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Introduction

chapter 6

Reporting and Analyzing Inventory

Accounting Matters!

How Many Dump Trucks Did You Want?

Let's talk inventory-BIG inventory. Illinois-based Caterpillar Inc. is the world's largest manufacturer of construction and mining products. It produces more than 300 machines at 50 facilities in the United States and 63 other locations worldwide. In Canada, Caterpillar has manufacturing operations in Edmonton and Montreal, logistics operations in Guelph and Saskatoon, financial services in Calgary and Toronto, and a training and demonstration centre in Toronto.

The world's largest dump truck, the Caterpillar 797B, is as tall as a three-storey building and has a 345- tonne capacity. In 1998, Caterpillar sent six of its predecessor Cat 797s to Fort McMurray, Alberta-no easy feat, since many highways and bridges can’t take their weight-to be tested at Syncrude Canada, the world's largest producer of crude oil from oil sands. Syncrude evaluated the Cat 797 for long-term production capability, durability, and maintenance in an oil sands mine, one of the toughest mining environments. The trucks scored top marks. By 2005, Syncrude had 33 Cat 797s and another nine on order.

A Cat 797B can cost millions of dollars and requires one heck of a big garage for storage. Obviously, Caterpillar needs to avoid having too much of this kind of inventory sitting around. Still, it has to have enough to meet its customers' demands. In short, Caterpillar has big inventory challenges.

And big sales. Caterpillar enjoys record sales, profits, and growth. In fact, 2004 was a banner year, with $30.25 billion in revenues and a record profit of $2.03 billion, an 85 percent increase from 2003. Expectations for 2005 were even better.

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Introduction

Effective inventory management is key to this success. From 1993 to 2003, Caterpillar's sales increased by more than 97 percent, while its inventory increased by only 49 percent. To achieve this inventory reduction, Caterpillar used a two-pronged approach. First, a factory modernization program increased production efficiency, reducing the time required to manufacture a part by 75 percent. Second, an improved distribution system allows Caterpillar to fill more than 180 million order lines annually from 19 distribution centres located on six continents. It can now ship an order in less than 24 hours more than 99 percent of the time.

In fact, Caterpillar is so well known for its parts distribution expertise, it formed a wholly-owned subsidiary in 1987 to market integrated supply chain solutions to other companies. Caterpillar Logistics Services now serves more than 50 global corporations in a variety of industries.

Caterpillar's inventory management and accounting practices make a crucial contribution to its own and other companies' profitability.

to its own and other companies' profitability. Caterpillar Inc.; www.caterpillar.com The Navigator

Caterpillar Inc.; www.caterpillar.com

The Navigator

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Introduction

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Read text and answer Before You Go On Before You Go On

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Answer Self-Study Questions Self-Study Questions

Complete assignmentsof Study Objectives Review the Decision Toolkit—A Summary Work Demonstration Problem Answer Self-Study Questions

Review the Decision Toolkit—A Summary Work Demonstration Problem Answer Self-Study Questions Complete assignments

Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons Canada, Ltd. All rights reserved.

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Study Objectives and Preview

Study Objectives

After studying this chapter, you should be able to:

1. Describe the steps in determining inventory quantities.

2. Apply the inventory cost flow assumptions under a periodic inventory system.

3. Explain the financial statement effects of the inventory cost flow assumptions and inventory errors.

4. Demonstrate the presentation and analysis of inventory.

5. Apply the inventory cost flow assumptions under a perpetual inventory system (Appendix 6A).

Preview of Chapter 6

In the previous chapter, we discussed the accounting for merchandise inventory using a perpetual inventory system. In this chapter, we explain the procedures for determining inventory quantities. We then discuss the cost flow assumptions used to calculate the cost of goods sold during the period and the cost of inventory on hand at the end of the period. We also discuss the effects of inventory errors on a company's financial statements, and we conclude by illustrating methods to report and analyze inventory.

The chapter is organized as follows:

and analyze inventory. The chapter is organized as follows: Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons

Determining Inventory Quantities

Determining Inventory Quantities

Whether they are using a perpetual inventory system or a periodic one, all companies need to determine inventory quantities at the end of the accounting period. When they use a perpetual inventory system, companies take a physical inventory (i.e., count all the inventory) at year end for two purposes: (1) to check the accuracy of their perpetual inventory records and (2) to determine the amount of inventory lost due to shrinkage or theft. Recall that you learned in Chapter 5 that in a perpetual inventory system, the accounting records continuously—perpetually—show the quantity of inventory that should be on hand, not necessarily what is on hand.

study objective 1

Describe the steps in determining inventory quantities.

In a periodic inventory system, inventory quantities are not updated on a continuous basis. Companies that use a periodic inventory system must take a physical inventory to determine the inventory on hand at the balance sheet date. Once the ending inventory amount is determined, this amount is then used to calculate the cost of goods sold for the period.

Determining inventory quantities involves two steps: (1) taking a physical inventory of goods on hand and (2) determining the ownership of goods.

Taking a Physical Inventory

Taking a physical inventory involves actually counting, weighing, or measuring each kind of inventory on hand. In many companies, taking an inventory is a formidable task. For example, retailers such as Loblaw have thousands of different inventory items. An inventory count is generally more accurate when goods are not being sold or received during the counting. Consequently, companies often take inventory when the business is closed or when business is slow.

To make fewer errors in taking the inventory, a company should ensure that it has a good system of internal control in place. Internal control consists of policies and procedures to optimize resources, prevent and detect errors, safeguard assets, and enhance the accuracy and reliability of accounting records. Some internal control procedures for counting inventory include the following:

1. The counting should be done by employees who do not have responsibility for the custody or recordkeeping for the inventory.

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Determining Inventory Quantities

2. Each counter should establish the validity of each inventory item: this means checking that the items actually exist, how many there are of them, and what condition they are in.

3. There should be a second count by another employee or auditor. Counting should take place in teams of two.

4. Prenumbered inventory tags should be used to ensure that all inventory items are counted and that none are counted more than once.

We will learn more about internal controls in Chapter 7.

After the physical inventory is taken, the quantity of each kind of inventory is listed on inventory summary sheets. To ensure accuracy, the listing should be verified by a second employee, or auditor. Unit costs are then applied to the quantities in order to determine the total cost of the inventory—this will be explained later in the chapter when we discuss inventory costing.

Determining Ownership of Goods

Before we can begin to calculate the cost of inventory, we need to consider the ownership of goods. To determine who owns what inventory, two questions must be answered: (1) Do all of the goods included in the count belong to the company? (2) Does the company own any goods that were not included in the count?

Goods in Transit

Goods in transit at the end of the period (on board a truck, train, ship, or plane) make determining ownership a bit more complicated. The company may have purchased goods that have not yet been received, or it may have sold goods that have not yet been delivered. To arrive at an accurate count, ownership of these goods must be determined.

Goods in transit should be included in the inventory of the company that has legal title to the goods. As we learned in Chapter 5, legal title, or ownership, is determined by the terms of the sale as follows:

1. FOB (free on board) shipping point: Legal title (ownership) of the goods passes to the buyer when the public carrier accepts the goods from the seller.

2. FOB destination: Legal title (ownership) of the goods remains with the seller until the goods reach the buyer.

If the shipping terms are FOB shipping point, the buyer is responsible for paying the shipping costs and has legal title to the goods while they are in transit. If the shipping terms are FOB destination, the seller

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Determining Inventory Quantities

is responsible for paying the shipping costs and has legal title to the goods while they are in transit. These terms will be important in determining the exact date that a purchase or sale should be recorded and what items should be included in inventory, even if the items are not physically present at the time of the inventory count.

For example, publishers normally ship textbooks to campus bookstores on FOB shipping point terms. This means that the bookstores (and ultimately the students) pay the cost of shipping. This also means that if the bookstore has a December 31 year end, it must adjust its inventory count for any textbooks still in transit for the beginning of the winter term. The bookstore also accepts the risk of damage or loss when the books are in transit.

The following table summarizes who pays the shipping costs, and who has legal title to (owns) the goods, while they are in transit between the seller's location (the shipping point) and the buyer's location (the destination):

Shipping Terms

Shipping Costs

Legal Title

FOB shipping point FOB destination

Buyer

Buyer

Seller

Seller

Consigned Goods

In some lines of business, it is customary to hold goods belonging to other parties and sell them, for a fee, without ever taking ownership of the goods. These are called consigned goods. Under a consignment arrangement, the holder of the goods (called the consignee) does not own the goods. Ownership remains with the shipper of the goods (called the consignor) until the goods are actually sold to a customer. Because consigned goods are not owned by the consignee, they should not be included in the consignee's physical inventory count. Conversely, the consignor should include in its inventory any of the consignor's merchandise that is being held by the consignee.

For example, artists often display their paintings and other works of art at galleries on consignment. In such cases, the art gallery does not take ownership of the art—it still belongs to the artist. Therefore, if an inventory count is taken, any art on consignment should not be included in the art gallery's inventory. When the art sells, the gallery then takes a commission and pays the artist the remainder. Many craft stores, second-hand clothing stores, sporting goods stores, and antique dealers sell goods on consignment to keep their inventory costs down and to avoid the risk of purchasing an item they will not be able to sell.

Other Situations

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Determining Inventory Quantities

Sometimes goods are not physically on the premises because they have been taken home on approval by a customer. Goods on approval should be added to the physical inventory count because they still belong to the seller. The customer will either return the item or decide to buy it at some point in the future.

In other cases, goods are sold but the seller is holding them for alteration, or until they are picked up or delivered to the customer. These goods should not be included in the physical count, because legal title to ownership has passed to the customer. Damaged or unsaleable goods should also be separated from the physical count, and any loss should be recorded.

Accounting Matters! Ethics Perspective

Accounting Matters! Ethics Perspective

Over the years, inventory has played a role in many fraud cases. A classic one involved salad oil. Management filled storage tanks mostly with water, and since oil rises to the top, the auditors thought the tanks were full of oil. In this instance, management also said the company had more tanks than it really did—numbers were repainted on the tanks to confuse the auditors.

were repainted on the tanks to confuse the auditors. Today, inventory theft is a serious problem

Today, inventory theft is a serious problem for companies, estimated to amount to around $60 billion a year. Surprisingly, a significant amount of this theft takes place from the inside out. A 2002 Ipsos-Reid survey found that 20 percent of Canadians were personally aware of employees stealing from their companies. A physical inventory count helps identify inventory losses, which then enables a company to put preventive security measures into place.

Source: Kira Vermond, “From the Inside Out,” CMA Management, May 2003, p. 36.

Determining Inventory Quantities

Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons Canada, Ltd. All rights reserved.

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Before You Go On #1

Before You Go On #1

Before You Go On

Review It

Review It

1. What steps are involved in determining inventory quantities?

2. How is ownership determined for goods in transit?

3. Who has title to consigned goods?

Do It

Do It

The Too Good To Be Threw Corporation completed its inventory count. It arrived at a total inventory amount of $200,000, counting everything currently on hand in its warehouse. Discuss how the following additional information will affect the reported cost of the inventory.

1. Goods costing $15,000 and held on consignment were included in the inventory.

2. Purchased goods of $10,000 were in transit (terms FOB shipping point) and not included in the count.

3. Sold inventory with a cost of $12,000 was in transit (terms FOB shipping point) and not included in the count.

Action Plan

Apply the rules of ownership to goods held on consignment.

Apply the rules of ownership to goods held on consignment.

Apply the rules of ownership to goods in transit:

Apply the rules of ownership to goods in transit:

FOB shipping point: Goods sold or purchased and shipped FOB shipping point belong to the buyer.Apply the rules of ownership to goods in transit: FOB destination: Goods sold or purchased and

FOB destination: Goods sold or purchased and shipped FOB destination belong to the seller until they reach their destination.and shipped FOB shipping point belong to the buyer. Solution 1. The goods held on consignment

Solution

1. The goods held on consignment should be deducted from Too Good To Be Threw's inventory count ($200,000 $15,000 = $185,000).

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Before You Go On #1

2. The goods in transit purchased FOB shipping point should be added to the company's inventory count ($185,000 + $10,000 = $195,000).

3. The goods in transit sold FOB shipping point were correctly excluded from Too Good To Be Threw's ending inventory, since title passed when the goods were handed over to the shipping company.

The correct inventory total is $195,000, and not $200,000 as originally reported.

Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons Canada, Ltd. All rights reserved.

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Inventory Costing

Inventory Costing

After the number of units of inventory has been determined, unit costs are applied to those quantities to determine the total cost of the goods sold and cost of the ending inventory. When all inventory items have been purchased at the same unit cost, this calculation is simple. However, when items have been purchased at different costs during the period, it can be difficult to determine what the unit costs are of the items that remain in inventory and what the unit costs are of the items that were sold.

study objective 2

Apply the inventory cost flow assumptions under a periodic inventory system.

For example, assume that throughout the calendar year Wynneck Electronics Ltd. buys at different prices 1,000 Astro Condenser units for resale. Some Astro Condensers cost $10 when originally purchased last year. Units purchased in April cost $11, those purchased in August cost $12, and those acquired in November cost $13. Now suppose Wynneck Electronics has 450 Astro Condensers remaining in inventory at the end of December. Should these inventory items be assigned a cost of $10, $11, $12, $13, or some combination of all four?

To determine the cost of goods sold as well as the cost of ending inventory, we need a way of allocating the purchase cost to each item in inventory and each item that has been sold. One allocation method—specific identification—uses the actual physical flow of the goods to determine cost. We will look at this method next.

Specific Identification

The specific identification method tracks the actual physical flow of the goods. Each item of inventory is marked, tagged, or coded with its specific unit cost. Items still in inventory at the end of the year are specifically costed to determine the total cost of the ending inventory.

Assume, for example, that Wynneck Electronics buys three DVD recorder/players at costs of $700, $750, and $800. During the year, two are sold at a selling price of $1,200 each. At December 31, the company determines that the $750 DVD recorder/player is still on hand. The ending inventory is $750 and the cost of goods sold is $1,500 ($700 + $800).

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Inventory Costing

Inventory Costing Illustration 6-1 Specific identification Specific identification is the ideal method for determining

Illustration 6-1

Inventory Costing Illustration 6-1 Specific identification Specific identification is the ideal method for determining

Specific identification

Specific identification is the ideal method for determining cost. This method reports ending inventory at actual cost and matches the actual cost of goods sold against sales revenue. However, there are also disadvantages to this method. For example, specific identification may allow management to manipulate net earnings. To see how, assume that Wynneck Electronics wants to maximize its net earnings just before its year end. When selling one of the three DVD recorder/players referred to earlier, management could choose the recorder/player with the lowest cost ($700) to match against revenues ($1,200). Or, it could minimize net earnings by selecting the highest-cost ($800) recorder/player.

Specific identification is most practical to use when a company sells a limited number of items that have a high unit cost and that can be clearly identified from purchase through to sale. Automobiles are a good example of a type of inventory that works well with the specific identification method as they can easily be distinguished by serial number. On the other hand, automobile dealers also sell hundreds of relatively low-unit-cost items as parts. These are often identical to each other, so it may not be possible to track the cost of each item separately.

Today, with bar coding, it is theoretically possible to use specific identification with nearly any type of product. The reality is, however, that this practice is still relatively expensive and rare. Instead, rather than keep track of the cost of each particular item sold, most companies make assumptions—called cost flow assumptions—about which units are sold. Even Caterpillar, in the feature story, uses a cost flow assumption instead of specific identification to track its sales of the Cat 797.

Cost Flow Assumptions

Cost flow assumptions differ from specific identification as they assume flows of costs that may not be the same as the actual physical flow of goods. There are three commonly used cost flow assumptions:

1. First-in, first-out (FIFO)

2. Average

3. Last-in, first-out (LIFO)

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Inventory Costing

These three cost flow assumptions can be used in both the perpetual inventory system and the periodic inventory system. Under a perpetual inventory system, the cost of goods available for sale (beginning inventory plus the cost of goods purchased) is allocated to the cost of goods sold and ending inventory as each item is sold. Under a periodic inventory system, the allocation is made only at the end of the period.

The periodic inventory system will be used to illustrate cost flow assumptions in this chapter. We have several reasons for doing this. First, many companies that use a perpetual inventory system use it only to keep track of quantities on hand. When they determine the cost of goods sold at the end of the period, they use one of the three cost flow assumptions under a periodic inventory system. Second, most companies that use the average cost flow assumption use it under a periodic inventory system. Third, the FIFO cost flow assumption gives the same results under the periodic and perpetual systems. Finally, it is simpler to demonstrate the cost flow assumptions under the periodic inventory system, which makes them easier to understand. (The chapter appendix explains how these cost flow assumptions are used under a perpetual inventory system.)

To illustrate these three inventory cost flow assumptions in a periodic inventory system, we will assume that Wynneck Electronics Ltd. has the following information for one of its products, the Astro Condenser:

information for one of its products, the Astro Condenser: The company had a total of 1,000

The company had a total of 1,000 units available for sale during the period. The total cost of these units was $12,000. A physical inventory count at the end of the year determined that 450 units remained on hand at the end of the year. Consequently, it can be calculated that 550 (1,000 – 450) units were sold during the year.

The question to be answered next is this: as the 1,000 units available for sale had different unit costs, how does Wynneck determine which unit costs to allocate to the 450 units remaining so that it can determine the cost of the ending inventory? Once this question is answered and the cost of the ending inventory is determined, we can then calculate the cost of goods sold.

The total cost (or “pool of costs”) of the 1,000 units available for sale was $12,000. We will demonstrate the allocation of this pool of costs, using FIFO, average, and LIFO in the next sections. Note that, throughout these sections, the total cost of goods available for sale will remain the same under all three inventory cost flow assumptions. The pool of costs does not change with the choice of cost flow assumption—only the allocation of these costs between the ending inventory and the cost of goods sold changes, as shown in Illustration 6-2.

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Inventory Costing

Inventory Costing Illustration 6-2 Allocation of cost of goods available for sale First-In, First-Out (FIFO) The

Illustration 6-2

Inventory Costing Illustration 6-2 Allocation of cost of goods available for sale First-In, First-Out (FIFO) The

Allocation of cost of goods available for sale

First-In, First-Out (FIFO)

The first-in, first-out (FIFO) cost flow assumption assumes that the earliest (oldest) goods purchased are the first ones to be sold. This does not necessarily mean that the oldest units are sold first, only that the cost of the oldest units is recognized first. Note that there is no accounting requirement for the cost flow assumption to match the actual physical movement of goods. Nonetheless, FIFO often matches the actual physical flow of merchandise, because it is generally good business practice to sell the oldest units first.

In the periodic inventory system, we ignore the different dates of each of the sales. Instead we make the allocation at the end of a period and assume that the entire pool of costs is available for allocation at that time. The allocation of the cost of goods available for sale at Wynneck Electronics under FIFO is shown in Illustration 6-3 on the following page.

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Inventory Costing

Inventory Costing Illustration 6-3 Periodic system—FIFO The cost flow assumption—FIFO in this case—always indicates

Illustration 6-3

Inventory Costing Illustration 6-3 Periodic system—FIFO The cost flow assumption—FIFO in this case—always indicates

Periodic system—FIFO

The cost flow assumption—FIFO in this case—always indicates the order of selling. In other words, with FIFO the order in which the goods are assumed to be sold is first in, first out. The cost of the ending inventory is determined by taking the unit cost of the most recent purchase and working backward until all units of inventory have been costed. In this example, the 450 units of ending inventory must be costed using the most recent purchase costs. The last purchase was 400 units at $13 on November 27. The remaining 50 units are costed at the price of the second most recent purchase, $12, on August 24.

Once the cost of the ending inventory is determined, the cost of goods sold is calculated by subtracting the cost of the units not sold (ending inventory) from the cost of all goods available for sale (the pool of costs).

The cost of goods sold can also be separately calculated or proven as shown below. To determine the cost of goods sold, simply start at the first item of beginning inventory and count forward until the total number of units sold (550) is reached. Note that of the 300 units purchased on August 24, only 250 units are assumed sold. This agrees

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Inventory Costing

with our calculation of the cost of the ending inventory, where 50 of these units were assumed unsold and thus included in ending inventory.

Date

Units

Unit Cost

Cost of Goods Sold

Jan. 1

100

$10

$1,000

Apr. 15

200

11

2,200

Aug. 24

250

12

3,000

Total

550

$6,200

Because of the potential for calculation errors, we recommend that the cost of goods sold amounts be separately calculated and proven in your assignments. The ending inventory and cost of goods sold total can then be compared to the cost of goods available for sale to check the accuracy of the calculations, which would be as follows for Wynneck: $5,800 + $6,200 = $12,000.

Average

The average cost flow assumption assumes that the goods available for sale are homogeneous or nondistinguishable. Under this assumption, the allocation of the cost of goods available for sale is made based on the weighted average unit cost incurred. Note that this average cost is not calculated by taking a simple average [($10 + $11 + $12 + $13) ÷ 4 = $11.50 per unit], but by weighting the quantities purchased at each unit cost.

The formula and calculation of the weighted average unit cost are given in Illustration 6-4.

weighted average unit cost are given in Illustration 6-4. Illustration 6-4 Calculation of weighted average unit

Illustration 6-4

unit cost are given in Illustration 6-4. Illustration 6-4 Calculation of weighted average unit cost The

Calculation of weighted average unit cost

The weighted average unit cost is then applied to the units on hand to determine the cost of the ending inventory. The allocation of the cost of goods available for sale at Wynneck Electronics using average cost is shown in Illustration 6-5.

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Inventory Costing

Inventory Costing Illustration 6-5 Periodic system—Average We can verify the cost of goods sold under the

Illustration 6-5

Inventory Costing Illustration 6-5 Periodic system—Average We can verify the cost of goods sold under the

Periodic system—Average

We can verify the cost of goods sold under the average cost flow assumption by multiplying the units sold by the weighted average unit cost (550 × $12 = $6,600). And, again, we can prove our calculations by ensuring that the total of the ending inventory and cost of goods sold equals the cost of goods available for sale ($5,400 + $6,600 =

$12,000).

Last-In, First-Out (LIFO)

The last-in, first-out (LIFO) cost flow assumption assumes that the most recent (latest) goods purchased are the first ones to be sold. For most companies, LIFO rarely matches the actual physical flow of inventory. Only for goods stored in piles, such as sand, gravel, or hay, where goods are removed from the top of the pile when they are

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Inventory Costing

sold, would LIFO match the actual physical flow of goods. But, as explained earlier, this does not mean that the LIFO cost flow assumption cannot be used in other cases. It is the flow of costs that is important, not the physical flow of goods.

The allocation of the cost of goods available for sale at Wynneck Electronics under LIFO is shown in Illustration 6-

6.

Electronics under LIFO is shown in Illustration 6- 6. Illustration 6-6 Periodic system—LIFO Under LIFO, since

Illustration 6-6

under LIFO is shown in Illustration 6- 6. Illustration 6-6 Periodic system—LIFO Under LIFO, since it

Periodic system—LIFO

Under LIFO, since it is assumed that the goods that are sold first are the ones that are purchased most recently, ending inventory is based on the costs of the oldest units purchased. That is, the cost of the ending inventory is determined by taking the unit cost of the earliest goods available for sale and working forward until all units of inventory have been costed.

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Inventory Costing

In our example, therefore, the 450 units of ending inventory must be costed using the earliest purchase prices. The first purchase was 100 units at $10 in the January 1 beginning inventory. Then 200 units were purchased at $11. The remaining 150 units are costed at $12 per unit, the August 24 purchase price.

Under LIFO, the cost of the last goods in is the first cost to assign to the cost of goods sold. We can prove the cost of goods sold in our example by starting at the end of the period and counting backwards until we reach the total number of units sold (550). The result is that 400 units from the last purchase (November 27) are assumed to be sold first, and only 150 units from the next purchase (August 24) are needed to reach the total 550 units sold.

Date

Units

Unit Cost

Cost of Goods Sold

Nov. 27

400

$13

$5,200

Aug. 24

150

12

1,800

Total

550

$7,000

When the ending inventory and cost of goods sold amounts are then added together, they should equal the cost of goods available for sale, which is as follows for Wynneck: $5,000 + $7,000 = $12,000.

Remember that, under a periodic inventory system, all goods purchased during the period are assumed to be available for allocation, regardless of when they were purchased. Note also that because goods that are purchased late in a period are assumed to be available for the first sale, earnings could be manipulated in LIFO by a last minute end-of-period purchase of inventory.

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Before You Go On #2

Before You Go On #2

Before You Go On

Review ItBefore You Go On #2 Before You Go On 1. Why is the specific identification method

1. Why is the specific identification method not practical to use in all circumstances?

2. Distinguish between the three cost flow assumptions—FIFO, average, and LIFO.

3. Which inventory cost flow assumption best approximates the actual physical flow of goods?

4. Which inventory method and cost flow assumption can be manipulated?

Do Itmethod and cost flow assumption can be manipulated? The accounting records of Ag Implement Inc. show

The accounting records of Ag Implement Inc. show the following data:

Beginning inventory Purchases Sales

4,000 units at $3 6,000 units at $4 8,000 units at $8

Determine the cost of ending inventory and cost of goods sold under a periodic inventory system using (a) FIFO, (b) average, and (c) LIFO.

Action Plan

Ignore the selling price in allocating cost.using (a) FIFO, (b) average, and (c) LIFO. Action Plan Determine the ending inventory first. Calculate

Determine the ending inventory first. Calculate the cost of goods sold by subtracting ending inventory from the cost of goods available for sale.Action Plan Ignore the selling price in allocating cost. For FIFO, allocate the latest costs to

For FIFO, allocate the latest costs to the goods on hand.ending inventory from the cost of goods available for sale. For average, determine the weighted average

For average, determine the weighted average unit cost (cost of goods available for sale ÷ number of units available for sale). Multiply this cost by the number of units on hand.For FIFO, allocate the latest costs to the goods on hand. For LIFO, allocate the earliest

For LIFO, allocate the earliest costs to the goods on hand.sale). Multiply this cost by the number of units on hand. Prove the cost of goods

Prove the cost of goods sold (CGS) separately and then check that ending inventory plus the cost of goods sold equals the cost of goods available for sale.For LIFO, allocate the earliest costs to the goods on hand. Solution Goods available for sale:

Solution

Goods available for sale: 4,000 + 6,000 = 10,000 units

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Before You Go On #2

Cost of goods available for sale: (4,000 × $3) + (6,000 × $4) = $36,000

Ending inventory: 10,000 8,000 = 2,000 units

(a)

FIFO ending inventory: 2,000 × $4 = $8,000 FIFO cost of goods sold: $36,000 $8,000 = $28,000 CGS proof: (4,000 × $3) + (4,000 × $4) = $28,000 Check: $8,000 + $28,000 = $36,000

(b)

Weighted average unit cost: $36,000 ÷ 10,000 = $3.60 Average ending inventory: 2,000 × $3.60 = $7,200 Average cost of goods sold: $36,000 $7,200 = $28,800 CGS proof: 8,000 × $3.60 = $28,800 Check: $7,200 + $28,800 = $36,000

(c)

LIFO ending inventory: 2,000 × $3 = $6,000 LIFO cost of goods sold: $36,000 $6,000 = $30,000 CGS proof: (6,000 × $4) + (2,000 × $3) = $30,000 Check: $6,000 + $30,000 = $36,000

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Financial Statement Effects

Financial Statement Effects

Inventory affects two financial statements: (1) the balance sheet through merchandise inventory and retained earnings, and (2) the statement of earnings through cost of goods sold and net earnings. Consequently, the choice of cost flow assumption can have a significant financial effect on both financial statements. In addition, if there is an inventory error, the effects of this error on the financial statements can be extensive. We will address both of these topics in the next two sections.

study objective 3

Explain the financial statement effects of the inventory cost flow assumptions and inventory errors.

Choice of Cost Flow Assumption

Companies can choose the specific identification method or any of the three inventory cost flow assumptions— FIFO, average, or LIFO. Having this many choices is necessary, because different companies have different types of inventory and circumstances.

Ault Foods, Canadian Tire, and Sobeys use FIFO. Abitibi-Price, Andrés Wines, and Mountain Equipment Co-op use average. Caterpillar, Cominco, and Suncor use LIFO for part or all of their inventory. Indeed, a company may use more than one cost flow assumption at the same time. Finning International, for example, uses specific identification to account for its equipment inventory, FIFO to account for about two-thirds of its inventory of parts and supplies, and average to account for the rest.

About an equal number of companies in Canada use FIFO and the average cost flow assumptions. Only a very few companies, about three percent, use LIFO. The Canadian companies that do use LIFO tend to use it to harmonize their reporting practices with the U.S., where LIFO is used more often.

Although the FIFO and average cost flow assumptions are more commonly used in Canada, in order to understand global financial reporting, students still need to have some understanding of the impact of the LIFO cost flow assumption. It is important to be able to compare the financial statement impacts of these choices when competing companies use different cost flow assumptions. For example, Hudson's Bay uses the average cost flow assumption, while its competitor Wal-Mart uses the LIFO cost flow assumption.

Statement of Earnings Effects

To understand why companies might choose a particular cost flow assumption, let's examine the effects of the different cost flow assumptions on the financial statements of Wynneck Electronics. The condensed statements of

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Financial Statement Effects

earnings in Illustration 6-7 assume that Wynneck sold its 550 units for $11,500, had operating expenses of $2,000, and has an income tax rate of 30%.

expenses of $2,000, and has an income tax rate of 30%. Illustration 6-7 Comparative effects of

Illustration 6-7

$2,000, and has an income tax rate of 30%. Illustration 6-7 Comparative effects of cost flow

Comparative effects of cost flow assumptions

For simplicity, we have assumed that the beginning inventory ($1,000) is the same under all three inventory cost flow assumptions. In reality, the cost of the beginning inventory may very well differ under each assumption. For the purposes of this illustration, since the beginning inventory is the same, the cost of goods available for sale ($12,000) is also the same under each of the three inventory cost flow assumptions. But the ending inventories and costs of goods sold are both different. This difference is because of the unit costs that are allocated under each method. Each dollar of difference in ending inventory results in a corresponding dollar difference in earnings before income tax. For Wynneck, there is an $800 difference between the FIFO and LIFO cost of goods sold.

In periods of changing prices, the choice of cost flow assumption can have a significant impact on earnings. In a period of inflation (rising prices), as is the case for Wynneck, FIFO produces higher net earnings because the lower unit costs of the first units purchased are matched against revenues. As indicated in Illustration 6-7, FIFO reports the highest net earnings ($2,310) and LIFO the lowest ($1,510). Average falls roughly in the middle ($2,030). To management, higher net earnings are an advantage: they cause external users to view the company more favourably. In addition, if management bonuses are based on net earnings, FIFO will provide the basis for higher bonuses.

If prices are falling, the results from the use of FIFO and LIFO are reversed: FIFO will report the lowest net earnings and LIFO the highest. If prices are stable, all three cost flow assumptions will report the same results.

Overall, LIFO provides the best statement of earnings valuation. It matches current costs with current revenues

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Financial Statement Effects

since, under LIFO, the cost of goods sold is assumed to be the cost of the most recently acquired goods. You will recall that the matching principle is important in accounting. The CICA recommends that in those cases “where the choice of method of inventory valuation is an important factor in determining income, the most suitable method for determining cost is that which results in charging against operations costs which most fairly match the sales revenue for the period.”

However, even though LIFO may produce the best match of revenues and expenses, it can also result in distortions

of earnings if beginning inventory is ever liquidated. It can also be manipulated by timing purchases. The use of

LIFO is not permitted for income tax purposes in Canada and most firms do not want to maintain two sets of inventory records—one for accounting purposes and another for income tax purposes. Companies can use FIFO or average to determine their income tax, but not LIFO. That is why, in Illustration 6-7, it was assumed that the income tax expense amount was the same under both the FIFO and LIFO alternatives.

Balance Sheet Effects

A major advantage of FIFO is that in a period of inflation, the costs allocated to ending inventory will approximate

their current cost. For example, for Wynneck, 400 of the 450 units in the ending inventory are costed under FIFO

at the higher November 27 unit cost of $13. Since management needs to replace inventory when it is sold, a

valuation that approximates the replacement cost is helpful for decision-making.

Helpful Hint LIFO may provide the best statement of earnings valuation, but FIFO provides the best balance sheet evaluation.

Conversely, a major limitation of LIFO is that in a period of inflation the costs that are allocated to ending inventory may be significantly understated in terms of the current cost of inventory. This is true for Wynneck, where the cost of the ending inventory includes the $10 unit cost of the beginning inventory. The understatement becomes greater over extended periods of inflation if the inventory includes goods that were purchased in one or more earlier accounting periods.

Summary of Financial Statement Effects

The following illustration summarizes the key financial statement differences that will result from the different choices of cost flow assumption during a period of rising prices. These effects will be the inverse if prices are falling, and equal if prices are constant. In all instances, using the average cost flow assumption will give results that fall somewhere in between the results of FIFO and LIFO.

that fall somewhere in between the results of FIFO and LIFO.

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Financial Statement Effects

 

FIFO

LIFO

Cost of goods sold Gross profit/Net earnings Pre-tax cash flow Ending inventory

Lowest

Highest

Highest Lowest

Same

Same

Highest

Lowest

We have seen that both inventory on the balance sheet and net earnings on the statement of earnings are highest when FIFO is used in a period of inflation. Do not confuse this with cash flow. All three cost flow assumptions produce exactly the same cash flow before income taxes. Sales and purchases are not affected by the choice of cost flow assumption. The only thing affected is the allocation between ending inventory and the cost of goods sold, which does not involve cash.

It is also worth remembering that all three cost flow assumptions will give exactly the same results over the life cycle of the business or its product. That is, the allocation between the cost of goods sold and ending inventory may vary annually, but it will produce the same cumulative results over time. Although much has been written about the impact of the choice of inventory cost flow assumption on a variety of performance measures, in reality there is little real economic distinction among the assumptions over time.

Accounting Matters! International Perspective

Accounting Matters! International Perspective

In the U.S., unlike in Canada, use of LIFO is permitted for income tax purposes. Not surprisingly, many U.S. corporations choose LIFO because it reduces earnings and taxes when prices are rising. It also increases after-tax cash flow, since less income tax has to be paid in the short term. However, because of the impact of LIFO on the balance sheet, U.S. companies must also disclose in the notes to their statements what their inventory cost would have been if they had used FIFO.

their inventory cost would have been if they had used FIFO. International accounting standards have designated

International accounting standards have designated FIFO and average as the recommended cost flow assumptions. In some countries, such as Canada and the UK, even though LIFO may be used for financial reporting, it cannot be used for income taxes. This is why LIFO is not very popular around the

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Financial Statement Effects

world, other than in the U.S.

Inventory Errors

Unfortunately, errors occasionally occur in accounting for inventory. In some cases, errors are caused by mistakes in counting or costing the inventory. In other cases, errors occur because the transfer of legal title is not recognized properly for goods that are in transit. When errors occur, they affect both the statement of earnings and the balance sheet.

Statement of Earnings Effects

As we have learned, the cost of goods available for sale (beginning inventory plus the cost of goods purchased) is allocated between ending inventory and the cost of goods sold. This means that an error in any of these components will affect both the statement of earnings (through the cost of goods sold and net earnings) and the balance sheet (through ending inventory and retained earnings).

The dollar effects of inventory errors can be calculated by entering data in the earnings formula.

can be calculated by entering data in the earnings formula. Illustration 6-8 Earnings formula If beginning

Illustration 6-8

by entering data in the earnings formula. Illustration 6-8 Earnings formula If beginning inventory is understated,

Earnings formula

If beginning inventory is understated, cost of goods sold will be understated (assuming no other offsetting errors have occurred). On the other hand, understating ending inventory will overstate cost of goods sold. Cost of goods sold is deducted from sales to determine gross profit, and finally net earnings. An understatement in cost of goods

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Financial Statement Effects

sold will produce an overstatement in gross profit and net earnings (assuming that there are no errors in operating expenses). An overstatement in cost of goods sold will produce an understatement in gross profit and net earnings.

As you know, both the beginning and ending inventories appear in the statement of earnings for companies that use the periodic inventory system. The ending inventory of one period automatically becomes the beginning inventory of the next period. Consequently, an error in the ending inventory of the current period will have a reverse effect on net earnings of the next accounting period. This is shown in Illustration 6-9.

next accounting period . This is shown in Illustration 6-9. Illustration 6-9 Effects of inventory errors

Illustration 6-9

period . This is shown in Illustration 6-9. Illustration 6-9 Effects of inventory errors on statement

Effects of inventory errors on statement of earnings for two years

In this illustration, ending inventory in 2006 was understated by $2,250. The understatement of ending inventory results in an overstatement of the cost of goods sold and an under-statement of net earnings in the same year. It also results in an understatement of the beginning inventory and cost of goods sold in 2007 and an overstatement of net earnings for that year.

Over the two years, total net earnings are correct because the errors offset each other. Notice that total earnings using incorrect data are $26,250 ($16,500 + $9,750), which is the same as the total earnings of $26,250 ($18,750 + $7,500) using correct data. Also note in this example that an error in the beginning inventory does not result in a corresponding error in the ending inventory for that period. Under the periodic inventory system, the correctness of the ending inventory depends entirely on the accuracy of taking and costing the inventory at the balance sheet date.

Balance Sheet Effects

The effect of ending inventory errors on the balance sheet can be calculated by using the basic accounting

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Financial Statement Effects

equation: assets = liabilities + shareholders' equity. Errors in the ending inventory have the effects shown below. U is for understatement, O is for overstatement, and NE is for no effect.

Ending Inventory Error

Assets

=

Liabilities

+

Shareholders’ Equity

Overstated

O

NE

O

Understated

U

NE

U

Recall from the previous section that errors in ending inventory affect net earnings. If net earnings are affected, then shareholders' equity will be affected by the same amount since net earnings are closed into the Retained Earnings account, which is part of shareholders' equity. Consequently, an error in ending inventory affects the asset account Merchandise Inventory and the shareholders' equity account Retained Earnings.

Depending on whether income tax has been paid or not, the Income Tax Payable account might also be affected. For simplicity in this chapter, we will assume that all income tax has been paid, so that the effects on assets and shareholders' equity are equal.

The effect of an error in ending inventory on the next period was shown in Illustration 6-9. Recall that if the error is not corrected, the combined total net earnings for the two periods would be correct. In the example, therefore, the assets and shareholders' equity reported on the balance sheet at the end of 2007 will be correct.

Decision Toolkit

Decision Checkpoints

 

How to

Info Needed for

Tools to Use for

Evaluate

Decision

Decision

Results

to Use for Evaluate Decision Decision Results What is the impact of the choice of inventory

What is the impact of the choice of inventory cost flow assumption?

Are prices increasing, or are they decreasing?

Statement of

It

depends on

earnings and

the objective. In

balance sheet

a

period of

   

effects

rising prices, earnings and inventory are higher under FIFO. LIFO provides opposite results. Average can soften the impact of changing prices.

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Financial Statement Effects

Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons Canada, Ltd. All rights reserved.

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Before You Go On #3

Before You Go On #3

Before You Go On

Review It

Review It

1. What factors should be considered by management when choosing an inventory cost flow assumption?

2. Which inventory cost flow assumption produces the highest net earnings in a period of rising prices? The highest ending inventory valuation? The highest pre-tax cash flow?

3. How do inventory errors affect the statement of earnings? How do they affect the balance sheet?

Do It

Do It

On July 31, 2006, Zhang Inc. counted and recorded $600,000 of inventory. This count did not include $90,000 of goods in transit that were purchased on July 29 on account and shipped to Zhang FOB shipping point. Determine the correct July 31 inventory. Identify any accounts that are in error at July 31, 2006. State the amount and direction (e.g., understated or overstated) of the error for each of these accounts. You can ignore any income tax effects.

Action Plan

Use the earnings formula to determine the error's impact on statement of earnings accounts.

Use the earnings formula to determine the error's impact on statement of earnings accounts.

Use the accounting equation to determine the error's impact on balance sheet accounts.

Use the accounting equation to determine the error's impact on balance sheet accounts.

Solution

The correct inventory count should have been $690,000 ($600,000 + $90,000).

Statement of earnings accounts:

Purchases are understated (U) by $90,000. However, since ending inventory is also understated, the cost of goods sold, gross profit, and net earnings will be correct [beginning inventory + cost of goods purchased (U $90,000) ending inventory (U $90,000) = cost of goods sold].

Balance sheet accounts:

Merchandise Inventory (ending) is understated by $90,000, as is Accounts Payable [assets (U $90,000) = Liabilities (U $90,000) + Shareholders' Equity].

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Before You Go On #3

Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons Canada, Ltd. All rights reserved.

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Presentation and Analysis of Inventory

Presentation and Analysis of Inventory

Presenting inventory appropriately on the financial statements is important because inventory is usually the largest current asset (merchandise inventory) on the balance sheet and the largest expense (cost of goods sold) on the statement of earnings. For example, expanding on the feature story, Caterpillar reported inventory of U.S. $4,674 million in 2004, which comprises nearly one-quarter of its total current assets. Caterpillar's cost of goods sold of U. S. $22,420 million amounts to more than 80 percent of total operating expenses on its statement of earnings.

study objective 4

Demonstrate the presentation and analysis of inventory.

In addition, these reported numbers are critical for analyzing a company's effectiveness in managing its inventory. In the next sections, we will discuss issues that are related to the presentation and analysis of inventory.

Valuing Inventory at the Lower of Cost and Market (LCM)

Before presenting inventory on the financial statements, we must first ensure that it is properly valued. Inventory sometimes decreases in value due to changes in technology or style. For example, suppose you are the owner of a retail store that sells computers. During the recent 12-month period, the cost of the computers dropped by almost 30 percent. At the end of your fiscal year, you still have some of these computers in inventory. Do you think your inventory should be stated at cost, in accordance with the cost principle, or at its lower market value?

As you probably reasoned, when this situation occurs, the cost basis of accounting is no longer followed. When the value of inventory is lower than its cost, inventory is written down to its market value. This is done by valuing the inventory at the lower of cost and market (LCM) in the period in which the decline occurs. LCM is an example of the accounting concept of conservatism. You will recall from our discussion of conservatism in Chapter 2 that the method that is least likely to overstate assets and net earnings is the one that should be used.

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Presentation and Analysis of Inventory

International Note Almost every country in the world applies the LCM rule; however, the definition of market can vary. The International Accounting Standards Board defines market as net realizable value, as do the UK, France, and Germany. The U. S., Italy, and Japan define it as the replacement cost.

The term market in the phrase lower of cost and market is not specifically defined in Canada. It can mean the replacement cost or the net realizable value, among other things. The majority of Canadian companies use net realizable value to define market for LCM purposes. For a merchandising company, net realizable value is the selling price, less any costs required to make the goods ready for sale.

LCM is applied to the inventory after specific identification or one of the cost flow assumptions (FIFO, average, or LIFO) has been used to determine the cost. Assume that Wacky World has the following lines of merchandise with costs and market values as indicated. LCM produces the following results:

 

Cost

Market

Lower of Cost and Market

Television sets

LCD

$ 60,000

$ 55,000

Plasma

45,000

52,000

 

105,000

107,000

Video equipment DVD recorder/players VCRs

48,000

45,000

15,000

14,000

 

63,000

59,000

Total inventory

$168,000

$166,000

$166,000

LCM can be applied separately to each individual item, to categories of items (e.g., television sets and video equipment), or to total inventory. It is common practice to use total inventory rather than individual items or major categories when determining the LCM valuation.

Using total inventory, the journal entry to record the loss for Wacky World would be as follows under a periodic inventory system:

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Presentation and Analysis of Inventory

Presentation and Analysis of Inventory

The loss would be reported as part of cost of goods sold on the statement of earnings. In a perpetual inventory system, the loss would be debited directly to the Cost of Goods Sold account.

Classifying Inventory

How a company classifies its inventory depends on whether it is a merchandiser or a manufacturer. In a merchandising company, such as those described in Chapter 5, the inventory includes many different items. For example, in a grocery store like Loblaw, canned goods, dairy products, meats, and produce are just a few of the inventory items on hand. In a merchandising company, inventory has two common characteristics: (1) it is owned by the company, and (2) it is in a form that is ready for sale to customers in the ordinary course of business. Thus, only one inventory classification, merchandise inventory, is needed to describe the many different items that make up the total inventory.

Helpful Hint Regardless of the classification, all inventories are reported as current assets on the balance sheet.

In a manufacturing company, some of its inventory may not yet be ready for sale. As a result, inventory is usually classified into three categories: finished goods, work in process, and raw materials. Finished goods inventory includes manufactured items that are completed and ready for sale. Work in process is that portion of manufactured inventory that has been placed into the production process but is not yet complete. Raw materials are the basic goods that will be used in production but have not yet been sent into production. For example, Caterpillar in the feature story classifies “earth-moving trucks completed and ready for sale” as finished goods. The trucks on the assembly line in various stages of production are classified as work in process. The steel, glass, tires, and other components that are on hand waiting to be used in the production of trucks are identified as raw materials.

By observing the levels of these three inventory types and changes in these levels, financial statement users can gain insight into management's production plans. For example, low levels of raw materials and high levels of finished goods could suggest that management believes it has enough inventory on hand and will slow down production—perhaps because it expects a recession. On the other hand, high levels of raw materials and low levels of finished goods probably indicate that management is planning to increase production.

In the notes to the financial statements, the following information related to inventory should be disclosed: (1) the major inventory classifications, (2) the basis of valuation (cost or lower of cost and market), and (3) the cost flow assumption (specific identification, FIFO, average, or LIFO).

Inventory Turnover

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Presentation and Analysis of Inventory

The inventory turnover and days in inventory ratios help companies manage their inventory levels. The inventory

turnover ratio measures the number of times, on average, that inventory is sold (“turns over”) during the period. It

is calculated as the cost of goods sold divided by the average inventory.

Whenever a ratio compares a balance sheet figure (e.g., inventory) to a statement of earnings figure (e.g., cost of goods sold), the balance sheet figure must be averaged. Averages for balance sheet figures are determined by adding the beginning and ending balances together and then dividing the result by two. Averages are used to ensure that the balance sheet figures (which represent end-of-period amounts) cover the same period of time as the statement of earnings figures (which represent amounts for the entire period).

A complement to the inventory turnover ratio is the days in inventory ratio. It converts the inventory turnover into

a measure of the average age of the inventory. It is calculated as 365 days divided by the inventory turnover ratio.

A low inventory turnover ratio (high days in inventory) could mean that the company has too much of its funds in

inventory. It could also mean that the company has excessive carrying costs (e.g., for interest, storage, insurance, and taxes) or that it has obsolete inventory.

A high inventory turnover ratio (low days in inventory) could mean that the company has little of its funds in

inventory—in other words, that it has a minimal amount of inventory on hand at any specific time. Although having minimal funds tied up in inventory suggests efficiency, too high an inventory turnover ratio may indicate that the company is losing sales opportunities because of inventory shortages. For example, investment analysts suggested recently that Office Depot had gone too far in reducing its inventory—analysts said they were seeing too many empty shelves. Management should watch this ratio closely so that it achieves the best balance between too much and too little inventory.

In Chapter 5, we discussed the increasingly competitive environment of retailers like Wal-Mart and Hudson's Bay.

We noted that Wal-Mart has implemented many technological innovations to improve the efficiency of its

inventory management. The following data are available for Wal-Mart (in U.S. millions):

 

2004

2003

2002

Inventory Cost of goods sold

$ 26,612

$ 24,401

$ 22,614

198,747

178,299

171,562

Illustration 6-10 presents the inventory turnover and days in inventory ratios for Wal-Mart for 2004 and 2003. No comparative information is presented for the Hudson's Bay Company because, as explained in Chapter 5, it does not separately report its cost of goods sold on its statement of earnings.

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Presentation and Analysis of Inventory

Presentation and Analysis of Inventory Illustration 6-10 Inventory turnover and days in inventory The calculations in

Illustration 6-10

Presentation and Analysis of Inventory Illustration 6-10 Inventory turnover and days in inventory The calculations in

Inventory turnover and days in inventory

The calculations in Illustration 6-10 show that Wal-Mart improved its inventory turnover slightly from 2003 to 2004 and that it turns its inventory over more frequently than the industry in general. This suggests that Wal-Mart is more efficient in its inventory management. Wal-Mart's sophisticated inventory tracking and distribution system allows it to keep minimum amounts of inventory on hand, while still keeping the shelves full of what customers are looking for.

Accounting Matters! Management Perspective

Accounting Matters! Management Perspective

Inventory management for companies that make and sell high-tech products is very complex because the product life cycle is so short. The company wants to have enough inventory to meet demand, but does not want to have too much inventory, because the introduction of a new product can eliminate demand for the “old” product. Palm, Inc., maker of personal digital assistants (PDAs), learned this lesson the hard way in the early 2000s. Sales of its existing products had been booming, and the company was frequently faced with shortages, so it started increasing its inventories. Then sales started to slow and inventories started to grow faster than wanted. Management panicked and decided to announce that its new product—one that would make its old one obsolete—would be coming out in two weeks. Sales of the old product quickly died—leaving a mountain of inventory. As it turned out, however, the new product was not actually ready for six weeks and potential sales during those weeks were lost.

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Presentation and Analysis of Inventory

Presentation and Analysis of Inventory Decision Toolkit Decision Checkpoints Info Needed for D e c i

Decision Toolkit

Decision

Checkpoints

Info

Needed

for

Decision

 

How to

Evaluate

Tools to Use for Decision

Results

How to Evaluate Tools to Use for Decision Results How long is an item in inventory?

How long is an item in inventory?

Cost of

How long is an item in inventory? Cost of A higher

A

higher

goods

inventory turnover or lower days in inventory

sold;

 
 

beginning

  beginning

and

ending

suggests that

inventory

 

management

is

reducing

the amount

of inventory

on hand,

relative to

sales.

Before You Go On #4

Before You Go On #4

Before You Go On

Before You Go On #4 Before You Go On Review It 1. When should inventory be

Review It

1. When should inventory be reported at a value other than cost?

2. What inventory cost flow assumption does Loblaw use to account for its inventories? The answer to this question is provided at the end of the chapter

Loblaw uses the FIFO (first-in, first-out) cost flow assumption to account for its inventories.
Loblaw uses the FIFO (first-in, first-out) cost flow assumption to account for its
inventories.

3. What is the purpose of the inventory turnover ratio? What is the relationship between the inventory turnover and days in inventory ratios?

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Inventory Cost Flow Assumptions Inperpetual Inventory Systems

APPENDIX 6A

Inperpetual Inventory Systems

APPENDIX 6A Inperpetual Inventory Systems Inventory Cost Flow Assumptions

Inventory Cost Flow Assumptions

Each of the inventory cost flow assumptions described in the chapter for a periodic inventory system may be used in a perpetual inventory system. To show how to use the three cost flow assumptions (FIFO, average, and LIFO) under a perpetual system, we will use the data below, the same as what was shown earlier in the chapter for Wynneck Electronics' Astro Condenser.

study objective 5

Apply the inventory cost flow assumptions under a perpetual inventory system.

cost flow assumptions under a perpetual inventory system. First-In, First-Out (FIFO) Under perpetual FIFO, the cost

First-In, First-Out (FIFO)

Under perpetual FIFO, the cost of the oldest goods on hand before each sale is allocated to the cost of goods sold. The cost of goods sold on May 1 is assumed to consists of all the January 1 beginning inventory and 50 units of the items purchased on April 15. Similarly, the cost of goods sold on September 10 is assumed to consist of the remaining units purchased on April 15, and 250 of the units purchased on August 24. Illustration 6A-1, on the following page, shows the inventory under a FIFO perpetual system.

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Inventory Cost Flow Assumptions Inperpetual Inventory Systems

Inventory Cost Flow Assumptions Inperpetual Inventory Systems Illustration 6A-1 Perpetual system—FIFO As shown, the

Illustration 6A-1

Assumptions Inperpetual Inventory Systems Illustration 6A-1 Perpetual system—FIFO As shown, the ending inventory in

Perpetual system—FIFO

As shown, the ending inventory in this situation is $5,800, and the cost of goods sold is $6,200.

Although the calculation format may differ, the results under FIFO in a perpetual system are the same as in a periodic system (see Illustration 6-3 where, similarly, the ending inventory is $5,800 and the cost of goods sold is $6,200). Under both inventory systems, the first costs in are the ones assigned to cost of goods sold.

Average

The average cost flow assumption in a perpetual inventory system is often called the moving average cost flow assumption. The average cost is calculated in the same manner as we calculated the weighted average unit cost in a periodic inventory system: by dividing the cost of goods available for sale by the units available for sale. The difference under the perpetual inventory system is that a new average is calculated after each purchase. The average cost is then applied (1) to the remaining units on hand, to determine the cost of the ending inventory, and (2) to the units sold, to determine the cost of goods sold. Use of the average cost flow assumption by Wynneck Electronics is shown in Illustration 6A-2.

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Inventory Cost Flow Assumptions Inperpetual Inventory Systems

Inventory Cost Flow Assumptions Inperpetual Inventory Systems Illustration 6A-2 Perpetual system—average As indicated

Illustration 6A-2

Assumptions Inperpetual Inventory Systems Illustration 6A-2 Perpetual system—average As indicated above, a new

Perpetual system—average

As indicated above, a new average is calculated each time a purchase (or purchase return) is made. On April 15, after 200 units are purchased for $2,200, a total of 300 units costing $3,200 ($1,000 + $2,200) is on hand. The average unit cost is $10.67 ($3,200 ÷ 300). Accordingly, the unit cost of the 150 units sold on May 1 is shown at $10.67, and the total cost of goods sold is $1,600. This unit cost is used in costing the units sold until another purchase is made, and a new unit cost must then be calculated.

On August 24, after 300 units are purchased for $3,600, a total of 450 units costing $5,200 ($1,600 + $3,600) are on hand. This results in an average cost per unit of $11.56 ($5,200 ÷ 450), which is used to cost the September 10 sale. After the November 27 purchase of 400 units for $5,200, there are 450 units on hand costing $5,777.78 ($577.78 + $5,200), resulting in a new average cost of $12.84 ($5,777.78 ÷ 450).

In practice, these average unit costs may be rounded to the nearest cent, or even to the nearest dollar. This illustration used the exact unit cost amounts, as would a computerized schedule, even though the unit costs have been rounded to the nearest digit for presentation in Illustration 6A-2. However, it is important to remember that this is an assumed cost flow, and using four digits, or even cents, suggests a false level of accuracy.

This moving average cost under the perpetual inventory system should be compared to Illustration 6-5 shown earlier in the chapter, which presents the weighted average cost under a periodic inventory system.

Last-In, First-Out (LIFO)

With the LIFO cost flow assumption under a perpetual system, the cost of the most recent purchase before a sale is allocated to the units sold. Therefore, the cost of the goods sold on May 1 is assumed to consist of the units from the latest purchase, on April 15, at the cost of $11 per unit. The cost of goods sold on September 10 counts backwards until a total of 400 units is reached, first allocating the 300 units purchased on August 24, then the 50 remaining units from the April 15 purchase, and finally the 50 units in beginning inventory.

For our example, the ending inventory under a LIFO cost flow assumption is calculated in Illustration 6A-3.

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Inventory Cost Flow Assumptions Inperpetual Inventory Systems

Inventory Cost Flow Assumptions Inperpetual Inventory Systems Illustration 6A-3 Perpetual system—LIFO The ending

Illustration 6A-3

Assumptions Inperpetual Inventory Systems Illustration 6A-3 Perpetual system—LIFO The ending inventory in this LIFO

Perpetual system—LIFO

The ending inventory in this LIFO perpetual illustration is $5,700 and the cost of goods sold is $6,300. Compare this to the LIFO periodic example in Illustration 6-6, where the ending inventory is $5,000 and the cost of goods sold is $7,000.

The use of LIFO in a perpetual system will usually produce cost allocations that differ from using LIFO in a periodic system. In a perpetual system, the latest units purchased before each sale are allocated to the cost of goods sold. In a periodic system, the latest units purchased during the period are allocated to the cost of goods

sold. When a purchase is made after the last sale, the LIFO periodic system will apply this purchase to the previous sale. See Illustration 6-6 where the 400 units at $13 purchased on November 27 are all allocated to the sale of 550 units. As shown under the LIFO perpetual system, the 400 units at $13 purchased on November 27 are all applied

to the ending inventory.

A comparison of the cost of goods sold and ending inventory figures for each of these cost flow assumptions under

a perpetual inventory system gives the same proportionate outcomes that we saw in the application of cost flow assumptions under a periodic system. That is, in a period of rising prices (prices rose from $10 to $13 in this example), FIFO will always result in the highest ending inventory valuation and LIFO in the lowest. On the other hand, LIFO will always result in the highest cost of goods sold figure (and lowest net earnings), and FIFO in the lowest. Average results fall somewhere in between FIFO and LIFO. The following table summarizes these effects under a perpetual inventory system:

summarizes these effects under a perpetual inventory system:

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Inventory Cost Flow Assumptions Inperpetual Inventory Systems

 

FIFO

Average

LIFO

Cost of goods sold Ending inventory

$ 6,200

$ 6,222

$ 6,300

5,800

5,778

5,700

Cost of goods available for sale

$12,000

$12,000

$12,000

Of course, if prices are falling, the inverse relationships will result. If prices are constant, all three cost flow assumptions will yield the same results. And, finally, remember that the sum of cost of goods sold and ending inventory always equals the cost of goods available for sale, which is the same under all the cost flow assumptions.

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Using the Decision Toolkit

Using the Decision Toolkit

 

IPSCO Inc., headquartered in Regina, Saskatchewan, manufactures and sells steel mill and fabricated products in Canada and the U.S. Selected financial information (in U.S. thousands) for IPSCO Inc. follows:

 

2004

2003

2002

Inventories $434,526 $286,159 $255,410 Sales 2,452,675 1,294,566 1,081,709 Cost of sales 1,660,009 1,122,625 929,140 Net earnings 438,610 16,585 20,279

Selected industry data follow:

 

2004

2003

 

Inventory turnover Days in inventory Gross profit margin Profit margin

5.5 times

5.3 times

66 days

69 days

23.9%

22.0%

8.6%

5.9%

Instructions

 

(a)

IPSCO uses the average cost flow assumption. Steel prices have risen over the last two years in response to increased demand for steel and its raw materials, largely due to China's rapidly growing economy. If IPSCO had used FIFO instead of average, would its net earnings have been higher or lower than currently reported?

(b)

Do each of the following:

1. Calculate the inventory turnover and days in inventory for 2004 and 2003.

2. Calculate the gross profit margin and profit margin for each of 2004 and 2003.

3. Evaluate IPSCO's performance with inventories over the most recent two years and compare its performance to that of the industry.

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Using the Decision Toolkit

Solution

 

(a)

If IPSCO used the FIFO cost flow assumption instead of the average cost flow assumption during a period of rising prices, its cost of goods sold would be lower and its net earnings higher than currently reported.

(b)

 

1.

Ratio

2004

2003

 

Inventory

  Inventory  
  Inventory  
 
  Inventory  
  Inventory  

turnover

Days in

inventory

 

2.

Ratio

 

2004

2003

 

Gross profit margin

  Gross profit margin  
 
  Gross profit margin  

Profit margin

Profit margin
Profit margin
 

3. IPSCO's inventory turnover and days in inventory ratios improved in 2004, although they remain below the industry averages. That means that IPSCO has more inventory on hand and is not selling it as fast as its competitors. IPSCO's profitability ratios increased substantially in 2004. After performing below the industry average in 2003, IPSCO's profitability was better than that of the industry in 2004. IPSCO attributes this to the rising prices and demand for steel. In addition, the strong Canadian dollar also increased reported results.

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Summary of Study Objectives

Summary of Study Objectives

1. Describe the steps in determining inventory quantities. The steps are (1) taking a physical inventory of goods on hand and (2) determining the ownership of goods in transit, on consignment, and in similar situations.

2. Apply the inventory cost flow assumptions under a periodic inventory system. The cost of goods available for sale (beginning inventory plus the cost of goods purchased) may be allocated to ending inventory and the cost of goods sold by specific identification or by one of the three cost flow assumptions—FIFO (first-in, first-out), average, or LIFO (last-in, first-out). Specific identification allocates the exact cost of each merchandise item to ending inventory and the cost of goods sold. FIFO assumes a first-in, first-out cost flow for sales. Ending inventory is determined by allocating the cost of the most recent goods purchased to the units on hand. Cost of goods sold consists of the cost of the earliest goods purchased. Average uses dollar and unit amounts for the goods available for sale to calculate a weighted average cost per unit. This unit cost is then applied to the number of units remaining to determine ending inventory and the number of units sold to prove cost of goods sold. LIFO assumes a last-in, first-out cost flow for sales. Ending inventory is determined by allocating the cost of the earliest goods purchased to the units on hand. Cost of goods sold consists of the cost of the most recent goods purchased.

3. Explain the financial statement effects of the inventory cost flow assumptions and inventory errors. When prices are rising, FIFO results in a lower cost of goods sold and higher net earnings than average and LIFO. The reverse is true when prices are falling. In the balance sheet, FIFO results in an ending inventory that is closest to current (replacement) value, whereas the inventory under LIFO is the furthest from current value. All three cost flow assumptions result in the same cash flow before income taxes. LIFO is not permitted for income tax purposes in Canada. An error in beginning inventory will have a reverse effect on net earnings in the current year (e.g., an overstatement of inventory results in an understatement of net earnings). An error in ending inventory will have a similar effect on net earnings (e.g., an overstatement of inventory results in an overstatement of net earnings). If ending inventory errors are not corrected in the following period, their effect on net earnings for that period is reversed, and total net earnings for the two years will be correct. In the balance sheet, ending inventory errors will have the same effects on total assets and total shareholders' equity, and no effect on liabilities (ignoring income taxes).

4. Demonstrate the presentation and analysis of inventory. Ending inventory is reported as a current asset on the balance sheet. Cost of goods sold is reported as an operating expense on the statement of earnings. Additional disclosure includes information about the major inventory classifications, the cost flow assumption chosen, and the basis of valuation. Inventory is valued at the lower of cost and market (LCM), which results in a write-down when the market value (net realizable value) is less than cost. The inventory turnover ratio is calculated as the cost of goods sold divided by average inventory. It can be converted to days in inventory by dividing 365 days by the inventory turnover ratio.

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Summary of Study Objectives

5. Apply the inventory cost flow assumptions under a perpetual inventory system (Appendix 6A). Under FIFO, the cost of the oldest goods on hand is allocated to the cost of goods sold. The cost of the most recent goods purchased is allocated to ending inventory. Under average, a new weighted (moving) average unit cost is calculated after each purchase and applied to the number of units sold and the number of units remaining in ending inventory. Under LIFO, the cost of the most recent purchase is allocated to the cost of goods sold. The cost of the earliest goods purchased is allocated to ending inventory. Each of these cost flow assumptions is applied in the same cost flow order as in a periodic inventory system. The main difference is that in a perpetual inventory system the cost flow assumption is applied at the date of each sale to determine the cost of goods sold. In a periodic inventory system, the cost flow assumption is applied only at the end of the period.

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Decision ToolkitA Summary

Decision Toolkit—A Summary

Decision

Checkpoints

Info

Needed

for

Decision

 

How to

Evaluate

Tools to Use for Decision

Results

How to Evaluate Tools to Use for Decision Results What is the impact of the choice

What is the impact of the choice of inventory cost flow assumption?

Are prices increasing, or are they decreasing?

Statement of earnings and balance sheet effects

It

depends

on the

 

objective. In

a

period of

 

rising

prices,

 

earnings

and

inventory

are higher

under FIFO.

LIFO

provides

opposite

results.

Average

can soften

the impact

of changing

prices.

How long is an item in inventory?

Cost of

How long is an item in inventory? Cost of A higher

A

higher

goods sold;

inventory

beginning

 

turnover or

 

and ending

  and ending lower days

lower days

inventory

in inventory

suggests

 

that

management

is reducing

the amount

of inventory

on hand,

relative to

sales.

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Decision ToolkitA Summary

Decision ToolkitA Summary

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Demonstration Problem

Demonstration Problem

Englehart Ltd. has the following inventory, purchases, and sales data for the month of March:

 

Inventory, March 1 Purchases Mar. 10

200 units @ $4.30

$ 860

500 units @ $4.50

2,250

20

400 units @ $4.75

1,900

30

300 units @ $5.00

1,500

Sales

Mar. 15

500 units @ $8.00

4,000

25

400 units @ $8.00

3,200

The physical inventory count on March 31 shows 500 units on hand.

Instructions

Under a periodic inventory system, determine the cost of the inventory on hand at March 31 and the cost of goods sold for March under (a) FIFO, (b) average, and (c) LIFO.

Action Plan

Ignore the dates of sale in a periodic inventory system. Assume everything happens at the end of the period.March under (a) FIFO, (b) average, and (c) LIFO. Action Plan Allocate costs to ending inventory.

Allocate costs to ending inventory. Subtract ending inventory from the cost of goods available for sale to determine the cost of goods sold.system. Assume everything happens at the end of the period. For FIFO, allocate the latest costs

For FIFO, allocate the latest costs to the goods on hand. 

 

For average, calculate the weighted average unit cost (the cost of goods available for sale ÷ the number of units available for sale). Multiply this cost by the number of units on hand.allocate the latest costs to the goods on hand.   For LIFO, allocate the oldest costs

For LIFO, allocate the oldest costs to the goods on hand. 

 

Prove the cost of goods sold separately and then check that ending inventory plus the cost of goods sold equals the cost of goods available for sale.on hand. For LIFO, allocate the oldest costs to the goods on hand.   Solution to

Solution to Demonstration Problem

 

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Demonstration Problem

The cost of goods available for sale is $6,510:

 

Beginning inventory Purchases Mar. 10

 

200

units @ $4.30

 

$ 860

500

units @ 4.50 units @ 4.75 units @ 5.00

2,250

20

400

1,900

30

300

1,500

Total cost of goods available for sale

1,400

$6,510

(a)

FIFO

 

Units

Unit Cost

Total Cost

 

Ending inventory Mar. 30

300

$5.00

$1,500

20

200

4.75

950

 

500

$2,450

 

Cost of goods sold: $6,510 $2,450 = $4,060 Proof of cost of goods sold:

 
 

Units

Unit Cost

Total Cost

 
 

Beginning inventory Mar. 10

 

200

$4.30

$ 860

500

4.50

2,250

20

200

4.75

950

 

900

$4,060

 

Check: $2,450 + $4,060 = $6,510

(b)

Average Weighted average unit cost: $6,510 ÷ 1,400 = $4.65 Ending inventory: 500 × $4.65 = $2,325 Cost of goods sold: $6,510 $2,325 = $4,185 Proof of cost of goods sold: 900 × $4.65 = $4,185 Proof: $2,325 + $4,185 = $6,510

 

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Demonstration Problem

(c) LIFO

 

Units

Unit Cost

Total Cost

Ending inventory:

Beginning inventory Mar. 10

200

$4.30

$ 860

300

4.50

1,350

 

500

$2,210

Cost of goods sold: $6,510 $2,210 = $4,300 Proof of cost of goods sold:

 

Units

Unit Cost

Total Cost

Mar. 30

300

$5.00

$1,500

 

20

400

4.75

1,900

10

200

4.50

900

 

900

$4,300

Check: $2,210 + $4,300 = $6,510

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