trn c th tnh -c cc bnh rng thay th
iu chnh xch bao hnh theo s rng ca bnh rng cn ct nh- sau:

Z
k
d
c
b
a
i
tt
24
.
1
1
1
1
1
= =
( khi
54
54
=
f
e
) (8.9)

Z
k
d
c
b
a
i
tt
48
.
1
1
1
1
1
= =
(khi
72
36
=
f
e
) (8.10)





Hnh 8-18. S ng ca my phay ln rng 5K32A

Xch chy dao thng ng
Chuyn ng chy dao thng ng cn thit dao ct ht chiu di ca cc
rnh rng khi gia cng bnh rng tr c rng thng v rng xon. Khu u ca
xch ny l bn my mang bnh rng cn gia cng, cn khu cui l vt me chy
dao thng ng c b-c P
V
=10mm. Ph-ng trnh xch ng ca xch c th vit:
d
S
b
a
vong = 10 .
24
1
.
45
45
.
45
50
.
65
39
. .
44
44
.
26
2
.
33
33
.
35
35
.
1
96
. 1
2
2
[mm/vng]
T ph-ng trnh trn c th tnh s rng ca cc bnh rng thay th ca xch
chy dao thng ng mt cch gn ng nh- sau:
2
2
2 d
Sd
S
b
a
i = =

Xch vi sai
Xch vi sai cn thit to cho bnh rng cn gia cng thm mt l-ng
quay ph to -ng xon khi gia cng bnh rng tr c rng xon. Khi gia
cng bnh rng tr c rng xon th chuyn ng quay chnh theo xch bao hnh
v chuyn ng quay ph to nn -ng xon ca rng -c c cu vi sai tng
hp li tr-c khi truyn ti bn my mang bnh rng gia cng.
T-ng quan chuyn ng ca xch to -ng xon ca rng c th tnh -c
thng qua hnh v khai trin ca rng trn hnh 8-19.

Hnh 8-19. Hnh khai trin rng ca bnh rng tr rng xon
Khi ct bnh rng tr rng thng th dao phay tnh tin dc theo -ng tm
ca bnh rng cn ct vi l-ng chy dao S

tnh theo mm trn mt vng quay


ca phi. Khi , dao phay tnh tin t im A v im A
1
.
Khi ct bnh rng tr c rng xon th cc rng dao phay phi chuyn ng
dc theo -ng xon vt t im A v im B
1
.Mun vy bn my phi -a bnh
rng gia cng quay i mt cung A
1
B
1
. Khi dao phay tip tc i xung th bn my
phi quay i mt cung bng cung A
2
B
2
.
Cung quay ph thm A
1
B
1
c th tnh -c mt cch d dng nu gi thit
rng bnh rng cn ct c chiu rng bng b-c -ng xon ca rng.
B-c xon ca rng bnh rng -c tnh theo cng thc:

|
t
| t | t
Sin
Z m
ctg Z m ctg d T
S
. .
. . . . . = = =
(8.11)
Trong :- m
S
- m un mt u, mm
m - m un php tuyn, mm
Z - s rng ca bnh rng cn ct
| - gc nghing -ng xon ca rng
Xt hai tam gic ng dng DEF v A
1
EB
1
c th tm -c cung quay ph
ca phi:

T
S
EF
EB
d
B A
n
d
P
= = =
1 1 1
. t
(8.12)
Khi dao phay tnh tin dc theo -ng tm ca bnh rng -c mt l-ng
bng on AD=T th phi quay ph thm mt vng.
Khu u ca xch vi sai l vt me chy dao thng ng, cn khu cui l bn
my mang bnh rng gia cng. Mun dao tnh tin mt l-ng bng b-c xon T
th th vt me chy dao thng ng phi quay -c
d
S
T
vng. Ph-ng trnh xch
ng ca xch ny c th vit:
vong x x
d
c
b
a
x
f
e
x x i x x
d
c
x
b
a
x x x
T
VS
1
96
1
35
35
.
33
33
.
58
58
.
45
1
27
27
.
22
33
1
24
10
1
1
1
1
3
3
3
3
=

Khi ct bnh rng tr c rng xon ly
2
1
=
VS
i
. Nu s rng ca bnh rng
cn ct Zs161 th 1 =
f
e
v
Z
k
d
c
b
a 48
.
1
1
1
1
=
.
Ph-ng trnh iu chnh tnh t s truyn ca chc bnh rng thay th
trong xch vi sai khi thay cc tr s t-ng ng nu trn c dng:

k m
Sin
d
c
b
a
.
. 95775 , 7
.
3
3
3
3
|
=
(8.13)
Cc ly hp in t trn s ng dng to chuyn ng chy dao nhanh
cho cc c cu cng tc ca my.
c. iu chnh my phay ln rng
iu chnh gia cng rng ca bnh rng tr rng thng
Thng s ban u iu chnh my bao gm: m un m, s rng Z, vt
liu ca bnh rng cn gia cng.
Cc chuyn ng cn thit trong qu trnh ct bao gm: Chuyn ng chnh,
chuyn ng bao hnh, chuyn ng chy dao thng ng. Khi iu chnh xch
bao hnh cn ly t s truyn i
VS
=1.

iu chnh gia cng rng ca bnh rng tr rng xon
Thng s ban u iu chnh my bao gm: m un m, s rng Z, vt
liu v gc nghing rng ca bnh rng cn gia cng.
Cc chuyn ng cn thit trong qu trnh ct bao gm: chuyn ng chnh,
chuyn ng bao hnh, chuyn ng chy dao thng ng v chuyn ng to
-ng xon cho rng. Khi iu chnh xch bao hnh cn ly t s truyn i
VS
=1/2.
to -ng xon cho rng c th dng hai ph-ng php iu chnh:
ph-ng php iu chnh vi sai v ph-ng php iu chnh khng vi sai.
Ni dung ca ph-ng php iu chnh vi sai l truyn chuyn ng quay
ph cho phi to nn -ng xon qua xch vi sai. Chuyn ng quay chnh t
xch bao hnh v chuyn ng quay ph t xch vi sai -c c cu vi sai tng hp
li tr-c khi truyn ti bn my mang bnh rng gia cng. Ni dung ca tnh ton
iu chnh xch vi sai trnh by mc trn.
Ni dung ca ph-ng php iu chnh khng vi sai l chuyn ng quay
ph ca bnh rng gia cng khng -c truyn qua xch vi sai m -c truyn
phi hp vi chuyn ng quay chnh nh xch bao hnh. Mun vy phi tnh
ton t-ng quan chuyn ng gia dao v bnh rng cn ct sao cho bnh rng
va nhn chuyn ng quay chnh va nhn -c chuyn ng quay ph.T-ng
quan chuyn ng gia bnh rng cn ct v dao khi dng ph-ng php iu
chnh khng vi sai -c tnh theo trnh t lp lun sau y:
Trong tr-ng hp ct bnh rng tr rng thng th khi dao phay quay -c
mt vng th bn my mang bnh rng phi quay -c
Z
k
vng, khi bn my
quay -c mt vng th dao phay phi quay -c Z/k vng. L-ng chy dao
thng ng S

-c tnh bng mm trn mt vng quay ca bnh rng. Nu dao


tnh tin -c mt l-ng bng b-c xon T th bn my quay -c T/ S

vng.
Khi s vng quay ca dao phay l
k
Z
S
T
d
. vng.
Khi gia cng bnh rng tr rng xon, ngoi t-ng quan chuyn ng nh-
nu trn, bn my mang bnh rng cn gia cng cn phi quay thm mt vng
rng ca dao phay chuyn ng ng theo rnh xon. Trong tr-ng hp ny
dao phay phi thc hin -c s vng quay y l
k
Z
k
Z
S
T
d
. vng. Nh- vy
t-ng quan chuyn ng gia bn my v dao phay l:

d
S
T
vng ca bn my
|
|
.
|

\
|

k
Z
k
Z
S
T
d
. vng ca dao phay.
Nhn c hai v ca ph-ng trnh trn vi
T
S
d
ta -c:
1 vng quay ca bn my |
.
|

\
|

T
S
k
Z
k
Z
d
.
vng ca dao phay. (8.14)
Thay t-ng quan chuyn ng ny vi i
VS
=1 v 1 =
f
e
vo ph-ng trnh xnh
ng ca xch vi sai nu ra phn s ng tnh s rng ca cc bnh
rng thay th
1
1
1
1
.
d
c
b
a
.
8.7.2. My xc rng
a. Cc b phn chnh ca my xc rng
Cc b phn chnh ca my xc rng -c th hin trn hnh 8-20. Thn
my bao gm hai na: na d-i 1 v na trn 2. Dao xc -c lp ln trc chnh
6 nhn chuyn ng quay trn v chuyn ng tnh tin ln xung. u xc 4
chuyn ng dc theo dn h-ng ca thn my 2 to chuyn ng chy dao
h-ng knh. Bnh rng cn gia cng -c kp cht trn trc chnh ca bn my 7
nhn chuyn ng quay trn. Ngoi nhng chuyn ng c bn nu trn, bn
my mang bnh rng cn gia cng cn nhn chuyn ng tnh tin qua li theo
mt phng nm ngang to ra chuyn ng nh-ng dao N. Chc bnh rng thay
th 8 ca xch tc dng thay i s hnh trnh kp ca dao xc trong mt
n v thi gian. Chc bnh rng thay th 3 ca xch phn dng truyn tc
vng cho dao xc v t ng chia bnh rng ra s rng cn ct. C cu chy
dao 5 cn thit to nn chuyn ng chy dao h-ng knh cho dao xc.
Hnh 8-20. Hnh dng chung ca my xc rng
b. S ng ca my xc rng 5M14
S ng ca my xc rng 5M14 -c th hin trn hnh 8-21.
Chuyn ng chnh
Chuyn ng chnh l chuyn ng tnh tin ln xung ca dao xc. Tc
chuyn ng ca chuyn ng ny -c tnh theo s hnh trnh kp trong mt
pht.



Hnh 8-21. S ng ca my xc rng 5M14

Chuyn ng bt ngun t ng c in c cng sut N=2,2kw, s vng
quay n=1410 vng/pht truyn qua cp truyn ng dy ai 100-280 ti trc I
ca hp tc . Tip theo chuyn ng -c truyn ti trc II qua mt trong cc
cp bnh rng 49-61, 29-81, 38-72 hoc 22-88 ca hai khi bnh rng di tr-t hai
bc. a dn ng c rnh h-ng knh -c lp ln pha bn tri ca trc II.
Chuyn ng t trc II truyn qua a dn ng, tay bin c dng thanh rng (m
un m=3 mm), bnh rng 26 to chuyn ng quay lc cho trc III. Chuyn ng
quay lc t trc III truyn qua cp truyn ng bnh rng-thanh rng c Z=26,
m un m=3,25 mm trn nng ca trc chnh to chuyn ng tnh tin ln
xung cho trc chnh mang dao xc. Nh- vy, t mt tc quay khng i ca
ng c in c s vng quay n=1410 vng/pht, trc chnh ca u xc nhn
bn cp tc khc nhau. S hnh trnh kp ln nht trong mt pht ca trc
chnh mang dao xc -c tnh:

398
61
49
. 985 , 0 .
280
100
. 1410 = = n
[htkp/pht]
Chuyn ng chy dao vng
Chuyn ng chy dao vng l chuyn ng quay trn ca dao xc quanh
tm ca n. L-ng chy dao vng l l-ng dch chuyn ca l-i ct ca dao xc
tnh theo -ng trn c s ca n trong mt hnh trnh kp ca trc chnh mang
dao. Chuyn ng bt ngun t trc II ca hp tc truyn qua cp truyn ng
bnh xch 28-28 ti trc IV. Tip theo chuyn ng truyn qua cp trc vt-bnh
vt 3-23 ti trc V, qua b o chiu dng b bnh rng cn 28-42-42 ti trc VI,
cp bnh rng thay th a
2
-b
2
ti trc VII v trc XI, qua cp truyn trc vt-bnh
vt 1-100 to chuyn ng quay cho trc chnh mang dao xc. Ph-ng trnh xch
ng tng qut ca xch chy dao vng -c vit d-i dng sau:

Z m
b
a
S
V
. . 14 , 3 .
100
1
. .
42
28
.
23
3
.
28
28
. 1
2
2
=
[ mm/htkp]
T ph-ng trnh xch ng tng qut trn c th rt ra cng thc tnh
ton iu chnh chc bnh rng thay th ca xch chy dao vng nh- sau:

Z m
S
b
a
V
.
. 366
2
2
=
[mm/htkp] (8.15)
Chuyn ng chy dao h-ng knh
Chuyn ng chy dao h-ng knh cng bt ngun t trc II truyn qua cp
truyn ng bnh xch 28-28 ti trc IV. Tip theo chuyn ng t trc IV truyn qua
trc XIII, qua cp bnh rng thay th a
1
-b
1
-c
1
-d
1
ti trc XIV, qua cp bnh rng cn
24-48 ti trc XV, qua cp trc vt-bnh vt 1-40, ly hp M
2
, cp trc vt-bnh vt 2-40
ti trc XVII. Trc XVII quay lm cho cam K
1
quay. B mt lm vic ca cam K
1

lun -c l xo p st vo con ln P lp trn vt me XVIII ca u xc, bi vy khi
quay b mt lm vic ca cam y vt me XVIII cng u xc tnh tin theo chiu
h-ng tm bnh rng cn gia cng.
Ph-ng trnh xch ng ca xch chy dao h-ng knh-c vit nh- sau:

H
b
a
S
hk
.
40
2
.
40
1
.
28
24
. .
28
28
. 1
1
1
=
[mm/htkp]
Trong cng thc trn H l l-ng nng ca cam K
1
tnh bng mm. Cng thc
tnh s rng ca cc bnh rng thay th cho xch chy dao h-ng knh l:

H
S
b
a
hk
. 1600
1
1
=
(8.16)
Chuyn ng bao hnh
Xch chuyn ng bao hnh ni chuyn ng quay trn ca bnh rng cn gia
cng vi chuyn ng quay trn ca dao xc rng. thc hin qu trnh bao
hnh nh- mt cp bnh rng n khp th t-ng quan chuyn ng gia bnh rng
v dao xc phi m bo khi dao quay -c mt rng dao th bnh rng cn ct
phi quay i -c mt rng. Chuyn ng quay t trc chnh mang dao truyn
qua cp truyn trc vt-bnh vt 1-100 ti trc XI v trc VII. Tip theo chuyn
ng -c truyn qua cp bnh rng cn 30-30 ti trc VIII, qua cp bnh rng
cn 30-30, chc bnh rng thay th a-b-c-d ti trc X. T trc X chuyn ng
truyn qua cp trc vt-bnh vt 1-240 to chuyn ng quay cho bn my mang
bnh rng gia cng.
Ph-ng trnh xch ng ca xch bao hnh -c vit nh- sau:

Z d
c
b
a
Z
Dao
1
240
1
. . .
30
30
.
30
30
.
1
100
.
1
= vng ca bnh rng.
T ph-ng trnh trn c th rt ra cng thc tnh s rng ca cc bnh rng
trong xch bao hnh nh- sau:

Z
Z
d
c
b
a
Dao
. 4 , 2
. =
(8.17)
Cc chuyn ng ph
Chuyn ng nh-ng dao l chuyn ng -a bnh rng gia cng vo v tr
ct hnh trnh cng tc ca dao xc v -a bnh rng ra khi v tr ct hnh
trnh chy khng. Chuyn ng ny -c thc hin nh bnh lch tm lp trn
u bn phi ca trc II. Khi trc II quay mt vng th trc chnh mang dao xc
thc hin -c mt hnh trnh kp. Bnh lch tm qua khung y v h thng
thanh y to chuyn ng tnh tin qua li cho bn my.
C cu tnh ton v t ng tt my.
C cu tnh ton v t ng tt my bao gm cam K
2
lp trn trc X, thanh
y, c cu bnh cc, ly hp vu M
2
v h thng iu khin c kh (trn hnh v
khng th hin r h thng ny). Trong qu trnh ct bnh rng, chuyn ng
chy dao h-ng knh -c truyn t xch chy dao h-ng knh nh- trnh by
trn. Khi ly hp vu M
2
vo khp. Khi dao ct n ht chiu su rnh rng
th chuyn ng chy dao dng li song qu trnh ct vn tip tc cho ti khi bn
my quay thm -c mt vng dao c th ct ht chiu su ca tt c cc rnh
rng cn li. Mun vy, cam chy dao h-ng knh tip tc quay song phn quay
thm ca cam lc ny c bn knh khng i. Ngay khi dao ct n ht chiu su
ca rnh rng u tin th cam K
1
thng qua c cu iu khin y ly hp vu M
2

ra khp v kch hot c cu bnh cc. Xch chy dao h-ng knh b ngt v cam
K
1
nhn chuyn ng quay t trc X qua bnh lch tm K
2
, c cu bnh cc, trc
XVI, cp trc vt-bnh vt 2-40 v trc XVII. Sau khi bn my mang bnh rng
gia cng quay thm mt vng th qu trnh gia cng chm dt. Vo thi im
cui chu k gia cng, con ln P ri vo rnh lm ca cam K
1
v vt me XVIII
d-i tc dng ca l xo (khng th hin trn s ng) chy sang tri ko theo
c cm trc chnh mang dao xc. Khi vt me XVIII chy nhanh sang tri th c
lp trn n p vo cng tc hnh trnh ngt ng c in lm cho my t
ng ngng hot ng
Chuyn ng quay nhanh ca bn my khi iu chnh -c bt ngun t
ng c in c cng sut N=0, 25kw vi s vng quay n=1410 vng/pht truyn
qua cp truyn ng bnh ai 80-180, cp truyn trc vt-bnh vt 1-240 ti bn
my mang phi.



























Ch-ng 9
My cng c iu khin theo
ch-ng trnh s CNC
9.1. H thng iu khin theo ch-ng trnh s
9.1.1. Nguyn tc cu trc
iu khin theo ch-ng trnh s (Numerical Control - NC) l ph-ng php
t ng iu hnh cc my mc, trong cc hnh ng iu khin -c sn
sinh trn c s cung cp cc d liu dng m "ch ci + con s v cc k t c
tr-ng", hp thnh mt ch-ng trnh lm vic. iu khin NC cng l ph-ng
php t ng ho cc chc nng ca my vi tnh linh hot cao, -c th hin
s thch ng rt d dng vi cc cng vic gia cng khc nhau.
l con -ng can thip su v trc tip ca cc qu trnh x l thng
tin trong cc hot ng sn xut, khng tch ri phm tr tin hc ng dng. My
cng v iu khin theo ch-ng trnh (NC - M) l nhng my cng v lm vic
vi cc h lnh ng/ ngt v h lnh -ng dch chuyn trn c s cung cp cc
d liu ca cng ngh gia cng ct gt dng m ni trn. Nhng h lnh ny
-c t chc thnh mt ch-ng trnh gia cng cht ch, chnh xc. Nguyn tc
cu trc ca NC - M -c m t trn hnh 9.1.
T bn v ch to chi tit v nhng s liu k thut, s liu cng ngh yu
cu, mt ch-ng trnh gia cng -c thit lp gm tng b-c ch-ng trnh k tip
nhau. Ch-ng trnh ny -c "s ho" v -c ghi vo vt mang tin bi mt "ct
m" t-ng thch. cc th h NC - M ban u, vt mang tin c th l bng c
l, bng t ( Cassette), a t ( Minidisk). Vi s pht trin cc th h NC-M sau
ny ng-i ta dng chnh b nh ca mt my tnh trung tm (trong nguyn tc
DCN) hoc b nh ca cm my vi tnh ci t ngay bn trong my cng c
(trong nguyn tc CNC) ghi nhn ch-ng trnh.
Qu trnh x l s n b-c ny -c coi l x l s ngoi my.
Tip theo l qu trnh x l s bn trong. Cc d liu ghi trn vt mang tin
-c tip nhn thng qua b c v chuyn i sang dng tn hiu t-ng t (tn
hiu in). Tn hiu ny hnh thnh gi tr "cn" ca v tr bn my (trong h lnh
v h-ng chuyn dch). N -c dn ti b phn so snh theo "nhp" iu khin
xc nh.
Gi tr "thc" v v tr bn my -c thu thp qua h thng o l-ng
chuyn dch v cng -c dn ti b so snh.
Kt qu -a ra t b so snh cp gi tr " cn - thc" tr thnh tn hiu iu
khin t ng cp cho h truyn ng, nhm t ti v tr chnh xc mong mun
ca bn my. Lc kt qu so snh cp gi tr "cn - thc" bng 0, tn hiu
khng cn na v h thng truyn ng ngng li
.


Hnh 9-1. S khi h thng iu khin theo ch-ng trnh s

Qu trnh trn y -c thc hin theo nguyn tc -ng tc dng "kn"
(hnh 9.1a). Cn trn hnh 9.1b b li m t mt h iu khin s theo nguyn tc
-ng tc dng h. y, cc thng tin ghi nhn -c truyn thng ti h truyn
ng, thng qua cm iu khin. Gi tr "thc" khng -c thu thp v phn hi
nn -ng tc dng ph thuc hon ton vo cm iu khin. Gi tr "thc"
khng -c thu thp v phn hi nn -ng tc dng l "h". i vi h lnh
ng/ ngt qu trnh cng din ra t-ng t. Chng -c ghi nh, x l v truyn
t ti cc khu iu chnh vi nhng chu k lm vic thch hp.
9.1.2. Cc dng iu khin
a. iu khin im
Hnh 9.2 m t nguyn
tc ca iu khin im. Mt
im no -c nh trn
mt to xOy. Trn hai trc
0x v 0y cn c ng thi hai
qu trnh hai qu trnh iu
khin v tr. Trong tr-ng hp
-ng tc dng khp kn, l
hai mch iu khin c lp.
D nhn thy: do chuyn ng
trn trc to x -c iu
khin khng ph thuc vo
chuyn ng trn trc to y
v ng-c li, nn dng qu o
i ti mt im no c th
l bt k. Th-ng th c hai
chuyn ng trn trc 0x v 0y
-c iu khin thc hin ng
thi. Trong qu trnh chuyn
ng nh v, dao ct khng
lm vic.


Hnh 9-2. Nguyn tc iu khin im
X, Y: to v tr
Z: ta gia cng (ph-ng chy dao)
Thi gian nh v do l thi gian ph. Ch khi cc nh v theo hai
ph-ng 0x v 0y kt thc, to im ct t -c ng v tr yu cu, dao ct
mi lm vic. Trc 0z lc ny -c quan nim l trc chy dao. Chiu su ca l
gia cng -c xc nh bi cng tc gii hn hnh trnh hoc -c iu khin bi
mt mch iu khin ring cho trc 0z.
Nguyn tc iu khin im -c ng dng trong cc my gia cng l,
ph bin l my doa to iu khin theo ch-ng trnh s.
b. iu khin -ng
Trn hnh 9.3 trnh by
nguyn tc ca dng iu khin
ny. Thc cht iu khin -ng
l mt ph-ng n ca iu khin
im.
Trn mt phng x0y, bn kp
dao tr-c ht -c iu khin ti
im P
1
. Tip theo l mt chuyn
ng ct gt -c iu khin thc
hin trn mt trong cc trc to
cho n im P
2
. Trc to th ba
ng vai tr nh- mt chuyn ng
dch chnh. Nu t mt v tr n
mt v tr khc m u dao -c
dch chuyn theo cc -ng vung
gc vi nhau, ta gi l iu khin
hnh trnh theo chu k ch nht;
nh-ng y khng c quan h
hm s gia cc trc to (ging
vi iu khin im). Trong tr-ng
hp cc chuyn ng trn hai trc
to c rng buc hm s to
ra mt -ng thng khng song
song vi cc trc ta , ta gi
l iu khin -ng -ng m rng
Nguyn tc iu khin -ng
-c p dng trn cc my tin,
my phay iu iu khin theo
ch-ng trnh s





Hnh 9-3. S khi iu khin im trn
hai trc x & y
Hnh 9.3 trnh by nguyn tc s khi ca iu khin im v iu khin
-ng trong NC - M.
c. iu khin phi tuyn.
iu khin phi tuyn nhm thc hin gia cng theo mt qu o cong no
chc chn phi c mi quan h hm s gia cc to v phi c mt "mt
thng tin" ln v qu o gia cng -c chnh xc yu cu. Th-ng th
cc bng c l hoc ngay c bng t cng ch cha -c mt l-ng thng tin
cho cc im khong cch ln, mt thng tin khng cho mt qu o
cong m bo tnh trn tru ca n. Bi vy, i vi mt l-ng dy c cc im
trung gian cn thit nm trn -ng cong mong mun ( hnh 9.4) ng-i ta buc
phi dng n my tnh thc hin cc tnh ton chuyn dng, lin tc -a ra
thng s cn thit ca cc im trung gian v gi n l b ni suy.

Hnh 9-4. Ni suy -ng cong hai kch th-c, iu khin phi tuyn.
B ni suy c th l mt hay nhiu cm vi x l (P: Microprocessor) ci
t trong h iu khin my (-c gi l ni suy trong) hoc c th l mt my
tnh x l s liu bn ngoi h iu khin my (ni suy ngoi). Cc gi tr -a ra
t b ni suy ng vai tr l gi tr cn (hay l i l-ng dn lin tc) iu khin
cc mch iu chnh hay iu khin ng c b-c lm vic. Ta th-ng c iu
khin phi tuyn hai kch th-c (2D) v iu khin phi tuyn 3 kch th-c (3D).
Bn c thy r ng dng ca cc nguyn tc ny vo tr-ng hp phay rnh cong
phng (trn hnh 9.5) v tr-ng hp phay mt cong khng gian (trn hnh 9.6)
trn cc my phay iu khin theo ch-ng trnh s.




Hnh 9-5. Nguyn tc iu khin Hnh 9-6. Nguyn tc iu khin
phi tuyn 2 kch th-c phi tuyn 3 kch th-c


Ngoi ra, iu khin phi
tuyn cng -c p dng trn my
tin, my mi bin dng... iu
khin theo ch-ng trnh s.
Nguyn tc s khi ca
iu khin phi tuyn -c trnh by
trn hnh 9.7.
9.1.3. Vt mang tin v ct m
ho
u im c bit ca my
cng c iu khin theo ch-ng
trnh s l phn ln cc cng vic
chun b c th tch ri my v lm
trong vn phng vi s tham gia ca
k thut tin hc.
Cc cng vic gn lin vi qu
trnh to ra vt mang tin (hay vt
mang ch-ng trnh) gi l vic lp
trnh. Do s tch ri v khng gian
gia on lp trnh v on x l
iu khin my m i hi vt
mang tin phi c nhng c tnh
ring, thch hp, m bo cho dng
thng tin -c t chc hp l v
hot ng vi tin cy cn thit.



Hnh 9.7: S khi iu khin phi
tuyn 2D (ni suy trong)
Vt mang tin cn c mt thng tin cao (bit/cm
2
) m bo truyn t
mt l-ng cc i cc thng tin; truyn t trong thi gian ngn nht, khng -c
php mc li v t tiu hao nng l-ng nht. Ngy nay vt mang tin dng.
- cc c l vi dung l-ng 7 bt/cm
2
- bng c l vi dung l-ng 15 bt/cm
2
u khng cn -c s dng trong cng nghip na. Vt mang tin l bng
t c mt thng tin t-ng i ln (khong 1250 bt/cm
2
) nh-ng li d b xo,
d b nhim bn, cng ch -c dng trong cc th nghim gia cng bin dng
phc tp trn cc NC - M khng c b ni suy trong.
Vi s pht trin ca cc h my CNC (Computer Numerical Control),
cc chc nng iu khin v cc qu trnh x l tnh ton s -c cc cm vi tnh
m nhim tng phn hoc ton b. y l cc thit b tnh ton c kh nng
ch-ng trnh ho v -c ci t trc tip vo cm iu khin my. Chng m
nhim x l cc d liu thng tin trong qu trnh iu khin my hot ng, k c
h lnh -ng dch chuyn cng nh- h lnh ng/ ngt. Chng m bo c cc
qu trnh tnh ton xc nh sai lch hiu chnh, chuyn dch to v.v...
Vi cc thit b tnh ton, ch-ng trnh gia cng lp ra c th l-u tr trn
cc a 5 inch 1/4 hoc 3 inch 1/2 nh- th- vin ch-ng trnh ca bn thn my
tnh. Vic chuyn i tt c cc thng tin iu khin thuc h lnh -ng ng/
ngt sang mt h thng k hiu khc -c gi l qu trnh m ha.Cha kho m
hay l ct m ho -c quy nh bi cc t hp ch ci v con s, ta gi l ct
m s - ch ci.
C s ca mt h thng ct m ho l cc ct m c bn gi l "ct phn
t". Chng -c trnh by -i dng h thng cc con s. Bn c th xc nh
xem mt con s cn -c trnh by nh- th no d-i dng lu tha ca c s 2,
c s 10, c s 5... chng hn con s:
395647 = 3.10
5
+ 9.10
4
+ 5.10
3
+ 6.10
2
+ 4.10
1
+ 7.10
0

= 1.2
18
+ 1.2
17
+ 0.2
16
+ 0.2
15
+ 0.2
14
+ 0.2
13
+ 0.2
12
+ 1.2
11
+ 0.2
10
+
0.2
9
+ 1.2
8
+ 0.2
7
+ 1.2
6
+ 1.2
5
+ 1.2
4
+ 1.2
3
+ 1.2
2
+ 1.2
1
+ 1.2
0

= 1.5
8
+ 0.5
7
+ 0.5
6
+ 1.5
5
+ 3.5
4
+ 0.5
3
+ 0.5
2
+ 4.5
1
+ 2.5
0

D nhn thy trnh by con s 395647 trong h thp phn (c s 10) cn
ti 10 con s t 0 n 9 v 6 bc lu tha 0 n 5; h bi 5 (c s 5) cn 5 con s
t 0 n 4 v 9 bc lu tha t 0 n 8; h nh phn (c s 2) ch cn 2 con s 0
v 1 v 19 bc lu tha t 0 n 18.
Mc d h nh phn cn ti mt s ln cc v tr trnh by (s bc lu
tha) nh-ng mi v tr ca mt bc lu tha no ch cn hai con s 0 hoc
1 ("khng hoc "c"; "ngt" hoc "ng"....). Nh kh nng chnh xc ho cao
bi s phn bit hai trng thi i lp ni trn, h nh phn -c ng dng hon
ton thch hp vi cc k thut o l-ng, tnh ton, iu khin.
V mt phn t cu trc, do nhiu thit b, linh kin in t, phn t thu
lc - kh nn c bit l cc c cu n gin nh- cng tc, van, r le v.v.... ch
gm hai trng thi hot ng. Nu din gii chng d-i dng s ca h nh phn
0/1 (hoc O/L) - khng/c - sai/ng - ti/sng - ngt/ng - khng p sut/ c p
sut - ri nhau/ gp nhau v.v... Ngay c nhng mch in hp thnh "block" vi
cc phn t bn dn, in tr, transitor, t in, bin p v.v... cng c th thit k
sao cho chng ch tn ti v hot ng hai trng thi ng vi cc vng th hiu
thp/th hiu cao. Do ch c hai trng thi m cc block ny lm vic rt an ton,
c lp vi mi nh h-ng ca bn ngoi. Bi vy m nh phn -c ng dng
ph bin trong thit b x l s in t.
9.1.4. c tr-ng c bn ca k thut iu khin s ( NC - Technic)
K thut NC mng 5 c tnh c bn d-i y.
a. Nng tnh t ng cao
Cc my ng dng k thut NC t -c tc dch chuyn ln. Trong lnh
vc gia cng ct gt, my cng c NC c nng sut ct gt cao v gim -c ti
a thi gian ph, do mc t ng -c nng cao v-t bc. So snh mt my
trong th h c vi mt my NC trn c s thi gian ct (T
c
) nh- nhau; lp cc t
l T
c
/T
sx
v T
c
/T
m
trong .
T
sx
: Tng thi gian sn xut
T
m
: Tng thi gian my lm vic, ta c kt qu sau:

T
c
/T
m
(%) T
m
T
sx
(%) T
c
/T
sx
(%)
My th h c
My NC
30
75
60
70
18
63

D nhn thy: trong cng mt qu thi gian sn xut c th c, my
NC c thi gian ct gt tng gp 3 ln cc my th h tr-c n. l kt
qu trc tip ca trnh t ng ho cao.
b. Nng tnh linh hot cao
Vi mt t chc tt cho cng tc chun b sn xut v chun b mi tr-ng
quanh vng lm vic, my NC c th d dng thay i ch-ng trnh gia cng,
thch ng vi cc lot chi tit khc nhau.Trn bn thn my NC, thi gian chun
b v hiu chnh k thut ti khu vc lm vic gim ng k; thi gian thay dao
-c thc hin nhanh chng, chnh xc, c th chun b dao vng ngoi vi v
np tr li vo tch dao chuyn dng gn trn my.
My NC c th thc hin cng lc nhiu chuyn ng khc nhau, c t
ng hiu chnh sai s dao c, t ng kim tra kch th-c chi tit v qua t
ng hiu chnh sai lch v tr t-ng i gia dao v chi tit.
My NC gia cng -c cc loi chi tit nh, phn ng mt cch linh hot
khi nhim v cng ngh thay i v iu quan trng nht l vic lp trnh gia
cng c th thc hin ngoi my, trong cc vn phng c s h tr ca k thut
tin hc thng qua cc thit b vi tnh, vi x l...
c. Nng tnh tp trung nguyn cng cp cao.
a s my NC c th thc hin mt s l-ng ln cc nguyn cng
khc nhau m khng cn thay i v tr g t ca chi tit. T kh nng tp
trung nguyn cng, cc my NC -c pht trin thnh cc trung tm gia
cng NC. V d trung tm tin: lm tt c cc cng vic v tin; trung tm
phay, khoan khot, doa...
d. Nng tnh chnh xc, m bo cht l-ng cao.
chnh xc lp li - c tr-ng cho mc n nh trong sut qu trnh
m bo cht l-ng gia cng cao, l im -u vit tuyt i ca my NC.
Bn thn nguyn tc iu khin theo ch-ng trnh s l m bo c bn
ca chnh xc gia cng trn my. Ngoi ra my NC cn c iu kin khai thc
ti a cc ch ct gt, cc nguyn l ct v ph-ng n g t, m bo
chnh xc cao, n nh cht l-ng sn phm.

e. Nng tnh hiu qu kinh t - k thut cao
S la chn th h my
NC ngy nay tr thnh mt c
tnh cn thit c tm quyt nh
i vi cc x nghip cng
nghip. Nhiu nghin cu d
bo v kh nng pht trin, kh
nng li nhun v kh nng ti
sn xut tim tng thuyt
phc gii cng nghip ngy cng
tin ti ph cp k thut iu
khin s cho cc my cng c.
Cng vi qu trnh thit k cc
m un sn phm mi, ng-i ta
c bit ch rng thit k kt
cu chi tit my cn phi nh
h-ng sao cho ch c th h my
NC mi gia cng -c chng.
Hnh 9.8 trnh by lnh
vc s dng my NC theo hai
ch tiu c bn l gi thnh ch
to chi tit v s l-ng chi tit
ca lot sn phm. Gi thnh ch
to cc chi tit trn my NC l
mt hm s ca nhiu yu t:


I My c in
II My c in c dao chuyn dng
III My NC
IV My chuyn dng
V Dy chuyn my

Hnh9-8. Lnh vc s dng my NC
- Cc gi c lin quan n chi tit C
a
; vt liu; lao ng sng, trc tip, nng
l-ng v.v...
- Cc gi lin quan n l sn phm C
b
; trin khai l; iu chnh theo l...
- Cc gi lin quan n lot sn xut C
c
; chun b cng ngh, chun b dao
c g lp...
V d: Cho mt loi sn phm sn xut n chi tit, chia thnh q l sn phm,
mi l c m i t-ng gia cng.
Gi thnh mt chi tit -c tnh theo cng thc tng qut l:
C
b
C
c
C = C
a
+ ----- + -----
m m
q
C
d
do m
q
= n nn C = C
a
+ ---- vi C
d
= C
c
+ qC
b

n
T nhn thy gi thnh bin thin theo hm hyperbol vi bin s n.
Bn c thy r vng ng dng ca my NC ch yu l loi hnh sn
xut lot va v nh. Nh- trnh by, ngay c nhng n-c cng nghip pht
trin dng sn xut va v nh vn l thnh phn quan trng nht. C th tham
kho s liu d-i y, thng k trong nm 1981 v sn xut cng nghip th gii
- cng b trn tp ch "American Machinist" - Lnh vc my NC:

N-c sn xut triu USD
M 5.150
Nht 4.869
CHLH c 4.030
Lin x 3.220
1.410
Anh 919
Php 816
Thu S 809


9.2. My cng c iu khin theo ch-ng trnh s (NC - M)
9.2.1. Chc nng ca NC - M
thc hin cc nguyn cng gia cng d kin trn my, NC - M phi c
y cc trang, thit b k thut bo m cc chc nng sau y:
a. Cc chuyn ng thc hin dch chuyn t-ng i Dao/Chi tit theo
mt ch-ng trnh xc nh.
1. Chuyn ng bo m tc ct hay nng l-ng to hnh:
Dng c ct theo truyn thng c th d-c:
- Truyn mt chuyn ng to ra tc ct trc tip.
- Truyn mt chuyn ng chy dao vi tc nh v theo mt h-ng khc
vi h-ng tc ct.
- Truyn ng thi c hai tc ct v chy dao theo ph-ng n t hp
- Gi c nh trong ph-ng n cc chuyn ng ni trn -c truyn cho
chi tit gia cng.
Cng sut m bo nng l-ng to hnh thay i trong khong rng: t
vi trm Watt n vi trm Kw.
2. Chuyn ng chy dao
m bo cc dch chuyn ca dng c ct hoc ca chi tit gia cng
trong cc qu o t-ng i gia chng. Nhng qu o ny ph thuc
vo bin dng ct ca qu trnh to hnh, bin dng ca bn thn dng c
ct v cc yu cu k thut t ra cho chi tit gia cng. Cng sut ca
chuyn ng chy dao thay i trong khong mt vi kW, tr nhng
tr-ng hp my gia cng cc kch th-c rt ln.
Tt c cc truyn ng ni trn u thc hin bi nhng ng c ring
bit, -c iu khin c lp vi nhau.
b. Qu trnh cp dao
Cc th h NC - M ngy cng -c trang b nhng h thng cp dao hon
chnh hn, trong cc qu trnh cp dao, chuyn i dng c u -c thc
hin mt cch t ng.
Mt t hp cc nhm dao, la chn theo nhng nhim v cng ngh
d kin tr-c, -c xp vo tch lu dao. T ny, dao -c trc tip
chuyn cho kt cu kp dao trn u trc chnh, hoc thng qua mt tay
my i dao, m bo ly dao va ct xong trc chnh tr li tch lu v
thay mt dao mi t dao lp vo trc chnh.
Ph bin c hai
loi tch lu dao
-c trnh by trn
hnh 9. trong
9. a l dao
dng a hoc dng
tang quay.
9. b l dao
dng xch hoc tang
quay c mt dung
l-ng c nh nh-ng
bn thn c a hoc
tang quay c th
-c thay i mt
cch t ng. tch
lu dao kiu xch th
c th thay i -c
s l-ng dao cha
trong n.




Hnh 9-9. tch lu dao
a: a hoc tang quay; b: xch; c v d: mnh ct
trao i -c.
A: Dng c ct; B: a mang dao; C: Hc dao; D:
Phn t kp mnh ct; E: mnh ct; F: rnh cha; G:
Phn t dng c.
i vi cc my tin iu khin NC, gii php mi nht -c p dng l
ch cn thay i mnh ct phn u dao. Nhng mnh ct ny -c gi vo cc
hc cha trn mt tang quay, t cao hn xch dch chuyn thn dao. Nh cc c
cu kp nhanh c th gii quyt -c vic thay i cc mnh ct g trn phn u
dao (hnh 9. c v 9. d). Trong nhiu tr-ng hp ng-i ta dng tch lu dao c
lp vi my v ni ghp dng dao c vo my nh mt robot trung gian. Bn thn
cc tch lu dao u c th -c thay i t ng. Tc i dao hoc i c
tch lu dao l mt c tnh k thut quan trng ca NC - M.
c. Qu trnh cp chi tit
Hy phn bit hai nhm my nh- sau:
- Nhm my c chi tit quay: Vic tho ra chi tit va gia cng v g vo
mt phi gia cng mi -c thc hin bi mt r bt gn lin vi my. Kt cu
hp thnh ton my do ph thuc vo cc chuyn ng m ta yu cu robot
thc hin, hay ph thuc vo "tr-ng cng tc" ca robot. Cc chi tit gia cng
xong cng nh- cc chi tit th -c t trn nhng gi di ng -c nhng
dng mt bng ti hoc t trn mng dn m bo s dch chuyn ca chng
theo nguyn tc trng lc (xem hnh 9.10).
- Nhm my c dao quay:
Cc chi tit -c g lp c nh trn cc bn g chun (Palette). Cc palette
li -c t trn bng ti v dch ng. Vic chuyn giao gia bng ti v bn my
cng -c thc hin bi cc robot. Trn hnh 9.11 trnh by mt h thng chuyn
giao palette.
d. Qu trnh bi trn
lm ngui v lm sch
Vic bi trn v lm ngui
-c thc hin thng qua
ch-ng trnh iu khin my.
Ni cch khc cc iu khin
ph tr ca mi b-c gia
cng trong quy trnh cng
ngh cng -c quan tm khi
lp trnh nh- cc thng s k
thut ct gt hoc cc d liu
cng ngh khc.
Vic lm sch th-ng
-c thc hin t ng ti
cc thi im thch hp nh-
cc giai on i dao, i g
lp hoc i bn kp chun.







a: h thng bng ti chi tit
b: h thng ti con ln M: my
A: chi tit cp vo P: chi tit
B: tay my i chi tit R: robot
E: chi tit mang i
Hnh 9-10. H thng cp chi tit





a: chuyn giao bng bn quay c: chuyn giao cho trung tm gia cng
b: dng bng ti hoc xe dn h-ng B: trc chnh; C: bng ti; T: i Pallete
Hnh 9-11. H thng chuyn giao Pallete
NC - M th-ng -c trang b h thng khai thc phoi ct hoc cc ph
liu, ph thi mt cch t ng khng cn n lao ng ca con ng-i.
9.2.2. Cu trc tng th ca NC - M.
Cu trc ca cc my iu khin NC -c thc hin trong mt khong
rng cc ph-ng n ht sc khc bit. Chng bao gm c nhng ph-ng n
truyn thng ca my cng c thng th-ng vn rt a dng.
D-i y ch xin trnh by b cc ca hai nhm my ph bin nht, nh- l
nhng v d in hnh v ph-ng n cu trc tng th ca NC - M.
a. Cu trc my tin NC
1. My tin NC c trc chnh nm ngang (h9.12a): Loi ny th-ng c
bng nghing hoc thng ng, trn c lp mt n hai xe dao mang u dao
quay (dng Revonve) g nhiu dng c ct khc nhau.
Cc xe dao c th mang theo dao v thng qua mt tay my chuyn
dng chuyn i dng c ct gia dao v trc mang dao.
Trn nhng my tin NC hai xe dao, c th tin hnh ct gt ng thi,
-c gi l my tin NC iu khin 4 trc t ng.
C cu khai thc phoi ct -c lp t trong gm my v -c bao che
ton b.
Thit b iu khin NC gn lin vi cu trc my.
2. My tin NC c trc chnh thng ng.
Trn hnh 9.12b v c. trnh by cc mu b cc loi my ny.
Chng c th c mt hoc hai trc chnh, cc xe dao mang nhiu dng c
ct -c truyn cc chuyn ng chy dao vung gc vi nhau.
Trn mt s my tin, m rng kh nng cng ngh c th g lp cc
u phay chuyn dng vi vai tr l cm my km theo cu trc tng th ca
my.





A: Bng my; B: u dao quay; C: Chi tit;
D: u dao quay c hai chuyn ng ct nhau vung gc; E: Bn g chi tit
Hnh 9.12. Cu trc my tin NC



b. Cu trc ca my phay NC
Trn hnh 9.13 tng kt cc ph-ng n cu trc khc nhau ca h my
phay NC. S l-ng cc chuyn ng ca bn my chnh v ph quy nh tnh
nng iu khin my vi 4, 5, 6 trc hoc nhiu hn na.



Hnh 9-13. Cu trc ca h my phay NC
d phn tch b cc ca ph-ng n cu trc my trnh by trn hnh 9.
bn c c th lp bng nh- sau:
Trc chnh A
nm ngang
hoc thng
ng
Trc chnh
Nm ngang
Trc chnh
Nm ngang
dc
Thng ng
Trc chnh
ngang
Chy dao dc
Bn mang chi tit b
"
Xe dao mang g
F
Bn g chi tit
Xe dao trc chnh
Xe dao trung gian
Bn g chi tit
Chy dao ngang
Xe dao
"
Gi u trc
chnh E
Gi u trc
chnh

Bn g chi tit

Xe dao trc
chnh
Xe dao trung
gian
Chy dao ng
Xe dao trc chnh D
u trc chnh
"
Xe dao trung gian
Xe dao trung gian G
Xe giao trung gian H

Bn g chi tit
Xe dao trc chnh
Hnh v
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)

(g)
(h)

i vi nhng my phay c t trc iu khin hn, u trc chnh th-ng
-c trang b mm dao Revonve mang nhiu dao hoc mt u trc c hp
truyn ng cho nhiu trc quay, ghp ni t ng vo trc quay chnh ca my
trong qu trnh lm vic
Nghin cu tng th ca NC - M, c th thy trong b cc ca chng
ng-i ta quan tm ti khng nhng nng tnh k thut ca my m cn rt coi
trng cc yu t t chc l-u thng cho dng vn ng ca chi tit, ca dao v cc
yu t ph tr trong tr-ng cng tc ca robot cng nghip l kha cnh
khng th b qua.
9.2.3. -ng h-ng ca NC - M
-ng h-ng ca NC - M bo m hai chc nng quan trng l:
- chnh xc dn ng cc xe dao v bn my
- Kh nng chu lc trong sut qu trnh ct gt.
a. Yu cu cht l-ng i vi -ng h-ng ca NC - M
Xut pht t cc chc nng k thut do -ng h-ng ca NC - M m
bo, nhng yu cu k thut t ra khi thit k, ch to -ng h-ng phi p
ng l:
- C cng vng tt i vi cc lc lm vic
- C ht rung ng tt trong mt phng vung gc vi ph-ng
chuyn ng.
- Lc i ng-c vi chuyn ng ca b phn dn h-ng (xe dao, bn
my...) cn phi nh v nht l t thay i theo tc dch chuyn.
- Cn c gim chn trn ph-ng chuyn ng.
Trong nhiu tr-ng hp, cc xe dao ca my NC dch chuyn vi tc
thp (khong mt vi m/ph). C nhng chuyn dch chm nh- th cng phi -c
iu khin v dch chnh chnh xc. Cht l-ng ca cc dch ng c tc thp
ph thuc tr-c ht vo quan h hm s gia lc ma st v tc . Trong nhng
tr-ng hp nht nh,
c mt dao ng
thc, t duy tr, trm


ln vng tc dch
chuyn. Dao ng
ny c th c gi tr
bin trit tiu -c
gi tr tc thp
bng cch ho nhp
dch chuyn chm
vo bn thn qu
trnh dao ng.
Trn hnh 9.14
trnh by c tnh
quan h gia lc ma



I: -ng h-ng c cp vt liu gang/gang -c bi trn
II: -ng h-ng l vt liu Composit dn trn thp ti.
(Polytetrafluorethylene = PTFE)
Hnh 9-14. S tng tr-ng ca h s ma st trong
quan h vi tc dch chuyn
st v tc , n cho php xc nh -c cc tc chm hp l, ti lc ma
st ca cp b mt c dch chuyn t-ng i, tc thp, l nh nht. Mt khc
ng-i ta cng quan tm n cc tiu chun la chn dng -ng h-ng, ch
ma st, ch vt liu v bi trn nhm trnh -c cc hin t-ng mt ht dch
ng chm ni trn.
b. Cc dng -ng h-ng ca NC - M
1. -ng h-ng ma st kh hay ma st na -t.
y l nhng -ng h-ng u tin p dng trong ngnh c kh. B mt
chu lc ma st chnh l b mt tip xc, hoc l trc tip hoc qua lp mng du
t-i vo nh k. Nhng -ng h-ng dng ny c cht l-ng cao v cng v
ht rung ng . Tuy nhin ch c nhng -ng h-ng -c bi trn l t
-c tui th kh d chp nhn.
Cho n nay, nhng vt liu mi nht dng ch to -ng h-ng cng
khng th lm vic trng thi ma st kh m khng gy cho my nhng mn
ng k.
Mt s vt liu composite ( v d Polytetra fluorethylene - vit tt l PTFF)
cho php gim -c h s ma st dng ( hnh 9. ). Nhng -ng h-ng ch to
bng vt liu ny th-ng c mt h chc nng khi lp rp kt cu. Chng loi
tr -c hin t-ng cn, do trong kt cu c s dng cc tm tr-t mang bi hoc
con ln. tr-ng hp ny, khe h hnh thnh trong lc dch chuyn s to ra mt
mng du ng hc, nh h thng thc hin bi trn bi dng du c p lc,
ngay c trong qu trnh khi ng hay phanh hm. Ng-i ta th-ng dng cc loi
du bi trn c ph gia dnh kt nhm gim h s ma st.
2. -ng h-ng c phn t ln.
Nhng phn t ln c th l nhng vin bi, cc con ln hoc kim ln ( t l
1/d rt ln). C th chia ra hai nhm -ng h-ng s dng cc phn t ln:
- Nhm -ng h-ng khng c hnh trnh lp: on dch chuyn hn ch.
- Nhm -ng h-ng c hnh trnh lp: on dch chuyn khng hn ch.
Cc -ng h-ng ch to dng c s dng cc phn t ln -c ng dng
ch yu trn cc my NC hng nh, nh-ng cng c th gp mt s cm kt cu
trn my NC hng nng. c tnh c bn ca chng l lc dch chuyn cn thit
kh nh, h s ma st thp (khong mt vi phn nghn). cng vng ca h
thng -ng h-ng tng ln theo thng s -ng knh con ln v s l-ng ca
chng. Khi s dng -ng h-ng dng ny cn m bo mt h s qu ti ln
c -c cng vng n nh. -ng dn h-ng dc theo ph-ng dch
chuyn phi -c th-ng xuyn bo d-ng v kim tra, c bit l vic cn chnh
khe h c th dn n cc phn lc mt bn, hn ch kh nng hot ng v
dn n hin t-ng mn khng bnh th-ng.
Mt khc l-u rng: kh nng ht dao ng theo ph-ng vung gc vi
ph-ng chuyn ng ca cc -ng h-ng dng phn t ln l rt km. Ch
bo d-ng cng cn phi thc hin ng yu cu k thut nhm m bo hiu
qu hot ng ca cm -ng h-ng.
3. -ng h-ng thu kh
* H thng thu tnh
Trn hnh 9.15 l nhng s nguyn tc ca cm -ng h-ng thu tnh
vi cc c tnh sau y:
- Trit thoi tip xc gia cc chi tit dn h-ng v -c dn h-ng do
khng b mn.
- H s ma st tng cng vi tc dch chuyn (f = 0 khi v = 0). iu ny
khng phi lun l -u im ca h thng.
- C cng vng cao v kh nng gim chn tt.
iu quan trng l cc c tnh ny c th -c tnh ton mt cch chnh
xc. Cn ch l h thng c th b nng ln, nh-ng c iu ny na cng c th
tnh -c v cn tnh tr-c nhng gi tr c nh.
Ta c th thit k thm nhng -ng h-ng ph tr nhm bo m gi
khe h n nh gia cc phn t, hoc gi thng ca phn t dn ng.
H thng thy tnh cn c mt cm thit b sinh du p lc v cm
-ng ng dn du v b sau khi thot ra khi -ng h-ng.
-ng h-ng thu tnh -c dng cc my NC hng nng v cc
my NC chnh xc cao.





a: H thng cp du p lc khng i, tit l-u c nh D
b: H thng cp du l-u l-ng khng i
c: H thng cp du ph thuc kt qu o chiu dy mng du C
d: H thng cp du ph thuc o p lc
A: Bm; B: Van chnh p; P: p lc; Q: L-u l-ng
Hnh 9-15. -ng h-ng thu tnh

* H thng kh tnh
H thng kh tnh -c thit lp trn cng mt nguyn tc vi h thng
thu tnh. Chng s dng dng kh p lc cao, tuy nhin mc ti trng t ln
-ng h-ng kh tnh th-ng nh hn.
Trong cng mt kch th-c h thng, -ng h-ng kh tnh th-ng c
cng vng thp hn -ng h-ng thu tnh. u im ring ca h thng kh tnh
l khng cn cm -ng ng dn ng-c. Trong thc t, lnh vc s dng ca
-ng h-ng kh tnh l cc my NC c chnh xc cao hoc my NC c
dao ng v mc ti trng thp.



9.2.4. Cc xch ng hc ca NC - M
Ton b cc con -ng truyn ng n tng c cu chp hnh ca NC -
M u dng nhng ngun ng lc ring bit (truyn dn c lp trit ). Bi
vy cc cc xch ng hc ca NC - M ch gm hai loi c bn l:
- Xch ng cng sut ct gt.
- Xch ng hc ca chuyn ng chy dao.
Vic tnh ton, thit k v ch to -c thc hin theo nguyn tc modul ho.
Nhn tng qut, xch cng sut ct gt th-ng bt u t mt ng c c
tc thay i v cp, dn ng trc chnh thng qua mt hp tc ch c 2
n 3 cp, nhm khuych i cc mmen ct t tr s cn thit trn c s tc
ban u.
Xch ng hc chy dao gm cc phn t, cc cm kt cu m bo cc
chuyn ng ca cc xe dao trn my. V mt chc nng xch chy dao phi tho
mn nhng yu cu t ra l:
- Truyn ng cho cc b phn dch chuyn vi tc u, chy
m v n nh.
- Thc hin -c cc thay i vn tc theo ch-ng trnh, xc nh c v tr
s v chiu, khng c s tho lng chi tit hoc sai lch v tr t-ng i gia dao
v chi tit gia cng.
- Cung cp lc cn thit thng nhng thnh phn lc ct theo chiu
chuyn ng.
- Trong tr-ng hp cn thit, mt b phn no ca xch chy dao cn
phi m nhim chc nng o l-ng cc dch chuyn ca xe dao.
- tho mn hai yu cu u tin, xch chy dao cn c tn s dao ng
ring ln nht theo iu kin c th, tnh ngay t u ngun ng lc ca xch.
Vi gi nh rng khi l-ng bn my v chi tit gia cng l mt d kin,
ta c gng dng nhng c cu c qun tnh (quay v tnh tin) nh nht c th,
ng thi li c cng vng cao nht.
C th thy ngay rng mi l thuyt tnh ton thit k ng hc cc
xch truyn ng trong my cng c vn nng thng th-ng i vi my
NC khng cn ngha na. Do cc nguyn tc nh- truyn dn v cp,
truyn dn c lp v nht l nguyn tc modul ho kt cu, ng-i ta quan
tm nhiu n cc cm kt cu c th, u t- nghin cu theo chiu su v
ng dng nhanh nht cc tin b khoa hc k thut trong khi ch to cc
mdul. D-i y xin m t i iu v hai cm kt cu quan trng nht ca
moul cc xch ng.


a. Cm c kh

1. Kt cu vit/ ai
c bi
Kt cu ny
-c ng dng ph bin
trong xch ng chy
dao, trong hu ht l
b truyn vitme ai c bi
c ng lc. S nguyn
tc trnh by trn hnh
9.16a. ng lc to ra
kh cc khe ng-c
chiu v tuyn tnh ho
-ng c tnh ti trng/
dch ng trong vng ti
trng yu.
Cc vt me
trong b truyn ny b
hn ch v chiu di.
di 3 hay 4 m n kh thc
hin -c cc tc dch
ng cao.
Truynng
quay cho vit me -c
thc hin theo mt s
ph-ng n sau y:








b: chy dao bng thanh rng/bnh rng
C: thanh rng lin thn my; V: vitme bi;
E: ai c; R: hp gim tc; P1: c hoc
khng c c chn; M: ng c; T: bn my; P2:
c c chn; P3: bnh rng
Hnh 9-16. Xch ng hc chy dao

- Thng qua mt hp tc gm cc b truyn bnh rng, trong phi
dng kt cu kh h n khp v dn ng bng ng c tc cao (ng c
in qun tnh yu hoc ng c thu lc kiu quay)
- Da vo nhng khong cch gia hai gi ta, s dng mt b truyn ai
(c t s gim tc ln) -c dn ng bi cc ng c c tc chm.
- Dng cc khp ni trc tip vi trc ca ng c dn ng (ng c c
tc chm)
i vi cc hnh trnh ln, ng-i ta thay vt me c chiu di ln bng mt
vt me ngn v thay ai c bi mt bnh rng xon (helicodal).
2. Kt cu thanh rng/ bnh rng
Kt cu ny -c p dng tr-c ht cho cc my NC c ln, c hnh trnh
chy dao di. y khng c s hn ch v tc nh- tr-ng hp vit me/ ai c
bi, nh-ng cc bin php kh khe h n khp bnh rng nht thit phi -c thc
hin. Thng th-ng ng-i ta thit k hai xch ng nht cng lm vic nh-ng
theo nhng h-ng i ng-c nhau trn thanh rng (H 9. b). Cc tc dch
chuyn chm ca bn my cng yu cu cc bnh rng quay vi tc rt thp,
ta buc phi dng cc hp gim tc to ra vng s vng quay nh ny.
b. Cm pht ng lc
Trong mc ny ch xin -a ra mt cch khi qut cc loi ng c -c
dng trong cc my NC d hnh dung hn cc moul kt cu.
1. Cc ng c in
* ng c in mt chiu
C hai dng c bn -c s dng l:
- ng c dt: C tc t-ng i cao vi qun tnh nh v hiu ng
nhit ng nh. ng c th-ng truyn ng qua mt hp gim tc tr-c khi vo
vt me. Hu ht cc ng c kiu ny u c b phn cm ng l cc nam chm
vnh cu.
- ng c di: C tc t-ng i thp, c th c qun tnh nh tu theo
mc tng ca t l chiu di/ -ng knh nh-ng chng chu hiu ng nhit ng
ln. ng c ny c th -c ni trc tip bng khp ni trc vi vit me. Chng
cng c cc b phn cm ng l nam chm vnh cu nh-ng th-ng c mt
-ng sc ln ( im khi ng c th t ti 7 n 10 ln cc mt th-ng),
do to ra cc momen quay n nh.
* ng c in dng xoay chiu
Ta th-ng gp cc ng c khng ng b i km mt h thng bin i
tn s iu khin thay i tc ng c. H thng ny ngy cng -c hon
thin khng km g c tnh ca cc ng c in dng mt chiu.
*ng c b-c
C hai dng c bn -c s dng l:
- ng c b-c chy in thun ty: Chng hot ng vi mt h thng cc
cc l nam chm vnh cu trong cc khong tn s t-ng i b ( < 100 Hz).
Cng sut ca cc ng c ny ch dng cho dch ng bn my ca cc my
nh vi khong tc vi m/ph.
- ng c b-c c khuych i m men bng thu lc. Trong tr-ng hp
ny ng c b-c va nu trn ng vai tr dn ng iu khin mt ng c
thu lc cng sut ln. Bn thn ng c b-c chy in thun tu c cng sut
thp v thit k hot ng trong vng tn s 16 - 18 KHz. Cc h thng ng c
b-c c khuych i mmen bng thu lc th-ng -c dng trong cc my NC
hng nng nh-ng v l do gi thnh cao v nhng vn c lin quan quan n s
dng h thng thu lc nn ngy mt him thy hn cc tr-ng hp p dng.
2. Cc ng c thu lc
ng c thu lc -c -a dng trong giai on pht trin ban u ca my
NC, ngy nay chng khng cn -c s dng nhiu na. u im ni bt ca
cc ng c thu lc gn lin vi vic dng h thng van sc-vo, nh vy -a ra
-c -ng c tnh ti -u m men/ vn tc. M men cc i t -c khi vn
tc bng 0, cn quay nhanh chng cn c mt hp s tng tc.
9.2.5. H thng iu khin theo ch-ng trnh s
K thut iu khin theo ch-ng trnh s sau mt giai on di ng dng
cp logic, ngy nay cc th h my mc mi ngy cng p dng gii php ci t
cc cm vi x l P (Microprocessor mt cch rng ri. Cc my nh- vy thuc
nhm CNC (Computer Numerical Control) tm dch l my iu khin theo
ch-ng trnh s bng vi tnh.
Ch-ng trnh iu hnh c bn (phn cng = Hardware) -c ci t
x l nhim v vn c ca mt h thng iu khin s bao gm:
- Np d liu ch-ng trnh
- Ghi nh cc d liu
- X l cc d liu nhn -c cc chuyn ng ca my v cc chc
nng ph.
- iu khin cc chuyn ng trn my.
- Cm x l trung tm CPU (Central Procesing Unit) c th l mt cm vi
tnh n chc (Mono - Microprocesing) hoc mt cm vi tnh a chc nng
(Multi - Microprocesing).
Ch-ng trnh hot ng trn cc my tnh ny -c lp ra t bng iu
khin v cc cm t ng lp trnh trn my.
Nhng phn t khc nhau ca h thng iu khin s -c tp hp thnh
nhm, -c xp t trong mt t iu khin gn lin vi bng phm iu khin v
u c thng tin.
Cu trc CNC c th -c mul ho nh- sau:
- Mul cc cm chc nng iu khin s v cc b ni ghp c th lp
trnh t ng.
- Mul bng iu khin ni ghp hai a ch vi hng lot quan h. Cm
ny c th g vi cn cnxon di ng -c.
Cc mul ni trn -c gn trc tip trn thn my. Nh s gim ti a
kch th-c ca cc phn t t ng, cho php thu nh kch th-c ca cm
CNC v c th ci t thng vo bng iu khin gn trn cnxon di ng.
a. D liu ch-ng trnh
Vn bn ch-ng trnh gia cng trn cc my NC -c thit lp v qun l
theo tiu chun ISO - 6983. Tiu chun ny nh ngha v phn loi d liu cn
thit khc nhau nhm thc hin cc cng vic k thut trn my NC. D-i y
xin ghi nh nhng nhm d liu c bn, l:
* D liu hnh hc: Gm cc to xc nh hnh dng v kch th-c ca
chi tit gia cng. Chng gm c:
- Cc to gc v cc ta iu chnh gc.
- Kch th-c xc nh hnh dng dao (l, | v.v...)
- Kiu ni suy
- V tr dao so vi bin dng gia cng.
Cm iu khin s s thit lp t cc d liu ny nhng tc v tr trong
chuyn ng t-ng i gia chi tit v dng c ct.
* D liu h tr x l: Cc d liu hnh hc khng xc nh mt tp
hp cc chuyn ng ring to thnh chu k lm vic. Do vy phi b sung cc
d liu x l, bao gm.:
- Cc chu k gia cng khc nhau
- Cc chu k kch th-c
- Thi im dng kim tra
- La chn iu chnh
- La chn dao.
- Cc d liu k thut: l nhng d liu xc nh cc iu kin gia cng: tc
quay ca trc chnh, tc d chy dao, la chn bi trn v.v... Khuynh h-ng
mi nht v nhanh nht xc nh cc d liu k thut ny l -a vo cc d
liu v c tr-ng vt liu, dng c ct v cht l-ng yu cu ca b mt gia cng;
t cm iu khin thit lp cc iu kin ct gt.
b. M ho d liu
Ba nhm d liu va nu trn -c x l v chuyn giao nh- th no cho
my ?
Tr-c ht, cc nhm d liu cn phi -c m ho theo ct m tiu chun.
tin hnh m ha d liu ch-ng trnh cn nm -c nhng khi nim quan
trng sau:
* To khun ( format) l to lp cc lnh iu hnh thuc phn cng
(hardware) trong thng tin iu hnh -c m ho. S l-ng cc con s
cn dng ph thuc vo tng kiu ca h thng iu khin s.
* H thng a ch (Adresse): l nhng k t cho php ng nht vi chc
nng m bo bi h thng iu khin s. a ch -c ghi bng cc ch ci tiu
chun ng vi cc ch dn sau:
A = to gc, quay quanh trc X
B = to gc, quay quanh trc Y
C = to gc, quay quanh trc Z
D = to gc, quay quanh trc chuyn dng hoc l tc chy dao th ba
E = to gc, quay quanh trc chuyn dng hoc l tc chy dao th hai.
F = Tc chy dao.
G = Chc nng chun b
H = ( khng dng)
I = To theo X ca tm mt cung trn trong -ng cong tng qut
J = To theo Y ca tm mt cung trn trong -ng cong tng qut
L = (khng dng)
M = Chc nng ph tr
N = S th t cu lnh
0 = (khng dng)
P = chuyn ng th ba song song vi trc X
Q = chuyn ng th ba song song vi trc Y
R = chuyn ng th ba song song vi trc Z, hoc chuyn ng th nht
trn trc chnh Z
S = Tc quay ca trc chnh
T = Chc nng dng c ct
U = Chuyn ng th hai song song vi trc X
V = Chuyn ng th hai song song vi trc Y
W = Chuyn ng th hai song song vi trc Z
X = Chuyn ng c bn song song vi trc X
Y = Chuyn ng c bn song song vi trc y
Z = Chuyn ng c bn song song vi trc Z
: = Phn nhnh trong ch-ng trnh
* T lnh: -c thit lp thng qua phi hp cc con s v a ch, cho php
l-ng ho chnh xc cc chc nng yu cu.
V d: X 420: Chuyn ng trn trc X n im c ta X = 420 mm
Cc t lnh xc nh mt cch t-ng thch vi kiu to khun trn tng
my.
* Cu lnh: l s ghp ni ti thiu cc t lnh cn thit thc hin mt
chc nng chuyn ng hoc mt chc nng ca my. V d:
N10 G00 Z-25.000 X60.250
Th t cu lnh a ch cc t lnh (l-ng ha chc nng)
N10: Cu lnh s 10
G00: Chy nhanh khng n dao
Z-25.000: Ta Z cn i ti 25 mm
X60.250: Ta X cn i ti 60,25 mm


c. Truy nhp d liu
Sau khi cc nhm d liu -c m ho ta c th truy nhp chng vo
cm iu khin s ca my.
Cch truy nhp -c ng dng ph bin cc th h my NC u tin l
thng qua cc vt mang tin nh- bng c l, cc c l. Khng ph thuc vo
cch hin th, cc u c c th c trc tip d liu ch-ng trnh. y l vt
mang tin r tin, bn v thch ng vi iu kin phn x-ng. Bng c l 8 rnh,
rng 1 inch. (25,4 mm) -c tiu chun ha k c m k t theo ISO-6983
hoc EIA-RS 244. Tuy nhin do tc tc dng chm v h thng linh kin ca
cm iu khin phc tp chng khng cn -c s dng ph bin na.
Cc vt mang tin khc nh- bng t (mini cassette) hin nay cn -c dng
trn my thc hin lp trnh n gin v bng tay trn bng iu khin ca
my NC, a t l vt mang tin -c dng trong cc ch-ng trnh nghin cu, th
nghim cn n dung l-ng nh ln. Cc vt mang tin ni trn nhn chung khng
thch hp vi iu kin phn x-ng. Ng-i ta c th truy nhp d liu ch-ng
trnh bng cch cp lnh bng tay vo thng cm iu khin s nh bng iu
khin. Bng ny gm mt bn phm s - ch ci v mt b phn hin th, cho
php lp trnh trc tip trn my. Qu trnh ny -c dng ph bin c bit cho
nhng cm iu khin s khng t tin, trang b cho cc my NC n gin. Cc
biu t-ng hin th trn mt bng iu khin tun theo tiu chun ISO 2972.
Mt ph-ng php truy nhp khc l to -ng lin h trc tip gia cc my
NC vi my tnh trung tm theo nguyn tc iu khin DNC (Direct
computerized Numerical Control) . Vi h thng ny ng-i ta c th loi b cc
vt mang tin trung gian. y, mt lot cc mi lin h trc tip -c hnh thnh
gia mt my tnh trung tm v mt hay nhiu cm i khin s. Cc ch-ng
trnh gia cng l-u tr trong b nh ca CPU -c chuyn giao mt cch c la
chn n cc cm iu khin s t-ng thch thc hin cc ch-ng trnh gia
cng khc nhau.


Thng th-ng cc cm
iu khin s c b nh
ngy cng ln, ghi -c
cc ch-ng trnh v c th
hiu chnh, sa cha, xo
v lp trnh mi. Nu
khng, cn phi c mt b
thch nghi ho trung gian
(Adapter) m bo
chc nng ,
Nguyn tc truy nhp
v iu khin DNC -c
trnh by trn hnh 9.17.


A: a t; E: in ch-ng trnh; B: u c;
F: Bn phm v mn hnh; C: My tnh; G: Phc
v teletype; D: u cun bng t; CN: Cm iu
khin s.
Hnh 9-17. Mi lin h trc tip My
tnh/cm iu khin s trong nguyn tc DNC
Cc thng tin -c chuyn giao cho cm iu khin s t my trung tm
gm c:
- Ni dung ch-ng trnh
- S th t ca ch-ng trnh chi tit cn gia cng trong tp hp nhiu
ch-ng trnh l-u tr trong b nh ca cm iu khin s.
- Danh mc dao c, kch th-c v tui th ca chng.
- Cc d liu iu khin my
Ng-c li cc cm iu khin s c th gi v my tnh trung tm cc thng
tin nh-:
- Mt ch-ng trnh ca chi tit sau khi g lp trn my.
- Danh mc dao c vi tui th tnh n ngy s dng.
- Tnh trng my, c th nh s cc li .
- Cc tnh ton hiu chnh, sa cha sai hoc ng ca mt chi tit...
d. Kim tra h thng iu khin s
Ta c th gi ra mt trong s cc ch-ng trnh ci t vo b nh ca h
thng iu khin s v cho php kim tra th-ng xuyn n c hot ng tt
khng:
* Ch-ng trnh kim tra hot ng bnh th-ng ca cc b phn tnh ton
nh- cm x l trung tm; cc b nh. Kim tra chc nng hot ng ca chng
mi ln bt my th hiu nh mc hoc th hiu iu chnh.
* Ch-ng trnh kim tra hot ng ca cc trc my. Ch-ng trnh ny t
nhiu mang tnh tng hp. Ph bin hn c l kim tra gi tr sai lch trong khi
theo di hot ng ca cc trc, gy cc tnh hung dng t ngt cc chuyn
ng xem chng c v-t qua gi tr nh tr-c hay khng...
* Kim tra c php cc cu lnh trong ch-ng trnh gia cng. Cch thc
kim tra gm cho chy mt bng trng ch-ng trnh -a vo cm iu khin s
pht hin cc nhm ln nh-:
- Li m ho s - ch ci
- a ch khng t-ng thch
- Chc nng khng r
- Ch-ng trnh khng thch hp v.v...
* Hin th cc trng thi ca mt ni ghp v tn hiu ho cc sai phm:
php kim tra ny cho php tn hiu ho nhng hin t-ng khng bnh th-ng
mt ghp ni "Cm iu khin t ng/ My" k c mc chp ni.













Ti liu tham kho

1-B mn c s ch to my-Bi ging cng ngh kim loi v mt s vt
liu khc dng trong ch to my (tp III-quyn II) - Tr-ng i hc k thut
qun s- Nm 1975
2-Nguyn Duy, Trn S Tu, Trnh Vn T - Nguyn l ct kim loi- Nh
xut bn i hc v trung hc chuyn nghip - H ni 1977
3-Nguyn c Lc, L Vn Tin v cc tc gi - Cng ngh ch to my-
Nh xut bn khoa hc v k thut - H ni 1996
4- Nguyn Ngc Anh, H Vn Vui V cc tc gi - S tay cng ngh
ch to my (tp II, III v IV)- nh xut bn khoa hc v k thut- H ni
1979
5- Nguyn c Lc, L Vn Tin v cc tc gi- S tay cng ngh ch
to my (tp I) -Nh xut bn khoa hc v k thut - H ni 1999
6- V Hu Nam, L-u Vn Bng -H-ng dn lm bi tp cng ngh
kim loi (phn gia cng bng ct gt)- Hc vin k thut qun s-Nm
1991
7- . . - -
- 1975
8- .. - - -
1973
9-. . , . - -
- 1959
10- . - - - 1968
11-.., .. -
- - 1977
12- . . -
- -
1973
13- .. - -
- 1974
14- . . - -
( 1 2) - - 1972

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