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i Table of Contents

Amcricun Socicty of Iumbing Inginccrs


Iutu Book
A Iumbing Inginccr`s Guidc to Systcm Icsign und Sccificutions
Volume 2
Plumbing Systems
Amcricun Socicty of Iumbing Inginccrs
3617 I. Thousund Ouks Bvd., Suitc 210
Wcstukc iugc, CA 1362
ASPE Data Book Volume 1 ii
Copyright 2000 by American Society of Plumbing Engineers
Al l ri ghts reserved, i ncl udi ng ri ghts of reproducti on and use i n any form or by any means, i ncl udi ng the maki ng of copi es by any
photographi c process, or by any el ectroni c or mechani cal devi ce, pri nted or wri tten or oral , or recordi ng for sound or vi sual reproduc-
ti on, or for use i n any knowl edge or retri eval system or devi ce, unl ess permi ssi on i n wri ti ng i s obtai ned from the publ i sher.
The ASPE Data Book i s desi gned to provi de accurate and authori tati ve i nformati on for the desi gn and speci fi cati on of pl umbi ng
systems. The publ i sher makes no guarantees or warranti es, expressed or i mpl i ed, regardi ng the data and i nformati on contai ned i n
thi s publ i cati on. Al l data and i nformati on are provi ded wi th the understandi ng that the publ i sher i s not engaged i n renderi ng l egal ,
consul ti ng, engi neeri ng, or other professi onal servi ces. I f l egal , consul ti ng, or engi neeri ng advi ce or other expert assi stance i s re-
qui red, the servi ces of a competent professi onal shoul d be engaged.
Amcricun Socicty of Iumbing Inginccrs
3617 . Jlousanu Oaks Blvu., Suite 210
Westlake Village, CA 91362
(805) 495-7120 - !ax: (805) 495-4861
-mail: aspelqaol.com - nternet: www.aspe.org
I SBN 1891255126
Pri nted i n the Uni ted States of Ameri ca
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
iii Table of Contents
Data Book
Volume 2
Plumbing Systems
Data Book Chairperson: Anthony W. Stutes, P.E., CIPE
ASPE Vice-President, Technical: David Chin, P.E., CIPE
Editorial Review: ASPE Technical and Research Committee
Technical and Research Committee
Chairperson: Norman T. Heinig, CIPE
CONTRIBUTORS
Chapter 1
Mi chael Granata, P.E.
Ti mothy Smi th, CI PE
Patri ck L. Whi tworth, CI PE
Chapter 2
Notman T. Hei ni g, CI PE
Saum K. Nour, Ph.D., P.E., CI PE
Chapter 3
Mi chael Granata, P.E.
Ti mothy Smi th, CI PE
Patri ck L. Whi tworth, CI PE
Chapter 4
Patri ck L. Whi tworth, CI PE
Chapter 5
Mi chael Granata, P.E.
Stephen E. Howe, P.E., CI PE
Donal d L. Sampl er, Sr., P.E., CI PE
Chapter 6
Anthony W. Stutes, P.E., CI PE
Chapter 7
Joseph J. Barbera, P.E., CI PE
John P. Cal l ahan, CI PE
Paul D. Fi nnerty, CI PE
Ronal d W. Howi e, CI PE
Robert L. Love, P.E., CI PE
Steven T. Mayer, CI PE, CET
Jon G. Moore
Rand J. Refri geri , P.E.
Chapter 8
A. R. Rubi n, Professor of Bi ol ogi cal and
Agri cul tural Engi neeri ng,
North Carol i na State Uni versi ty
Patri ck L. Whi tworth, CI PE
Chapter 9
Nati onal Ground Water Associ ati on (NGWA),
Westervi l l e, OH
Patri ck L. Whi tworth, CI PE
Chapter 10
Cl arke L. Marshal l
Chapter 11
Mi chael Frankel , CI PE
Warren W. Serl es
Chapter 12
Mi chael Frankel , CI PE
ASPE Data Book Volume 1 iv
ABOUT ASPE
The Ameri can Soci ety of Pl umbi ng Engi neers (ASPE) i s the i nternati onal organi zati on for professi onal s ski l l ed i n
the desi gn and speci fi cati on of pl umbi ng systems. ASPE i s dedi cated to the advancement of the sci ence of pl umb-
i ng engi neeri ng, to the professi onal growth and advancement of i ts members, and to the heal th, wel fare, and
safety of the publ i c.
The Soci ety di ssemi nates techni cal data and i nformati on, sponsors acti vi ti es that faci l i tate i nteracti on wi th
fel l ow professi onal s, and, through research and educati on programs, expands the base of knowl edge of the pl umb-
i ng engi neeri ng i ndustry. ASPE members are l eaders i n i nnovati ve pl umbi ng desi gn, effecti ve materi al s and
energy use, and the appl i cati on of advanced techni ques from around the worl d.
WORLDWIDE MEMBERSHIP ASPE was founded i n 1964 and currentl y has 7,100 members. Spanni ng the gl obe,
members are l ocated i n the Uni ted States, Canada, Asi a, Mexi co, South Ameri ca, the South Paci fi c, Austral i a,
and Europe. They represent an extensi ve network of experi enced engi neers, desi gners, contractors, educators,
code offi ci al s, and manufacturers i nterested i n furtheri ng thei r careers, thei r professi on, and the i ndustry. ASPE
i s at the forefront of technol ogy. I n addi ti on, ASPE represents members and promotes the professi on among al l
segments of the constructi on i ndustry.
ASPE MEMBERSHIP COMMUNICATION Al l members bel ong to ASPE worl dwi de and have the opportuni ty to
bel ong and parti ci pate i n one of the 57 state, provi nci al or l ocal chapters throughout the U.S. and Canada. ASPE
chapters provi de the major communi cati on l i nks and the fi rst l i ne of servi ces and programs for the i ndi vi dual
member. Communi cati ons wi th the membershi p i s enhanced through the Soci etys bi monthl y newsl etter, the
ASPE Report, and the monthl y magazi ne, Plumbing Engineer.
TECHNICAL PUBLICATIONS The Soci ety mai ntai ns a comprehensi ve publ i shi ng program, spearheaded by the
professi ons basi c reference text, the ASPE Data Book. The Data Book, encompassi ng forty-fi ve chapters i n four
vol umes, provi des comprehensi ve detai l s of the accepted practi ces and desi gn cri teri a used i n the fi el d of pl umbi ng
engi neeri ng. New addi ti ons that wi l l shortl y joi n ASPEs publ i shed l i brary of professi onal techni cal manual s and
handbooks i ncl ude: High-Technology Pharmaceutical Facilities Design Manual, High-Technology Electronic Facilities
Design Manual, Health Care Facilities and Hospitals Design Manual, and Water Reuse Design Manual.
CONVENTION AND TECHNICAL SYMPOSIUM The Soci ety hosts bi enni al Conventi ons i n even-numbered years and
Techni cal Symposi a i n odd-numbered years to al l ow professi onal pl umbi ng engi neers and desi gners to i mprove thei r
ski l l s, l earn ori gi nal concepts, and make i mportant networki ng contacts to hel p them stay abreast of current trends
and technol ogi es. I n conjuncti on wi th each Conventi on there i s an Engi neered Pl umbi ng Exposi ti on, the greatest,
l argest gatheri ng of pl umbi ng engi neeri ng and desi gn products, equi pment, and servi ces. Everythi ng from pi pes to
pumps to fi xtures, from compressors to computers to consul ti ng servi ces i s on di spl ay, gi vi ng engi neers and speci fi ers
the opportuni ty to vi ew the newest and most i nnovati ve materi al s and equi pment avai l abl e to them.
CERTIFIED IN PLUMBING ENGINEERING ASPE sponsors a nati onal certi fi cati on program for engi neers and
desi gners of pl umbi ng systems, whi ch carri es the desi gnati on Certi fi ed i n Pl umbi ng Engi neeri ng or CI PE. The
certi fi cati on program provi des the professi on, the pl umbi ng i ndustry, and the general publ i c wi th a si ngl e, com-
prehensi ve qual i fi cati on of professi onal competence for engi neers and desi gners of pl umbi ng systems. The CI PE,
desi gned excl usi vel y by and for pl umbi ng engi neers, tests hundreds of engi neers and desi gners at centers throughout
the Uni ted States bi enni al l y. Created to provi de a si ngl e, uni form nati onal credenti al i n the fi el d of engi neered
pl umbi ng systems, the CI PE program i s not i n any way connected to state-regul ated Professi onal Engi neer (P.E.)
regi strati on.
ASPE RESEARCH FOUNDATION The ASPE Research Foundati on, establ i shed i n 1976, i s the onl y i ndepen-
dent, i mparti al organi zati on i nvol ved i n pl umbi ng engi neeri ng and desi gn research. The sci ence of pl umbi ng
engi neeri ng affects everythi ng . . . from the qual i ty of our dri nki ng water to the conservati on of our water resources
to the bui l di ng codes for pl umbi ng systems. Our l i ves are i mpacted dai l y by the advances made i n pl umbi ng
engi neeri ng technol ogy through the Foundati ons research and devel opment.
v Table of Contents
Amcricun Socicty of Iumbing Inginccrs
Iutu Book
(4 oumcs - 45 Chutcrs)
Volume 1 Fundamentals of Plumbing Engineering (Revi sed 1999)
Chapter 1 Pl umbi ng Formul ae, Symbol s, and Termi nol ogy
2 Standard Pl umbi ng Materi al s and Equi pment
3 Pl umbi ng Speci fi cati ons
4 Pl umbi ng Cost Esti mati on
5 Job Preparati on, Pl umbi ng Drawi ng, and Fi el d Checkl i sts
6 Pl umbi ng for Physi cal l y Chal l enged I ndi vi dual s
7 Energy Conservati on i n Pl umbi ng Systems
8 Corrosi on
9 Sei smi c Protecti on of Pl umbi ng Equi pment
10 Acousti cs i n Pl umbi ng Systems
Volume 3 Special Plumbing Systems (Esti mated date: 2000)
Chapter 1 Fi re Protecti on Systems (Chapter 7, l oosel eaf format)
2 Pl umbi ng Desi gn for Heal th Care Faci l i ti es (Chapter 32, l oosel eaf format)
3 Treatment of I ndustri al Waste (Chapter 23, l oosel eaf format)
4 I rri gati on Systems (Chapter 29, l oosel eaf format)
5 Refl ecti ng Pool s and Fountai ns (Chapter 30, l oosel eaf format)
6 Publ i c Swi mmi ng Pool s (Chapter 31, l oosel eaf format)
7 Gasol i ne and Di esel Oi l Systems (Chapter 33, l oosel eaf format)
8 Steam and Condensate Pi pi ng (Chapter 38, l oosel eaf format)
9 Compressed Ai r Systems (Chapter 39, l oosel eaf format)
10 Sol ar Energy (Chapter 20, l oosel eaf format)
11 Si te Uti l i ty Systems
Volume 4 Plumbing Components and Equipment (Esti mated revi si on date: 2002)
Chapter 1 Pl umbi ng Fi xtures (Chapter 8, l oosel eaf format)
2 Pi pi ng Systems (Chapter 10, l oosel eaf format)
3 Val ves (Chapter 9, l oosel eaf format)
4 Pumps (Chapter 11, l oosel eaf format)
5 Pi pi ng I nsul ati on (Chapter 12, l oosel eaf format)
6 Hangers and Supports (Chapter 13, l oosel eaf format)
7 Vi brati on I sol ati on (Chapter 14, l oosel eaf format)
8 Grease I nterceptors (Chapter 35, l oosel eaf format)
9 Cross Connecti on Control (Chapter 24, l oosel eaf format)
10 Water Condi ti oni ng (Chapter 28, l oosel eaf format)
11 Thermal Expansi on and Contracti ons (Chapter 5, l oosel eaf format)
12 Potabl e Water Cool ers and Central Water Systems (Chapter 27, l oosel eaf format)
(The chapters and subjects l i sted for these vol ume are subject to modi fi cati on, adjustment and change.
The contents shown for each vol ume are proposed and may not represent the fi nal contents of the vol ume.
A fi nal l i sti ng of i ncl uded chapters for each vol ume wi l l appear i n the actual publ i cati on.)
ASPE Data Book Volume 1 vi
vii Table of Contents
Table of Contents
CHAPTER 1 Sanitary Drainage Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Flow in Stacks, Building Drains, and Fixture Drains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Flow in Stacks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Flow in Building Drains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Flow in Fixture Drains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Pneumatic Pressures in a Sanitary Drainage System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Fixture Discharge Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Drainage Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Stack Capacities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Capacities of Sloping Drains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Steady, Uniform Flow Conditions in Sloping Drains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Hazen and Williams Formula . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Darcy-Weisbach Formula . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Manning Formula . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Slope of Horizontal Drainage Piping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Load or Drainage Piping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Components of Sanitary Drainage Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Sumps and Ejectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Cleanouts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Floor Drains and Floor Sinks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Grates/Strainers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Flashing Ring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Sediment Bucket . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Accessories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Backwater Valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Oil Interceptors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Grease Interceptors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Trap Primers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Supports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Noise Transmission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Building Sewer Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Sanitation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Kitchen Areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Waterproofing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Floor Leveling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
ASPE Data Book Volume 2 viii
Joining Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Thermal Expansion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Protection from Damage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Sovent Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
CHAPTER 2 Gray-Water Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Codes and Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
System Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
System Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Design Criteria for Gray-Water Supply and Consumption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Design Estimates for Commercial Buildings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Gray-Water Supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Gray-Water Demand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Design Estimates for Residential Buildings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Design Estimates for Irrigation Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Treatment Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Economic Analysis An Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Precautions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Public Concerns/Acceptance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
CHAPTER 3 Vents and Venting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Section I Vents and Venting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Purposes of Venting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Vent Stack Terminal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Traps and Trap Seals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Factors Affecting Trap Seal Loss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Suds Venting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Fixture Vents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Venting as a Means of Reducing Trap Seal Losses from Induced Siphonage . . . 39
Design of Vents to Control Induced Siphonage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Drainage Fixture Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Vent Sizes and Lengths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
End Venting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Common Vent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Stack Venting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Wet Venting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Circuit and Loop Venting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Relief Vents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
ix Table of Contents
Offset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
Vent Headers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Combination Waste and Vent Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Section II Several Venting Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Philadelphia System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Sovent System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Stack Venting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Wet Venting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Reduced-Size Venting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Section III Sizing of Several Venting Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Reduced-Size Venting Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
General Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Sizing Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Sovent Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
Aerator Fittings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
Deaerator Fittings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Sizing Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
CHAPTER 4 Storm-Drainage Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
General Design Considerations for Buildings and Sites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
Part One: Building Drainage System Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
Design Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
Pipe Sizing and Layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
Rainfall Rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
Rainfall Rate Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
Secondary Drainage Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
Roof Drainage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
Coordination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
Drain Location . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
Roof Drain Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
Piping Coordination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
Expansion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
Insulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
Locating Vertical Leaders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
Horizontal Pipe Sizing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
Controlled-Flow Storm Drainage System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
Part Two: Site Drainage System Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
General Design Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
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Site Drainage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
The Rational Method of System Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
Exterior Piping and Inlets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
Subsurface Drainage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
Source of Subsurface Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
Site Investigation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
Drainage Pipe. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
Trenching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
Selecting Pipe Diameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
Disposal of Ground Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
Storm-Water Detention . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
Standard Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
Appendix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
Form 4-1 Storm-Drainage Calculations for Roof Drains and
Vertical Leaders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
Form 4-2 Storm-Drainage System Sizing Sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
Form 4-3 Storm-Water Drainage Worksheet 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
Form 4-3 Storm-Water Drainage Worksheet 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
Form 4-3 Storm-Water Drainage Worksheet 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
CHAPTER 5 Cold-Water Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
Domestic Cold-Water Meters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
Meter Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
Sizing the Water Meter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
Sizing the Water Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
Hazen-Williams Formula . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
Factors Affecting Sizing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
Demand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
Velocity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
Velocity Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
Water Hammer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
Shock Intensity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
System Protection and Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
Air Chambers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
Water Hammer Arresters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
Backflow Prevention . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
Types of Cross-Connection Control Device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
Assessment of Hazard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
Premise Isolation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
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Installation Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
Inadequate Water Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
Hydropneumatic-Tank System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150
Gravity-Tank System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150
Booster-Pump System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
Excess Water Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
Pressure-Regulating Valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
Types of Pressure-Regulating Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
Sizing, Selection, and Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
Testing, Cleaning, and Disinfection of Domestic, Water-Supply Systems . . . . . . . 154
Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
Cleaning and Disinfecting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155
CHAPTER 6 Domestic Water-Heating Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
Basic Formulae and Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
Heat Recovery Electric Water Heaters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
Hot-Water Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159
Mixed-Water Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159
Water Heaters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160
Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160
Stratification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160
Hot-Water Temperature Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
Hot-Water Circulation Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
Self-Regulating Heat-Trace Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
Relief Valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
Sizing Pressure and Temperature-Relief Valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
Temperature Relief Valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
Pressure Relief Valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
Thermal Expansion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
Thermal Efficiency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
Safety and Health Concerns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
Legionella Pneumophila (Legionnaires Disease) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
Scalding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
Codes and Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170
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CHAPTER 7 Fuel-Gas Piping Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
Low and Medium-Pressure Natural Gas Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
Design Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
Laboratory Gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176
Gas Train Vents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
Appliances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
Gas Boosters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
Gas Boosters for Natural or Liquefied Petroleum Gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
Materials of Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
Gas Laws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
Design Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180
Sizing a Gas Booster . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182
Pipe Sizing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
Liguefied Petroleum Gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194
Storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194
Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196
Pipe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196
Tubing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196
Plastic Pipe and Tubing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196
Fittings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196
Pipe Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196
Tubing Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196
Flexible Gas Hose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196
Indoor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196
Outdoor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196
Warning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
Leak Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
Appendix A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
Appendix B Values of Fuel Gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212
Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214
CHAPTER 8 Private Sewage-Disposal Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217
Primary Collection and Treatment Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217
Soil-Absorption Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217
Guide for Estimating Soil Absorption Potential . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217
Soil Maps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218
Clues to Absorption Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218
Procedure for Percolation Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219
Soil-Absorption System Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220
Leaching Trenches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221
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Construction Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222
Serial Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223
Seepage Beds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224
Construction Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225
Seepage Pits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225
Construction Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225
Mound Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226
Collection and Treatment Alternatives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226
Alternatives to Gravity Collection and Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226
Alternatives to Conventional Primary-and-Secondary Treatment . . . . . . . . . . 227
Septic Tanks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227
Functions of the Septic Tank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227
Biological Treatment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227
Solids Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227
Septic Tank Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228
Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228
General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228
Invert . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228
Outlet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228
Tank Proportions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228
Storage above Liquid Level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228
Use of Compartments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229
General Information on Septic Tanks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229
Cleaning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229
Grease Interceptors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230
Chemicals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230
Miscellaneous . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231
Distribution Boxes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231
Septic Tank/Soil-Absorption Systems for Institutions and Recreational and
Other Establishments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231
Water Conservation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232
Special Fixtures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232
Alternative Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232
Special Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232
Individual Aerobic Waste-Water Treatment Plants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232
Estimating Sewage Quantities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233
Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238
Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238
CHAPTER 9 Private Water Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239
Sources of Supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239
ASPE Data Book Volume 2 xiv
Wells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240
Dug Wells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240
Bored Wells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
Driven Wells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
Jetted Wells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
Hydraulics of Wells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
Protection of Wells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243
Water Demand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243
Water Quality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244
Filtration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244
Softening . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244
Scale and Corrosion Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244
Taste and Odor Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245
Prophylaxis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245
Disinfection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245
System Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245
Pumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245
Well Pumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245
Storage Tanks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247
Suction Piping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248
Pressure Regulators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248
Supply Piping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249
Pipe Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250
Thrust Blocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250
Depth of Bury . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251
Settlement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251
Expansion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251
Corrosion Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252
Initial Operation and Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252
Additional Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252
CHAPTER 10 Vacuum Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253
Fundamentals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253
Pressure Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254
Units of Measurement and Reference Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254
Standard Reference Points and Conversions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254
Flow-Rate Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255
Converting scfm to acfm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256
General Vacuum Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257
Adjusting Vacuum-Pump Rating for Altitude . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257
Time for Pump to Reach Rated Vacuum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257
Adjusting Pressure Drop for Different Vacuum Pressures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258
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Simplified Method of Calculating Velocity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258
Vacuum Work Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259
Vacuum Source and Source Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259
General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259
Vacuum Pumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259
Gas-Transfer Pumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259
Receivers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260
Seal Liquids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260
Vacuum-Pressure Gauges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260
Bourdon Gauge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260
Diaphragm Gauge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260
Ancillary Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260
Laboratory and Vacuum Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262
Codes and Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262
Vacuum Source . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262
Distribution Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262
Pipe Material and Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262
Sizing Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262
Vacuum-Cleaning Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 266
Types of System and Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 266
Codes and Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 266
System Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 266
Vacuum Producer (Exhauster) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 266
Separators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268
Filters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268
Silencers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268
Inlets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268
Control and Check Valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268
Air-Bleed Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268
Pipe and Fittings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268
Detailed System Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269
Inlet Location and Spacing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269
Determining the Number of Simultaneous Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269
Inlet-Valve, Tool, and Hose Sizing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269
Locating the Vacuum-Producer Assembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270
Sizing the Piping Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270
Piping-System Friction Losses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272
Vacuum-Producer (Exhauster) Sizing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274
Separator Selection and Sizing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275
General Design Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277
ASPE Data Book Volume 2 xvi
CHAPTER 11 Water Treatment, Conditioning, and Purification . . . . . . . . . 279
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279
Codes and Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279
Basic Water Chemistry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280
Water Impurities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280
Suspended Matter (Particulates), Turbidity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282
Dissolved Minerals and Organics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282
Dissolved Gases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 284
Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 284
Water Analysis and Impurity Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 284
pH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285
Specific Resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285
Specific Conductance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287
Total Suspended Solids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287
Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288
Total Organic Carbon (TOC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288
Silt Density Index (SDI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288
Deposits and Corrosion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289
Deposits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289
Scale and Sludge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289
Biological Fouling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289
Corrosion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289
Predicting Scale Formation and Corrosion Tendencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290
pH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290
Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291
Langelier Saturation Index (LSI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291
Ryzner Stability Index (RI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292
Aggressiveness Index (AI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292
Treatment Methodologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292
Aeration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292
Clarification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 294
Deaeration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 294
Dealkalizing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 295
Decarbonation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 295
Distillation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 295
Single-Stage Distillation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 295
Vapor-Compression Distillation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 295
Multi-Effect Distillation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 298
Filtration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 298
Deep-Bed Sand Filtration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 298
Cross-Flow and Tangential-Flow Filtration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300
Activated Carbon Filtration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300
xvii Table of Contents
Ion Exchange and Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300
Regenerable Ion Exchange . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301
Resins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301
Regeneration Cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302
Service Deionization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305
Continuous Deionization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 306
Water Softening . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307
Ion-Exchange System Design Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308
Membrane Filtration and Separation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308
Reverse Osmosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308
Membrane Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310
Cross-Flow Filtration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310
Microbial Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 311
Chemicals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 311
Ultraviolet Radiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 311
Filtering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312
Heat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312
Ozone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312
Water Treatment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 313
Utility Water Treatment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 313
Initial Filtering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314
Clarification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314
Biological Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314
Water Softening . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314
Boiler Feed-Water Conditioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314
Cooling-Water Conditioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315
Scale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 316
Corrosion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 316
Biological Fouling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 316
Potable Water Treatment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 316
Water Purification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317
Codes and Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317
Laboratory Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317
Pharmaceutical Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 320
Feed Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 320
Purification System Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321
Pretreatment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321
Central Purification Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323
Storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323
Piping Distribution Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324
System Design Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325
ASPE Data Book Volume 2 xviii
CHAPTER 12 Special-Waste Drainage Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327
Codes and Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327
System Approval Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 328
Pipe Material and Joint Selection Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 328
Pipe Sizing Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 328
pH Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 329
General System Design Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 329
Acid-Waste Drainage and Vent Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 329
General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 329
Health and Safety Concerns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 332
Common Types of Acid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 332
Sulfuric Acid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 332
Phosphoric Acid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333
Hydrochloric Acid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333
Nitric Acid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333
Hydrobromic Acid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333
Perchloric Acid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333
Selection of Laboratory Waste Piping and Joint Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 334
System Design Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 334
Acid Waste Treatment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 334
Radioactive Waste Drainage and Vent System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337
General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337
The Nature of Radiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337
Radiation Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 338
Units of Radiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 339
Allowable Radiation Levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 339
Shielding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 339
Radioactive Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 340
System Design Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 340
The Approval Process and Application Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 340
General Design Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 341
Pipe Material Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 341
General Design Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 342
Infectious and Biological-Waste Drainage Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343
Codes and Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343
Biological Safety Levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343
Liquid-Waste Decontamination System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 344
System Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 344
System Design Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 345
Chemical-Waste Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 345
General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 345
xix Table of Contents
Codes and Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 345
Pipe Material and Joint Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 345
System Design Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 346
Fire-Suppression Water Drainage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 346
System Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 346
Flammable and Volatile Liquids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347
Oil in Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347
Methods of Separation and Treatment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 350
ILLUSTRATIONS
Figure 1-1 Procedure for Sizing an Offset Stack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Figure 1-2 Basic Floor-Drain Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Figure 1-3 Pattern Draft for Floor Gratings: (a) Sharp Edge,
(b) Reverse Pattern. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Figure 1-4 Types of Floor Drain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Figure 1-5 Various Types of Backwater Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Figure 1-6 Combination Floor Drain and Indirect Waste Receptor . . . . . . . . . 17
Figure 1-7 Inside-Caulk Drain Body . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Figure 1-8 Spigot-Outlet Drain Body . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Figure 1-9 No-Hub-Outlet Drain Body . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Figure 1-10 IPS or Threaded-Outlet Drain Body . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Figure 1-11 (A) Traditional Two-Pipe System, (B) Typical Sovent Single-Stack
Plumbing System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Figure 2-1 Plumbing System Flow Charts: (A) Conventional Plumbing
System; (B) Recycled-Water System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Figure 2-2 Riser Diagrams: (A) Gray-Water Plumbing System; (B) Recycled-
Water-Waste System with System Treatment Plant (STP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Figure 2-3 Water Treatment Systems: (A) Types of Gray-Water Treatment
System; (B) Types of Black-Water Treatment System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Figure 2-4 System Design Flow Chart Example (250-Room Hotel) . . . . . . . . . 30
Figure 2-5 Nomograph for Overview of Preliminary Feasibility of
Gray-Water Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Figure 3-1 Suds-Pressure-Zone Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Figure 3-2 Suds Venting/Suds Pressure Zones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Figure 3-3 Loop Vent, with Horizontal Branch Located (a) at Back Below
Water Closets, (b) Directly Under Water Closets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
Figure 3-4 Circuit Vent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
Figure 3-5 Relief Vent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Figure 3-6 Offset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Figure 3-7 Combination Waste-and-Vent System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Figure 3-8 Philadelphia System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Figure 3-9 Wet Venting and Stack Venting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Figure 3-10 Pipe Layout Drawing Two-Story Residential Building, Freezing
ASPE Data Book Volume 2 xx
Climate, Schedule 40 Plastic Vents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
Figure 3-11 (A) Traditional Two-Pipe Plumbing System; (B) Typical Sovent
Single-Stack Plumbing System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
Figure 3-12 Typical Sovent System Aerator Fitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Figure 3-13 Typical Sovent System Deaerator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Figure 3-14 Sovent System Branches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Figure 3-15 Soil and Waste Branches Connected into a Horizontal Stack
Offset. Waste Branches Connected into the Pressure-Relief Line . . . . . . . . 59
Figure 3-16 Soil and Waste Branches Connected below a
Deaerator Fitting at the Bottom of the Stack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Figure 3-17 Deaerator Fitting Located
above Floor Level of Building Drain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
Figure 3-18 Sovent Fitting: (A) Single-Side Entry (Without Waste Inlets);
(B) Double-Side Entry (with Waste Inlets) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
Figure 3-19 Two Alternative Design Layouts for Typical Back-to-Back
Bathroom Arrangements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Figure 4-1 Piping Layout for Typical Building Elevation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
Figure 4-2 Piping Layout for Typical Building Site Plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
Figure 4-3 Typical Roof Drain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
Figure 4-4 Typical Roof-Drain Installations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
Figure 4-5 4-In. (101-mm) Roof Drain Flow Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
Figure 4-6 Clear-Water Waste Branches for Connection to Storm System . . . 84
Figure 4-7 Typical Expansion Joint or Horizontal Offset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
Figure 4-8 Typical Roof Drain and Roof Leader . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
Figure 4-9 Example of a Controlled-Flow Storm-Drainage System . . . . . . . . . 94
Figure 4-10 Overland Flow Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
Figure 4-11 Typical Intensity-Duration-Frequency Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
Figure 4-12 Sources of Subsurface Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
Figure 4-13 Borings Revealing the Nature of the Ground, Water Table
Elevations, and Rock Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
Figure 4-14 Cross Section Illustrating the Concept of the K Factor . . . . . . . 101
Figure 4-15 Open Joint Pipe Surrounded by Filter Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
Figure 4-16 Perforated Pipe in Trench . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
Figure 4-17 Pipe and Footing Locations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
Figure 4-18 Pipe in Trench with Dimensions of Filter Layers . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
Figure 4-19 Sump-Pump Discharge to the Storm-Drainage System . . . . . . . 106
Figure 5-1 Friction Loss of Head Chart, Coefficient of Flow (C) = 140 . . . . . . 118
Figure 5-1 (M) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
Figure 5-2 Conversion of Fixture Units, fu, to gpm (L/s) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
Figure 5-3 Conversion of Fixture Units, fu, to gpm (L/s),
Design Load vs. Fixture Units, Mixed System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
Figure 5-4 Typical Friction Losses for Disk-Type Water Meters . . . . . . . . . . 127
Figure 5-5 Establishing the Governing Fixture or Appliance . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
Figure 5-6 Determining Pressure Available for Friction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
xxi Table of Contents
Figure 5-7 Pipe Sizing Data, Smooth Pipe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
Figure 5-8 Pipe Sizing Data, Fairly Smooth Pipe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
Figure 5-9 Pipe Sizing Data, Fairly Rough Pipe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
Figure 5-10 Pipe Sizing Data, Rough Pipe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
Figure 5-11 Air Chambers: (a, b) Plain Air Chambers, (c) Standpipe
Air Chamber, (d) Rechargeable Air Chamber . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
Figure 5-12 Hydropneumatic Pressure System Layout that Determines the
Minimum Tank Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150
Figure 5-13 Typical Hydropneumatic Supply System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150
Figure 5-14 Piping Connections for a Gravity Water-Storage Tank
with Reserve Capacity for Firefighting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151
Figure 7-1 Variations of a Basic Simplex Booster System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
Figure 7-3 Pipe Sizing, Low Pressure System with an Initial Pressure
Up to 1 psi (6.9 kPa) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192
Figure 7-4 Pipe Sizing, Any System with an Initial Pressure
Between 1 and 20 psi (6.9 and 137.8 kPa) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
Figure 7-5 Typical Diversity Curves for Gas Supply to
High-Rise Apartments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195
Figure 7-6 Diversity Percentage for Multifamily Buildings (Average) . . . . . . . 195
Figure 8-1 Three Legs of Disposal Field Fed from Cross Fitting Laid
on Its Side . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221
Figure 8-2 Disposal Lines Connected by Headers to Circumvent Stoppages . 221
Figure 8-3 Transverse and Lineal Sections of Drain Field Showing Rock and
Earth Backfill around Drain Tile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221
Figure 8-4 Graph Showing Relation Between Percolation Rate and Allowable
Rate at Sewage Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238
Figure 9-1 Well under (A) Static and (B) Pumping Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . 242
Figure 9-2 Typical Gravel Filter Well with a Vertical Turbine Pump . . . . . . . 246
Figure 9-3 Graph Indicating Minimum Storage-Tank Size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248
Figure 9-4 Storage-Tank Suction Piping Detail: (A) Sump Suction Alternate,
(B) Anti-Vortex Alternate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249
Figure 10-1 Conversion of Vacuum-Pressure Measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . 255
Figure 10-2 Schematic Detail of a Typical Laboratory Vacuum-Pump
Assembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261
Figure 10-3 Typical Process Vacuum-Pump Duplex Arrangement . . . . . . . . 261
Figure 10-4 Direct Reading Chart Showing Diversity for
Laboratory Vacuum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263
Figure 10-5 Acceptable Leakage in Vacuum Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267
Figure 10-6 Vacuum-Cleaning Piping Friction Loss Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273
Figure 10-7 Schematic of a Typical Wet-Vacuum Cleaning Pump Assembly . 276
Figure 11-1 Typical Water Analysis Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286
Figure 11-2 pH of Saturation for Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293
Figure 11-3 Detail of Vapor Compression Still . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 296
Figure 11-4 Detail of Multi-Effect Still . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299
Figure 11-5 Schematic Detail of Large-Scale, Granular-Activated
ASPE Data Book Volume 2 xxii
Carbon Filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301
Figure 11-6 Typical Single-Bed Ion Exchanger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303
Figure 11-7 Typical Dual-Bed Ion Exchanger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303
Figure 11-8 Typical Mixed-Bed Ion Exchanger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304
Figure 11-9 Schematic Operation of a Continuous Deionization Unit . . . . . . 306
Figure 11-10 Hollow-Fiber Reverse-Osmosis Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309
Figure 11-11 Spiral-Wound Reverse-Osmosis Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . 309
Figure 11-12 Tubular Reverse Osmosis Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310
Figure 11-13 Plate-and-Frame Reverse-Osmosis Configuration . . . . . . . . . . 310
Figure 11-14 UV Wavelength Spectrum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312
Figure 11-15 Principle of Corona-Discharge Ozone Generator . . . . . . . . . . . 313
Figure 11-16 Typical Pharmaceutical Water-Flow Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322
Figure 12-1 Typical Acid-Resistant Manhole . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 335
Figure 12-2 Typical Large Acid-Neutralizing Basin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336
Figure 12-3 Typical Continuous Acid-Waste Treatment System . . . . . . . . . . 338
Figure 12-4 Typical Oil Interceptor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 348
Figure 12-5 Typical Gravity Draw-Off Installation (A) Plan and (B) Isometric . 349
TABLES
Table 1-1 Residential Fixture-Unit Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Table 1-2 Capacities of Stacks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Table 1-3 Horizontal Fixture Branches and Stacks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Table 1-4 Values of R, R
2/3
, A
F
, and A
H
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Table 1-5 Approximate Discharge Rates and Velocities in Sloping Drains,
n = 0.015 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Table 1-6 Building Drains and Sewers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Table 1-7 Recommended Grate Open Areas for Various Outlet Pipe Sizes . . . . 10
Table 1-8 Relative Properties of Selected Plumbing Materials for
Drainage Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Table 2-1 The National Sanitation Foundations Standard 41 . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Table 2-2 Design Criteria of Six Typical Soils . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Table 2-2 (M) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Table 2-3 Location of the Gray-Water System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Table 2-4 Subsurface Drip Design Criteria of Six Typical Soils . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Table 2-5 Gray-Water Treatment Processes for Normal Process Efficiency . . . 28
Table 2-6 Comparison of Gray-Water System Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Table 2-7 Life-Cycle Economic Comparison: Gray-Water Systems
for 250-Room Hotel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Table 3-1 Suds Pressure-Relief Vents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Table 3-2 Maximum Length of Trap Arm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Table 3-3 Maximum Distance of Fixture Trap from Vent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Table 3-4 Drainage-Fixture-Unit Values for Various Plumbing Fixtures . . . . . 41
Table 3-5 Size and Length of Vents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
xxiii Table of Contents
Table 3-6 Size of Vent Stacks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Table 3-7 Fixture Unit Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Table 3-8 Fixture Vents and Stack Vents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Table 3-9 Confluent Vents Serving Three Fixture or Stack Vents . . . . . . . . . . 51
Table 3-10 Confluent Vents Serving Four or More Fixture or Stack Vents,
Schedule 40 Pipe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
Table 3-11 Confluent Vents Serving Four or More Fixture or Stack Vents,
Copper Tube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Table 3-12 Flow Areas of Pipe and Tube, in
2
(10
3
mm
2
) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Table 3-13 Arterial Vents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Table 3-14 Fixture Unit Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
Table 3-15 Maximum Fixture Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
Table 3-16 Size Rules for Connecting Fixtures into the Sovent Single-Stack
Drainage Plumbing System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
Table 3-17 Minimum Size of Equalizing Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Table 3-18 Maximum Sovent Stack Loadings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Table 3-19 Loadings for Building Drains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Table 4-1 Maximum Rates of Rainfall for Various US Cities, in./h (mm/h) . . 71
Table 4-2 Sizes of Roof Drains and Vertical Pipes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
Table 4-3 Sizes of Semicircular and Equivalent Rectangular Gutters . . . . . . . 86
Table 4-4 Pipe Sizing Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
Table 4-5 Sizes of Scuppers for Secondary Drainage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
Table 4-6 Some Values of the Rational Coefficient C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
Table 4-7 Size Ranges for Filter Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
Table 5-1 Displacement-Type Meters Meeting AWWA Specifications
Flow-Pressure Loss Averages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
Table 5-2 Compound-Type Meters Meeting AWWA Specifications
Flow-Pressure Loss Averages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
Table 5-3 Turbine-Type Meters Meeting AWWA Specifications
Flow-Pressure Loss Averages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
Table 5-4 Surface Roughness Coefficient (C) Values for
Various Types of Pipe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
Table 5-5 Demand Weight of Fixtures, in Fixture Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
Table 5-6 ConversionsGallons per Minute (Liters per Second) to
Fixture Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
Table 5-7 Allowance for Friction Loss in Valves and Threaded Fittings . . . . . 128
Table 5-7 (M) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
Table 5-8 Flow and Pressure Required for Various Fixtures during Flow . . . 129
Table 5-9 Water Pipe SizingFixture Units vs. psi/100 ft (kPa/100 m),
Type L Copper Tubing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
Table 5-10 Water Pipe Sizing Fixture Units versus psi/100 ft. (kPa/100 m),
Galvanized Fairly Rough Pipe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
Table 5-11 Required Air Chambers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
Table 5-12 Sizing and Selection of Water-Hammer Arresters . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
ASPE Data Book Volume 2 xxiv
Table 5-13 Guide to the Assessment of Hazard and Application
of DevicesIsolation at the Fixture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
Table 5-14 Guide to the Assessment of Facility Hazard and Application
of DevicesContainment of Premise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
Table 5-15 Minimum Flow Rates and Size of Minimum Area of RPBD . . . . . 148
Table 6-1 Typical Hot-Water Temperatures for Plumbing Fixtures
and Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159
Table 6-2 Hot-Water Multiplier, P . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
Table 6-2 (M) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
Table 6-3 Thermal Properties of Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168
Table 6-4 Time/Water Temperature Combinations Producing Skin Damage . 170
Table 7-1 Approximate Gas Demand for Common Appliances . . . . . . . . . . . 175
Table 7-2 Equivalent Lengths for Various Valve and Fitting Sizes . . . . . . . . 184
Table 7-3 Natural Gas Pipe Sizing Table for Gas Pressure < 1.5 psi . . . . . . . 186
Table 7-3(M) Natural Gas Pipe Sizing Table for Gas Pressure < 10.3 kPa . . . 187
Table 7-4 Natural Gas Pipe Sizing Table for Gas Pressure < 1.5 psi . . . . . . . 188
Table 7-4(M) Natural Gas Pipe Sizing Table for Gas Pressure < 10.3 kPa . . . 189
Table 7-5 Natural Gas Pipe Sizing Table for Gas Pressure > 1 psi . . . . . . . . . 190
Table 7-5(M) Natural Gas Pipe Sizing Table for Gas Pressure > 6.895 kPa . . 191
Table 7-A1 Natural Gas Pipe Sizing Table for Gas Pressure > 1 psi . . . . . . . 198
Table 7-A1(M) Natural Gas Pipe Sizing Table for Gas Pressure > 6.895 kPa . 199
Table 7-A2 Natural Gas Pipe Sizing Table for Gas Pressure > 1 psi . . . . . . . 200
Table 7-A2(M) Natural Gas Pipe Sizing Table for Gas Pressure > 6.895 kPa . 201
Table 7-A3 Natural Gas Pipe Sizing Table for Gas Pressure > 1 psi . . . . . . . 202
Table 7-A3(M) Natural Gas Pipe Sizing Table for Gas Pressure > 6.895 kPa . 203
Table 7-A4 Natural Gas Pipe Sizing Table for Gas Pressure > 1 psi . . . . . . . 204
Table 7-A4(M) Natural Gas Pipe Sizing Table for Gas Pressure > 6.895 kPa . 205
Table 7-A5 Natural Gas Pipe Sizing Table for Gas Pressure > 1 psi . . . . . . . 206
Table 7-A5(M) Natural Gas Pipe Sizing Table for Gas Pressure > 6.895 kPa . 207
Table 7-A6 Natural Gas Pipe Sizing Table for Gas Pressure > 1 psi . . . . . . . 208
Table 7-A6(M) Natural Gas Pipe Sizing Table for Gas Pressure > 6.895 kPa . 209
Table 7-A7 Natural Gas Pipe Sizing Table for Gas Pressure < 1 psi . . . . . . . 210
Table 7-A7(M) Natural Gas Pipe Sizing Table for Gas Pressure < 6.9 kPa . . . 211
Table 7-B1 Typical Heating Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212
Table 7-B2 Typical Working Pressures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212
Table 7-B3 Conversion Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213
Table 7-B4 Specific Gravity Multipliers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213
Table 8-1 Minimum Absorption Area for Private Dwellings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218
Table 8-2 Recommended Distances Between Soil-Absorption System
and Site Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220
Table 8-3 Liquid Capacity of Tank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227
Table 8-4 Allowable Sludge Accumulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229
Table 8-5 Average Waste-Water Flows from Residential Sources . . . . . . . . . 233
xxv Table of Contents
Table 8-6 Typical Waste-Water Flows from Commercial Sources . . . . . . . . . 234
Table 8-7 Typical Waste-Water Flows from Institutional Sources . . . . . . . . . 234
Table 8-8 Typical Waste-Water Flows from Recreational Sources . . . . . . . . . 235
Table 8-9 Quantities of Sewage Flows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236
Table 8-10 Estimated Distribution of Sewage Flows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237
Table 8-11 Allowable Rate of Sewage Application to a
Soil-Absorption System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237
Table 9-1 Curve Radii for Cast-Iron Pipe, ft (m) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250
Table 9-2 Thrust Block Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251
Table 9-3 Area of Bearing Face of Concrete Thrust Blocks, ft
2
(m
2
) . . . . . . . 251
Table 9-4 Coefficients of Expansion, in/in/F (mm/mm/C) . . . . . . . . . . . . 252
Table 10-1 Basic Vacuum-Pressure Measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254
Table 10-2 Conversions from Torr to Various Vacuum-Pressure Units . . . . . 254
Table 10-3 IP and SI Pressure Conversion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256
Table 10-4 Expanded Air Ratio, 29.92/P, as a Function of Pressure,
P (in. Hg) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256
Table 10-5 Direct Ratio for Converting scfm to acfm (nL/s to aL/s) . . . . . . . 257
Table 10-6 Barometric Pressure Corresponding to Altitude . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257
Table 10-7 Factor for Flow Rate Reduction Due to Altitude . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258
Table 10-8 Constant, C, for Finding Mean Air Velocity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259
Table 10-9 Diversity Factor for Laboratory Vacuum Air Systems . . . . . . . . . 263
Table 10-10 Vacuum-Pump Exhaust Pipe Sizing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264
Table 10-11 Pressure Loss Data for Sizing Vacuum Pipe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265
Table 10-12 Recommended Sizes of Hand Tools and Hose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270
Table 10-13 Flow Rate and Friction Loss for Vacuum-Cleaning Tools
and Hoses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271
Table 10-14 Recommended Velocities for Vacuum-Cleaning Systems . . . . . . 271
Table 10-15 Pipe Size Based on Simultaneous Usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272
Table 10-16 Equivalent Length (ft.) of Vacuum Cleaning Pipe Fittings . . . . . 274
Table 10-17 Classification of Material for Separator Selection . . . . . . . . . . . 275
Table 11-1 Important Elements, Acid Radicals, and Acids in
Water Chemistry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281
Table 11-2 Converting ppm of Impurities to ppm of Calcium Carbonate . . . . 285
Table 11-3 Resistivity and Conductivity Conversion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287
Table 11-4 Prediction of Water Tendencies by the Langelier Index . . . . . . . . 291
Table 11-5 Numerical Values for Substitution in Equation 11-3 to Find
the pH
s
of Saturation for Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291
Table 11-6 Prediction of Water Tendencies by the Ryzner Index . . . . . . . . . . 292
Table 11-7 Typical Cations and Anions Found in Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301
Table 11-8 Comparison of Reverse-Osmosis Polymers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 311
Table 11-9 Recommended Boiler Feed-Water Limits and Steam Purity . . . . . 315
Table 11-10 Water-Treatment Technology for Small Potable Water Systems . 318
Table 11-11 CAP and ASTM Reagent-Grade Water Specifications . . . . . . . . . 319
ASPE Data Book Volume 2 xxvi
Table 11-12 NCCLS Reagent-Grade Water Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 319
Table 11-13 AAMI/ANSI Water-Quality Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 319
Table 11-14 ASTM Electronics-Grade Water Standarda . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 320
Table 11-15 USP XXII Purified-Water and WFI Water-Purity Standards . . . . 321
Table 12-1 Drainage Pipe Sizing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330
Table 12-1 (M) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 331
Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 351
1 Chapter 1 Sanitary Drainage Systems
Sanitary
Drainage
Systems
1
INTRODUCTION
A sanitary drainage system generally consists of
horizontal branches, vertical stacks, a building
drain inside the building, and a building sewer
from the building wall to the point of disposal.
To economically design a sanitary drainage
system is to use the smallest pipes that can rap-
idly carry away the soiled water from individual
fixtures without clogging the pipes, without leav-
ing solids in the piping, without generating
excessive pneumatic pressures at points where
the fixture drains connect to the stack (which
might cause the reduction of trap water seals
and force sewer gases back through inhabitable
areas), and without creating undue noise.
Since vents and venting systems are de-
scribed in a separate chapter (Chapter 3 of this
volume), the following discussion centers on the
drain and waste systems design.
FLOW IN STACKS, BUILDING
DRAINS, AND FIXTURE DRAINS
Flow in Stacks
Flow in the drain empties into the vertical stack
fitting, which may be a long-turn tee-wye or a
short-turn or sanitary tee. Each of these fittings
permits flow from the drain to enter the stack
with a component directed vertically downward.
Depending on the rate of flow out of the drain
into the stack, the diameter of the stack, the type
of stack fitting, and the flow down the stack from
higher levels, if any, the discharge from the fix-
ture drain may or may not fill the cross section
of the stack at the level of entry. In any event, as
soon as the water enters the stack, it is rapidly
accelerated downward by the force of gravity, and
before it falls very far, it assumes the form of a
sheet around the wall of the stack, leaving the
center of the pipe open for the flow of air.
This sheet of water continues to accelerate
until the frictional force exerted by the wall of
the stack on the falling sheet of water equals
the force of gravity. From that point onif the
distance the water falls is great enough and pro-
vided that no flow enters the stack at lower levels
to interfere with the sheetthe sheet remains
unchanged in thickness and velocity until it
reaches the bottom of the stack. The ultimate
vertical velocity the sheet attains is called the
terminal velocity, and the distance the sheet
must fall to attain this terminal velocity is called
the terminal length. Following are the formu-
lae developed for terminal velocity and terminal
length:
Equation 1-1
V
T
=

3.0
Y
Q
Z

2/5
d
L
T
= 0.052V
T
2
where
V
T
= Terminal velocity in stack, fps (m/s)
L
T
= Terminal length below point of flow
entry, ft (m)
Q = Quantity rate of flow, gpm (L/s)
d = Diameter of stack, in. (mm)
Terminal velocity is attained at approximately
10 to 15 fps (3.05 to 5.22 m/s), and this velocity
ASPE Data Book Volume 2 2
is attained within 10 to 15 ft (3.05 to 5.22 m) of
fall from the point of entry.
At the center of the stack is a core of air that
is dragged along with the water by friction and
for which a supply source must be provided if
excessive pressures in the stack are to be avoided.
The usual means of supplying this air is through
the stack vent or vent stack. The entrained air
in the stack causes a pressure reduction inside
the stack, which is caused by the frictional ef-
fect of the falling sheet of water dragging the core
of air along with it.
If the sheet of water falling down the stack
passes a stack fitting through which the dis-
charge from a fixture is entering the stack, the
water from the branch mixes with or deflects the
rapidly moving sheet of water. An excess pres-
sure in the drain from which the water is entering
the stack is required to deflect the sheet of water
flowing downward or mix the branch water with
it. The result is that a back pressure is created
in the branch, which increases with the flow rate
and flow velocity down the stack and with the
rate of flow out of the drain.
Flow in Building Drains
When the sheet of water reaches the bend at the
base of the stack, it turns at approximately right
angles into the building drain. Flow enters the
horizontal drain at a relatively high velocity com-
pared to the velocity of flow in a horizontal drain
under uniform flow conditions. The slope of the
building drain is not adequate to maintain the
velocity that existed in the sheet when it reached
the base of the stack. The velocity of the water
flowing along the building drain and sewer de-
creases slowly then increases suddenly as the
depth of flow increases and completely fills the
cross section of the drain. This phenomenon is
called a hydraulic jump.
The critical distance at which the hydraulic
jump may occur varies from immediately at the
stack fitting to ten times the diameter of the stack
downstream. Less jump occurs if the horizontal
drain is larger than the stack. After the hydrau-
lic jump occurs and water fills the drain, the pipe
tends to flow full until the friction resistance of
the pipe retards the flow to that of uniform flow
conditions.
Flow in Fixture Drains
Determination of the drain size required is a rela-
tively simple matter, since the fixture drain must
be adequate only to carry the discharge from the
fixture to which it is attached. Because of the
problem of self-siphonage, however, it is advis-
able to select the diameter of the drain so that
the drain flows little more than half full under
the maximum discharge conditions likely to be
imposed by the fixture.
For example, a lavatory drain capable of car-
rying the flow discharged from a lavatory may
still flow full over part or all of its length. There
are several reasons for this. The vertical compo-
nent of the flow out of the trap into the drain
tends to make the water attach itself to the up-
per elements of the drain, and a slug of water is
formed, filling the drain at that point. The result
is that, if there is not sufficient air aspirated
through the overflow, the pipe will flow full for
part of its length, the average velocity of flow
being less than the normal velocity for the rate
of flow in the drain at a given slope.
If the fixture considered is a water closet, the
surge of water from the closet will continue al-
most without change even along a very long drain
until it reaches the stack. Thus, it can be as-
sumed, for all practical purposes, that the surge
caused by the discharge of a water closet through
a fixture drain reaches the stack or horizontal
branch with practically the same velocity it had
when it left the fixture.
PNEUMATIC PRESSURES IN A
SANITARY DRAINAGE SYSTEM
Because of the pressure conditions in a stack
and a building drain, the waste water does not
fill the cross section anywhere, so that the air
can flow freely along with the water. The water
flowing down the wall of the stack drags air with
it by friction and carries it through the building
drain to the street sewer. The air is then vented
throughout the main street sewer system so dan-
gerous pressures are not build up.
If air is to enter the top of the stack to re-
place that being carried along with the water,
there must be a pressure reduction inside the
stack. Because of the head loss necessary to ac-
celerate the air and to provide for the energy loss
at the entrance, however, this pressure reduc-
tion is very small; it amounts to only a small
3 Chapter 1 Sanitary Drainage Systems
fraction of an inch (a millimeter) of water. What
causes appreciable pressure reductions is the
partial or complete blocking of the stack by wa-
ter flowing into the stack from a horizontal
branch.
A small increase in pneumatic pressure will
occur in the building drain even if there is no
complete blocking of the air flow by a hydraulic
jump or by submergence of the outlet and the
building sewer. This is due to the decrease in
cross-sectional area available for air flow when
the water flowing in the drain has adapted itself
to the slope and diameter of the drain.
FIXTURE DISCHARGE
CHARACTERISTICS
The discharge characteristic curvesflow rates
as a function of timefor most water-closet
bowls have the same general shape, but some
show a much lower peak and a longer period of
discharge. The discharge characteristics for vari-
ous types of water-closet bowl, particularly
low-flow water closets, have a significant impact
on estimating the capacity of a sanitary drain-
age system. Other plumbing fixtures, such as
sinks, lavatories, and bathtubs, may produce
similar surging flows in drainage systems, but
they do not have as marked an effect as water
closets do.
DRAINAGE LOADS
A single-family dwelling contains certain plumb-
ing fixturesone or more bathroom groups, each
consisting of a water closet, a lavatory, and a
bathtub or shower stall; a kitchen sink, dish-
washer, and washing machine; and, possibly, a
set of laundry trays. Large buildings also have
other fixtures, for example, slop sinks and drink-
ing water coolers. The important characteristic
of these fixtures is that they are not used con-
tinuously. Rather, they are used with irregular
frequencies that vary greatly during the day. In
addition, the various fixtures have quite differ-
ent discharge characteristics, regarding both the
average rate of flow per use and the duration of
a single discharge. Consequently, the probabil-
ity of all the fixtures in the building operating
simultaneously is small.
The assigning of fixture-unit (fu) values to
fixtures to represent their load-producing effect
on the plumbing system was originally proposed
in 1923 by Dr. Roy B. Hunter. The fixture-unit
values were designed for application in conjunc-
tion with the probability of simultaneous use of
fixtures to establish the maximum permissible
drainage loads expressed in fixture units rather
than in gallons per minute (gpm) (L/s) of drain-
age flow. Table 1-1 gives the recommended
fixture-unit values. The plumbing engineer must
conform to local code requirements.
Table 1-1 Residential Fixture-Unit Loads
Fixture Fixture Units (fu)
Bathtub 2
Clothes washer 3
Dishwasher 2
Floor drain 3
Laundry tray 2
Lavatory 1
Shower 2
Sink (including dishwasher and
garbage disposer) 3
Water closet (tank type) 4
A fixture unit (fu) is a quantity in terms of
which the load-producing effects on the plumb-
ing system of different kinds of plumbing fixtures
are expressed on an arbitrarily chosen scale.
Dr. Hunter conceived the idea of assigning a
fixture-unit value to represent the degree to
which a fixture loads a system when used at the
maximum assumed flow and frequency. The
purpose of the fixture-unit concept is to make it
possible to calculate the design load on the sys-
tem directly when the system is a combination
of different kinds of fixtures, each having a load-
ing characteristic different than the others.
Current or recently conducted studies of drain-
age loads on drainage systems may change these
values. These include studies of: (1) reduced flow
from water-saving fixtures; (2) models of stack,
branch, and house drain flows; and (3) actual
fixture use.
STACK CAPACITIES
The criterion of flow capacities in drainage stacks
is based on the limitation of the water-occupied
cross section to a specified fraction, r
s
, of the
ASPE Data Book Volume 2 4
cross section of the stack where terminal veloc-
ity exists, as suggested by earlier investigations.
Flow capacity can be expressed in terms of
the stack diameter and the water cross section:
Equation 1-2
Q = 27.8 r
s
5/3
D
8/3
where
Q = Capacity, gpm (L/s)
r
s
= Ratio of cross-sectional area of the
sheet of water to cross-sectional area
of the stack
D = Diameter of the stack, in. (mm)
Values of flow rates based on r = ,
7
/
24, and
3 are tabulated in Table 1-2.
Table 1-2 Capacities of Stacks
Pipe Size,
Flow, gpm (L/s)
in. (mm) r =
1
/4 r =
7
/24 r =
1
/3
2 (50) 18.5 (1.18) 23.5 (1.48)
3 (80) 54 (3.40) 70 (4.41) 85 (5.36)
4 (100) 112 (7.07) 145 (9.14) 180 (11.35)
5 (125) 205 (12.93) 270 (17.03) 324 (20.44)
6 (150) 330 (20.82) 435 (27.44) 530 (33.43)
8 (200) 710 (44.8) 920 (58.04) 1145 (72.24)
10 (250) 1300 (82.0) 1650 (104.1) 2055 (129.65)
12 (300) 2050 (129.3) 2650 (167.2) 3365 (212.3)
Whether or not Equation 1-2 can be used
safely to predict stack capacities remains to be
confirmed and accepted. However, it provides a
definite law of variation of stack capacity with
diameter; and if this law can be shown to hold
for the lower part of the range of stack diam-
eters, it should be valid for the larger diameters.
It should be remembered that both F.M. Dawson
and Dr. Hunter, in entirely independent investi-
gations, came to the conclusion that slugs of
water, with their accompanying violent pressure
fluctuations, did not occur until the stack flowed
to 3 full. Most model codes have based their
stack loading tables on a value of r = or
7
/24.
The recommended maximum permissible
flow in a stack is
7
/24 of the total cross-sectional
area of the stack. Substituting r =
7
/24 into Equa-
tion 1-2, the corresponding maximum
permissible flow for the various sizes of pipe in
gpm (L/s) can be determined. Table 1-3 lists the
maximum permissible fixture units to be con-
veyed by stacks of various sizes. The table was
obtained by taking into account the probability
of simultaneous use of fixtures. For example, the
500 fu is the maximum loading for a 4-in. (100-
mm) stack, thus 147 gpm (9.3 L/s) is equivalent
to 500 fu. This is the total load from all branches.
It should be noted that there is a restriction
of the amount of flow permitted to enter a stack
from any branch when the stack is more than
three branch intervals. If an attempt is made to
introduce too large a flow into the stack at any
one level, the inflow will fill the stack at that
level and will even back up the water above the
elevation of inflow, which will cause violent pres-
sure fluctuations in the stackresulting in the
siphoning of trap sealsand may also cause slug-
gish flow in the horizontal branch. This problem
was solved in a study of stack capacities made
by Wyly and Eaton at the National Bureau of
Standards, for the Housing and Home Finance
Agency, in 1950.
The water flowing out of the branch can en-
ter the stack only by mixing with the stream
flowing down the stack or by deflecting it. Such
a deflection of the high-velocity stream coming
down the stack can be accomplished only if there
is a large enough hydrostatic pressure in the
branch, since a force of some kind is required to
deflect the downward flowing stream and there-
fore change its momentum. This hydrostatic
pressure is built up by the backing up of the
water in the branch until the head thus created
suffices to change the momentum of the stream
already in the stack enough to allow the flow
from the branch to enter the stack.
The magnitude of the maximum hydrostatic
pressure that should be permitted in the branch
as a result of the backing up of the spent water
is based on the consideration that this backing
up should not be sufficiently great to cause the
water to back up into a shower stall or to cause
sluggish flow. It is half the diameter of the hori-
zontal branch at its connection to the stack. That
is, it is the head measured at the axis of the pipe
that will just cause the branch to flow full near
the exit.
When a long-turn tee-wye is used to connect
the branch to the stack, the water has a greater
vertical velocity when it enters the stack than it
does when a sanitary tee is used, and the back
pressures should be smaller in this case for the
same flows down the stack and in the branch.
5 Chapter 1 Sanitary Drainage Systems
Table 1-3 shows the maximum permissible
fu loads for sanitary stacks. The procedure for
sizing a multistory stack (greater than three
floors) is first to size the horizontal branches
connected to the stack. This is done by totaling
the fixture units connected to each branch and
size in accordance with column 2 in Table 1-3.
Next, total all the fixture units connected to the
stack and determine the size from the same table,
under column 4. Immediately check the next
column, Total at One Branch Interval, and de-
termine that this maximum is not exceeded by
any of the branches. If it is exceeded, the size of
the stack as originally determined must be in-
creased at least one size, or the loading of the
branches must be redesigned so that maximum
conditions are satisfied. Take, for example, a 4-
in. (100-mm) stack more than three stories in
height: The maximum loading for a 4-in. (100-
mm) branch is 160 fu, as shown in column 2 of
Table 1-3. This load is limited by column 5 of
the same table, which permits only 90 fu to be
introduced into a 4-in. (100-mm) stack in any
one branch interval. The stack would have to be
increased in size to accommodate any branch
load exceeding 90 fu.
Table 1-3 Horizontal Fixture
Branches and Stacks
Maximum Number of Fixture Units
(fu) that May Be Connected to
Any 1 Stack of
Stacks with More than
Diameter Horizontal 3 or Fewer
3 Branch Intervals
of Pipe, Fixture Branch Total Total at 1
in. (mm) Branch
a
Intervals for Stack Branch Interval
1 (40) 3 4 8 2
2 (50) 6 10 24 6
2 (65) 12 20 42 9
3 (80) 20
b
48
b
72
b
20
b
4 (100) 160 240 500 90
5 (125) 360 540 1100 200
6 (150) 620 960 1900 350
8 (200) 1400 2200 3600 600
10 (250) 2500 3800 5600 1000
12 (300) 3900 6000 8400 1500
15 (380) 7000
a
Does not include branches of the building drain.
b
No more than 2 water closets or bathroom groups within each
branch interval or more than 6 water closets or bathroom groups
on the stack.
To illustrate clearly the requirements of a
stack with an offset of more than 45 from the
vertical, Figure 1-1 shows the sizing of a stack
in a 12-story building where there is one offset
between the fifth and sixth floors and another
offset below the street floor.
Sizing is computed as follows:
Step 1. Compute the fixture units connected to
the stack. In this case, assume there are 1200
fixture units connected to the stack from the
street floor through the top floor.
Step 2. Size the portion of the stack above the
fifth-floor offset. There are 400 fixture units
from the top floor down through the sixth
floor. According to Table 1-3, column 4, 400
fixture units require a 4-in. (100-mm) stack.
Step 3. Size the offset on the 5th floor. An offset
is sized and sloped like a building drain.
Step 4. Size the lower portion of the stack from
the fifth floor down through the street floor.
The lower portion of the stack must be large
enough to serve all fixture units connected
to it, from the top floor down, in this case,
1200 fixture units. According to Table 1-3,
1200 fixture units require a 6-in. (150-mm)
stack.
Step 5. Size and slope the offset below the street
floor the same as a building drain.
The fixture on the sixth floor should be con-
nected to the stack at least 2 ft (0.6 m) above the
offset. If this is not possible, then connect them
separately to the stack at least 2 ft (0.6 m) below
the offset. If this is not possible either, run the
fixture drain down to the fifth or fourth floor and
connect to the stack there.
CAPACITIES OF SLOPING DRAINS
Capacities of horizontal or sloping drains are
complicated by surging flow.
The concept of flow on which the determina-
tion of drain sizes is based is that of a highly
fluctuating or surging condition in the horizon-
tal branches that carry the discharges of fixtures
to the soil or waste stack. After falling down the
vertical stack, the water is assumed to enter the
building drain with the peaks of the surges lev-
eled off somewhat but still in a surging condition.
In a large building covering considerable
ground area there are probably several primary
ASPE Data Book Volume 2 6
branches and certainly at least one secondary
branch. After the water enters the building drain,
the surge continues to level off, becoming more
and more nearly uniform, particularly after the
hydraulic jump has occurred. If the secondary
branch is long enough, and if the drain serves a
large number of fixtures, the flow may become
substantially uniform before it reaches the street
sewer.
Steady, Uniform Flow Conditions in
Sloping Drains
Although the equations of steady, uniform flow
in sloping drains should not be used to deter-
mine the capacities of sloping drains in which
surging flow exists, flow computations based on
these formulas afford a rough check on values
obtained by the more complicated methods that
Figure 1-1 Procedure for Sizing an Offset Stack
7 Chapter 1 Sanitary Drainage Systems
are applicable to surging flow. Hence, three of
the commonly used formulas for flow in pipes
will be considered: (1) Hazen and Williams, (2)
Manning, and (3) Darcy-Weisbach.
Hazen and Williams formula This formula is
usually written:
Equation 1-3
V = 1.318 C R
0.63
S
0.54
where
V = Mean velocity of flow, fps (m/s)
C = Hazen and Williams coefficient
R = Hydraulic radius of pipe, ft (m)
S = Slope of pressure gradient
The exponents of R and S in Equation 1-3 have
been selected to make the coefficient C as nearly
constant as possible for different pipe diameters
and for different velocities of flow. Thus, C is ap-
proximately constant for a given pipe roughness.
Darcy-Weisbach formula In this formula the
dimensionless friction coefficient f varies with the
diameter of the pipe, the velocity of flow, the ki-
nematic viscosity of the fluid flowing, and the
roughness of the walls. It is usually written:
Equation 1-4
h
f
=
f L V
2
D 2g
where
h
f
= Pressure drop or friction loss, ft (m)
f = Friction coefficient
L = Length of pipe, ft (m)
D = Diameter of pipe, ft (m)
V = Mean velocity of flow, fps (m/s)
g = Acceleration of gravity, 32.2 fps
2
(9.8
m/s
2
)
Manning formula The Manning formula, which
is similar to the Hazen and Williams formula, is
meant for open-channel flow and is usually writ-
ten:
Equation 1-5
V =
1.486
R
2/3
S
1/2
=
1.486
R
0.67

S
0.50
n n
In this formula, n is the Manning coefficient
and varies with the roughness of the pipe and
the pipe diameter.
The quantity of flow is equal to the cross-
sectional area of flow times the velocity of flow
obtained from the above three equations. This
can be expressed as:
Equation 1-5a
Q = AV
where
Q = Quantity rate of flow, cfs (m
3
/s)
A = Cross-sectional area of flow, ft
2
(m
2
)
V = Velocity of flow, fps (m/s)
By substituting the value of V from Mannings
formula, the quantity of flow in variously sized
drains of the same material can be calculated:
Equation 1-5b
Q = A
Y
1.486
Z
R
2/3
S
1/2
n
This is the formula used by many plumbing
engineers to deal with sloping drain problems.
The significant hydraulic parameters used in the
above equation are listed in Table 1-4.
It should be noted that the units in the above
equations should be converted to the proper units
whenever utilizing Equations 1-5a or 1-5b.
Slope of Horizontal Drainage Piping
Horizontal drains are designated to flow at half-
full capacity under uniform flow conditions to
minimize the generation of pneumatic pressure
fluctuations. A minimum slope of in./ft (6.4
mm/m) should be provided for pipe 3 in. (80 mm)
and smaller, 8 in./ft (3.2 mm/m) for 46-in.
(100150-mm) pipe, and z in./ft (1.6 mm/m)
for pipe 8 in. (200 mm) and larger. (The designer
must confirm required slopes with the local code
authority.) These minimum slopes are required
to maintain a velocity of flow greater than 2 fps
for scouring action. Table 1-5 gives the approxi-
mate velocities for given slopes and diameters of
horizontal drains based on the Manning formula
for -full pipe and n = 0.015.
Load or Drainage Piping
The recommended design loads for building
drains and sewers are tabulated in Table 1-6.
This table shows the maximum number of fix-
ture units that may be connected to any portion
of the building drain or building sewer for given
ASPE Data Book Volume 2 8
Table 1-4 Values of R, R
2/3
, A
F
, and A
H
R =
D A
F
(Cross-Sectional A
H
(Cross-Sectional
Pipe Size, 4, R
2/3
, Area for Full Flow), Area for Half-Full Flow),
in. (mm) ft (mm) ft (mm) ft
2
(m
2
) ft
2
(m
2
)
1 (40) 0.0335 (1.02) 0.1040 (3.17) 0.01412 (0.0013) 0.00706 (0.0006)
2 (50) 0.0417 (1.27) 0.1200 (3.66) 0.02180 (0.0020) 0.01090 (0.0009)
2 (65) 0.0521 (1.59) 0.1396 (4.24) 0.03408 (0.0031) 0.01704 (0.0015)
3 (80) 0.0625 (1.90) 0.1570 (4.78) 0.04910 (0.0046) 0.02455 (0.0023)
4 (100) 0.0833 (2.54) 0.1910 (5.82) 0.08730 (0.0081) 0.04365 (0.0040)
5 (125) 0.1040 (3.17) 0.2210 (6.74) 0.13640 (0.0127) 0.06820 (0.0063)
6 (150) 0.1250 (3.81) 0.2500 (7.62) 0.19640 (0.0182) 0.09820 (0.0091)
8 (200) 0.1670 (5.09) 0.3030 (9.23) 0.34920 (0.0324) 0.17460 (0.0162)
10 (250) 0.2080 (6.33) 0.3510 (10.70) 0.54540 (0.0506) 0.27270 (0.0253)
12 (300) 0.2500 (7.62) 0.3970 (12.10) 0.78540 (0.0730) 0.39270 (0.0364)
15 (380) 0.3125 (9.53) 0.4610 (14.05) 1.22700 (0.0379) 0.61350 (0.0570)
Table 1-5 Approximate Discharge Rates and Velocities in Sloping Drains, n = 0.015
a
Actual Inside
-Full Flow Discharge Rate and Velocity
Diameter
1
/16 in./ft (1.6 mm/m) Slope
1
/8 in./ft (3.2 mm/m) Slope
1
/4 in./ft (6.4 mm/m) Slope
1
/2 in./ft (12.7 mm/m) Slope
of Pipe, Disch., Velocity, Disch., Velocity, Disch., Velocity, Disch. Velocity,
in. (mm) gpm (L/s) fps (mm/s) gpm (L/s) fps (mm/s) gpm (L/s) fps (mm/s) gpm (L/s) fps (mm/s)
14 (31.8) 3.40 (0.21) 1.78 (45.5)
1a (34.9) 3.13 (0.20) 1.34 (0.41) 4.44 (0.28) 1.90 (48.3)
12 (38.9) 3.91 (0.247) 1.42 (0.43) 5.53 (0.35) 2.01 (51.1)
1s (41.28) 4.81 (0.30) 1.50 (0.46) 6.80 (0.38) 2.12 (53.9)
2 (50.8) 8.42 (0.53) 1.72 (0.52) 11.9 (0.75) 2.43 (61.8)
22 (63.5) 10.8 (0.68) 1.41 (0.43) 15.3 (0.97) 1.99 (0.61) 21.6 (1.36) 2.82 (71.7)
3 (76.3) 17.6 (1.11) 1.59 (0.49) 24.8 (1.56) 2.25 (0.69) 35.1 (2.21) 3.19 (81.1)
4 (101.6) 26.70 (1.68) 1.36 (34.6) 37.8 (2.38) 1.93 (0.59) 53.4 (3.37) 2.73 (0.83) 75.5 (4.76) 3.86 (98.2)
5 (127) 48.3 (3.05) 1.58 (40.2) 68.3 (4.30) 2.23 (0.68) 96.6 (6.10) 3.16 (0.96) 137. (8.64) 4.47 (113.7)
6 (152.4) 78.5 (4.83) 1.78 (45.3) 111. (7.00) 2.52 (0.77) 157. (10.) 3.57 (1.09) 222. (14.0) 5.04 (128.2)
8 (203.2) 170. (10.73) 2.17 (55.2) 240. (15.14) 3.07 (0.94) 340. (21.5) 4.34 (1.32) 480. (30.3) 6.13 (155.9)
10 (256) 308. (19.43) 2.52 (64.1) 436. (27.50) 3.56 (1.09) 616. (38.9) 5.04 (1.54) 872. (55.0) 7.12 (181.0)
12 (304.8) 500. (31.55) 2.83 (72.0) 707. (44.60) 4.01 (1.22) 999. (63.0) 5.67 (1.73) 1413. (89.15) 8.02 (204.0)
a
n = Manning coefficient, which varies with the roughness of the pipe.
9 Chapter 1 Sanitary Drainage Systems
slopes and diameters of pipes. For example, an
offset below the lowest branch with 1300 fu at
in./ft (6.4 mm/m) slope requires an 8-in. (200-
mm) pipe.
For devices that provide continuous or semi-
continuous flow into the drainage system, such
as sump pumps, ejectors, and air-conditioning
equipment, a value of 2 fu can be assigned for
each gpm (L/s) of flow. For example, a sump
pump that discharges at the rate of 200 gpm
(12.6 L/s) is equivalent to 200 2 = 400 fu.
COMPONENTS OF SANITARY
DRAINAGE SYSTEMS
Sumps and Ejectors
Building drains that cannot be discharged to the
sewer by gravity flow may be discharged into a
tightly covered and vented sump, from which the
liquid is lifted and discharged into the buildings
gravity drainage system by automatic pump
equipment or by any equally efficient method
approved by the administrative authority. A du-
plex pump system should be used, so that, in
the event of the breakdown of one pump, an-
other will remain in operation and no damage
will be caused by the cessation of system opera-
tion. When a duplex unit is used, each pump
should be sized for 100% flow, and it is good
practice to have the operation of the pumps al-
ternate automatically.
Incoming water is collected in the sump be-
fore it goes down the drain pipe. Heavy-flow
drains require large sumps to retain greater than
usual amounts of water, thereby creating more
head pressure on the pipe inlet. Most manufac-
turers make their sumps with bottom, side, or
angle outlets and with inside caulk, no-hub,
push-on, spigot, or screwed connections.
Cleanouts
The cleanout provides access to horizontal and
vertical lines to facilitate inspection and provide
a means of removing obstructions such as solid
objects, greasy wastes, and hair. Cleanouts, in
general, must be gas and water-tight, provide
quick and easy plug removal, allow ample space
for the operation of cleansing tools, have a means
of adjustment to finished surfaces, be attractive
in appearance, and be designed to support what-
ever traffic is directed over them.
Some cleanouts are designed with a neoprene
seal plug, which prevents freezing or binding
to the ferrule. All plugs are machined with a
straight or running thread and a flared shoulder
for the neoprene gasket, permitting quick and
certain removal when necessary. A maximum
opening is provided for tool access. Recessed
covers are available to accommodate carpet, tile,
terrazzo and other surface finishes, and are ad-
justable to the exact floor level established by
the adjustable housing or by the set screws.
Waste lines are normally laid beneath the
floor slabs at a distance sufficient to provide ad-
equate backfill over the joints. Cleanouts are then
brought up to floor-level grade by pipe extension
pieces. Where the sewer line is at some distance
below grade and not easily accessible through
extensions, small pits or manholes with access
covers must be installed. When cleanouts are
installed in traffic areas, the traffic load must be
considered when the materials of construction
are selected.
The size of the cleanout within a building
should be the same size as the piping, up to 4
in. (100 mm). For larger size interior piping, 4-
in. (100-mm) cleanouts are adequate for their
Table 1-6 Building Drains and Sewers
a
Maximum Number of Fixture Units that
May Be Connected to Any Portion of the
Diameter
Building Drain or Building Sewer
of Pipe,
Slope, in./ft (mm/m)
in. (mm)
1
/16 (1.6)
1
/8 (3.2)
1
/4 (6.4)
1
/2 (12.7)
2 (50) 21 26
2 (65) 24 31
3 (80) 42
b
50
b
4 (100) 180 216 250
5 (125) 390 480 575
6 (150) 700 840 1,000
8 (200) 1400 1600 1,920 2,300
10 (250) 2500 2900 3,500 4,200
12 (300) 2900 4600 5,600 6,700
15 (380) 7000 8300 10,000 12,000
a
On-site sewers that serve more than one building may be sized
according to the current standards and specifications of the ad-
ministrative authority for public sewers.
b
No more than 2 water closets or 2 bathroom groups, except in
single-family dwellings, where no more than 3 water closets or 3
bathroom groups may be installed.
ASPE Data Book Volume 2 10
intended purpose; however, 6-in. (150-mm)
cleanouts are recommended to allow for a larger
variety of access for sewer video equipment.
Cleanouts should be provided at the follow-
ing locations:
1. Five ft 0 in. (1.5 m) outside or inside the build-
ing at the point of exit.
2. At every change of direction greater than 45.
3. A maximum distance between cleanouts of
50 ft (15.1 m) should be maintained for pip-
ing 4 in. (100 mm) and smaller, and of 75 ft
(22.9 m) for larger piping. Underground sani-
tary sewer piping larger than 10 in. (250 mm)
in diameter should be provided with man-
holes at every change of direction and every
150 ft (45.7 m).
4. At the base of all stacks.
5. To comply with applicable codes.
Optional locations include:
1. At the roof stack terminal.
2. At the end of horizontal fixture branches or
waste lines.
3. At fixture traps. (Fixture traps can be
premanufactured with cleanout plugs, al-
though some codes prohibit the installation
of this kind of trap.)
Floor Drains and Floor Sinks
A large-diameter drain with a deep sump con-
nected to a large-diameter pipe will pass more
water more rapidly than a smaller drain will.
However, economics do not allow the designer
arbitrarily to select the largest available drain
when a smaller, less-expensive unit will do a sat-
isfactory job. High-capacity drains are intended
for use primarily in locations where the flow
reaches high rates, such as malls, washdown
areas, and certain industrial applications. Table
1-7, which shows minimum ratios of open grate
area based on pipe diameter, is offered as a guide
for the selection of drains where the drain pipe
diameter is known.
The only drawback to using the open-area-
pipe-diameter-ratio method is that all drain
manufacturers do not list the total open areas of
grates in their catalogs. This information usu-
ally can be obtained upon request, however.
For the sizing of floor drains for most indoor
applications, the capacity of a drain is not ex-
tremely critical because the drains primary
function is to handle minor spillage or fixture
overflow. The exceptions are, of course, cases
where equipment discharges to the drain, where
automatic fire sprinklers may deluge an area with
large amounts of water, and where flushing of
the floor is required for sanitation.
Generally located floor drains or drains in-
stalled to anticipate a failure may not receive
sufficient water flow to keep the protective water
seal or plumbing trap from evaporating; if it does
evaporate, sewer gases will enter the space. Au-
tomatic or manual trap primers should be
installed to maintain a proper trap seal. (A small
amount of vegetable oil will dramatically reduce
the evaporation rate of infrequently used floor
drains and floor sinks.)
Figure 1-2 shows the basic components of a
floor drain.
Grates/Strainers
The selection of grates is based on use and the
amount of flow. Light-traffic areas may have a
nickel-bronze-finished grate, while mechanical
areas may have a large, heavy-duty, ductile iron
grate.
The wearing of spike-heeled shoes prompted
the replacement of grates with a heel-proof, -
Table 1-7 Recommended Grate Open
Areas for Various Outlet Pipe Sizes
Recommended Minimum Grate Open Area
Transverse Minimum
Nominal Area of Pipe, Inside Area,
Pipe Size, in.
2a
in.
2
in. (mm) ( 10 mm
2
) ( 10 mm
2
)
1 (40) 2.04 (1.3) 2.04 (1.3)
2 (50) 3.14 (2.0) 3.14 (2.0)
3 (80) 7.06 (4.6) 7.06 (4.6)
4 (100) 12.60 (8.1) 12.06 (8.1)
5 (125) 19.60 (12.7) 19.60 (12.7)
6 (150) 28.30 (18.3) 28.30 (18.3)
8 (200) 50.25 (32.4) 50.24 (32.4)
a
Based on extra-heavy soil pipe, nominal internal diameter.
11 Chapter 1 Sanitary Drainage Systems
in.-square (6.4-mm) hole design in public toilet
rooms, corridors, passageways, promenade
decks, patios, stores, theaters, and markets.
Though this type of grating has less drainage
capacity than the previous one, its safety fea-
ture makes it well worth the change.
Grates or strainers should be secured with
stainless-steel screws in nickel-bronze tops.
Vandal-proof fasteners are available from most
manufacturers. Vandal-proofing floor drain
grates is advisable. If there is public access to
the roof, consideration must be given to protect-
ing the vent openings from vandals.
In school gymnasium shower rooms, where
the blocking of flat-top shower drains with paper
towels can cause flooding, dome grates in the cor-
ners of the room or angle grates against the walls
can be specified in addition to the regular shower
drains. Shower-room gutters and curbs have be-
come undesirable because of code requirements
and the obvious dangers involved. Therefore, the
passageways from shower areas into locker areas
need extended-length drains to prevent runoff
water from entering the locker areas.
Where grates are not secured and are subject
to vehicular traffic, it is recommended that
nontilting and/or tractor-type grates be installed.
When a grate starts to follow a wheel or is hit on
one edge and starts to tilt, the skirt catches the
side of the drain body and the grate slides back
into its original position. Ramp-drain gratings
should be slightly convex because rapidly flowing
ramp water has a tendency to flow across the
grate. A better solution to this problem is to place
flat-top grates on a level surface at the bottom of
the ramp, rather than on the ramp slope.
A technique in casting grates is the reversal
of pattern draft, which removes the razor-sharp
edges created when grates are buffed. See Fig-
ure 1-3. The prevalent buffing technique is called
scuff-buff because it gives the grate a slightly
used appearance. The use of slots in grates is
becoming obsolete because of the slicing edges
they create, which cause excess wear and tear
(a)
(b)
Figure 1-3 Pattern Draft for Floor Gratings:
(a) Sharp Edge, (b) Reverse Pattern.
Figure 1-2 Basic Floor-Drain Components:
(A) Removable Grate; (B) Rust-Resistant Bolts; (C) Integral, One-Piece, Flashing Ring;
(D) Cast Drain Body with Sump; (E) Sediment Bucket (optional).
ASPE Data Book Volume 2 12
on the wheels of hand-trucks and other vehicles.
Square openings are more desirable because they
shorten this edge and provide greater drainage
capacity than round holes.
Flashing Ring
This component makes an effective seal, which
prevents water from passing around the drain
to the area below.
Sediment Bucket
A sediment bucket is an additional internal
strainer designed to collect debris that gets by
the regular strainer; it is required wherever the
drain can receive solids, trash, or grit that could
plug piping. Locations include:
1. Toilet rooms in commercial buildings should
be equipped with floor drains with sediment
buckets to facilitate cleaning.
2. Floor drains with sediment buckets must also
be provided in mechanical equipment rooms,
where pumps, boilers, water chillers, heat
exchangers, and HVAC equipment regularly
discharge and/or must be periodically
drained for maintenance and repairs. HVAC
equipment requires the drainage of conden-
sate from cooling coils, using indirect drains.
3. Boilers require drains with sediment buck-
ets. Strategically located floor drains are also
required in buildings with wet fire-protection
sprinkler systems to drain water in case
sprinkler heads are activated. The maximum
temperature of liquids discharged should be
140F (60C).
Floor drains shall connect into a trap so con-
structed that it can be readily cleaned and sized
to serve efficiently the purpose for which it is
intended. A deep-seal-type trap or an approved
automatic priming device should be provided. The
trap shall be accessible either from the floor-drain
inlet or by a separate cleanout within the drain.
Figure 1-4 illustrates several types of drain that
meet these conditions.
Accessories
A variety of accessories are available to make
the basic drain adaptable to various types of
structure. The designer must know the construc-
tion of the building, particularly the floor and
deck structures, to specify the appropriate drain.
Backwater Valves
A backwater valve can be installed on a building
sewer/house drain when the drain is lower than
the sewer line, when unusual sewer surcharges
may occur due to combined storm-water and
sanitary sewer systems, or when older munici-
pal sewers incur high rates of infiltration. A
backwater valve reacts similarly to the way a
check valve does. The device consists of a me-
chanical flapper or disc, which requires a certain
amount of maintenance; therefore, attention
must be given during the placement of these
devices to a free area and access for maintenance.
Sediment can accumulate on the flapper valve
seat, preventing the flapper from closing tightly.
Also, many valves employ a spring or mechani-
cal device to exert a positive pressure on the
flapper device, which requires occasional lubri-
cation. Most manufacturers of backwater valves
provide an access cover plate for maintenance,
which may also be used as a building sewer
cleanout.
Figure 1-5 illustrates various types of back-
water valve that may be installed where there is
a possibility of backflow.
Oil Interceptors
In commercial establishments such as service
stations, garages, auto-repair shops, dry clean-
ers, laundries, industrial plants, and process
industries having machine shops, metal-treat-
ing process rooms, chemical process or mixing
Figure 1-4 Types of Floor Drain:
(A) Typical Drain with Integral Trap
that May Be Cleaned Through Removable
Strainer at Floor Level;
(B) Floor Drain with Combination Cleanout
and Backwater Valve, for Use Where
Possibility of Backflow Exists;
(C) Drain with Combined Cleanout,
Backwater Valve, and Sediment Bucket.
13 Chapter 1 Sanitary Drainage Systems
rooms, etc., there is always the problem of flam-
mable or volatile liquids entering the drainage
system, which can contaminate the sewer line
and cause a serious fire or explosive condition.
Oil interceptors are designed to separate and
collect oils and other light-density, volatile liq-
uids, which would otherwise be discharged into
the drainage system. An oil interceptor is required
wherever lubricating oil, cutting oil, kerosene,
gasoline, diesel fuel, aircraft fuel, naphtha, par-
affin, trisodium phosphate, or other light-density
and volatile liquids are present in or around the
drainage system.
The interceptor is furnished with a sediment
bucket, which collects debris, small parts, chips,
particles, and other sediment that are frequently
present in industrial waste from these types of
facility and could clog the drainage system. A
gasketed, removable cover permits access for
cleaning the interceptor. To eliminate pressure
buildup inside the interceptor, a connection on
each side of the body allows the venting of the
interceptor.
Oil interceptors are sized in accordance with
the maximum anticipated gpm (L/s) flow rate of
waste water that could be discharged through
the drains they serve. A flow-control fitting of
the exact gpm (L/s) interceptor rating ensures
maximum oil interception efficiency. If this flow
rating is exceeded, the separation of the oil from
the waste water will not occur.
Oil draw-off pipes, used in conjunction with
a supplemental waste oil storage tank, can im-
prove efficiency and prolong system maintenance
and cleaning.
Grease Interceptors
In the drainage from commercial kitchens,
grease, fats, and oils must be separated from
sewage. This function is performed by grease in-
terceptors installed in drain lines where the
presence of grease in the sewage is expected.
It is sometimes practical to discharge the
waste from two or more sinks into a single inter-
ceptor. This practice is recommended only when
all the fixtures are close together to avoid instal-
ling long piping runs to the interceptor. The closer
the interceptor can be installed to the fixture(s)
the better. The longer the run of pipe, the cooler
the waste water is. As the waste water cools, the
grease congeals, coating and clogging the inte-
rior of the pipe.
The procedures for sizing grease interceptors
are as follows:
1. Determine the cubic content of the fixtures
by multiplying length by width by depth.
2. Determine the capacity in gallons (1 gal =
231 in.
3
) (liters [1 L = 1000 cm
3
]).
3. Determine the actual drainage load. The fix-
ture is usually filled to about 75% of capacity
with waste water. The items being washed
displace about 25% of the fixture content.
Therefore, actual drainage load = 75% of fix-
ture capacity.
4. Determine the flow rate and the drainage pe-
riod. In general, good practice dictates a
1-min drainage period; however, where con-
ditions permit, a 2-min period is acceptable.
The drainage period is the actual time re-
quired to completely empty the fixture.
5. Flow rate =
Actual drainage load
Drainage period
6. Select the interceptor that corresponds to the
flow rate calculated.
It is recommended to provide the automatic
removal of grease from the interceptor to a stor-
age tank that can be cleaned regularly.
Trap Primers
In lieu of deep-seal P-traps, many jurisdictions
require trap primers on floor and fixture drains
that are consistently used on an infrequent ba-
sis. General-purpose, mechanical-room drains;
toilet-room drains; and seasonable, condensate
drains fall into this category. A trap primer allows
Figure 1-5 Various Types of
Backwater Valve
ASPE Data Book Volume 2 14
small amounts of water to trickle into the device
to prevent the loss of the trap seal through evapo-
ration. Maintaining proper water-trap seals is
critical to keeping sewer gases from entering oc-
cupied spaces. (Refer to Chapter 3 of this volume,
Vents and Venting Systems.) Some jurisdictions
allow manual trap primers, which consist of a
manual valve on a domestic water supply divert-
ing water to, or directly connected to, the fixture
trap. Automatic trap primers are widely accepted.
Following are some of the different types:
1. Electric-operated, solenoid valves. These can
be programmed to operate at predetermined
and regular intervals. They require a power
source and should be specified to fail in the
closed position.
2. Pressure-differential-actuated valves. These
are connected to or installed in-line on a do-
mestic water line. They discharge a small
amount of water each time there is a change
in the domestic-water-line pressure. Pressure
fluctuates upon fixture use and/or flush-
valve operation.
3. Fixture supply-water type. These devices are
mounted on the tailpiece of a flushometer
valve to collect a small portion of water as it
cascades toward the bowl. The flushometer
tailpiece is typically protected from back-si-
phonage by the vacuum breaker mounted at
the tailpiece entrance.
4. Fixture waste-water type. These devices are
mounted on the trap of frequently used fix-
tures. A tapping at the overflow line will allow
small amounts of waste water to enter an
adjacent, infrequently used drain as the trap
surges during use.
Automatic trap primers can be obtained as
pre-engineered devices, which have approvals
that are widely accepted. All direct connections
between the sewer system and the potable water
system must be protected from contamination
potential. The above-referenced primers can be
manufactured with, or fitted with, devices that
are approved to prevent cross-contamination.
Supports
The location of pipe supports is usually speci-
fied by code. They are located to maintain a slope
that is as uniform as possible and will not change
with time. In this regard, the rigidity of pipe and
joints and the possibility of creep and bedding
settlement are primary considerations. When
building settlement may be significant, special
hanging arrangements may be necessary. Un-
derground piping should be continuously and
firmly supported, but blocking below metal pipe
is usually acceptable. Consult the manufacturer
for recommendations for piping materials not
covered in the code and for special problems.
Hangers should be designed adequately. To
protect from damage by building occupants, al-
low at least a 250-lb (113.4-kg) safety factor when
designing hangers. See Data Book, Volume 4,
Chapter 6 for further information.
Seismic restraint must also be considered.
MATERIALS
Materials recommended for soil and waste pip-
ing, installed above ground within buildings, are
copper alloy, copper, cast iron (hub-and-spigot
or hubless), galvanized steel, lead, or PVC plas-
tic pipe. Underground building drains should be
cast-iron soil pipe, hard-temper copper tube, ABS
or PVC, PVDF, DWV pattern schedule 40 plastic
pipe with compression joints or couplings, in-
stalled with a minimum cover of 12 in. (300 mm).
Corrosive wastes require suitably acid-resistant
materials such as high-silicon cast iron, boro-
silicate glass, polypropylene, etc. (Note: Some
blood analyzers disharge sodium azide. It forms
a very dangerous, explosive compound with cop-
per pipes. Either other piping must be used or
the sodium azide must be kept out of the sys-
tem.) The materials used for pipe fittings must
be compatible with the materials utilized for pip-
ing. Fittings should sweep in the direction of flow
and have smooth interior surfaces without
ledges, shoulders, or reductions that may ob-
struct the flow in piping.
Drains specified with cast-iron or PVC bod-
ies should be suitable for most installations.
Where extra corrosion resistance is required,
high-silica cast iron, polypropylene, borosilicate
glass, stainless steel, galvanized iron, or other
acid-resisting material should be selected. Where
a sediment bucket is used, it should be bronze
or galvanized or stainless steel. Enameled sedi-
ment buckets are impractical because they chip
when cleaned.
In the selection of materials for top surfaces,
such as grates, where floor drains are visible in
finished areas, appearance is a prime consider-
ation. As cast iron will rust and galvanizing and
15 Chapter 1 Sanitary Drainage Systems
chrome plating will eventually be worn off by traf-
fic, the preferred material is solid, cast
nickel-bronze, which maintains its attractive
appearance. In a swimming pool, however, chlo-
rine necessitates the use of chlorine-resistant
materials. For large grates that will be subject to
hand-truck or forklift traffic, a ductile iron grate
with or without a nickel-bronze veneer is recom-
mended.
Polished brass or bronze for floor service has
the disadvantage of discoloring unless there is
constant traffic over it. Cast aluminum has also
been found inadequate for certain floor-service
applications due to excessive oxidation and its
inability to withstand abrasion.
Noise Transmission
Noise transmission along pipes may be reduced
by avoiding direct metal-to-metal connections.
Noise transmission through pipe walls is gen-
erally reduced by using heavier materials. Noise
transmission to the building may be reduced
by isolating piping with resilient materials, such
as rugs, belts, plastic, or insulation. See Table
1-8 for relative noise-insulation absorption
values.
BUILDING SEWER INSTALLATION
The installation of building sewers (house drains)
is very critical to the operation of the sewer. In-
adequate bedding in poor soils may allow the
sewer to settle, causing dips and low points in
the sewer. The settlement of sewers interrupts
flow, diminishes minimum cleansing velocity,
reduces capacity, and creates a point where sol-
ids can drop out of suspension and collect.
The following are some guidelines for install-
ing building sewers/drains:
1. Compacted fill. Where natural soil or com-
pacted fill exists, the trench must be
excavated in alignment with the proposed
pitch and grade of the sewer. Depressions
need to be cut out along the trench line to
accept the additional diameter at the piping
joint or bell hub. A layer of sand or pea gravel
is placed as a bed in the excavated trench
because it is easily compacted under the pipe,
allowing more accurate alignment of the pipe
pitch. The pipe settles into the bed and is
firmly supported over its entire length.
2. Shallow fill. Where shallow amounts of fill
exist, the trench can be over excavated to
accept a bed of sand, crushed stone, or simi-
lar material that is easily compacted. Bedding
should be installed in lifts (layers), with each
lift compacted to ensure optimum compac-
tion of the bedding. The bed must be
compacted in alignment with the proposed
pitch and grade of the sewer. It is recom-
mended that pipe joints or bell hub
depressions be hand prepared due to the
coarser crushed stone. The soil bearing
weight determines trench widths and bed-
ding thickness.
3. Deep fill. Where deep amounts of fill exist,
the engineer should consult a geotechnical
engineer, who will perform soil borings to de-
termine the depths at which soils with proper
bearing capacities exist. Solutions include
compacting existing fill by physical means
or removing existing fill and replacing it with
crushed stone structural fill.
4. Backfilling. Backfilling of the trench is just
as critical as the compaction of the trench
bed and the strength of existing soils. Im-
proper backfill placement can dislodge pipe
and cause uneven sewer settlement, with
physical depressions in the surface. The type
of backfill material and compaction require-
ments need to be reviewed to coordinate with
the type of permanent surface. Landscaped
areas are more forgiving of improper backfill
placement than hard surface areas, such as
concrete or bituminous paving.
Care must be taken when using mechanical
means to compact soils above piping. Me-
chanical compaction of the first layer above
the pipe by vibrating or tamping devices
should be done with caution. Compacting the
soil in 6-in. (150-mm) layers is recommended
for a good backfill.
Proper sewer bedding and trench backfill re-
sults in an installation that can be counted
upon for long, trouble-free service.
SANITATION
All drains should be cleaned periodically,
particularly those in markets, hospitals, food-
processing areas, animal shelters, morgues, and
other locations where sanitation is important.
ASPE Data Book Volume 2 16
Where sanitation is important, an acid-re-
sisting enameled interior in floor drains is widely
accepted. The rough surfaces of either brass or
iron castings collect and hold germs, fungus-
laden scum, and fine debris, which usually
accompany drain waste. There is no easy or sat-
isfactory way to clean these rough surfaces; the
most practical approach is to enamel them. The
improved sanitation compensates for the added
expense. However, pipe threads cannot be cut
into enameled metals because the enameling will
chip off in the area of the machining. Also, pipe
threads themselves cannot be enameled; there-
fore, caulked joints should be specified on
enameled drains. Most adjustable floor drains
utilize a threaded head that allows elevation ad-
justments. The drains cannot be enameled
because of this adjusting thread. However, there
are other adjustable drains that use sliding lugs
on a cast thread and may be enameled.
Another point to remember is that a grate or
the top ledge of a drain can be enameled, but
the enamel will not tolerate traffic abrasion with-
out showing scratches and, eventually, chipping.
The solution to this problem is a stainless-steel
or nickel-bronze rim and grate over the enam-
eled drain body, a common practice on indirect
waste receptors, sometimes referred to as floor
sinks. Specifiers seem to favor the square, indi-
rect waste receptor, but the round receptor is
easier to clean and has better antisplash char-
acteristics. For cases where the choice of square
or round is influenced by the floor pattern, round
sinks with square tops are available.
In applications such as hospital morgues,
cystoscopic rooms, autopsy laboratories, slaugh-
terhouses, and animal dens, the enameled drain
is fitted with a flushing rim. This is most advis-
able where blood or other objectionable materials
might cling to the side walls of the drain.
Where the waste being drained can create a
stoppage in the trap, a heel inlet on the trap with
a flushing connection is recommended in addi-
tion to the flushing rim, which merely keeps the
drain sides clean. (This option may not be al-
lowed by certain codes.) A 2-in. (50-mm) trap
flushes more effectively than a 3-in. (80-mm) trap
because it allows the flushing stream to drill
through the debris rather than completely flush
it out. A valve in the water line to the drain is
the best way to operate the flushing-rim drain.
Flush valves have been used and save some wa-
ter; however, they are not as convenient or
effective as a shutoff valve. In any flushing wa-
ter-supply line to a drain, a vacuum breaker in-
stalled according to code must be provided.
KITCHEN AREAS
When selecting kitchen drains, the designer must
know the quantity of liquid and solid waste the
drains will be required to accept, as well as which
equipment emits waste on a regular basis and
which produces waste only by accidental spillage.
Floor-cleaning procedures should be ascer-
tained to determine the amount of water used. If
any amount of solid waste is to be drained, re-
ceptors must be specified with removable
sediment buckets made of galvanized or stain-
less steel. Also, there must be enough vertical
clearance over these drains to conveniently re-
move the sediment buckets for cleaning.
Many kitchen planners mount kitchen equip-
ment on a 5-in. (125-mm) curb. Placing the drain
on top of the curb and under the equipment
makes connection of indirect drain lines diffi-
cult and the receptor inaccessible for inspection
and cleaning. Mounting the receptor in front of
the curb takes up floor space, and the myriad
indirect drains that discharge into it create a
potential hazard for employees who may trip over
them. The solution requires close coordination
between the engineer and the kitchen designer.
Figure 1-6 Combination Floor Drain
and Indirect Waste Receptor
17 Chapter 1 Sanitary Drainage Systems
with adjustable tops to attain an installation that
is flush with the finished floor.
JOINING METHODS
Drain and cleanout outlets are manufactured in
four basic types:
1. Inside caulk. In this arrangement, the pipe
extends up into the drain body and oakum is
packed around the pipe tightly against the in-
side of the outlet. Molten lead is then poured
into this ring and later stamped or caulked to
correct for lead shrinkage. Current installa-
tion methods use a flexible gasket for a
caulking material. See Figure 1-7.
2. Spigot outlet. This type utilizes the caulking
method as outlined above, except that the
spigot outlet is caulked into the hub or bell
of the downstream pipe or fitting. See Figure
1-8.
3. Push-seal gasketed outlet. This type utilizes
a neoprene gasket similar to standard ASTM
C564 neoprene gaskets approved for hub-
and-spigot, cast-iron soil pipe. A ribbed
neoprene gasket is applied to the accepting
pipe thus allowing the drain outlet to be
pushed onto the pipe.
4. No-hub. This type utilizes a spigot (with no
bead on the end) that is stubbed into a neo-
prene coupling with a stainless-steel bolting
band (or other type of clamping device),
which, in turn, accepts a downstream piece
of pipe or headless fitting. See Figure 1-9.
5. IPS or threaded. This type is a tapered female
thread in the drain outlet designed to accept
the tapered male thread of a downstream piece
of pipe or fitting. See Figure 1-10.
Figure 1-6 shows an arrangement whereby any
spillage in front of the curb can be drained by
half of the receptor, while indirect drains are
neatly tucked away.
Where equipment is on the floor level and an
indirect waste receptor must be provided under
the equipment, a shallow bucket that can easily
be removed is recommended.
WATERPROOFING
Whenever a cast-iron drain is cemented into a
slab, separation due to expansion and contrac-
tion occurs and creates several problems. One
is the constant wet area in the crevice around
the drain that promotes mildew odor and the
breeding of bacteria. Seepage to the floor below
is also a possibility. This problem can be cor-
rected by a seepage or flashing flange. Weep holes
in the flashing flange direct moisture into the
drain. Also, this flange accepts membrane ma-
terial and, when used, the flashing ring should
lock the membrane to the flange.
One prevalent misconception about the flash-
ing flange is that it can have weep holes when
used with cleanouts. In this case, there can be
no weep holes into the cleanout for the moisture
to run to. Weep holes should also be eliminated
from the flashing flanges of drains, such as re-
flection-pool drains, where the drain entrance is
shut off by an overflow standpipe to maintain a
certain water level.
The term nonpuncturing, used in reference
to membrane-flashing, ring-securing methods, is
now obsolete as securing bolts have been moved
inboard on flashing L flanges and the membrane
need not be punctured to get a seal. Of the vari-
ous arrangements, this bolting method allows the
greatest squeeze pressure on the membrane.
FLOOR LEVELING
A major problem in setting floor drains and
cleanouts occurs when the concrete is poured
level with the top of the unit, ignoring the fact
that the addition of tile on the floor will cause
the drain or cleanout to be lower than the sur-
rounding surface. To solve the problem, cleanouts
can be specified with tappings in the cover rim
to jack the top part of the cleanout up to the
finished floor level. Floor drains can be furnished
Figure 1-7 Inside-Caulk Drain Body
ASPE Data Book Volume 2 18
THERMAL EXPANSION
When excessive thermal expansion is anticipated,
the pipe movement should be controlled to avoid
harmful changes in slope or damage. This may
be done by anchoring, using expansion joints,
or using expansion loops or bends. When an-
choring, avoid excessive stress on the structure
and the pipe. Piping or mechanical engineering
handbooks should be consulted if stress analy-
Figure 1-8 Spigot-Outlet Drain Body
sis is to be performed due to excessive stresses
or to the differing expansion characteristics of
materials. See Data Book, Volume 2, Chapter 5
for further information.
PROTECTION FROM DAMAGE
Following are some common types of damage to
anticipate and some methods of protection:
Hazard Protection
Abrasion Plastic or rubber sleeves.
Insulation where copper
pipe leaves slab.
Condensation Insulation on piping.
Corrosion See Data Book, Vol. 1, Ch. 8,
Corrosion.
Earth loads Stronger pipe or pipe
sleeves.
Expansion and Flexible joints, loops, swing
contraction joints, or offsets.
Fire Building construction
around pipe. Some jurisdic-
tions require metal piping
within 2 ft (0.6 m) of an
entry into a firewall. Must
maintain fire ratings.
Heat Keeping thermoplastic pipe
away from sources of heat or
using insulation.
Nails Using ferrous pipe, steel
sleeves, steel plates or space
pipe away from possible nail
penetration zone.
Seismic Bracing pipe and providing
flexible joints at connection
between piping braced to
walls or structure and
piping braced to the ceiling
and between stories (where
there will be differential
movements).
Settlement Sleeves or flexible joints.
When embedded in concrete,
covering with three layers of
15-lb (6.8-kg) felt.
Sunlight Protecting thermoplastic
pipe by insulation and
jacket or shading to avoid
warping.
Figure 1-9 No-Hub-Outlet Drain Body
Figure 1-10 IPS or Threaded-
Outlet Drain Body
19 Chapter 1 Sanitary Drainage Systems
Vandals Installing pipe above reach
or in areas protected by
building construction.
Support piping well enough
to withstand 250 lb (113.4
kg) hanging on the moving
pipe.
Wood shrinkage Providing slip joints and
clearance for pipe when
wood shrinks. Approxi-
mately s in. (16 mm)/floor
is adequate for usual frame
construction, based on 4%
shrinkage perpendicular to
wood grain. Shrinkage along
the grain does not usually
exceed 0.2%.
SOVENT SYSTEMS
The sovent single-stack plumbing system is a
sanitary drainage system developed to improve
and simplify soil, waste, and vent plumbing in
multistory buildings.
The basic design criteria for sovent drainage
plumbing systems for multistory buildings is
based on experience gained in the design and
construction of sovent systems serving many liv-
ing units and on extensive experimental work
on a plumbing test tower. The criteria to be used
as guidelines in design work must be obtained
from the designer and/or manufacturer of sovent
systems.
The sovent system has four parts: a drain,
waste, and vent (DWV) stack; a sovent aerator
fitting at each floor level; drain, waste, and vent
(DWV) horizontal branches; and a sovent
deaerator fitting at the base of the stack. The
two special fittings, the aerator and deaerator,
are the basis for the self-venting features of the
sovent system.
The functions of the aerator are (1) to limit
the velocity of both liquid and air in the stack,
(2) to prevent the cross section of the stack from
filling with a plug of water, and (3) to mix effi-
ciently the waste flowing in the branches with
the air in the stack. The deaerator fitting sepa-
rates the air flow in the stack from the liquid,
ensuring smooth entry into the building drain
and relieving the positive pressure at the bottom
of the stack. The result is a single stack that is
self venting with the fittings balancing positive
and negative pressures at or near the zero line
throughout the system. Soil stack and vent com-
bine into a single sovent stack. Figure 1-11
illustrates a typical sovent single-stack plumb-
ing system.
RESEARCH
The advent and use of ultra-low-flow water clos-
ets, and to some extent other water-saving
fixtures, has brought into question the loading
on drainage systems and how the reduced
amount of water carries solids in the system.
Still to be confirmed is that the slope of conven-
tional drainage piping allows solids to remain in
suspension until mixed with other flows in the
drainage system. Further research is required
to determine the proper slopes of drainage pip-
ing and that the release of water from fixtures is
properly timed to ensure that solids are carried
sufficient distances.
There have been numerous studies, particu-
larly in the United Kingdom, of reduced-size
venting. These studies are discussed in more
depth in Chapter 3 of this volume, Vents and
Venting Systems.
REFERENCES
1. Daugherty, Robert L., Joseph B. Franzini, and
E. John Finnemore. 1985. Fluid mechanics with
engineering applications. 8th ed. New York:
McGraw-Hill.
2. Dawson, F.M., and A.A. Kalinske. 1937. Report
on hydraulics and pneumatics of plumbing drain-
age systems. State University of Iowa Studies in
Engineering, Bulletin no. 10.
3. Wyly and Eaton. 1950. National Bureau of Stan-
dards, Housing and Home Finance Agency.
ASPE Data Book Volume 2 20
(A) (B)
Figure 1-11 (A) Traditional Two-Pipe System,
(B) Typical Sovent Single-Stack Plumbing System.
21 Chapter 2 Gray-Water Systems
Gray-Water
Systems
2
INTRODUCTION
One of the means of conserving water is to re-
cycle it. Nonpotable water systems that use
recycled water are commonly referred to as gray-
water systems.
There is no single definition of gray water.
The definitions of a variety of recycled waters
are interchangeable. In general, the term gray
water is intended to include appropriately
treated water that has been recovered from typi-
cal fixtures, such as lavatories, bathtubs,
showers, and clothes washers. Waste potentially
containing grease, such as that from kitchens
and dishwashers, as well as waste from food dis-
posals in kitchens is excluded due to the
possibility of solid articles. Recycled water is in-
tended to include clean water additionally
treated to remove bacteria, heavy metals, and
organic material. Black water, on the other
hand, is water recovered from plumbing fixtures
discharging human excrement, such as water
closets and urinals, and cooling-tower water (be-
cause of the chemicals involved in its treatment).
Rainwater is another excellent source of water.
It can be collected in cisterns for use in a wide
variety of nonpotable uses with little or no treat-
ment. Rainwater in cisterns can also be used for
an emergency supply of drinking water if it is
appropriately treated prior to use. This chapter
is limited to the discussion of gray water only.
Gray-water systems have been used in vari-
ous areas of the world. In many regions, water is
a critical resource and extreme measures to op-
timize the use of water are sometimes necessary.
Water reuse offers a considerable savings of wa-
ter resources, which is appealing in localities
where the underground aquifers are in danger
of depletion or where adequate supplies of water
are not available. Waste-water management is
also a significant reason for the use of gray-wa-
ter systems.
On-site reclamation and recycling of relatively
clean, nonpotable water is considered for the fol-
lowing reasons:
1. In areas where the code mandates that gray
water be used where the availability of po-
table water is in short supply or restricted.
2. For projects where public liquid sewage
disposal capacity is either limited or inad-
equate.
3. For economic reasons because obtaining po-
table water or disposing of liquid waste is
very costly.
4. For economic reasons, where payback will
occur in less than 2 years and where recy-
cling will reduce sewer and water usage fees,
resulting in substantial savings in operating
costs.
Appropriately treated gray water is commonly
used for the following proposes:
1. Flushing water for water closets and urinals.
2. Landscape irrigation.
3. Cooling-tower makeup.
Note: This chapter is written primarily to familiarize the
reader with the general subject area. It is not intended to be
used for system design without reference and adherence to
other technical data and local code requirements.
ASPE Data Book Volume 2 22
4. Decorative pool and fountain fill water.
5. Floor and general hard surface wash down.
6. Laundry prerinse water.
The most common purpose is to provide water
for the flushing of urinals and water closets, es-
pecially in high-rises, hotels, and large dwellings.
CODES AND STANDARDS
There are no nationally or regionally established
model codes that mandate the use of gray water.
The Uniform Plumbing Code discusses gray wa-
ter but limits the discussion to single-family
dwellings. Many specific local areas have estab-
lished standards and guidelines for the use of
gray water in facilities and homes. Where gray-
water use is permitted, local health departments
have established minimum-treatment standards.
In these localities, the engineer must check for
regulations applicable to gray water, as is done
for plumbing and building codes.
The National Sanitation Foundations Stan-
dard 41, which regulates the minimum water
quality for recycled waste water, is shown in Table
2-1. The gray-water quality must be verified
against Table 2-1 and existing local regulations,
if any, before use.
Table 2-1 The National Sanitation
Foundations Standard 41
Component Maximum Limits
Biological oxygen demand 5 ppm (5 mg/L)
Suspended solids 5 ppm (5 mg/L)
Total coliform 2.2 counts/26.4 gal
(2.2 counts/100 mL)
Nitrogen removal 8595%
SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
Gray-water systems collect the dilute waste water
discharged from lavatories, service sinks, baths,
laundry tubs, showers, and other similar types
of fixtures. This water is then filtered and/or
treated until it reaches a level of quality consis-
tent with its intended reuse. The piping network
distributes it to sources not used for human con-
sumption in a safe and distinctive manner.
Figure 2-1 shows flow charts for a conven-
tional plumbing system and a recycled water
system. In the recycled-water flow system, the
gray water and black water sources are clearly
defined. The use of the gray-water system is also
defined, namely, for all nonpotable water sys-
tems, cooling-tower water requirements, and the
irrigation system.
Figure 2-2(A) shows single-line diagrams of
a gray-water plumbing system to bathtubs and
lavatories and a recycled, gray-water system with
a gray-water treatment plant from bathtubs,
lavatories, and water closets. The reused water
(gray water) from the fixtures is pumped for re-
use in the water closets. This figure shows the
isometric piping of a gray-water system with the
supply and drainage piping arrangement. The
basic plumbing supply with hot water system
feeds the lavatories and the bathtubs, which, in
turn, act as a source for the gray-water system.
In Figure 2-2(B), the effluent storage as well as
the sewage treatment plant (STP) utilize the gray
water to route to the cooling tower, irrigation,
and wash-down systems, and the water-closet
fixtures.
A gray-water system requires modifications
to the standard plumbing systems throughout a
facility. There will be duplicate drainage systems.
Instead of all the liquid discharged from all the
plumbing fixtures going to the sanitary sewer,
selected fixtures will have their effluent routed
for recovery by the gray-water treatment system.
The remainder will go to the sanitary sewer. There
also will be duplicate water supplies: potable
water will go to lavatories, sinks, showers, etc.,
and gray water to water closets, urinals, and
other fixtures, depending on the quality of the
gray-water treatment.
Special care must be taken during the
installation of a gray-water system. Clear identi-
fication and labeling of the gray-water system is
mandatory. This will minimize the risk of cross
connection during installation or repair of the
system.
Many newly formed, planned communities
have adopted gray-water systems for their irri-
gation systems. Warning signs of nonpotable
water or colored PVC piping are now visible
across city landscapes. Blue dye has become a
clear identification of the use of gray water.
23 Chapter 2 Gray-Water Systems
System Components
The following components are generally used for
most systems. Their arrangement and type de-
pend on the specific treatment system selected.
1. A separate gray-water collection piping sys-
tem.
2. A primary waste-treatment system consist-
ing of turbidity removal, storage, biological
treatment, and filtering.
3. Disinfecting systems consisting of ozone, ul-
traviolet irradiation, chlorine, or iodine.
4. Treated water storage and system distribu-
tion pressure pumps and piping.
DESIGN CRITERIA FOR GRAY-
WATER SUPPLY AND CONSUMPTION
It is estimated that q of the waste water dis-
charged from a typical household in 1 day is gray
water. The remaining waste water (that is, 3 of
the discharge) is black water from water closets.
The discharge from the separate piping system
supplying the gray-water system should be sized
based on the applicable plumbing code.
The following issues should be considered in
the design of any gray-water system:
1. The design flow is based on the number of
people in a facility.
(B)
Figure 2-1 Plumbing System Flow Charts:
(A) Conventional Plumbing System; (B) Recycled-Water System.
(A)
ASPE Data Book Volume 2 24
(A)
(B)
Figure 2-2 Riser Diagrams: (A) Gray-Water Plumbing System; (B) Recycled-Water-Waste
System with System Treatment Plant (STP).
Notes, Figure 2-2(A):1. Gray water can also be utilized for other uses, such as irrigation, cooling tower makeup, etc., provided
treatment is adequate. 2. Common vent for both drainage stacks.
25 Chapter 2 Gray-Water Systems
500-employee office. This demand could be sup-
plied in part by the 1 gal/person/day available
from the fixtures identified in the gray-water
supply section above.
In shopping centers, flow rates are based on
square feet (m
2
)

of space, not the number of per-
sons. The flow demand is gallons per day per
square foot (0.06 gpd/ft
2
[0.23 L/day/0.1 m
2
]).
The calculations in food service resemble
those for grease interceptor sizing. The number
of seats, the hours of operation, single-serving
utensils, and other, similar factors change the
equations for gray-water calculations.
Design Estimates for Residential
Buildings
(a) The number of occupants of each dwelling
unit shall be calculated as follows:
Occupants, first bedroom: 2
Occupants, each additional bedroom: 1
(b) The estimated gray-water flows for each oc-
cupant shall be calculated as follows:
Showers, bathtubs, and wash basins:
25 gpd (95 L/day)/occupant
Laundry: 15 gpd (57 L/day)/occupant
(c) The total number of occupants shall be mul-
tiplied by the applicable estimated gray-water
discharge as provided above, and the type of
fixtures connected to the gray-water system.
Example 2-1 Single-family dwelling, 3 bedrooms
with showers, bathtubs, wash basins, and laun-
dry facilities all connected to the gray-water
system:
Total number of occupants = 2 + 1 + 1 = 4
Estimated gray-water flow = 4 (25 + 15) =
160 gpd
[4 (95 + 57) = 608 L/day]
Example 2-2 Single-family dwelling, 4 bedrooms
with only the clothes washer connected to the
gray-water system:
Total number of occupants = 2 + 1 + 1 + 1 = 5
Estimated gray-water flow = 5 15 = 75 gpd
(5 57 = 285 L/day)
2. Lavatory use is estimated at 0.25 gal/use
(0.95 L/use).
3. Men use urinals 75% of the time and water
closets 25% of the time.
4. The average person uses a toilet 3 times a
day.
Design Estimates for Commercial
Buildings
Gray-water supply Estimates of gray-water sup-
ply sources vary in commercial buildings. In an
office building, fixtures such as lavatories, water
coolers, mop sinks, and coffee sinks are estimated
to generate 1 gal/day/person (3.79 L/day/per-
son). For an office building with 500 employees,
we would expect to be able to recover 500 gal/
day (1823 L/day) for gray-water reuse. Based on
5 working days/week and 50 weeks/year annual
use, 125,000 gal/yr (473 175 L/yr) could be avail-
able for gray-water reuse.
Gray-water demand The gray-water demand for
an office building is estimated based on 3 toilet
or urinal uses/day/person. For calculation pur-
poses, assume the population is 50% male and
50% female, and that men use urinals 75% of
the time and water closets 25% of the time. For
an office building with 500 employees, we would
estimate the gray-water demand as follows:
250 males 3 flushes/day 0.5 gal/flush
(urinals ) 75% usage = 281 gal/day
250 males 3 flushes/day 1.6 gal/flush
(water closets ) 25% usage = 300 gal/day
250 women 3 flushes/day 1.6 gal/flush
(water closets) = 1200 gal/day
TOTAL gray-water demand = 1781gal/day =
approx. 445,250 gal/yr
[250 males 3 flushes/day 1.89 L/flush
(urinals ) 75% usage = 1063 L/day
250 males 3 flushes/day 6.06 L/flush (wa-
ter closets ) 25% usage = 1136 L/day
250 women 3 flushes/day 6.06 L/flush
(water closets) = 4545 L/day
TOTAL gray-water demand = 6744 L/day =
approx. 1 686 000 L/yr]
This example shows that approximately 3.6
gal/person/day (13.5 L/person/day) is needed
to supply gray water to toilets and urinals for a
ASPE Data Book Volume 2 26
Design Estimates for Irrigation Systems
Gray-water system design and selection depends
on a variety of elements: location, soil type, the
source of water supply, the type of treatment
facility, and the application of reuse. Additional
requirements are noted for the reuse of gray-
water systems for irrigation systems. Some of
the parameters are ground-water level, geologi-
cal stability of the region, plot plan, and distances
of irrigation from adjacent properties, lakes, lot
lines, drainage channels, water supply lines,
surface slope, wells, and interaction of gray-wa-
ter systems with private sewage disposals.
Inspection and testing is an inherent part of the
design.
System components must be securely in-
stalled and the manufacturer properly identified.
The holding tanks must be installed in dry lev-
els, and, if underground, contamination issues
must be accounted for. The authorities having
jurisdiction shall review all plans, and qualified
and experienced contractors shall install the sys-
tem in accordance with the contract documents.
To design a gray-water system, one must esti-
mate the source of water supply. Separate design
parameters become important for reuse in build-
ings or in irrigation systems. For irrigation
systems, the required area of subsurface must
be designed based on soil analysis. The follow-
ing paragraph clearly defines the design issues
for irrigation facilities:
Each valved zone shall have a minimum
effective irrigation area in square feet (square
meters) as determined by Table 2-2 for the type
of soil found in the excavation. Table 2-2 gives
the design criteria for the use of gray-water sys-
tems in various types of soil (coarse sand or
gravel, fine sand, sandy loam, sandy clay, mixed
clay). As the soil weight decreases and the soil
becomes less porous, the minimum square feet
(square meters) needed for leaching increases.
Coarse sand or gravel needs a 20-ft
2
irrigation
area per 100 gal (1.86 m
2
per 379 L) of estimated
gray-water discharge per day. Clay with a small
amount of sand or gravel requires 120 ft
2
per
100 gal (11.15 m
2
per 379 L) of estimated gray
water per day. The area of the irrigation/disposal
field shall be equal to the aggregate length of the
perforated pipe sections within the valved zone
times the width of the proposed irrigation/dis-
posal field. Each proposed gray-water system
shall include at least three valved zones, and each
zone shall be in compliance with the provisions
of the section. No excavation for an irrigation/
disposal field shall extend within 5 vertical ft (1.5
m) of the highest known seasonal ground water,
nor shall it extend to a depth where gray water
may contaminate the ground water or ocean wa-
ter. The applicant shall supply evidence of
ground-water depth to the satisfaction of the
administrative authority.
Table 2-2
Design Criteria of Six Typical Soils
Type of Soil Minimum Minimum
Irrigation Area Absorption Capacity
(ft
2
/100 gal of (min/in.
estimated gray-water of irrigation area/
discharge/day) day)
Coarse sand or gravel 20 5.0
Fine sand 25 4.0
Sandy loam 40 2.5
Sandy clay 60 1.7
Clay with considerable
sand or gravel 90 1.1
Clay with small amount
of sand or gravel 120 0.8
Source: IAPMO, 1997, Uniform Plumbing Code, Appendix G.
Table 2-2 (M)
Design Criteria of Six Typical Soils
Type of Soil Minimum Minimum
Irrigation/Leaching Absorption Capacity
Area (min/m
2
(m
2
/ L of of irrigation/
estimated gray-water leaching area/
discharge/day) day)
Coarse sand or
gravel 0.005 5.0
Fine sand 0.006 4.0
Sandy loam 0.010 2.5
Sandy clay 0.015 1.7
Clay with considerable
sand or gravel 0.022 1.1
Clay with small amount
of sand or gravel 0.030 0.8
Source: IAPMO, 1997, Uniform Plumbing Code, Appendix G.
27 Chapter 2 Gray-Water Systems
Table 2-3 identifies the location and separa-
tion distances from a variety of structures and
environments. For example, any building or
structure shall be a minimum of 5 ft (1.5 m) from
a gray-water surge tank. The minimum distance
from any property lines to a gray-water surge
tank is 5 ft (1.5 m). Critical areas such as
streams, lakes, seepage pits, or cesspools shall
be a minimum of 50 ft (15.2 m) from surge tanks
and 100 ft (30.5 m) from irrigation fields. Simi-
larly, the distance from the public water main to
a surge tank shall be a minimum of 10 ft (3.1
m). The table also identifies additional restric-
tions.
See Table 2-4 for the design of the gray-wa-
ter distribution in subsurface drip systems for
various types of soil. This table gives the mini-
mum discharge, in gallons/day, for effective
irrigation distribution. Emitters are defined as
orifices with a minimum flow path of 120 microns
() and shall have a tolerance of manufacturing
variation equal to no more than 7%.
TREATMENT SYSTEMS
Treatment systems vary widely. The treatment
system conditions the recovered water to a de-
gree consistent with both the intended use of
the conditioned water and the design require-
ments of the design engineer, the applicable code,
or the responsible code officialwhichever is the
most stringent. Typical waste-water (gray-water
and black-water) treatments used for various
types of project are depicted in Figure 2-3. The
size of the treatment systems available vary from
those installed for individual private dwellings
to those serving multiple facilities. As the treat-
ment facility becomes more complex, the number
of treatment activities increases and the quality
of the water improves. Some of the treatment
activities are basic screening, flow equalization,
biological treatment, filtration, coagulation, sedi-
mentation, disinfections, reclaimed water tank,
membrane filtration, and activated carbon
filtration.
The selection of a treatment system also
depends on the quality and type of the influent
water. To decide which is the most appropriate
treatment, the kinds of fixture discharge to be
used for reclaiming and the treatment require-
ments of the authorities must be determined.
Table 2-5 describes the types of filtration and
water-treatment processes most commonly used
in the gray-water treatment process. Depending
on the types of filtration, the degree and types of
components filtered vary. Basic filtration con-
centrates on reducing suspended solids and does
not absorb nitrogen or phosphates. Coagulation
assists in building up the solid filtration and adds
phosphates to the list. Chlorination is signifi-
Table 2-3
Location of the Gray-Water System
Element Minimum Horizontal Distance from
Irrigation
Holding Tank, Disposal Field,
ft (mm) ft (mm)
Buildings or structures 5.2 (1524) 2.3 (610)
Property line adjoining
private property 5 (1524) 5 (1524)
Water supply wells 50 (15 240) 100 (30 480)
Streams and lakes 50 (15 240) 50.5 (15 240)
Seepage pits or cesspools 5 (1524) 5 (1524)
Disposal field and 100%
expansion area 5 (1524) 4.6 (1219)
Septic tank 0 (0) 5 (1524)
On-site domestic water
service line 5 (1524) 5 (1524)
Pressurized public
water main 10 (3048) 10.7 (3048)
Table 2-4
Subsurface Drip Design Criteria
of Six Typical Soils
Type of Soil Minimum Minimum Number
Emitter of Emitters per
Discharge, gal/day (L/day)
gal/day of Gray-Water
(L/day) Production
Sand 1.8 (6.8) 0.6
Sandy loam 1.4 (5.3) 0.7
Loam 1.2 (4.5) 0.9
Clay loam 0.9 (3.4) 1.1
Silty clay 0.6 (2.3) 1.6
Clay 0.5 (1.9) 2
ASPE Data Book Volume 2 28
Table 2-5 Gray-Water Treatment Processes for Normal Process Efficiency
Biological Chemical Total
Suspended Oxygen Oxygen Phosphates, Dissolved
Process Solids Demand Demand P0-4 Nitrogen Solids
Filtration 80 40 35 0 0 0
Coagulation / filtration 90 50 40 85 0 15
Chlorination 0 20
a
20
a
0 0 0
Tertiary treatment 95 95 910 15-60 50-70 80
Absorphan (carbon filtration) 0 60-80 70 0 10 5
a
Nominal, additional removals possible with super chlorination and extended contact time.
(A)
(B)
Figure 2-3 Water Treatment Systems:
(A) Types of Gray-Water Treatment System; (B) Types of Black-Water Treatment System
29 Chapter 2 Gray-Water Systems
cant only on oxygen demand issues. Tertiary
treatment includes filtration of all categories.
Absorphan, or carbon filtration, concentrates
primarily on biological and chemical oxygen
demands.
Table 2-6 shows the design elements of gray-
water system treatments. In the type A treatment,
separate gray-water riser piping and water-closet
piping is required. This type of treatment con-
sists of filtration, chlorination, and color
modifications. The system re-feeds the water clos-
ets. The enhanced version of the type A treatment
adds color as well as chemical treatments. If the
water source contains high percentages of soaps
or foaming agents, the addition of defoaming
agents is highly recommended. Increased condi-
tioning of the water will increase the use of the
water for other applications, such as cooling tow-
ers. Type B treatments give the complete tertiary
treatment of the water and permit the use of
water for a wide variety of reuse applications.
The biological and chemical oxygen treatments
are mandatory for the high concentrations of fe-
cal matter. The addition of chemical treatment,
filtration, and/or carbon absorption conditions
the water for a wide variety of applications. Treat-
ment quality also must take into account the
chemical compound of the water required for use
in piping, cooling towers, industrial applications,
and plant life to prevent scaling of pipes and foul-
ing of valves or equipment.
ECONOMIC ANALYSIS
AN EXAMPLE
Table 2-7 gives the life cycle economic compari-
son of a gray-water system for a 250-room resort
hotel. The cost of the conventional system is
based on water and sewer annual consumption.
The minimum gray-water system, Type A treat-
ment facility, would have an initial fixed
estimated cost of $87,500.00. This cost amor-
tized over 15 years with 12% interest will result
in an annual cost for payment of the initial capi-
tal cost. This annual cost, plus the water and
sewer cost, plus the treatment equipment main-
tenance cost is near the annual cost for the hotel
management. With maximum gray-water treat-
ment, Type B, the total annual cost does not
decrease very much. In fact, statistically they
are nearly the same. Given this data, the only
reasons to provide gray water in facilities are gov-
ernmental or institutional incentives. In addition,
the cost of sewage as well as the cost of water
consumption may become the decisive factors.
Any increase in the cost of sewage or water,
caused perhaps by a drought in a region, can
alter the life-cycle economics.
Table 2-6 Comparison of Gray-Water System Applications
Potential Sewage
System Piping Treatment Gray-Water Uses Water Savings
a
Savings
a
Conventional Base None N/A 0 0
Type A Separate Filtration, Water closets 20,000 gal/day 20,000 gal/day
(minimal gray-water chlorination, (75 708 L/day) (75 708 L/day)
treatment) riser/separate color 17% (inc. irrigation), 26%
WC stack 22% (without
irrigation)
Type A Separate Chemical Water closets, 35,000 gal/day, 35,000 gal/day
(enhanced gray-water filtration, cooling towers, (132 489 L/day) (132 489 L/day)
treatment) riser/separate chlorination, irrigation (pos.) 30% (incl. irrigation), 46%
WC stack color 38% (without
irrigation)
Type B Separate Tertiary All nonpotable 61,000 gal/day, N/A
gray-water riser sewage uses (230 909 L/day)
treatment 52% (incl. irrigation)
a
Values for savings noted are based on the 250-room resort hotel example. Percentages based on normal usage of 117,850 gal/day,
Including irrigation, and 91,150 gal/day, without irrigation.
ASPE Data Book Volume 2 30
Figure 2-4 System Design Flow Chart Example (250-Room Hotel):
(A) Conventional Plumbing System; (B) Recycling for Water Closets; (C) Recycling for Water
Closets and Cooling Tower; (D) Recycling for Water Closets, Cooling Tower, and Irrigation
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
31 Chapter 2 Gray-Water Systems
The complete water flow chart of the 250-
room hotel is shown in Figure 2-4. As depicted
in Table 2-6, the water-flow-rate savings are
clearly defined.
Before one considers using a gray-water sys-
tem, it is desirable to be able to evaluate quickly,
on a preliminary basis, the potential economic
feasibility of the proposed scheme. To facilitate
this, a nomograph such as that shown in Figure
2-5 can be used. This analysis shows the varia-
tion in interest rates, variation in cost of
combined water and sewage, the water daily use,
and cost of total systems based on two types of
treatments, A and B. Movement through the
chart from an interest rate (based on the cur-
rent economy) to the combined cost of sewage
and water (based on municipalities) to the water
consumption (based on building occupancy) and
to the type of treatment facility (based on the
purity required) can provide an approximate cost
for a gray-water system.
To use the nomograph, proceed as follows:
1. Enter the lower right portion of the nomo-
graph with the anticipated total potable water
consumption for all users (based on a con-
ventional system).
2. Move vertically up to the combined utility cost
for water purchase and sanitary sewage
charges (e.g., $1.25/1000 gal [3785 L] for wa-
ter, and $0.75/1000 gal [3785 L] for sewage).
3. Move horizontally to the left to form baseline
X.
4. Enter the upper right portion of the nomo-
graph with the estimated additional cost of
the gray-water system (additional piping,
storage, and treatment equipment).
5. Move vertically down to the annual interest
rate (cost of money) used in the analysis.
6. Move horizontally to the left to form
baseline Y.
7. If the proposed system is a Type A gray-wa-
ter system, go to the intersection of baseline
X and the system A curve (lower left quad-
rant) of the nomograph.
8. If a Type B gray-water system is being stud-
ied, go to the intersection of baseline X and
the system B curve.
9. From the appropriate intersection, move ver-
tically up to the horizontal separation line
and then up and left at the indicated 45
angle to an intersection with baseline Y.
10. From this intersection point, move vertically
down once again to the intersection with
baseline X.
11. If this final (circled) intersection is in the lower
right field, the system appears preliminarily
feasible and should be subjected to a more
detailed economic analysis.
12. If the final intersection falls to the left and
above the sector dividing line, then the eco-
nomic feasibility of the scheme is strongly
suspect.
Note: Obviously, the many variable inputs that must be
considered in a detailed economic analysis do not lend
themselves to an easy-to-use nomograph. Many of these
inputs have been simplified by making normal assumptions
about such things as ratios of reuse, relative quantities of
water consumption, and sewage discharge. Thus, while the
nomograph does give a quick and relatively good indication
of feasibility, it does not replace a detailed economic
evaluation. This is particularly true if the scheme under
consideration has anticipated hydraulic flow patterns that
differ markedly from the relative uses outlined in Figure 2-5.
Table 2-7 Life-Cycle Economic Comparison:
Gray-Water Systems for 250-Room Hotel
Installed System
Type A Type B
(Minimal
Conventional Gray (Gray
System Water) Water)
Fixed Cost 0.000 $87,500 $259,000
Life 20 yr 15 yr 15 yr
(Base system)
Cost of money 12% 12% 12%
Capital recovery
factor N/A 0.1468.2 0.14682
Amortized first cost 0 $12,846 $38,026
Utility costs 0 0 0
Water ($1.40/
1000 gal $59,395 $49,315 $28,299
[3785 L])
Sewage ($0.50/
1000 gal $13,706 $10,106 0
[3785 L])
Operational cost 0 0 0
Treatment
equipment 0 $1,240 $6,305
Total Annual Cost $73,101 $73,507 $72,630
ASPE Data Book Volume 2 32
As a regions population grows, the utiliza-
tion of limited water supplies becomes more
critical, and the need for conservation becomes
more obvious, evidenced by regulation, a change
in the types of plumbing fixtures, public educa-
tion and voluntary participation, or an increase
in water and sewage system charges. In addi-
tion, the economic capabilities of a municipality
determine its capability for adding sewage-treat-
ment facilities and meeting the demands of the
community.
PRECAUTIONS
Since gray water poses a potential health haz-
ard, a great deal of care must be exercised once
such a system is installed. One of the greatest
dangers is the possibility that the gray water will
be inadvertently connected to the potable-water
system. To avoid this possibility, the water itself
and the piping must be made easily distinguish-
able, anti-cross-connection precautions must be
taken, and appropriate alarms must be installed.
Figure 2-5 Nomograph for Overview of Preliminary Feasibility of Gray-Water Systems
33 Chapter 2 Gray-Water Systems
Treated water could be colored by food dye
that is biodegradable. Fixtures could be bought
in the color of the water if the water color will be
found objectionable.
The piping system itself must be clearly iden-
tified with labels placed visibly along the run of
the pipe. If possible, the piping material should be
different so that the possibility of mistaking and
interconnecting the two systems will be unlikely.
The most important consideration is the edu-
cation of individuals and the staff of a facility
with a gray-water system. An explanation of the
dangers and proper operating instructions will
ensure that an informed staff will operate and
maintain the system in a correct manner.
PUBLIC CONCERNS/ACCEPTANCE
Although gray-water systems have been approved
for general use in different parts of the world
and have been designed in a variety of forms, it
is still unfamiliar to many city and county gov-
ernments, plumbing and facility engineers, and
the general public. An exception is the Baha-
mas, where the local code mandates dual or
gray-water systems in all occupancies.
Although the use of gray water is a proven
cost-effective alternative to the use of potable
water in various systems, there is reluctance on
the part of authorities to approve it. Some rea-
sons include:
1. There is no generally accepted standard for
the quality of recycled water. Several states
in the US, Japan, and the Caribbean have
adopted codes and guidelines, but for most
of the world there is no standard. This has
resulted in rejection of the systems or long
delays during the approval process of projects
while the quality of the water is in question.
2. Regulatory and plumbing codes that do not
have any specific restrictions against using
gray water or have ambiguous language that
could be interpreted for its use but whose
officials impose special standards due to their
lack of experience.
Although the use of gray water is ideal in
certain circumstances, the success of gray wa-
ter will depend solely on public acceptance, and
that will require an adequate educational effort.
The use of colored water in water closets may
not be attractive to the occupants of a newly oc-
cupied high-rise. Educating the users of gray
water is imperative. An understanding of the
source and the associated dangers and limita-
tions of gray water is essential to acceptance by
the general public. To draw a parallel, the gen-
eral public is now fully aware of the dangers of
electricity, yet life without electricity is consid-
ered to be abnormal.
An economic analysis of gray-water systems
in health-care facilities may favor dual plumb-
ing systems. However, the presence of viruses,
bacteria, and biological contamination in health-
care gray-water systems (through lavatories,
bathtubs, showers, and sinks) may increase the
cost of water treatment. Also there is a legiti-
mate concern regarding the spread of disease
through such gray-water systems that must not
be overlooked. Therefore, the application of gray-
water systems in health-care facilities may be a
less attractive option because of the possibility
of biological contamination.
CONCLUSION
This Data Book chapter began with the definition
of gray water and ended with a discussion of its
public acceptance. It touched briefly on the de-
sign elements of the plumbing system and
identified the variations among different facilities.
The economic analysis of the gray-water system
can become the decisive issue that determines
whether a gray-water system is even considered
for a project. This analysis can be extrapolated
for any other projects and variations.
For the full design of gray-water systems, the
reader should refer to other technical data books.
Water treatment is one of the backbones of the
gray-water system. For the water-flow calcula-
tions with all the required pumps, piping, and
controls, the reader is referred to the ASPE
Manual on Gray Water (forthcoming).
Finally, water shortages, government subsi-
dies, tax incentives, the facility limitations of local
governments, and population growth will be the
primary motivators for designers and project
engineers to consider gray-water system selec-
tions in their designs.
ASPE Data Book Volume 2 34
REFERENCES
1. Atienze, J., and J. Craytor. 1995. Plumbing effi-
ciency through gray-water recycling. Consulting
Specifying Engineer. (March): 58.
2. Baltimore, MD, Dept. of Public Works. June
1966. Commercial water use research project, by
J. B. Wolf, F. P. Linaweaver, and J.C. Center.
3. Dumfries Triangle and Occoquan-Woodbridge
Sanitary District, Woodbridge, VA. Water uses
study, by G. D. Gray and J. J. Woodcock.
4. International Association of Plumbing and Me-
chanical Officials (IAPMO). 1998. California
plumbing code. Walnut, CA.
5. IAPMO. 1997. Uniform plumbing code.
6. Konen, Thomas P. 1986. Water use in office
buildings. Plumbing Engineer Magazine. July/Au-
gust.
7. Lehr, Valentine A. 1987. Gray-water systems.
Heating/Piping/Air Conditioning. January.
8. n.a. 1997. Water: Use of treated sewage on rise
in state. Los Angeles Times, August 17: A36.
9. Siegrist, R., and W. C. Boyle. 1976. Characteris-
tics of rural household waste water. Journal of
the Environmental Engineering Division, (June):
533.
10. US Dept. of Commerce, National Information Ser-
vices. 1978. Management of small waste flows,
by Wisconsin University, PB-286-560.
11. US General Services Administration. 1995. Wa-
ter management: A comprehensive approach for
facility managers.
35 Chapter 3 Vents and Venting
Vents and
Venting
3
Venting systems are often the least understood
of the basic plumbing design concepts. The com-
plete venting of a building drainage system is a
very complicated subject, as can be seen from
the great variety of venting systems that may be
involved. It is not feasible to cover all the vent-
ing variations in this chapter. However, to foster
understanding, the preparation of venting tables
for stacks and for horizontal branches for vari-
ous venting systems is discussed.
Owing to the fact that the conditions that
tend to produce pneumatic pressures in the vent-
ing system that exceed or are below atmospheric
pressure by considerable amounts vary so greatly
from case to case, and since the building drain
may be wholly or partly submergedor not sub-
merged at allwhere it enters the street sewer,
it is not feasible to lay down rules that will apply
to the venting of all designs.
SECTION I
VENTS AND VENTING
Purposes of Venting
Vent systems are installed to eliminate trap si-
phonage, reduce back pressure and vacuum
surges, promote the rapid and silent flow of
wastes, and ventilate the sewer. Trap siphonage
reduces or eliminates the trap seal and leads to
an insanitary and hazardous condition. Pressure
and vacuum surges cause objectionable move-
ments of the water in the highly visible water
closet traps as well as affect the trap seals in all
fixtures. Excessive pressure causes bubbles of
sewer gas to flow through traps. Unvented traps
lead to gurgling noises and sluggish waste flow.
Sewer ventilation is required by some local au-
thorities to promote flow in the sewer and to
reduce the concentration of dangerous and cor-
rosive gases.
Vent Stack Terminal
A vent stack terminal is the part of the venting
system that extends through the roof, thus keep-
ing the drainage system open to atmospheric
pressure. Though it may be small by compari-
son to the overall sanitary drainage piping, the
vent stack terminal is an important portion of
the system. Through the terminal vent, air at
atmospheric pressure enters the drainage sys-
tem to hold in balance the water seal contained
in each fixture trap. The balance of atmospheric
air pressure and gravitational pull on the waste-
water mass follows the principles outlined in
Chapter 1 of this volume, Sanitary Drainage
Systems. Vent stack terminals need to be sized
in accordance with local codes and/or good en-
gineering practices.
Good engineering practices include the fol-
lowing:
1. Increase the terminal pipe by two sizes at 18
in. (455 mm) below the roof line. This allows
for the interior building space (which is usu-
ally warmer) to provide a convecting flow of
interior building heat, keeping the vent ter-
minal at the roof from freezing closed.
2. Project the vent terminal in accordance with
jurisdictional building codes and in a distant
relationship from air intake louvers, windows,
doors, and other roof openings, 10 ft (3 m)
ASPE Data Book Volume 2 36
minimum. Sewer gases will be forced upward
through the terminal stack by the weight of
the waste water, therefore, the vent pressures
versus the air intake volumes need to be con-
sidered.
3. Provide minimum 4-in. (101.6-mm) diameter
vent stack terminals. Experience has proved
that a 4-in. (101.6-mm) terminal allows an
adequate volume of air to enter the plumb-
ing system, and its effective opening is not
as easily constricted by foreign matter, ice,
snow, or vermin as the opening of a smaller
diameter pipe would be. (It should be noted
that most codes require only that one 3-in.
[76-mm] vent to atmosphere be provided for
each building drain.)
Winds of sufficient force can affect the func-
tion of the venting system. A strong wind blowing
across the effective opening of the vent stack ter-
minal can create unbalanced air pressures within
the system. Protective devices are available but
may be susceptible to frost closure. Care must
also be taken in locating the vent terminals with
respect to building walls, higher adjacent roofs,
parapet walls, etc., as these may affect the proper
flow of air into and out of the venting system.
Traps and Trap Seals
Traps are installed at the plumbing fixtures to
prevent sewer gas and odors from escaping into
the building and to keep insects and vermin out-
side. They are usually required to be of the
water-seal, self-scouring type.
Other types may be necessary to save pre-
cious metal or to keep harmful material out of
the drainage system. Special code approvals may
be necessary in these cases. The trap seal may
be lost when a fixture is drained. During drain-
age, water drops through the fixture outlet down
the tailpiece, acquiring momentum. This momen-
tum is transferred to trap-seal water. The
combined water then flows out of the trap down
the trap arm at a rate depending on slope and
momentum. The momentum will be increased if
there is a vacuum in the drainage system. If the
trap arm fills with water (either actually or effec-
tively because of suds in the trap arm), the trap
water may siphon. (For this reason, most codes
limit the distance from the fixture to the trap
weir to 24 in. [0.6 m].) Some water will remain in
the trap, but the water seal will be lost or re-
duced. The trap is usually replenished to some
extent as the fixture gradually empties after the
siphon is broken. Glass plumbing is a convenient
way to observe this phenomenon. Water-closet
traps must always be siphoned to achieve a flush.
Water closets are designed so that the water-
closet trap is refilled. Traps can also be siphoned
when there is excessive vacuum in the system.
Factors Affecting Trap Seal Loss
Based on the preceding, the following will reduce
the danger of seal siphonage of the trap:
1. Reduce the depth of the overflow rim in fix-
tures.
2. Flatten the bottoms of fixtures.
3. Avoid high-suds detergents.
4. Provide smaller discharge openings on the
fixtures.
5. Reduce the distance (tailpiece length) between
the fixture and the trap.
6. Increase the size of the trap and trap arm.
7. Reduce the vacuum on the discharge side of
the trap.
8. Provide a vent near the trap outlet.
There are three predominant ways in which
traps seals are reduced. The first way occurs
when the pneumatic-pressure fluctuations
caused by the discharge of fixtures other than
the fixture to which a particular trap is attached
siphon water out of the trap until the positive
part of the fluctuation occurs. The second way
is by the discharge of the fixture to which the
trap is attached. The third way of reducing trap
seals is by the buildup of high-suds detergents.
It is recommended that the first phenomenon
described be called induced siphonage and the
second self-siphonage.
Suds Venting
High-sudsing detergents may be expected to be
used in kitchen sinks, dishwashers, and clothes-
washing machines in residential occupancies.
These suds disrupt the venting action and spread
through the lower portions of multistory drain-
age systems. The more turbulence, the greater
the suds. In some cases, suds back up through
the traps and even spill out on the floor. They
cause an increase in the pressure and vacuum
levels in the systems. They affect both single-
stack and conventional systems. Solutions to the
37 Chapter 3 Vents and Venting
problem may involve avoiding suds pressure
zones, connecting the suds-producing stack
downstream of all other stacks, and increasing
the size of the horizontal building drain to achieve
less restrictive flow of air and water. Using
streamline fittings, such as wyes, tends to re-
duce suds formation. Check valves in fixture
tailpieces have been used to fix problem instal-
lations.
The National Standard Plumbing Code, one
of the traditional codes, lists the following spe-
cial requirements to avoid suds problems:
1. Where required. Where kitchen sinks, laun-
dry trays, laundry washing machines, and
similar fixtures in which sudsy detergents
are normally used, discharge at an upper
level into a soil or waste stack which drain-
age and vent piping for such lower fixtures
shall be arranged so as to avoid connection
to suds pressure zones in the sanitary drain-
age and vent systems, or a suds relief vent,
relieving to a nonpressure zone shall be pro-
vided at each suds pressure zone where such
connections are installed. In multistory build-
ings, with more than six branch intervals of
fixtures described above, separate waste and
vent stacks for the lower four branch inter-
vals of fixtures shall be required. See Table
3-1.
2. Suds pressure zones. Suds pressure zones
shall be considered to exist at the following
locations in sanitary drainage and vent sys-
tems as indicated in Table 3-1. See Figure 3-1.
Zone 1. In a soil or waste stack, which
serves fixtures on two or more floors and
receives wastes from fixtures wherein
sudsy detergents are used, a zone shall be
considered to exist in the vertical portion
upstream of an offset fitting and the riser
to the upper section of the system, in the
horizontal portion downstream of this fit-
ting and in the horizontal portion upstream
of the offset immediately preceding the next
offset fitting. See Table 3-1.
Zone 2. In a soil or waste stack, which
serves fixtures on two or more floors and
receives wastes from fixtures wherein
sudsy detergents are used, a zone shall be
considered to exist at the base of the stack
and extending upstream. See Table 3-1.
Zone 3. In a soil or waste system, which
serves fixtures on two or more floors and
receives wastes from fixtures wherein
sudsy detergents are used, a zone shall
be considered to exist downstream in the
horizontal drain from the base of the
stack and both upstream and down-
stream of the next offset fitting
downstream.
Zone 4. In a soil or waste system, which
serves fixtures on two or more floors and
receives wastes from fixtures wherein
sudsy detergents are used, a zone shall
be considered to exist in the vent stack
extending upstream from the point of
connection to the base of the soil or waste
stack. See Figure 3-2.
Fixture Vents
The discharge of a lavatory or sink is quite high
at first, decreasing a little as the depth in the
basin decreases, until suddenly the rate of dis-
charge falls rapidly to nearly zero, with the
Table 3-1 Suds Pressure-Relief Vents
Waste Size, Relief Vent Size,
in. (mm) in. (mm)
1 (38) 2 (51)
2 (51) 2 (51)
2 (63) 2 (51)
3 (76) 2 (51)
4 (101) 3 (76)
5 (127) 4 (101)
6 (152) 5 (127)
8 (203) 6 (152)
Extent of Suds Pressure Zones for Various Size
Soil and Waste Piping,
Extent of Zone (Measured from Fittings)
Stack Size, Upstream, Downstream,
in. (mm) U, ft (m) D, ft (m)
1 (38) 5 (1.5) 1 (0.45)
2 (51) 7 (2.1) 1 (0.45)
2 (63) 8 (2.4) 2 (0.61)
3 (76) 10 (3.0) 2 (0.76)
4 (101) 13 (4.0) 3 (1.1)
5 (127) 17 (5.2) 4 (1.2)
6 (152) 20 (6.1) 5 (1.5)
Note: For use with Figure 3-1.
ASPE Data Book Volume 2 38
coincidental formation of a vortex which allows
air to be sucked down into the drain. Air that is
drawn through the fixture passes down the drain
in the form of bubbles that are dragged along
the highest element of the drain. If there is
enough air traveling with the water, when the
flow from the fixture falls off, the bubbles enable
the water to break loose from the upper element
of the drain, so that the piston effect of water
that would otherwise occur is often prevented. If
the slug of water continues to fill the cross sec-
tion as the flow decreases, it moves downstream
slowly, creating a reduced pressure behind it that
sucks the water out of the trap just as happens
when the reduced pressure is due to induced
siphonage.
Only a limited amount of data on the self-
siphonage of plumbing-fixture traps have been
Figure 3-1 Suds-Pressure-Zone Diagram
published. Tests of the siphonage of fixture traps
were made as early as 1880, but no record of
investigations of self-siphonage at such an early
date has been found. Perhaps the most system-
atic investigation of the subject was made by
John L. French and Herbert N. Eaton. A full-
scale test was conducted by them to determine
the factors that affect self-siphonage and, more
particularly, to establish limits on drain lengths,
slopes, diameters, and other pertinent variables
that would ensure that excessive trap-seal losses
due to self-siphonage would not occur.
Based on these early research results, lengths
of nominally sized, horizontal, unvented waste
pipes believed to be safe against self-siphonage
have been established. For example, the Uniform
Plumbing Code has a section on the maximum
length of the trap arm stating as follows:
39 Chapter 3 Vents and Venting
Each fixture trap shall have a protecting vent
so located that the developed length of the trap
arm from the trap weir to the inner edge of the
vent shall be within the distance given in Table
3-2, but in no case less than two (2) times the
diameter of the trap arm.
Table 3-2 Maximum Length of Trap Arm
Diameter of Distance
Trap Arm, in. (mm) Trap to Vent, ft (m)
1 (32) 2 (0.76)
1 (38) 3 (1.1)
2 (51) 5 (1.5)
3 (76) 6 (1.8)
4 (101) 10 (3.0)
Figure 3-2 Suds Venting/Suds Pressure Zones
It should be noted that the International
Plumbing Code requirements differ significantly
from these. They are set forth as follows:
Each fixture trap shall have a protecting vent
located so that the slope and the developed length
in the fixture drain from the trap weir to the vent
fitting are within the requirements set forth in
Table 3-3.
Venting as a Means of Reducing Trap
Seal Losses from Induced Siphonage
Spent water and other wastes from plumbing fix-
tures enter vertical stacks through branch drains
where the flow is described as separated flow.
The waste water travels along the lower portion
of the drain allowing the free movement of air in
the upper portion of the conduit. Shortly after
ASPE Data Book Volume 2 40
entering the stack, the waste water attaches it-
self to the walls of the vertical pipe forming an
annular flow. The falling water drags with it air
that in a conventional plumbing drainage sys-
tem is removed through the extensive network
of vents in addition to the building drain.
The capacity of a given design is governed by
the systems ability to manage the incoming air
in such a way that the pressure excursions, posi-
tive and negative, will be within certain
acceptable limits. Positive pressures are high and
often the cause of failure in systems with com-
plex building drains. The main vent stack is
designed to remove the expected air with a pres-
sure loss less than 1 in. (25.4 mm) of water
column. In tall buildings, the falling water de-
velops large negative pressures, which cause
failures by siphoning the water from traps.
Design of Vents to Control Induced
Siphonage
In most plumbing codes a loading table for vents
is provided. The purpose of such a table is to give
the information necessary to design the vent stack
for the delivery of the amount of air required for
the control of pneumatic pressures at critical
points in the drainage system within limits of 1
in. (25.4 mm) of water column from atmospheric
pressure. If this range of pressure can be main-
tained, the effects of pneumatic-pressure
fluctuations on the fixture-trap seals will be neg-
ligible. The dimensions of pipes required to deliver
given quantities of air at a pressure drop of 1 in.
(25.4 mm) of water column can be computed from
the Darcy-Weisbach Formula combined with the
conventional formula for expressing losses other
than those associated with flow in long, straight
pipes. This can be expressed as:
Equation 3-1
h
f
=
fLV
2

D2g
where
h
f
= Head loss due to friction, ft (m) of
air column
f = Coefficient of friction corresponding
to the roughness of the pipe surface
and the diameter of the pipe
L = Length of piping, ft (m)
V = Velocity of flow, fps (m/s)
D = Diameter of piping, ft (m)
g = Gravitational acceleration, 32.2 ft/
s
2
(9.8 m/s
2
)
The maximum permissible length of vent pip-
ing is expressed as:
Equation 3-2
L =
h
f
d
5
(0.03109)fq
2
where
L = Length of piping, ft (m)
h
f
= Head loss due to friction, ft (m) of
fluid column
d = Diameter of piping, in. (mm)
f = Coefficient of friction corresponding
to the roughness of the pipe surface
and the diameter of the pipe
q = Quantity rate of flow, gpm (L/s)
Drainage Fixture Units
The selection of the size and length of vent pip-
ing requires design or installation information
about the size of the soil and/or waste stack and
the fixture unit (derived from the supply system
design) loads connected to the stack. Total fix-
ture units connected to the stack can be
computed in accordance with Table 3-4. Fixture
units are really weighting factors that effectively
convert the various types of fixture, having dif-
ferent probabilities of use, to equivalent numbers
of an arbitrarily chosen type of fixture with a
single probability of use. In other words, the fix-
Table 3-3 Maximum Distance of
Fixture Trap from Vent
Size of
Fixture Slope, Distance
Size of Trap, Drain, in./ft from Trap,
in. (mm) in. (mm) (cm/m) ft (m)
14 (32) 14 (32) 4(12.5) 32(1.07)
14 (32) 12 (40) 4(12.5) 5 (1.52)
12 (40) 12 (40) 4(12.5) 5 (1.52)
12 (40) 2 (51) 4(12.5) 6 (1.83)
2 (51) 2 (51) 4(12.5) 8 (2.44)
3 (76) 3 (76) 8(25) 10 (3.05)
4 (101) 4 (101) 8(25) 12 (3.66)
41 Chapter 3 Vents and Venting
ture unit assigned to each kind of fixture repre-
sents the degree to which it loads the system.
The designer should confirm or adjust this data
based on the local code.
Vent Sizes and Lengths
The above two equations are useful for comput-
ing lengths and diameters of vent pipes required
to carry given rates of air flow. Appropriate val-
ues of the friction coefficient should be used in
applying these equations. For any particular pipe,
f is an inverse function of the Reynolds num-
ber (turbulence) and increases with the
roughness of pipe material relative to diameter.
The size of vent piping shall be determined
from its length and the total number of fixture
units connected thereto, as set forth in Table
3-5. Note, in Table 3-5, that some codes limit
the maximum length located in the horizontal
position due to higher friction losses in horizon-
tal piping. On average, codes may limit that
20-50% of maximum length be located in the
horizontal position.
End Venting
End venting is a system of floor drains whose
branch arms do not exceed 15 ft (4.5 m) and are
sloped at 8 in./ft (3.2 mm/m) (1%) to a main
drain that is sized two pipe diameters larger,
therefore allowing the main drain to be end
vented. The theory is that the system is over-
sized allowing the sewer always to flow partially
full, thus permitting air to circulate above. (This
configuration is similar to a combination waste-
and-vent system.)
Common Vent
A common vent may be used for two fixtures set
on the same floor level but connecting at differ-
ent levels in the stack, provided that the vertical
drain is one pipe diameter larger than the upper
fixture drain but in no case smaller than the
lower fixture drain, or whichever is the larger,
and that both drains conform to the distances
from trap to vent for various size drains.
Stack Venting
A group of fixtures, consisting of one bathroom
group and a kitchen sink or combination fixtures,
may be installed without individual fixture vents
Table 3-4 Drainage-Fixture-Unit Values
for Various Plumbing Fixtures
Type of Fixture or Drainage-Fixture-
Group of Fixtures Unit Value (dfu)
Automatic clothes washer (2-in. [51 mm] standpipe) 3
Bathroom group consisting of a water closet,
lavatory, and bathtub or shower stall:
Flushometer valve closet 8
Tank-type closet 6
Bathtub (with or without overhead shower)
a
2
Bidet 1
Clinic Sink 6
Combination sink-and-tray with food-waste grinder 4
Combination sink-and-tray with one
1-in. (38 mm) trap 2
Combination sink-and-tray with separate
1-in. (38 mm) trap 3
Dental unit or cuspidor 1
Dental lavatory 1
Drinking fountain
Dishwasher, domestic 2
Floor drains with 2-in. (51 mm) waste 3
Kitchen sink, domestic, with one 1-in. (38 mm) trap 2
Kitchen sink, domestic, with food-waste grinder 2
Kitchen sink, domestic, with food-waste grinder
and dishwasher 1-in. (38 mm) trap 3
Kitchen sink, domestic, with dishwasher
1-in. (38 mm) trap 3
Lavatory with 1-in. (32-mm) waste 1
Laundry trap (1 or 2 compartments) 2
Shower stall, domestic 2
Showers (group) per head
b
2
Sinks:
Surgeons 3
Flushing rim (with valve) 6
Service (trap standard) 3
Service (P trap) 2
Pot, scullery, etc.
b
4
Urinal, pedestal, syphon jet blowout 6
Urinal, wall lip 4
Urinal, stall, washout 4
Urinal, trough (each 6-ft [1.8 m] section) 2
Wash sink (circular or multiple) each set of faucets 2
Water closet, tank-operated 4
Water closet, valve-operated 6
Fixtures not listed above:
Trap size 1 in. (32 mm) or less 1
Trap size 1 in. (38 mm) 2
Trap size 2 in. (51 mm) 3
Trap size 2 in. (63 mm) 4
Trap size 3 in. (76 mm) 5
Trap size 4 in. (101 mm) 6
a
A shower head over a bathtub does not increase the fixture-unit
value.
b
See Chapter 1 of this volume for the method of computing equiva-
lent fixture values for devices or equipment that discharges
continuous or semicontinuous flows into sanitary drainage sys-
tems.
ASPE Data Book Volume 2 42
Table 3-5 Size and Length of Vents
Size of
Soil or Fixture
Waste Units
Diameter of Vent Required, in. (mm)
Stack, Con-
1 (32) 1 (38) 2 (51) 2 (63) 3 (76) 4 (101) 5 (127) 6 (152) 8 (203)
in. (mm) nected Maximum Length of Vent, ft (m)
1 (38) 8 50 (15.2) 150 (45.7)
2 (51) 12 30 (9.1) 75 (22.8) 200 (61)
2 (51) 20 26 (7.9) 50 (15.2) 150 (45.7)
2 (63) 42 30 (9.1) 100 (30.5) 300 (91.4)
3 (76) 10 30 (9.1) 100 (30.5) 100 (30.5) 600 (182.9)
3 (76) 30 60 (18.3) 200 (61) 500 (152.4)
3 (76) 60 50 (15.2) 80 (27.8) 400 (122)
4 (101) 100 35 (10.7) 100 (30.5) 260 (79.2) 1000 (304.8)
4 (101) 200 30 (9.1) 90 (27.4) 250 (76.2) 900 (274.3)
4 (101) 500 20 (6.1) 70 (21.3) 180 (54.9) 700 (213.4)
5 (127) 200 35 (10.7) 80 (27.8) 350 (106.7) 1000 (304.8)
5 (127) 500 30 (9.1) 70 (21.3) 300 (91.4) 900 (274.3)
5 (127) 1100 20 (6.1) 50 (15.2) 200 (61) 700 (213.4)
6 (152) 350 25 (7.6) 50 (15.2) 200 (61) 400 (122) 1300 (396.6)
6 (152) 620 15 (4.6) 30 (9.1) 125 (38) 300 (91.4) 1100 (335.3)
6 (152) 960 24 (7.3) 100 (30.5) 250 (76.2) 1000 (304.8)
6 (152) 1900 20 (6.1) 70 (21.3) 200 (61) 700 (213.0)
8 (203) 600 50 (15.2) 150 (43.7) 500 (152.4) 1300 (396.6)
8 (203) 1400 40 (12.2) 100 (30.5) 400 (122) 1200 (365.8)
8 (203) 2200 30 (9.1) 80 (27.8) 350 (106.7) 1100 (335.3)
8 (203) 3600 25 (7.6) 60 (18.3) 250 (76.2) 800 (243.8)
10 (254) 1000 75 (22.9) 125 (38) 1000 (304.8)
10 (254) 2500 50 (15.2) 100 (30.5) 500 (152.4)
10 (254) 3800 30 (9.1) 80 (27.8) 350 (106.7)
10 (254) 5600 25 (7.6) 60 (18.3) 250 (76.2)
43 Chapter 3 Vents and Venting
in a one-story building or on the top floor of a
building, provided each fixture drain connects
independently to the stack, and the water closet
and bathtub or shower-stall drain enters the
stack at the same level and in accordance with
trap-arm requirements.
When a sink or combination fixture connects
to the stack-vented bathroom group and when
the street sewer is sufficiently overloaded to cause
frequent submersion of the building sewer, a
relief vent or back-vented fixture shall be con-
nected to the stack below the stack-vented water
closet or bathtub.
Wet Venting
If allowed by local codes, a single-bathroom group
of fixtures may be installed with a drain from a
back-vented lavatory, kitchen sink, or combina-
tion fixture serving as a wet vent for a bathtub
or shower stall and for the water closet, provided
that:
1. Not more than one fixture unit is drained into
a 1-in. (38-mm) diameter wet vent or not
more than four fixture units drain into a 2-in.
(51-mm) diameter wet vent.
2. The horizontal branch connects to the stack
at the same level as the water-closet drain or
below the water-closet drain when installed
on the top floor.
Bathroom groups consisting of two lavato-
ries and two bathtubs or shower stalls back to
back on a top floor may be installed on the same
horizontal branch with a common vent for the
lavatories and with no back vent for the bath-
tubs or shower stalls and for the water closets,
provided the wet vent is 2 in. (51 mm) in diam-
eter and the length of the fixture drain conforms
to Table 3-2.
On the lower floors of a multistory building,
the waste pipe from one or two lavatories may
be used as a wet vent for one or two bathtubs or
showers, provided that:
1. The wet vent and its extension to the vent
stack is 2 in. (51 mm) in diameter.
2. Each water closet below the top floor is in-
dividually back-vented.
3. The vent stack is sized as shown in Table 3-6.
Table 3-6 Size of Vent Stacks
Diam. of Vent Stacks
No. of Wet-Vented Fixtures in. mm
1 or 2 bathtubs or showers 2 50.8
35 bathtubs or showers 2 63.5
69 bathtubs or showers 3 76.2
1016 bathtubs or showers 4 101.6
Circuit and Loop Venting
A branch soil or waste pipe to which two but not
more than eight water closets (except blowout
type), pedestal urinals, trap standard to floor,
shower stalls, or floor drains are connected in
battery may be vented by a circuit or loop vent
which takes off in front of the last fixture con-
nection. In addition, lower-floor branches serving
more than three water closets shall be provided
with a relief vent taken off in front of the first
fixture connection. When lavatories or similar
fixtures discharge above such branches, each
vertical branch shall be provided with a continu-
ous vent.
Figure 3-3 represents a typical loop-vented,
water-closet row installed on the top floor of a
building or in a one-story building. Figure 3-3(a)
shows the horizontal branch installed at the back
below the water closet. Figure 3-3(b) is the same
toilet room, except that the horizontal branch is
directly under the water closets.
Figure 3-4 illustrates a toilet arrangement
similar to that shown in Figure 3-3 except that
the installation applies to a multistory building.
A circuit vent is similar to a loop vent except
that a circuit vent connects into the vent stack.
When the circuit, loop, or relief vent connec-
tions are taken off the horizontal branch, the
vent branch connection shall be taken off at a
vertical angle or from the top of the horizontal
branch.
In sizing, the diameter of a circuit or loop
vent shall be made not less than the size of the
diameter of the vent stack, or one half the size of
the diameter of the horizontal soil or waste
branch, whichever is smaller.
When fixtures are connected to one horizon-
tal branch through a double wye or a sanitary
tee in a vertical position, a common vent for each
two fixtures back to back with a double connec-
ASPE Data Book Volume 2 44
tion shall be provided. The common vent shall
be installed in a vertical position as a continua-
tion of the double connection.
Relief Vents
Soil and waste stacks in buildings having more
than ten branch intervals shall be provided with
a relief vent at each tenth interval installed, be-
ginning with the top floor. The size of the relief
vent shall be equal to the size of the vent stack
to which it connects. The lower end of each relief
vent shall connect to the soil or waste stack
through a wye below the horizontal branch serv-
ing the floor, and the upper end shall connect to
the vent stack through a wye not less than 3 ft
(0.9 m) above the floor level.
In order to balance the pressures that are
constantly changing within the plumbing sys-
tem, it is necessary to provide a relief vent at
various intervals, particularly in multistory build-
ings. Figure 3-5 illustrates important
requirements for the installation of a relief vent.
Offset
An offset in a run of piping consists of a combi-
nation of elbows or bends that brings one section
of the pipe out of line but into a line approxi-
mately parallel with the other section. The offset
distance can be estimated according to the fol-
lowing:
Pipe Size, Horizontal Offset,
in. (mm) in. (mm)
2 (51) 5 (127)
3 (76) 7 (177)
4 (101) 10 (254)
5 (127) 12 (303)
6 (152) 14 (354)
8 (203) 18 (455)
Offsets less than 45 from the horizontal in
a soil or waste stack shall comply with the fol-
lowing:
1. Offsets may be vented as two separate soil
or waste stacks, namely, the stack section
below the offset and the stack section above
the offset.
2. Offsets may be vented by installing a relief
vent as a vertical continuation of the lower
section of the stack or as a side vent con-
nected to the lower section between the offset
and the next lower fixture or horizontal
Figure 3-3 Loop Vent, with Horizontal
Branch Located (a) at Back Below Water
Closets, (b) Directly Under Water Closets.
Figure 3-4 Circuit Vent
45 Chapter 3 Vents and Venting
branch. The upper section of the offset shall
be provided with a yoke vent. The diameter
of the vents shall be not less than the diam-
eter of the main vent or of the soil and waste
stack, whichever is smaller.
Figure 3-6 illustrates the requirements for
installation.
Vent Headers
Stack vents and vent stacks may be connected
into a common vent header at the top of the
stacks and then extended to the open air at one
point. This header shall be sized in accordance
with the requirements of Table 3-5, the number
of units being the sum of all units on all stacks
connected thereto, and the developed length be-
ing the longest vent length from the intersection
at the base of the most distant stack to the vent
terminal in the open air as a direct extension of
one stack.
Combination Waste and Vent Systems
These are horizontal wet-vented systems. They
are used where walls are not available for vents.
They depend on oversized drainage pipes to pre-
vent loss of trap seal. Surge loads are not allowed.
Figure 3-5 Relief Vent
ASPE Data Book Volume 2 46
Grease-producing fixtures are not allowed, as
scouring action is poor. They are used primarily
for extended floor or shower-drain installations,
for floor sinks for markets or restaurants, and
for worktables in schools. See Figure 3-7. Some
codes also allow sinks and lavatories to be in-
stalled with this type of system. Check the local
code for requirements.
SECTION II
SEVERAL VENTING SYSTEMS
Philadelphia System
Philadelphia or one pipe system refers to using
one stack instead of having separate drainage
and vent stacks. These systems depend on re-
lieving the pressures by making the pipe larger
than required for drainage pipe in a two-pipe
system. These systems also use unvented traps
(s traps) that depend on oversized traps and
refill from flat bottom fixtures to maintain the
trap seal.
This system limits the trap arm length to re-
duce suction buildup. The size of the main stack
is increased to limit pressure and vacuum build-
up. See Figure 3-8. Check with the local authorities
to see if this system is allowed. Contact the City of
Philadelphia for specific requirements.
Sovent System
The performance of the sovent plumbing system
is based mainly on the aerator, which is required
on each floor level, and the deaerator at the base
of the stack. The aerator provides an offset and
entrance chamber to divert the main flow around
the branch inlet and permit a gradual mixing of
the branch flow with the main stack flow. These
fittings limit the velocity of both liquid waste and
air in the stack and create minimum turbulence
inside the fitting chamber. The resulting air flow
and associated pressure fluctuation are there-
fore less. The deaerator installed at the base and
at every change of direction of the stack from
vertical to horizontal acts to separate the air flow
from the fixture in the stack, ensuring the smooth
Figure 3-6 Offset
47 Chapter 3 Vents and Venting
entry of liquid into the building drain and reliev-
ing the positive pressure generated in the stacks
base. It is obvious that these fittings balance
positive and negative pressure at or near zero
throughout the entire system under conditions
of normal usage.
Stack Venting
In stack venting the fixtures are connected in-
dependently through their fixture drains to the
drainage stack without any venting other than
what is afforded through the stack and stack
vent. Since no back venting is used when the
fixtures are stack vented, economy of installa-
tion is achieved.
However, with this type of venting, certain
precautions must be observed if the trap seals
of the stack-vented fixtures are not to be depleted
excessively by the pneumatic-pressure variations
within the stack. One precaution that must be
observed is to connect the fixtures on the floor
in question to the stack in the proper order ver-
tically upward. They should be connected in order
of decreasing rate of discharge in the upward
direction. Thus the lavatory drain should be the
drain that is highest on the stack. The reason
Figure 3-7 Combination Waste-and-Vent System
ASPE Data Book Volume 2 48
Figure 3-8 Philadelphia System
49 Chapter 3 Vents and Venting
for this is that the discharge of a fixture drain
into the stack causes pressure reduction for some
distance below the point of entry, and this pres-
sure reduction is greater the greater the rate of
discharge. (See Figure 3-9.)
Another precaution that is observed in the
United States is to permit stack venting only in
single-story structures or on the top floor of
multistory buildings.
It should be noted, however, that the British
have installed some systems with stack venting
on every floor of multistory buildings and report
that it is working satisfactorily.
Wet Venting
A wet vent is one that vents a particular fix-
ture and at the same time receives the discharge
from other fixtures (see Figure 3-9). In practice,
such a vent receives the discharge only from low-
rate fixtures, such as lavatories, sinks, etc., never
from a water closet or from a number of fixtures.
The principal object of using wet vents is to
reduce the vent piping required for a given in-
stallation by making individual pipes serve two
purposes. Because wet venting simplifies the
drainage system and thereby decreases the cost
of installation, there is an increasing tendency
among code-writing authorities to permit its use
under suitable restrictions that are necessary to
prevent excessive trap seal losses.
Dr. R. Hunter, at the National Bureau of
Standards, conducted tests on wet venting and
reported the results in Recommended Minimum
Requirements for Plumbing in Dwellings and Simi-
lar Buildings. He pointed out that, under certain
conditions, wet venting could be used without
danger of reducing trap seals excessively. In a
later publication he indicated that bathroom
fixtures back to back can be wet vented satisfac-
torily, provided the bathtub drains between the
wet vent and the bathtub trap are laid on a uni-
form slope and otherwise comply with the
conditions necessary to prevent excessive self-
siphonage.
Reduced-Size Venting
In 1972, a laboratory study of one-story and split-
level experimental drainage systems where the
vents varied from one to six pipe sizes smaller
than those presently specified by codes showed
satisfactory hydraulic and pneumatic perfor-
Figure 3-9 Wet Venting and
Stack Venting
mance under various loading conditions (National
Bureau of Standards 1974). At the same time,
the ten-story wet-vent system in Stevenss Build-
ing Technology Research Laboratory had been
modified by reducing the vents one to three pipe
sizes in accordance with plans and specifications
furnished by the National Bureau of Standards
(NBS) and the conducting of a series of tests
under various loading conditions. Based on the
test loads imposed, the reduced-size vents
selected for use in this study appear to be ad-
equate with regard to trap-seal retention and
blow-back for a ten-story building (Stevens In-
stitute of Technology 1973). In 1976, a report
described the experimental findings of tests on a
full-scale, two-story plumbing system with re-
duced-size vents under a range of operating
conditions including having the vent terminals
closed and the building drain submerged. Re-
sults indicate that dry-vent piping in one and
two-story housing units can safely be made
smaller than presently allowed by design with-
out jeopardizing the trap seals.
ASPE Data Book Volume 2 50
SECTION III
SIZING OF SEVERAL VENTING
SYSTEMS
Reduced-Size Venting Design
This system may allow economies in venting de-
sign in low-rise residential buildings. It is similar
to traditional codes, but allows smaller size vents.
It is limited to special conditions and requires
that vent pipes not be restricted by products of
corrosion.
General limitations Reduced-size venting is lim-
ited to water fall from the highest fixture to the
building drain or its horizontal branches of 15 ft
(4.6 m) for residential occupancies and residen-
tial-type fixtures. Reduced-size vents must be of
corrosion-resistant materials, such as copper or
plastic; must slope to the drain; must not be lo-
cated where a stoppage could cause waste to back
up into them (e.g., a single-compartment sink with
a garbage disposer that could pump waste into
the vent pipe in the event of stoppage below the
vent); must not be installed within 1 ft (0.5 m)
developed length from a clothes-washer trap arm;
and must be independent of other systems. (Ex-
ception: The drains from these systems may
connect to any other system in gravity-flow build-
ing sewers.) Fixture and stack vents are traditional
sizes up to at least 6 in. (152 mm) above the flood
Table 3-7 Fixture Unit Loads
Fixture Fixture Units
Bathtub or shower 2
Clothes washer 3
Dish washer 2
Floor drain 3
Laundry tray 2
Lavatory 1
Sink (including dishwasher and
garbage disposer) 3
Water closet (tank type) 4
Table 3-8 Fixture Vents and Stack Vents
Elevation of Trap Centerline, Arm above Load Served by Vent Nominal Size of Fixture
Type of Vent Centerline of Its Horizontal Drain, ft (m) (fixture units) or Stack Vent, in. (mm)
Fixture vent for one trap Up to 8 (2.4) 3 or less (12.7)
a
4 (19)
a
816 (2.44.9) 3 or less (19)
4 1 (25.4)
Fixture vent for two traps Up to 8 (2.4) 3 or less (19)
a
46 1 (25.4)
7 and 8 1 (32)
816 (2.44.9) 6 or less 1 (25.4)
7 and 8 1 (32)
Stack vent Up to 8 (2.4) 6 or less 1 (25.4)
715 1 (32)
1629 1 (38)
816 (2.44.9) 6 or less 1 (32)
715 1 (38)
1629 2 (51)
a
Increase one pipe size for two-story systems.
level rim of the fixture served. An arterial vent is
installed for systems with more than one floor of
fixtures (the drainage piping between the arterial
vent and the street sewer is at least the same size
as the arterial vent). Vents that are subject to
freezing are of traditional size; vent terminals are
screened (free openings are at least 150% of the
required flow area and openings face down); and
drainage pipes are the size required by traditional
codes. Always consult with the local plumbing
code enforcement agency or other governmental
department having jurisdiction before designing
the system to be sure this sizing method is ac-
ceptable under the applicable code.
51 Chapter 3 Vents and Venting
Table 3-10 Confluent Vents Serving Four or More Fixture or Stack Vents, Schedule 40 Pipe
Size of Largest
Nominal Size of Confluent Vent, in. (mm)
Vent Served,
1 (25.4) 1 (31) 1 (38) 2(51) 2 (63) 3(76) 4 (101)
in. (mm) Total Flow Area of Vents Served, in
2
(10
3
mm
2
)
(12.7) 1.22.5 2.57.5 7.514
(0.81.6) (1.64.8) (4.89.0)
(19) 1.44.2 4.27.9 7.9 21
(0.92.7) (2.75.1) (5.113.6)
1 (25.4) 1.82.6 2.64.8 4.813 1327
(1.21.7) (1.73.1) (3.18.4) (8.417.4)
1 (31) 2.42.8 2.86.7 6.715 1536
(1.61.8) (1.84.3) (4.39.7) (9.723.2)
1 (38) 2.95.5 5.511 1127 27 to 79
(1.93.6) (3.67.1) (7.117.4) (17.4 to 51.0)
2 (51) 3.86.8 6.816 16 to 48
(2.54.4) (4.410.3) (10.3 to 31.0)
2 (63) 5.711 to 34
(3.77.1) (7.1 to 21.9)
3 (76) 8.3 to 22
(5.4 to 14.2)
Table 3-9 Confluent Vents Serving
Three Fixture or Stack Vents
Nominal Size of Fixture or Stack Vent, Nominal Size of
in. (mm) Confluent Vent,
Largest Next to Largest Smallest in (mm.)
(12.7) (12.7) (12.7) (19)
(19) (19)
a
(19)
a
1 (25.4)
1 (25.4) 1 (25.4)
a
(19)
a
1 (31)
1 (25.4) 1 (25.4) 1 (25.4) 1 (38)
1 (31) (19)
a
(19)
a
1 (38)
1 (31) 1 (25.4) (12.7) 1 (38)
1 (31) 1 (25.4) (19) 2 (51)
1 (31) 1 (31) (12.7) 1 (38)
1 (31) 1 (31) (19) 2 (51)
1 (38) 1 (31)
a
1 (31)
a
2 (51)
1 (38) 1 (38) 1 (25.4)
a
2 (51)
1 (38) 1 (38) 1 (31) 3 (76)
a
Or smaller.
Sizing procedure The following steps should
be followed in the design of reduced-size vent-
ing:
1. Prepare a pipe layout drawing.
2. Determine the fixture units for each fixture
vent and each stack vent using Table 3-7.
3. Size fixture and stack vents using Table 3-8.
4. Size confluent vents, beginning at the vents
farthest from their termination.
A. When a confluent vent serves two fixture
vents, two stack vents, or one fixture vent
and one stack vent, make the confluent
vent one pipe size larger than the vents
served.
B. When a confluent vent serves any com-
bination of three fixture vents and stack
vents, size the confluent vent using Table
3-9.
C. When a confluent vent serves any com-
bination of four or more fixture and stack
vents, size the confluent vent using Table
3-10 or 3-11. For flow areas of pipe and
tube, use Table 3-12.
ASPE Data Book Volume 2 52
5. When a vent is longer than 25 ft (7.6 m) de-
veloped length between the trap arm and the
roof termination, increase the vent one pipe
size over its entire length.
6. When serving more than one floor level of
fixtures, provide an arterial vent, connected
to the largest drain and near the building
sewer. Size the arterial vent using Table 3-
13. The arterial vent may also serve as a
confluent vent and fixture vent. Increase the
connecting drain size to equal the arterial
vent size to vent the system properly.
7. When a portion of the vent is subject to freez-
ing, increase that portion to the traditional
size.
Installation The design engineer should explain
the special requirements of the reduced-size vent-
ing method to the installer, who may be
unfamiliar with them. More detailed drawings
may be necessary to describe the system com-
pletely. The engineer should make regular
inspections to be sure that the design conditions
are met in the field. Also, the owner should be
given copies of the plumbing drawings for per-
manent records so that future additions can be
properly sized.
Table 3-12 Flow Areas of Pipe and Tube,
in
2
(10
3
mm
2
)
Nominal
Size, Schedule
Copper Tube
in. (mm) 40 Pipe Type M Type DWV
(12.7) 0.3 (0.2) 0.25 (0.2)
(19) 0.53 (0.3) 0.52 (0.3)
1 (25.4) 0.86 (0.6) 0.87 (0.6)
1 (31) 1.5 (1.0) 1.32 (0.9)
1 (38) 2.04 (1.3) 1.87 (1.2)
2 (51) 3.36 (2.2) 3.27 (2.1)
2 (63) 4.79 (3.1)
3 (76) 7.39 (4.8) 7.24 (4.7)
4 (101) 12.7 (8.2) 12.6 (8.1)
Table 3-13 Arterial Vents
Load on System Length of Arterial Nominal Size of
(fixture units) Vent, ft (m) Arterial Vent, in. (mm)
10 or less 36 (11) or less 1 (38)
over 36 (11) to 120 (36.6) 2 (51)
1130 30 (9.1) or less 1 (38)
over 30 (9.1) to 100 (30.5) 2 (51)
Table 3-11 Confluent Vents Serving Four or More Fixture or Stack Vents, Copper Tube
Size of
Nominal Size of Confluent Vent, in. (mm)
Largest
Type M Type DWV
Vent Served,
(19) 1 (25.4) 1 (31) 1 (38) 2 (51) 3 (76) 4 (101)
in. (mm) Total Flow Area of Vents Served, in
2
(10
3
mm
2
)
(12.7) 1.01.1 1.13.0 3.07.0 7.014
(0.60.7) (0.71.9) (1.94.5) (4.59.0)
(19) 1.31.5 1.53.4 3.46.7 6.721
(0.81.0) (1.02.2) (2.24.3) (4.313.6)
1 (25.4) 1.62.0 2.04.0 4.012 1260
(1.01.3) (1.32.6) (2.67.7) (7.738.7)
1 (31) 2.12.7 2.78.1 8.140 40120
(1.41.7) (1.75.2) (5.225.8) (25.877.4)
1 (38) 2.65.7 5.728 2885
(1.73.7) (3.718.1) (18.154.8)
2 (51) 4.116 1649
(2.710.3) (10.331.6)
3 (76) 822
(5.214.2)
53 Chapter 3 Vents and Venting
Example. The following design example illustrates the reduced-size venting method:
Conditions. Two-story residential building, freezing climate, Schedule 40 plastic vents.
Step 1. Prepare a pipe layout. See Figure 3-10.
Step 2. Determine fixture and stack vent sizes by using Table 3-8.
Number of Elevation, Load (from Table 3-7) Size,
Vent Pipe Fixture Traps Vent Stack ft (m) (fixture units) in. (mm)
1 1 no 5 (1.5) 3 (12.7)
2 2 no 5 (1.5) 5 1 (25.4)
3 2 yes 15 (4.6) 5 1 (31)
4 3 yes 15 (4.6) 7 1 (38)
5 1 no 4 (1.2) 3 (12.7)
Step 3. Determine confluent vent size.
Sizes, Area (from Table 3-12), Size,
Vent Pipe Number in. (mm) in
2
(mm
2
) in. (mm)
20 2 1, 1 (25.4, 25.4) (vents 1 & 2) 1 (31) (one size over 1)
21 3 1, 1, 1 (31, 25.4, 25.4) (vents 1, 2, and 3) 2 (51) (from Table 3-10)
22 4 1 (25.4) (vent 1) 0.86 (0.6) 2 (51) (from Table 3-10)
1 (25.4) (vent 2) 0.86 (0.6)
1 (31) (vent 3) 1.5 (1.0)
1 (38) (vent 4) 2.04 (1.3)
Step 4. No vent is longer than 25 ft (7.6 m); therefore, no increase is necessary.
Step 5. Determine arterial vent size from Table 3-13.
Vent Pipe Load (fixture units) Length, ft (m) Size, in. (mm)
4, 22, and 23 23 5 (1.5) 1 (38)
Step 6. Increase all vents that are subject to freezing conditions to traditional sizes.
Vent Pipe Load (fixture units) Length ft, (m) Size, in. (mm)
22 23 4 (1.4) 2 (51)
a
23 23 1 (0.5) 3 (76)
b
a
Traditional size.
b
Size required to prevent frost closure.
Vent 22 was 2 in. (51 mm), Step 3.
Vent 23 (extension of vent 22) should be increased from 2 in. (51 mm), Step 4, to 3 in. (76 mm).
Increase bathtub drain to 2 in. (51 mm).
ASPE Data Book Volume 2 54
Sovent Systems
The sovent system is a single-stack system that
may allow economies in drainage and vent
systems. There are no limits to heights or occu-
pancies, but there are special design rules. The
effects of excess suds should be considered.
Always consult with the local plumbing code
enforcement agency or other governmental de-
partment having jurisdiction before designing the
system to make sure this system is acceptable
under the local code.
The sovent system has four parts: a drain,
waste, and vent (DWV) stack; a sovent aerator
fitting at each floor level; DWV horizontal
branches; and a sovent deaerator fitting at the
base of the stack. The two special fittings, the
aerator and the deaerator, are the basis for the
self-venting features of the sovent system. Soil
stack and vent combine into a single sovent
stack. Figure 3-11 illustrates a typical sovent
single-stack plumbing system and a traditional
two-pipe system.
Aerator fittings The sovent system aerator fit-
ting consists of an offset at the upper stack inlet
connection, a mixing chamber, one or more
branch inlets, one or more waste inlets for the
connection of smaller waste branches, a baffle
Figure 3-10 Pipe Layout Drawing Two-Story Residential Building,
Freezing Climate, Schedule 40 Plastic Vents
55 Chapter 3 Vents and Venting
(A) (B)
Figure 3-11 (A) Traditional Two-Pipe Plumbing System;
(B) Typical Sovent Single-Stack Plumbing System.
ASPE Data Book Volume 2 56
Figure 3-12 Typical
Sovent System Aerator Fitting
is designed to overcome the tendency of the fall-
ing waste to build up excessive back pressure at
the bottom of the stack when the flow is deceler-
ated by the bend into the horizontal drain. The
deaerator provides a method of separating air
from system flow and equalizing pressure build-
ups. The configuration of the deaerator fitting
causes part of the air falling with the liquid and
solid in the stack to be ejected through the pres-
sure relief line to the top of the building drain
while the balance goes into the drain with the
soil and waste.
in the center of the chamber with an aperture
between it and the top of the fitting, and the stack
outlet at the bottom of the fitting. The aerator
fitting provides a chamber where the flow of soil
and waste from horizontal branches can unite
smoothly with the air and liquid already flowing
in the stack.
The aerator fitting performs this function ef-
ficiently so that no plug of water forms across
the stack to cause pressure and vacuum fluc-
tuations that could blow or siphon fixture trap
seals. The aerator also slows the flow down the
stack at each floor level.
Aerator fittings are installed in the sovent
system at every floor level, where there is a soil
branch or where there is no soil branch but a
waste branch equal in diameter to, or one size
smaller than, the stack. At a floor level where
the aerator fitting is not needed (e.g., on a 4-in.
[101-mm] stack where there is no soil branch
and only a 2-in. [51-mm] waste branch enters),
a double in-line offset is used in place of the aera-
tor fitting. This offset reduces the vertical velocity
in the stack between floor intervals in a manner
similar to the aerator fitting (see Figure 3-12).
Deaerator fittings The sovent system deaerator
fitting consists of an air separation chamber
having an internal nose piece, a stack inlet, a
pressure-relief outlet at the top, and a stack out-
let at the bottom. (See Figure 3-13.) The deaerator
fitting at the bottom of the stack functions in
combination with the aerator fittings above to
make the single stack self venting. The deaerator
Figure 3-13 Typical
Sovent System Deaerator
57 Chapter 3 Vents and Venting
Sizing procedure The following steps should
be followed in the design of this system:
1. Prepare a layout drawing.
2. Determine the loading on each section of pipe.
3. Size the stack.
4. Size the branches.
5. Select the fittings above the building drain.
6. Design the connections to the building drain.
7. Size the building drain.
(For additional illustrations of requirements,
see Copper Development Association listing in
References.)
Stack The stack must be carried full size
through the roof to the atmosphere. Two stacks
can be tied together at the top, above the highest
fixture, with only one stack extending through
the roof. If the distance between the two stacks is
20 ft (6.1 m) or less, the horizontal line that ties
the two verticals together, pitched at in./ft (20.8
mm/m), can be the same diameter as the stack
that terminates below the roof level. If the dis-
tance is greater than 20 ft (6.1 m), the line must
be one size larger than the terminated stack. An
inverted long-turn fitting is used at the junction.
The common stack extending through the roof
must be one pipe size larger than the size of the
larger stack below the tie line.
An aerator fitting is required at each level
where one of the following horizontal branches
enters the sovent stack: (1) a soil branch, (2) a
waste branch the same size as the sovent stack,
or (3) a waste branch one DWV tube size smaller
than the sovent stack. A 2-in. (51-mm) horizon-
tal waste branch may be entered directly into a
4-in. (101-mm) sovent soil stack. At any floor level
where an aerator fitting is not required, a double
in-line offset is built into the stack at the nominal
floor interval. This maintains the lowered fall rate
of the sovent system within the stack.
The size of the stack is determined by the num-
ber of fixture units connected, as with traditional
sanitary systems. (See Tables 3-14 and 3-15.)
Branches The starting point in sizing the hori-
zontal soil and waste branches is to determine
the fixture-unit loading based on the various fix-
tures and appliances in the system design.
According to traditional practice, the maximum
number of fixture-units that may be connected
to branches and branch arms of various sizes is
shown in Table 3-14. Tailpiece, trap, trap arm,
and branch sizes for the individual fixture con-
nections are shown in Table 3-16 (see Figures
3-14 and 3-15).
Figure 3-14 Sovent System Branches
ASPE Data Book Volume 2 58
Table 3-14 Fixture Unit Loads
Fixture-Unit Value Minimum Size of
Fixture Type as Load Factor Trap, in. (mm)
1 bathroom group (water closet, lavatory, and bath tub or shower stall) . Tank-type closet 6
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Flush-valve closet 8
Bathtub
a
(with or without overhead shower) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1 (38)
Bathtub
a
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2 (51)
Bidet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Nominal 1 (38)
Combination sink and tray . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1 (38)
Combination sink and tray with food-disposal unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Separate 1 (38) traps
Dental unit or cuspidor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 (31)
Dental lavatory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 (31)
Drinking fountain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 (25.4)
Dishwasher,
b
domestic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1 (38)
Floor drains
c
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 (51)
Kitchen sink, domestic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1 (38)
Kitchen sink, domestic, with food-disposal unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1 (38)
Lavatory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 (31)
Lavatory, barber, beauty parlor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1 (38)
Lavatory, surgeons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1 (38)
Laundry tray (1 or 2 compartments) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1 (38)
Shower stall, domestic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 2 (51)
Showers (group) per head . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Sinks
Surgeons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1 (38)
Flushing rim (with valve) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 3 (76)
Service (trap standard) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 3 (76)
Service (P trap) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 2 (51)
Pot, scullery etc.
b
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1 (38)
Urinal, pedestal, syphon, jet, blowout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Nominal 3 (76)
Urinal, wall lip . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1 (38)
Urinal stall, washout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2 (51)
Urinal trough
b
(each 2-ft section) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1 (38)
Wash sink
b
(circular or multiple, each set of faucets) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Nominal 1 (38)
Water closet
Tank-operated . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Nominal 3 (76)
Valve-operated . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 3 (76)
a
A shower head over a bathtub does not increase the fixture value.
b
See following note for method of computing unit value of fixtures.
c
Size of floor drain shall be determined by the area of surface water to be drained.
Table 3-14 Fixture Unit Loads (contd)
Note: Fixtures not listed in the above table shall be estimated
as follows:
Fixture Drain or Trap Size,
in. (mm) Fixture-Unit Value
1 (32) and smaller 1
1 (38) 2
2 (51) 3
2 (63) 4
3 (76) 5
4 (101) 6
Table 3-15 Maximum Fixture Units
Branch
Size, Fixture
in. (mm) Units Exception
2 (51) 6
a
No 6-unit fixtures or traps
3 (76) 35 Only two 6-unit fixtures or traps
4 (101) 180
a
4, if simultaneous discharge of more than 4 fu is probable.
59 Chapter 3 Vents and Venting
Branch sizes must be increased over the sizes
shown in Tables 3-15 and 3-16 under the fol-
lowing conditions:
1. A second vertical drop downstream from a trap
arm or any vertical drop of more than 3 ft (0.9
m) requires an increase of one pipe size at the
Table 3-16 Size Rules for
Connecting Fixtures into the Sovent
Single-Stack Drainage Plumbing System
Tailpiece, Trap, Trap Arm, Branch,
in. (mm) in. (mm) in. (mm) in. (mm)
1 (31) 1 (31) 1 (38) 2 (51)
1 (31) 1 (38) 2 (51) 2 (51)
1 (38) 1 (38) 2 (51) 2 (51)
2 (51) 2 (51) 3 (76)
a
3 (76)
Note: Diameter is shown for each permitted combination of ele-
ments.
a
2 in. (51 mm) for stall shower, floor drain, or automatic washing
machine standpipe drain.
Figure 3-15 Soil and Waste Branches Connected into a Horizontal Stack Offset.
Waste Branches Connected into the Pressure-Relief Line.
downstream side of the fitting at the begin-
ning of the vertical drop in question.
2. When three 90 changes in direction (using
90 elbows or similar one-diameter radius
turns) occur in a horizontal branch, it must
be increased one pipe size at the upstream
side of the third 90 change in direction. If a
90 change in direction in the horizontal can
be made with two 45 elbow fittings, or with
an extra long-term elbow (more than one and
one half diameter radius), this rule does not
apply.
3. When a branch serves two water closets and
one or more additional fixtures, the soil line
must be increased to 4 in. (101 mm). Start-
ing at the most remote fixture and moving
toward the stack, the branch size is increased
to 4 in. (101 mm) at the point where it has
picked up one water closet and one additional
fixture closer to the stack.
4. When a soil branch exceeds 12 ft (3.7 m) in
horizontal length, it should be increased one
pipe size.
ASPE Data Book Volume 2 60
5. When a waste branch exceeds 15 ft (4.6 m)
in horizontal length, it should be increased
one pipe size.
Note: It is best to install a secondary pressure-
equalizing line when the horizontal length
exceeds 27 ft (8.2 m) in cases (4) and (5)
above.
Fittings An aerator fitting is required at each
level where one of the following horizontal
branches enters the sovent stack: (1) a soil
branch, (2) a waste branch the same size as the
sovent stack, or (3) a waste branch one DWV
tube size smaller than the sovent stack. A 2-in.
(51-mm) horizontal waste branch may be entered
directly into a 4-in. (101-mm) sovent soil stack.
At a floor level where the aerator fitting is
not needed (e.g., on a 4-in. [101-mm] stack where
there is no soil branch and only a 2-in. [51-mm]
waste branch enters), a double in-line offset is
used in place of the aerator fitting.
At the deaerator outlet, the stack is connected
into the horizontal drain through a long-turn fit-
ting arrangement. Downstream, at least 4 ft (1.2
m) from this point, the pressure relief line from
the top of the deaerator fitting is connected into
the top of the building drain. A deaerator fitting,
with its pressure-relief line connection, is in-
stalled in this way at the base of every sovent
stack and also at every offset (vertical-horizon-
tal-vertical) in a stack. In the latter case, the
pressure-relief line is tied into the stack imme-
diately below the horizontal portion.
Waste branches at least one pipe size smaller
than the stack may be led directly into the sovent
aerator fitting through a waste entry. Smaller
waste branches may be led directly into a stack
fitting.
Where there is an offset (vertical-horizontal-
vertical) in the stack, a deaerator fitting, with its
pressure-relief line, must be installed. This elimi-
nates the need for a deaerator fitting at the base
of the stack if no branches enter the stack below
the stack offset and provided that double in-line
offsets occur at every nominal floor interval. At
a stack offset of less than 60 with the vertical
no deaerator fitting is needed.
The following must be observed with regard
to fittings in sovent systems:
Connection DWV Fitting
From trap arm to upper Single 90 elbow; for two
vertical branch terminal lavatories double elbow
(short turn); for two sinks
90 elbow plus a 45 elbow
From vertical branch to Long turn T-Y, 45 wye
horizontal branch and 45 or 90 elbow
(exception: soil branches
require long turn 90
elbows for all 90
changes in direction)
From horizontal branch Single 90 elbow or
to vertical branch double elbow
From horizontal to 45 wye and 45 elbow,
horizontal (exception: long turn T-Y or 90 elbow
soil branches require long
turn 90 elbows for all
90 changes in direction)
From waste branch to stack Sanitary tee
From branch below the Long turn T-Y or a 45
deaerator fitting to stack, wye and a 45 elbow
to building drain, to
horizontal offset or to
pressure relief line
Pressure-equalizing lines As an alternative to
the sizing procedures previously outlined and
increasing the branch sizes, a pressure-equaliz-
ing line may be used. Where this is done, a 1-in.
(25.4-mm) or larger line is used to equalize the
pressure in the branch by connecting it from the
top of the discharge side of the trap to one of the
following locations:
1. The top of the sovent aerator, using a special
inlet in the top of the fitting.
2. The atmosphere, via a run that may also con-
nect with similar upper floor fixtures.
3. The stack, at least 3 ft (0.9 m) above the aera-
tor at that floor level or immediately below one
at a higher level, using a DWV tee fitting.
Of the three locations, the top of the aerator
is the preferred one. The minimum size of the
pressure-equalizing line depends on the branch
length, as shown in Table 3-17.
The three recommended vent connection points
are based on the formula of Prandtl-Colebrook
(drain half full, roughness K
b
= 0.04 in. [1.0 mm]).
Fixture units are according to Hunters curve for
peak load (NBS Monograph 31).
Building drain connections Each sovent
stack normally empties through a deaerator,
61 Chapter 3 Vents and Venting
which should be installed as close as possible to
the building drain.
The deaerator outlet is connected to the build-
ing drain through a long-turn 90 elbow (radius
of at least 1 diameter), through two 45 elbows
or wyes, or through a long-turn (more than 1
diameter) T-Y fitting. The relief line venting the
deaerator chamber into the horizontal drain
should be 3 in. (76 mm) and should be connected
into the top of the horizontal drain at least 4 ft
(1.2 m) downstream from the base of the stack.
Connection of the pressure-relief line into the
top of the building drain is through a 45 wye
fitting. (See Figures 3-16 and 3-17.)
The deaerator fitting may be installed at a
floor level above the base of the stack if design
conditions dictate and no fixtures are attached
into the stack below it. Where this is done, the
traditional rules for connecting the deaerator fit-
ting are followed; however, a longer relief line
will be required to reach the prescribed connec-
tion point in the horizontal drain. Double in-line
offsets must be installed in the stack at normal
floor intervals below the deaerator.
Two stacks may be combined before they en-
ter the building drain. The size of the continuing
common stack is determined by the total fixture
loading on the combined stacks. Fixtures may be
connected into the stack immediately below the
deaerator fitting and into the building drain be-
tween the base of the stack and the point where
the pressure-relief line ties into the building drain.
Fixtures may also be connected below a deaerator
fitting into a horizontal offset in a stack. Two-in.
(51-mm) waste branches may be connected into
the 3-in. (76-mm) deaerator pressure-relief line
by using a Y-branch fitting.
Table 3-17 Minimum Size of
Equalizing Line
Branch Length, Up to 8 Fixture 8353 Fixture
ft (m) Units, in. (mm) Units, in. (mm)
Up to 30 (up to 9.1) 1 (25.4) 1 (38)
3040 (9.112.2) 1 (31) 2 (51)
4050 (12.215.2) 1 (38) 2 (51)
Over 50 (over 15.2) 2 (51) 3 (76)
Figure 3-16 Soil and Waste Branches Connected below a
Deaerator Fitting at the Bottom of the Stack
ASPE Data Book Volume 2 62
Sovent fitting Two basic types of sovent aera-
tor fitting meet the needs of most stack designs:
the double-side-entry fitting and the single-side-
entry fitting. Face-entry fittings and top-entry
fittings are used in special cases. (See Figure
3-18.)
Branch inlets can be of any size to accom-
modate standard DWV tube. When using the
single-entry fitting, the inlet connections are
normally 3 in. (76 mm). When the double-side-
entry fitting is used, the branch inlet connections
may be 4 or 3 in. (101 or 76 mm), depending on
the branch loading. Branches under 3 in. (76
mm) in size can be connected into the aerator
fittings with 3 and 4-in. (76 and 101-mm) en-
tries by using appropriate reducer fittings.
Alternatively, fittings can be ordered to accom-
modate smaller branches. However, economical
design is more likely to dictate the use of fittings
with waste inlets to take smaller branches.
Consider a typical apartment-house, back-
to-back bathroom grouping, as shown in Plan A
of Figure 3-19, and assume a ten-story building.
Stack size will be 4 in. (101 mm). The branches
are sized and designed as follows:
1. The lavatories, with a trap arm size of 1 in.
(38 mm), are joined into a vertical waste
branch of 2-in. (51-mm) size, according to
Table 3-16. Since there is only one vertical
drop in the branch serving the lavatories, it
remains 2 in. (51 mm) all the way to the aera-
tor fitting waste inlet.
2. Water closets require a minimum soil-branch
size of 3 in. (76 mm). Since the branch serv-
ing the two water closets also serves an
additional fixture, it must be increased to 4
in. (101 mm) for entry into the aerator fitting.
An alternative design for the branches is
shown in Plan B of Figure 3-19, which assumes
that a drop ceiling is not possible and the four
bathrooms must be served by two 4-in. (101-mm)
stacks.
Installation The design engineer should explain
the special requirements of the sovent system to
the installer, who may be unfamiliar with them.
More detailed drawings may be necessary to de-
scribe the system completely. The engineer
should make regular inspections to be sure that
the design conditions are met in the field. Also,
the owner should be given copies of the plumb-
ing drawings for permanent records so that
future additions can be properly sized.
Figure 3-17 Deaerator Fitting Located
above Floor Level of Building Drain
(A) (B)
Figure 3-18 Sovent Fitting: (A) Single-Side
Entry (Without Waste Inlets); (B) Double-
Side Entry (with Waste Inlets)
63 Chapter 3 Vents and Venting
Table 3-18 Maximum Sovent
Stack Loadings
Stack Size, in. (mm) Maximum Fixture Units
3 (76) 64
a
4 (101) 500
5 (127) 1100
6 (152) 1900
a
Including no more than 8 water closets.
Table 3-19 Loadings for Building Drains
Drain
Suggested Maximum Fixture Units
Size,

&-in./ft -in./ft -in./ft
in. (mm) (12.5 cm/m) (25 cm/m) (50 cm/m)
Fall (1%) Fall (2%) Fall (4%)
4 (101) 36 100 200
5 (127) 150 350 650
6 (152) 430 850 1400
8 (203) 1700 2700 3900
Figure 3-19 Two Alternative Design Layouts for
Typical Back-to-Back Bathroom Arrangements
ASPE Data Book Volume 2 64
GLOSSARY
For the purposes of this chapter, the following
terms have the meanings indicated.
Air admittance valve This is a mechanical de-
vice that allows the introduction of air into the
venting system but prevents the discharge of air
from the venting system. It reduces the volume
of the venting system and may reduce the num-
ber of vents required to terminate to atmosphere.
This device can be used only when the system
experiences negative pressure fluctuations.
Battery of fixtures Any group of two or more
similar adjacent fixtures that discharge into a
common horizontal waste or soil branch.
Branch interval The distance along a soil or
waste stack, corresponding in general to a story
height but in no case less than 8 ft (2.4 m), within
which the horizontal branches from one floor or
story of a building are connected to the stack.
Building drain That part of the lowest piping
of a drainage system that receives discharges
from the soil, waste, and other drainage pipes
inside the walls of the building and conveys them
to the building sewer beginning 35 ft (11.5 m)
outside the building wall.
Circuit vent A branch vent that serves two or
more traps and extends from the downstream
side of the highest fixture connection of a hori-
zontal branch to the vent stack.
Combination waste-and-vent system A spe-
cially engineered system of waste piping
embodying the horizontal wet venting of one or
more sinks or floor drains by means of a com-
mon waste and vent pipe adequately sized to
provide free movement of air above the flow line
of the drain.
Common vent A vent connected at the com-
mon connection of two fixture drains and serving
as a vent for both fixtures.
Continuous vent A vertical vent that is a con-
tinuation of the drain to which it connects.
Drainage fixture unit (dfu or fu) A measure
of the probable discharge into the drainage sys-
tem by various types of plumbing fixture. The
drainage-fixture-unit value for a particular fix-
ture depends on its volume rate of drainage
discharge, on the duration of a single drainage
operation, and on the average time between suc-
cessive operations.
Horizontal branch drain A drain branch pipe
extending laterally from a soil or waste stack or
building drain, with or without vertical sections
or branches, that receives the discharge from
one or more fixture drains and conducts it to
the soil or waste stack or to the building drain.
Insanitary (unsanitary) A condition that is
contrary to sanitary principles or is injurious to
health.
Loop vent A circuit vent that loops back to con-
nect with a stack vent instead of a vent stack.
Offset A combination of elbows or bends that
brings one section of the pipe out of line but into
a line approximately parallel with the other sec-
tion.
Relief vent An auxiliary vent that permits ad-
ditional circulation of air in or between drainage
and vent systems.
Stack venting A method of venting a fixture
or fixtures through the soil or waste stack.
Trap arm That portion of a fixture drain be-
tween a trap and its vent.
Trap seal The maximum vertical depth of liq-
uid that a trap will retain, measured between
the crown weir and the top of the dip of the trap.
Vent stack A vertical vent pipe that is installed
to provide circulation of air to and from the drain-
age system and that extends through one or more
stories.
Vent stack terminal The vertical termination
point that normally extends up through the roof
of the building, thus venting to the atmosphere.
Wet vent A vent that receives the discharge of
wastes from sources other than water closets and
kitchen sinks.
65 Chapter 3 Vents and Venting
REFERENCES
1. American Society of Plumbing Engineers (ASPE)
Research Foundation. 1978. Reduced-size vent-
ing design, by E. Brownstein. Westlake Village,
CA.
2. Copper Development Association, Inc. Copper
sovent single-stack plumbing system handbook
supplement. New York.
3. Manas, Vincent T. 1957. National plumbing code
handbook. New York: McGraw-Hill.
4. National Association of Home Builders Research
Foundation. 1971. Performance of reduced-size
venting in residential drain, waste and vent sys-
tem. Report LR 210-17.
5. National Association of Plumbing-Heating-Cool-
ing Contractors and American Society of
Plumbing Engineers. 1973. National standard
plumbing code.
6. National Bureau of Standards. 1923. Recom-
mended minimum requirements for plumbing in
dwellings and similar buildings, by Dr. R. Hunter.
7. National Bureau of Standards. 1974. Laboratory
studies of the hydraulic performance of one-story
and split-level residential plumbing systems with
reduced-size vents, by R. S. Wyly, G. C. Sherlin,
and R. W. Beausoliel. Report no. BBS 49.
8. National Bureau of Standards. n.d. Monograph
no. 31.
9. Stevens Institute of Technology. 1973. An inves-
tigation of the adequacy of performance of
reduced-size vents installed on a ten-story drain,
waste and vent system, by T. K. Konen and T.
Jackson. Report SIT-DL-73-1708.
ASPE Data Book Volume 2 66
67 Chapter 4 Storm-Drainage Systems
Storm-
Drainage
Systems
4
GENERAL DESIGN
CONSIDERATIONS FOR BUILDINGS
AND SITES
Storm-drainage systems convey rainwater from
buildings, surface runoff from all types of pre-
cipitation, ground water, and subsurface water.
The drainage may include rainwater from park-
ing lots, roadways, roofs of structures, and un-
developed areas of a site.
Depending on the approval of the local ad-
ministrative authority, some clear-water wastes,
such as condensate from HVAC units, untreated
cooling-tower water, ice-machine discharge, and
pond overflow, may be allowed to be conducted
to the storm-drainage system. These discharges
must exclude any chemicals or sanitary flow.
If any oils are directed to the storm system,
an oil separator must be provided to separate
the oils prior to discharge to a public storm sys-
tem. The local authority must approve all drain-
age plans, including detention and outfall
structures, and must issue permits.
Building sites should be provided with a
means for draining water from roofs, paved ar-
eas, areaways, yards, and all other areas where
the collection or uncontrolled flow of rainwater
could cause damage to a building, overload local
streams, or present a hazard to the public. The
storm-drainage systems should provide a con-
duit or channel from the point of collection to an
approved point of disposal, usually a public storm
sewer system or drainage canals.
If the building storm-drainage system is at a
lower elevation than the public storm sewer sys-
tem, not allowing for gravity drainage, the drain-
age must be pumped. When a public means of
disposal is not available, the discharge should
be directed to a safe point of disposal as approved
by the jurisdictional authority for storm-water
control.
The storm sewer should be separate from the
sanitary sewer system unless there is an ap-
proved combined storm/sanitary sewer system
available. Such systems have become a rarity
because of the additional loads imposed on the
municipal sewage disposal plants; also, overflow
could cause direct contamination of the local
streams and waterways. Federal government
regulations prohibit the use of combined sewers
for any public system that receives federal fund-
ing. Controlled-flow storm-drainage systems
should be considered in all combined storm/sani-
tary sewer systems.
If the storm-drainage piping does connect to
the sanitary sewer, the storm drain must be prop-
erly trapped prior to its connection. Storm-drain-
age stacks do not require venting because there
is no need to control hydraulic or pneumatic pres-
sures within any fixed limits. Negative pressures
occur at the top of the stack and positive pres-
sures exist at the bottom of the stack. Because
the stack is not vented, pressures can become
rather high, creating turbulence at the base of
the stack known as the hydraulic jump phe-
nomenon. In general, supercritical flow can be
changed to subcritical flow only by passing
through a hydraulic jump. The extreme turbu-
lence in a hydraulic jump will dissipate energy
rapidly, causing a sharp drop in the total head
between the supercritical and subcritical states
ASPE Data Book Volume 2 68
of flow. No connections should be made within
the area where hydraulic jump may occur.
It may be more advantageous to route the
storm and sanitary mains separately to the ex-
terior of the building before they are tied together
in the combined system, with a trap separating
the systems. Traps should be either located in-
side the building or buried, with access, below
the frostline to prevent freezing. Connection of
the storm leaders to the sanitary sewer should
be a minimum of 10 ft (3.1 m) downstream from
any sanitary connection to prevent the hydrau-
lic jump from disrupting flow when the storm
drains are discharging and causing backups in
the sanitary system.
Rainwater is normally conveyed from the area
being drained at the same rate at which it is
collected, unless controlled-flow systems are uti-
lized to alleviate overtaxation of the public storm
sewers. The rate of the water flow to be drained
is determined by the size of the area being
drained, the roughness coefficient and infiltra-
tion rate of the area being drained, and the rate
of rainfall. Rainfall intensity charts published by
the National Weather Service and the adminis-
trative authority having jurisdiction should be
consulted when determining the rate of rainfall
for the area of the country in which a building is
being constructed.
Ponding may be allowable in areas such as a
paved schoolyard, where it would cause few prob-
lems because of the normal inactivity in a
schoolyard during rainy periods. If the structure
cannot tolerate the additional weight imposed
by the ponding of the water or if the ponding of
water may cause a hazard to the public, the more
stringent of design considerations may be ap-
propriate.
Similar to the requirements for sanitary sys-
tems and per the local code authority, all sys-
tems must be properly tested upon completion.
MATERIALS
Materials for aboveground piping in buildings
should be brass, copper pipe or tube type DWV,
cast-iron, galvanized or black steel, lead, alumi-
num, ABS or PVC-DWV. Care should be taken
in the use of plastic piping because of its higher
expansion and contraction characteristics, re-
quired supports, and possible noise problems.
Exposed leaders or downspouts should be ca-
pable of withstanding all anticipated abuses,
corrosion, weather, and expected expansion and
contraction.
Underground piping should be of cast iron
(service or extra-heavy weight, depending on the
loads exerted on the pipe), ductile iron, hard-
temper copper, aluminum, ABS, PVC-DWV, con-
crete or extra-strength vitrified clay. If plastic
piping is used, a proper class B bedding must be
provided for adequate laying and support of the
pipe. Plastic piping does not have the scour re-
sistance of metal piping, especially at the base
elbow. Aluminum pipe and other metallic pipe
in corrosive soils must be wrapped or coated.
Piping cast in columns should be type L copper
or plastic. All materials must be approved by the
local code body. See other Data Book chapters
on piping and drainage for data on pipe sched-
ules, joining methods, plumbing drains, etc.
PART ONE: BUILDING DRAINAGE
SYSTEM DESIGN
The design of drainage systems should be based
on sound engineering judgment with standard
engineering methods governing the basic aspects
of drainage systems. Special local conditions,
building and site characteristics, and code au-
thority requirements may necessitate a unique
design. The designer should keep in mind that
the codes are minimum standards only. All de-
signs must meet, or exceed, the local code re-
quirements.
Design Criteria
The following items should be considered when
establishing the design criteria:
1. Local climatic conditions. Rainfall rate, snow
depth, freezing conditions, frost line, etc., as
determined from National Weather Service
publications.
2. Building construction. Type of roof, pattern of
drainage slopes, vertical wall heights, para-
pet heights, scupper sizes and locations,
emergency drain requirements and locations,
pipe space allocations in the ceiling space,
wall and chase locations, etc.
3. Departments having jurisdiction. Design rain-
fall rate, minimum pipe size and slope, over-
flow requirements, extent of overflow pipe and
discharge requirements, method of connec-
69 Chapter 4 Storm-Drainage Systems
tion to the public storm sewer, safe method
of disposal if the public storm sewer is not
available, controlled-flow roof drainage, re-
tention/detention, etc.
4. Site conditions. Location, size, topography and
elevation, soil conditions and type, water
table, location and pipe material of public
storm sewer, location of existing manholes,
location of other utilities within the site, etc.
Pipe Sizing and Layout
The storm-drainage system(s) required for a
building and site of simple design are shown in
Figures 4-1 and 4-2. The following points should
be considered:
1. Roof drains and pipe sizing are based on the
collection areas, the slope of the pipe, and
the rainfall rate.
2. Overflow drains and piping are equivalent to
the roof drains served, and the basis of the
sizing is the same as it is for roof drains.
These drains should be piped separately from
the primary system to a separate disposal
point so that blockage of the primary drain-
age system will not affect the overflow drain-
age system.
3. The collection area for deck and balcony
drains, where there is an adjacent vertical
wall face, is based on the horizontal collec-
tion area plus a percentage of the adjacent
vertical wall areas.
4. The sizes of the mains are based on the ac-
cumulated flows of the drains and drain lead-
ers upstream.
5. The building storm-drain size is based on the
total of the horizontal collection areas plus a
percentage of the vertical wall areas on the
one side of the building that contributes the
greatest flow.
6. Sizes of mains downstream of sump pumps
are based on the accumulated flows of grav-
ity drains upstream plus the discharge ca-
pacity of any sump pumps upstream.
7. The pipe size of the sump pump discharge is
based on the capacity of the pump but is nor-
mally the same as the discharge pipe size of
the pump. For duplex pumps that may oper-
ate simultaneously, the combined discharge
capacity should be used. The discharge pipe
should connect to the horizontal storm main
a minimum of 10 ft (3.3 m) downstream of
the base of any stack, as high pressure can
exist in this zone due to hydraulic jump.
8. The size of the building overflow storm drain
is based on the accumulated flow from the
overflow drain leaders upstream. Means for
the disposal of the overflow drain discharge
must meet the requirements of the local
codes. Local codes may not allow open dis-
charge on the street, especially in northern
climates; therefore, it may be necessary to
tie to the public storm sewer separately from
the primary drainage system. Both may be
routed to the same manhole but with sepa-
rate inlets.
9. The size of the area drain piping is based on
the collection area plus a percentage of the
adjacent wall areas draining into the collec-
tion area.
10. The size of an areaway or stairwell drain pip-
ing is based on the collection area plus a per-
centage of the adjacent wall areas not
previously calculated draining into the area-
way or stairwell.
11. The size of the catch basin piping is based
on the rational method (see discussion un-
der Site Drainage in Part Two of this chap-
ter).
12. The size of the storm drain from the catch
basins is based on the cumulative flows from
the catch basins upstream.
13. The drain from the lower-level deck drain
should connect to the horizontal storm main
a minimum of 10 ft (3.3 m) downstream of
the base of any stack, as high pressure can
exist in this zone due to hydraulic jump.
Rainfall Rates
Rainfall rate tables Table 4-1 lists the maxi-
mum rainfall rates for various US cities. These
rates are also listed for various rainfall intensi-
ties, both in duration length and in return pe-
riod. Table 4-1 allows the selection of a
precipitation-frequency value for a 10-year or
100-year return period with durations of 5 min,
15 min, or 60 min. Other return periods and
durations can be selected by interpolation be-
tween the values listed, as follows:
Equation 4-1
10-min value = 0.59 (15-min value) +
0.41 (5-min value)
ASPE Data Book Volume 2 70
Equation 4-2
30-min value = 0.49 (60-min value) +
0.51 (15-min value)
The return period determines the rainfall
history used in the calculations and is the
estimated average period of time between occur-
rences of a rainfall rate that equals or exceeds
the design condition. A 100-year return period
will include heavier storms than a 10-year re-
turn period and requires the use of a heavier
rainfall intensity.
The duration determines the length of time
to be utilized in the rainfall calculations. Nor-
mally, the intensity of a storm is much heavier
taken over a shorter duration and decreases as
the storm progresses. During a flash flood or
summer storm, a deluge of precipitation may
occur for a short duration and taper off. There-
fore, the amount of rainfall for a 5-min dura-
tion, projected over a 60-min period where the
rainfall rate is averaged over the period, is sig-
nificantly heavier than a 60-min duration total
for a 60-min period.
The local code having jurisdiction should be
consulted to determine the rate of rainfall that
is applicable for the design areas. A minimum
design should be for a 10-year, 5-min storm for
the building roof and for the site.
Design for the most stringent rainfall inten-
sities may not be necessary if a secondary drain-
age system is provided, such as scuppers in a
parapet wall or a separately piped secondary
drainage system, that will accept the overflow.
Therefore, the design may be based on a more
liberal design storm of a 100-year return period,
60-min duration, as opposed to a more conser-
vative 100-year return period, 5-min duration.
Secondary drainage systems Some codes re-
quire that the primary drainage system be de-
signed for the less stringent value, with the
Figure 4-1 Piping Layout for
Typical Building Elevation
Note: A = Roof drains and pipe, B = Overflow drains and
piping, C = Collection area for deck and balcony drains, D =
Storm leaders, E = Building storm drain, F = Main down-
stream of sump pump, G = Sump pump discharge, H =
Building overflow storm drain, I = Area drain piping, J =
Area-way/stairwell drain piping, M = Connection of lower
deck drain to horizontal storm main.
Figure 4-2 Piping Layout for
Typical Building Site Plan
Note: E = Building storm drain, H = Building overflow storm
drain, I = Area drain piping, J = Area-way/stairwell drain
piping, K = Catch basin piping, L = Storm drain from the
catch basin.
71 Chapter 4 Storm-Drainage Systems
Table 4-1 Maximum Rates of Rainfall for Various US Cities, in./h (mm/h)
Frequency and Duration of Storm
100-Yr., 5 Min. 100-Yr., 15-Min. 100-Yr., 60-Min. 10-Yr., 5-Min.
Alabama:
Birmingham 10.08 (256.0) 7.28 (184.9) 3.7 (94.0) 7.50 (190.5)
Huntsville 9.96 (253.0) 7.08 (179.8) 3.3 (83.8) 7.30 (185.4)
Mobile 10.80 (274.3) 8.00 (203.2) 4.5 (114.3) 8.18 (207.8)
Montgomery 10.26 (260.6) 7.60 (193.0) 3.8 7.73 (196.4)
Alaska:
Fairbanks Use NOAA atlas for detailed 1.00 (25.4) 3.70 (94.0)
Juneau state precipitation map. 0.60 (15.2) 1.70 (43.2)
Arizona: Use NOAA atlas for detailed
Phoenix state precipitation map. 2.2 (55.9) 4.30 (109.2)
Arkansas:
Bentonville 10.20 (259.1) 7.24 (183.9) 3.62 (91.9) 7.38 (187.4)
Ft. Smith 10.20 (259.1) 7.28 (184.9) 3.9 (99.1) 7.41 (188.1)
Little Rock 9.96 (253.0) 7.16 (181.9) 3.7 (94.0) 7.36 (186.9)
California:
Eureka 1.5 (38.1) 2.70 (68.6)
Fresno 1.90 (48.3) 3.60 (91.4)
Los Angeles 2.00 (50.8) 3.60 (91.4)
Mt. Tamalpais 1.50 (38.1) 2.50 (63.5)
Pt. Reyes 1.50 (38.1) 2.40 (61.0)
Red Bluff Use NOAA atlas for detailed 1.75 (44.5) 3.80 (96.5)
Sacramento state precipitation map. 1.30 (33.0) 3.00 (76.2)
San Diego 1.50 (38.1) 3.30 (83.8)
San Francisco 1.50 (38.1) 3.00 (76.2)
San Jose 1.50 (38.1) 2.00 (50.8)
San Luis Obispo 1.5 (38.1) 3.10 (78.7)
Colorado:
Denver Use NOAA atlas for detailed 2.2 (55.9) 5.70 (144.8)
Grand Junction state precipitation map. 1.70 (43.2) 3.00 (76.2)
Pueblo 2.50 (63.5) 5.00 (127.0)
Wagon Wheel Gap 1.90 (48.3) 3.60 (91.4)
Connecticut:
Hartford 8.70 (221.0) 5.96 (151.4) 2.8 (71.1) 6.23 (158.2)
(Continued)
ASPE Data Book Volume 2 72
New Haven 9.00 (228.6) 6.00 (152.4) 3.0 6.42 (163.1)
Delaware:
Dover 9.48 (240.8) 7.00 (177.8) 3.5 (88.9) 6.93 (176.1)
District of Columbia:
Washington 9.72 (246.9) 7.22 (183.4) 4.0 (101.6) 7.10 (180.4)
Florida:
Jacksonville 10.08 (256.0) 8.08 (205.2) 4.3 (109.2) 7.86 (199.6)
Key West 9.12 (231.6) 7.24 (183.9) 4.28 (108.7) 7.07 (179.6)
Miami 9.84 (249.9) 8.80 (223.5) 4.5 (114.3) 7.69 (195.4)
Orlando 10.80 (274.3) 8.40 (213.4) 4.50 (114.3) 8.42 (213.9)
Pensacola 10.80 (274.3) 8.08 (205.2) 4.60 (116.8) 8.18 (207.8)
Tampa 10.80 (274.3) 8.40 (213.4) 4.2 (106.7) 8.33 (211.6)
Tallahassee 10.50 (266.7) 8.04 (204.2) 4.1 8.05 (204.4)
Georgia:
Atlanta 9.90 (251.5) 7.12 (180.9) 3.5 (88.9) 7.33 (186.2)
Augusta 9.84 (249.9) 7.20 (182.9) 4.00 (101.6) 7.33 (186.2)
Macon 10.08 (256.0) 7.40 (188.0) 3.7 (94.0) 7.62 (193.6)
Savannah 9.60 (243.8) 7.60 (193.0) 4.0 (101.6) 7.44 (188.9)
Thomasville 10.44 (265.2) 7.88 (200.2) 4.0 (101.6) 7.96 (202.2)
Hawaii: Use NOAA atlas for detailed 3.00 (76.2) 5.2 (132.1)
Honolulu state precipitation map.
Idaho:
Boise Use NOAA atlas for detailed 1.0 (25.4) 2.7 (68.6)
Lewiston state precipitation map. 1.0 (25.4) 3.1 (78.7)
Pocatello 1.20 (30.5) 3.7 (94.0)
Illinois:
Cairo 9.84 (249.9) 6.96 (176.8) 3.40 (86.4) 7.16 (181.8)
Chicago 9.30 (236.2) 6.60 (167.6) 2.7 (68.6) 6.76 (171.8)
Peoria 9.72 (246.9) 6.88 (174.8) 2.9 () 7.04 (178.9)
Springfield 9.84 (249.9) 7.12 (180.9) 3.0 (76.2) 7.10 (180.3)
Indiana:
Evansville 9.72 (246.9) 6.80 (172.7) 3.0 (76.2) 7.04 (178.9)
Ft. Wayne 9.24 (234.7) 6.48 (164.6) 2.85 (72.4) 6.65 (168.9)
(Table 4-1 continued) Frequency and Duration of Storm
100-Yr., 5 Min. 100-Yr., 15-Min. 100-Yr., 60-Min. 10-Yr., 5-Min.
(Continued)
73 Chapter 4 Storm-Drainage Systems
Indianapolis 9.42 (239.3) 6.60 (167.6) 2.8 (71.1) 6.82 (173.2)
Terre Haute 9.66 (245.4) 6.72 (170.7) 3.18 (80.8) 7.02 (178.2)
Iowa:
Charles City 9.96 (253.0) 7.08 (179.8) 3.35 (85.1) 7.06 (179.4)
Davenport 9.84 (249.9) 7.00 (177.8) 3.0 (76.2) 7.04 (178.7)
Des Moines 10.32 (262.1) 7.28 (184.9) 3.4 (86.4) 7.31 (185.7)
Dubuque 9.84 (249.9) 6.94 (176.3) 3.30 (83.8) 7.01 (178.0)
Keokuk 9.96 (253.0) 7.08 (179.8) 3.30 (83.8) 7.15 (181.6)
Sioux City 10.44 (265.2) 7.32 (185.9) 3.6 (91.4) 7.34 (186.3)
Kansas:
Concordia 10.44 (265.2) 7.48 (190.0) 3.75 (95.3) 7.37 (187.1)
Dodge City 10.20 (259.1) 7.24 (183.9) 3.45 (87.6) 7.20 (182.8)
Goodland 9.96 (253.0) 6.80 (172.7) 3.5 (88.9) 6.85 (174.1)
Iola 10.44 (265.2) 7.32 (185.9) 3.62 (91.9) 7.40 (187.9)
Topeka 10.50 (266.7) 7.40 (188.0) 3.8 (96.5) 7.39 (187.8)
Wichita 10.50 (266.7) 7.50 (190.5) 3.9 (99.1) 7.51 (190.8)
Kentucky:
Lexington 9.36 (237.7) 6.56 (166.6) 2.9 () 6.82 (173.3)
Louisville 9.36 (237.7) 6.56 (166.6) 2.8 (71.1) 6.88 (174.8)
Louisiana:
Alexandria 10.50 (266.7) 7.96 (202.2) 4.30 (109.2) 7.99 (202.9)
New Orleans 10.92 (277.4) 8.20 (208.3) 4.5 (114.3) 8.30 (210.7)
Shreveport 10.44 (265.2) 7.60 (193.0) 4.0 (101.6) 7.81 (198.4)
Maine:
Eastport 6.60 (167.6) 4.60 (116.8) 2.20 (55.9) 4.63 (117.6)
Portland 7.56 (192.0) 5.12 (130.1) 2.25 (57.2) 5.36 (136.1)
Presque Isle 6.96 (176.8) 4.68 (118.9) 2.05 (52.1) 4.91 (124.7)
Maryland:
Baltimore 9.72 (246.9) 7.24 (183.9) 3.5 (88.9) 7.11 (180.7)
Cambridge 9.60 (243.8) 7.24 (183.9) 3.25 (82.6) 7.05 (179.0)
Cumberland 9.30 (236.2) 6.56 (166.6) 2.75 (69.9) 6.76 (171.8)
Massachusetts:
Boston 7.20 (182.9) 5.20 (132.1) 2.7 (68.6) 5.26 (133.5)
Nantucket 7.20 (182.9) 5.12 (130.1) 2.50 (63.5) 5.32 (135.0)
(Continued)
(Table 4-1 continued) Frequency and Duration of Storm
100-Yr., 5 Min. 100-Yr., 15-Min. 100-Yr., 60-Min. 10-Yr., 5-Min.
ASPE Data Book Volume 2 74
Springfield 8.64 (219.5) 6.00 (152.4) 2.70 (68.6) 6.20 (157.5)
Michigan:
Alpena 8.64 (219.5) 5.60 (142.2) 2.50 (63.5) 6.02 (153.0)
Detroit 8.88 (225.6) 5.92 (150.4) 2.5 (63.5) 6.37 (161.7)
Escanaba 8.88 (225.6) 5.60 (142.2) 2.40 (61.0) 6.22 (158.0)
Grand Rapids 9.00 (228.6) 6.00 (152.4) 2.6 (66.0) 6.48 (164.6)
Houghton 8.40 (213.4) 5.20 (132.1) 2.40 (61.0) 6.00 (152.5)
Lansing 9.24 (234.7) 6.10 (154.9) 2.80 (71.1) 6.62 (168.1)
Marquette 8.40 (213.4) 5.20 (132.1) 2.40 (61.0) 5.97 (151.7)
Port Huron 8.76 (222.5) 5.80 (147.3) 2.70 (68.6) 6.31 (160.4)
Ste. Marie 7.80 (198.1) 5.20 (132.1) 2.25 (57.2) 5.59 (141.9)
Minnesota:
Duluth 9.48 (240.8) 6.40 (162.6) 2.6 (66.0) 6.70 (170.1)
Minneapolis 9.96 (253.0) 6.88 (174.8) 3.0 (76.2) 7.00 (177.8)
Moorhead 10.02 (254.4) 6.88 (174.8) 3.20 (81.3) 6.88 (174.7)
Worthington 10.50 (266.7) 7.30 (185.4) 3.4 (86.4) 7.29 (185.2)
Mississippi:
Biloxi 11.04 (280.4) 8.10 (205.7) 4.5 (114.3) 8.35 (212.1)
Meridian 10.32 (262.1) 7.64 (194.1) 4.05 (102.9) 7.82 (198.6)
Tupeto 9.96 (253.0) 7.20 (182.9) 3.60 (91.4) 7.72 (196.0)
Vicksburg 10.44 (265.2) 7.68 (195.1) 4.20 (106.7) 7.87 (199.9)
Missouri:
Columbia 10.08 (256.0) 7.20 (182.9) 3.80 (96.5) 7.20 (183.0)
Hannibal 10.02 (254.5) 7.08 (179.8) 3.75 (95.3) 7.18 (182.3)
Kansas City 10.44 (265.2) 7.34 (186.4) 3.65 (92.7) 7.37 (187.1)
Poplar Bluff 9.96 (253.0) 7.08 (179.8) 3.55 (90.2) 7.27 (184.6)
St. Joseph 10.44 (265.2) 7.36 (186.9) 3.65 (92.7) 7.37 (187.1)
St. Louis 9.90 (251.5) 7.00 (177.8) 3.2 (81.3) 7.12 (180.9)
Springfield 10.14 (257.6) 7.20 (182.9) 3.7 (94.0) 7.23 (183.7)
Montana:
Havre 1.60 (40.6) 4.30 (109.2)
Helena Use NOAA atlas for detailed 1.50 (38.1) 3.80 (96.5)
Kalispell state precipitation map. 1.20 (30.5) 3.30 (83.8)
Miles City 2.15 (54.6) 7.00 (177.8)
Missoula 1.30 (33.0) 2.70 (68.6)
(Continued)
(Table 4-1 continued) Frequency and Duration of Storm
100-Yr., 5 Min. 100-Yr., 15-Min. 100-Yr., 60-Min. 10-Yr., 5-Min.
75 Chapter 4 Storm-Drainage Systems
Nebraska:
Lincoln 10.50 (266.1) 7.44 (189.0) 3.80 (96.5) 7.39 (187.8)
North Platte 10.02 (254.5) 6.80 (172.7) 3.35 (85.1) 6.88 (174.7)
Omaha 10.50 (266.1) 7.38 (187.5) 3.6 (91.4) 7.39 (187.8)
Scottsbluff 9.60 (243.8) 6.40 (162.6) 3.15 (80.0) 6.41 (162.7)
Valentine 9.96 (253.0) 6.84 (173.7) 3.25 (82.6) 6.78 (172.2)
Nevada:
Reno Use NOAA atlas for detailed 1.2 (30.5) 3.20 (81.3)
Tonopah state precipitation map. 1.00 (25.4) 3.00 (76.2)
Winnemucca 1.00 (25.4) 2.70 (68.6)
New Hampshire:
Berlin 7.80 (198.1) 5.36 (136.1) 2.2 (55.9) 5.64 (143.4)
Concord 7.92 (201.2) 5.60 (142.2) 2.50 (63.5) 5.73 (145.5)
New Jersey:
Atlantic City 9.36 (237.7) 6.72 (170.7) 3.4 (86.4) 6.82 (173.3)
Paterson 9.24 (234.7) 6.52 (165.6) 3.00 (76.2) 6.65 (168.9)
Trenton 9.30 (236.2) 6.72 (170.7) 3.2 (81.3) 6.71 (170.3)
New Mexico:
Albuquerque Use NOAA atlas for detailed 2.00 (50.8) 3.70 (94.0)
Roswell state precipitation map. 2.60 (66.0) 5.40 (137.2)
Santa Fe 2.00 (50.8) 4.40 (111.8)
New York:
Albany 9.12 (231.6) 6.24 (158.5) 2.50 (63.5) 6.48 (164.5)
Binghamton 8.82 (224.0) 5.72 (145.3) 2.4 (61.0) 6.34 (161.1)
Buffalo 8.40 (213.4) 5.34 (135.6) 2.30 (58.4) 5.97 (151.7)
Canton 8.10 (205.7) 5.24 (133.1) 2.25 (57.2) 5.84 (148.3)
Messena 7.86 (199.6) 5.20 (132.1) 2.25 (57.2) 5.61 (142.6)
New York 9.24 (234.7) 6.40 (162.6) 3.1 (78.7) 6.65 (168.9)
Oswego 8.28 (210.3) 5.50 (139.7) 2.20 (55.9) 5.81 (147.6)
Rochester 8.28 (210.3) 5.20 (132.1) 2.20 (55.9) 5.80 (147.3)
Syracuse 8.64 (219.5) 5.32 (135.1) 2.4 (61.0) 6.06 (154.0)
North Carolina:
Asheville 9.60 (243.8) 6.84 (173.7) 3.2 (81.3) 6.99 (177.5)
Charlotte 9.84 (249.9) 6.92 (175.8) 3.4 (86.4) 7.24 (183.9)
Greensboro 9.84 (249.9) 7.00 (177.8) 3.30 (83.8) 7.22 (183.4)
(Continued)
(Table 4-1 continued) Frequency and Duration of Storm
100-Yr., 5 Min. 100-Yr., 15-Min. 100-Yr., 60-Min. 10-Yr., 5-Min.
ASPE Data Book Volume 2 76
Hatteras 9.36 (237.7) 6.88 (174.8) 4.15 (105.4) 7.07 (179.6)
Raleigh 9.84 (249.9) 7.28 (184.9) 4.0 (101.6) 7.29 (185.1)
Wilmington 9.48 (240.8) 7.36 (186.9) 4.4 (111.8) 7.14 (181.4)
North Dakota:
Bismarck 9.84 (249.9) 6.40 (162.6) 2.7 (68.6) 6.57 (166.9)
Devils Lake 9.96 (253.0) 6.48 (164.6) 2.82 (71.6) 6.67 (169.5)
Williston 9.00 (228.6) 6.00 (152.4) 2.60 (66.0) 6.00 (152.5)
Ohio:
Cincinnati 9.30 (236.2) 6.52 (165.6) 2.8 (71.1) 6.79 (172.4)
Cleveland 8.76 (222.5) 5.92 (150.4) 2.4 (61.0) 6.31 (160.4)
Columbus 9.00 (228.6) 6.42 (163.1) 2.7 (68.6) 6.57 (166.9)
Steubenville 8.88 (225.6) 6.00 (152.4) 2.70 (68.6) 6.44 (163.7)
Toledo 8.94 (227.1) 6.04 (153.4) 2.6 (66.0) 6.46 (164.1)
Oklahoma:
Hooker 10.08 (256.0) 7.12 (180.8) 3.30 (83.8) 7.08 (180.0)
Oklahoma City 10.50 (266.7) 7.42 (188.5) 4.1 () 7.58 (192.6)
Tulsa 10.38 (263.7) 7.40 (188.0) 3.80 (96.5) 7.52 (190.9)
Oregon:
Baker Use NOAA atlas for detailed 0.90 (22.9) 3.30 (83.8)
Portland state precipitation map. 1.3 (33.0) 3.00 (76.2)
Roseburg 1.40 (35.6) 3.60 (91.4)
Pennsylvania:
Bradford 8.64 (219.5) 5.60 (142.4) 2.50 (63.5) 6.11 (155.2)
Erie 8.64 (219.5) 5.68 (144.3) 2.4 (61.0) 6.14 (156.0)
Harrisburg 9.36 (237.7) 6.92 (175.8) 2.9 () 6.76 (171.8)
Philadelphia 9.36 (237.7) 6.88 (174.8) 3.2 (81.3) 6.76 (171.8)
Pittsburg 8.82 (224.0) 5.96 (151.4) 2.5 (63.5) 6.40 (162.6)
Reading 9.36 (237.7) 6.80 (172.7) 3.05 (77.5) 6.81 (172.9)
Scranton 9.12 (231.6) 6.20 (157.5) 2.8 (71.1) 6.56 (166.8)
Puerto Rico: Use NOAA atlas for detailed
San Juan state precipitation map. 2.50 (63.5) 5.70 (144.8)
Rhode Island:
Block Island 8.16 (207.3) 5.54 (140.7) 2.75 (69.9) 5.90 (149.8)
Providence 7.80 (198.1) 5.40 (137.2) 2.9 () 5.64 (143.4)
(Continued)
(Table 4-1 continued) Frequency and Duration of Storm
100-Yr., 5 Min. 100-Yr., 15-Min. 100-Yr., 60-Min. 10-Yr., 5-Min.
77 Chapter 4 Storm-Drainage Systems
South Carolina:
Charleston 9.36 (237.7) 7.48 (190.0) 4.1 () 7.24 (183.8)
Columbia 9.90 (251.5) 6.40 (162.6) 3.5 (88.9) 7.35 (186.6)
Greenville 9.84 (249.9) 7.36 (186.9) 3.3 (83.8) 7.17 (182.1)
South Dakota:
Aberdeen 10.02 (254.5) 7.08 (179.8) 3.30 (83.8) 6.82 (173.2)
Pierre 9.90 (251.5) 6.80 (172.7) 3.10 (78.7) 6.69 (169.9)
Rapid City 9.84 (249.9) 6.36 (161.5) 2.7 (68.6) 6.51 (165.4)
Yankton 10.44 (265.2) 7.28 (184.9) 3.62 (91.9) 7.25 (184.1)
Tennessee:
Chattanooga 9.84 (249.9) 7.00 (177.8) 3.50 (88.9) 7.32 (188.9)
Knoxville 9.00 (228.6) 6.60 (167.6) 3.1 (78.7) 6.66 (169.2)
Memphis 9.96 (253.0) 7.14 (181.4) 3.5 (88.9) 7.37 (187.3)
Nashville 9.84 (249.9) 6.92 (175.8) 3.0 (76.2) 7.10 (180.3)
Texas:
Abilene 10.38 (263.7) 7.32 (185.9) 3.70 (94.0) 7.43 (188.7)
Amarillo 10.20 (259.1) 7.24 (183.9) 3.55 (90.2) 7.30 (185.4)
Austin 10.50 (266.7) 7.68 (195.1) 4.25 (108.0) 7.69 (195.3)
Brownsville 10.68 (271.3) 7.92 (201.2) 4.40 (111.8) 7.89 (200.4)
Corpus Christi 10.68 (271.3) 8.00 (203.2) 4.6 (116.8) 7.92 (201.2)
Dallas 10.50 (266.7) 7.50 (190.5) 4.2 (106.7) 7.63 (193.8)
Del Rio 10.20 (259.1) 7.29 (185.1) 4.00 (101.6) 7.32 (186.0)
El Paso 6.60 (167.6) 5.60 (142.2) 2.0 (50.8) 4.57 (116.1)
Fort Worth 10.50 (266.7) 7.50 (190.5) 3.90 (99.1) 7.60 (193.1)
Galveston 10.92 (277.4) 8.10 (205.7) 4.70 (119.4) 8.30 (210.7)
Houston 10.80 (274.3) 8.04 (204.2) 4.5 (114.3) 8.18 (207.8)
Palestine 10.44 (265.2) 7.60 (193.0) 4.00 (101.6) 7.79 (197.8)
Port Arthur 10.92 (277.4) 8.08 (205.2) 4.65 (118.1) 8.30 (210.7)
San Antonio 10.50 (266.7) 7.70 (195.6) 4.4 (111.8) 7.61 (193.2)
Tyler 10.38 (263.7) 7.52 (191.0) 3.90 (99.1) 7.76 (197.0)
Utah:
Modena Use NOAA atlas for detailed 1.50 (38.1) 3.80 (96.5)
Salt Lake City state precipitation map. 1.30 (33.0) 3.40 (86.4)
Vermont:
Brattleboro 8.40 (213.4) 5.88 (149.4) 2.40 (61.0) 6.02 (152.9)
Burlington 8.16 (207.3) 5.52 (140.2) 2.3 () 5.75 (146.0)
(Continued)
(Table 4-1 continued) Frequency and Duration of Storm
100-Yr., 5 Min. 100-Yr., 15-Min. 100-Yr., 60-Min. 10-Yr., 5-Min.
ASPE Data Book Volume 2 78
Rutland 8.28 (210.3) 5.60 (142.2) 2.4 (61.0) 5.92 (150.4)
Virginia:
Lynchburg 9.60 (243.8) 6.56 (166.6) 2.75 (69.9) 7.06 (179.3)
Norfolk 9.54 (242.3) 7.20 (182.9) 4.0 (101.6) 7.11 (180.6)
Richmond 9.84 (249.9) 7.28 (184.9) 4.0 (101.6) 7.23 (183.6)
Winchester 9.48 (240.8) 6.68 (169.7) 2.75 (69.9) 6.88 (174.6)
Wytheville 9.30 (236.2) 6.50 (165.1) 3.25 (82.6) 6.76 (171.8)
Washington:
North Head 1.00 (25.4) 2.80 (71.1)
Port Angeles 1.10 (27.9) 2.20 (55.9)
Seattle Use NOAA atlas for detailed 1.0 (25.4) 2.20 (55.9)
Spokane state precipitation map. 1.00 (25.4) 3.10 (78.7)
Tacoma 1.00 (25.4) 2.80 (71.1)
Tatoosh Island 1.00 (25.4) 3.20 (81.3)
Walla Walla 1.00 (25.4) 2.70 (68.6)
Yakima 1.10 (27.9) 2.60 (66.0)
West Virginia:
Charleston 9.00 (228.6) 6.34 (161.0) 2.9 () 6.57 (166.9)
Elkins 8.94 (227.1) 6.32 (160.5) 2.75 (69.9) 6.53 (165.8)
Parkersburg 9.06 (230.1) 6.34 (161.0) 2.75 (69.9) 6.62 (168.0)
Wisconsin:
Green Bay 9.00 (228.6) 6.12 (155.4) 2.5 (63.5) 6.42 (163.1)
LaCrosse 9.84 (249.9) 6.90 (175.3) 2.9 () 6.98 (177.2)
Madison 9.48 (240.8) 6.70 (170.2) 3.12 (79.2) 6.79 (172.4)
Milwaukee 9.12 (231.6) 6.48 (164.6) 2.7 (68.6) 6.60 (167.7)
Spooner 9.66 (245.4) 6.52 (165.6) 2.85 (72.4) 6.81 (172.9)
Wyoming:
Cheyenne 2.5 (63.5) 5.60 (142.2)
Lander Use NOAA atlas for detailed 1.50 (38.1) 3.70 (94.0)
Sheridan state precipitation map. 1.70 (43.2) 5.20 (132.1)
Yellowstone Park 1.40 (35.6) 2.50 (63.5)
Sources: Table 4-1 is based on the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Technical Memorandum NWS HYDRO-35, except for
the 12 western states. NWS Technical Paper no. 25 was used for the following 12 western states: Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii,
Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming. The NOAA Atlas 2: PrecipitationFrequency Atlas of the
Western United States (11 Volumes, 1973) should also be utilized in the design for the 12 western states.
(Table 4-1 continued) Frequency and Duration of Storm
100-Yr., 5 Min. 100-Yr., 15-Min. 100-Yr., 60-Min. 10-Yr., 5-Min.
79 Chapter 4 Storm-Drainage Systems
secondary drainage system handling any over-
flow that may occur when heavier storms arise.
These same codes may require that the second-
ary drainage systems be designed for the more
stringent values, for when the primary drainage
systems may be clogged. The Standard Plumbing
Code, effective in 1990, requires that the pri-
mary drainage system be designed for a 100-year,
60-min rainfall frequency; also, the secondary
drainage system must be designed for a 100-year,
15-min rainfall frequency. The two systems com-
bined capacities would exceed the required ca-
pacity for a 100-year, 5-min storm. If a rainfall
heavier than the design rainfall occurred, the two
systems would work together to carry the in-
creased load.
An argument can be made for using the most
conservative rainfall rates in the design of roof
drainage systems. The shortcomings of under-
designed roof drainage systems have had dra-
matic results when roofs collapsed. The designer
must weigh the liabilities of an under-designed
drainage system against the economic benefit of
maybe only one pipe size. In consideration for
the safety of life and the protection of the owners
property, use of the most conservative design
may be appropriate.
Roof Drainage
Coordination The building roof transfers the
combined weight of live and dead loads to the
supporting structure. The supporting structure
may be constructed of steel, concrete, wood, or
other materials. Live loads include snow, rain,
wind, etc. Dead loads include HVAC units, roof
drains, and the roof deck.
Locating the roof drains should be a coop-
erative effort among the architect, the structural
engineer, and the plumbing engineer. The ar-
chitect is familiar with the building construc-
tion, parapets, walls, chase locations, available
headroom for pipe runs, roof construction, and
the waterproofing membrane. The structural en-
gineer is familiar with the structural support lay-
out, roof slopes, column orientation, footing sizes
and depths, and the maximum allowable roof
loading.
The plumbing engineer can provide informa-
tion concerning the maximum roof areas per
drain, wall and column furring-out requirements,
headroom requirements, ceiling space require-
ments, minimum footing depths, and the pos-
sible benefits of ponding. The plumbing engineer
should also ensure that the drains are located
in the low points of the roof to limit deflection
which could cause ponding and shifting of the
roof low pointand located to minimize the hori-
zontal piping runs.
Drain location The first roof drain should not
be farther than 50 ft (15.2 m) from the end of a
valley, the maximum distance between drains
should be 200 ft (61 m). With a roof slope of
in./ft (21 mm/m) and a distance of 20 ft (6.1 m)
from the roof high point to the roof drain, the
depth of water at the drain would be approxi-
mately 5 in. (12.7 cm). The parapet wall scup-
pers would be set at 5 in. (12.7 cm) above the
roof low point. A maximum weight at the drain
that would be transmitted to the roof structural
supports would be 26 psf (126.9 kg/m
2
) live load,
which would exceed the capacity of a normal 20
psf (97.7 kg/m
2
) roof live load (30 psf [146.5 kg/
m
2
] live load in snow areas). The designer must
closely coordinate the drainage system design
with the roof structural design.
All penetrations through the roof must be
sealed watertight. Metal flashing, 1824 in. (0.46-
0.61 m) square or round, is often suggested
around the roof drain because of the heavy wear
and the likelihood that it will be a leakage prob-
lem area; it is usually placed between the roof-
ing plies. This flashing may also be used to form
a roof sump to collect the storm water prior to
its entering the drain. (A square opening is easier
to cut into the roof than a round opening.)
Most codes require a minimum of two roof
drains on roofs with areas less than 10,000 ft
2
(929 m
2
), and four drains on roofs exceeding
10,000 ft
2
(929 m
2
). Some codes allow a maxi-
mum roof area per drain of 10,000 ft
2
(929 m
2
),
but this may require that the drains and associ-
ated piping be excessively large. To control labor
costs and avoid potential furring and footing
depth problems with the piping, a maximum area
of 5000 ft
2
(465 m
2
)per drain and a maximum
drain and leader size of 8 in. (203 mm) should
be considered.
The designer must be aware of the location
of roof expansion joints. These joints may pro-
hibit rainwater flow across the roof, thus divid-
ing the roof into fixed drainage areas. At least
two roof drains should be provided for each roof
drainage area, no matter how small.
ASPE Data Book Volume 2 80
The roof drain should be a minimum of 12
18 in. (0.30-0.61 m) from any parapet wall or
other obstruction to allow for proper flashing.
The drains should be located a minimum of 10 ft
(3.05 m) from any building opening or air in-
take. The minimum roof drain size should be 2
in. (50.8 mm) for decks and 3 in. (76.2 mm) where
leaves are possible. In selecting the size of the
roof drain, all of the horizontal roof area from
adjacent high points sloping to the drain must
be taken into account.
Adjacent surfaces The roof drain must also
receive drainage of rainwater from other roof ar-
eas, such as penthouses, that dump onto the
roof area being calculated and from the adjacent
vertical walls that discharge onto the horizontal
roof surface. Some codes require that 50% of all
vertical wall areas be added to the horizontal roof
area. Other codes use complex formulae for vari-
ous wall configurations. These formulae are nor-
mally excessive for roof areas that have more than
one vertical wall or multiple-story walls with run-
off directed to the horizontal roof surface. Rain
seldomly falls in a totally vertical direction. De-
pending on the wind conditions, the angle of rain-
fall could be as much as 60 to the vertical or
more. The wind, particularly in high-rise build-
ings, can blow the rain off a vertical wall and
away from the building surfaces.
The height above a horizontal surface at
which the wind removes more than 50% of the
rainwater from the wall surfaces has not been
determined. Further study is required before lo-
cal codes can be contradicted; therefore, the lo-
cal code concerning vertical wall contribution of
rainwater to horizontal surfaces should be com-
plied with as a minimum.
Roof drain construction Standard roof drains
have three basic parts: the strainer, the flashing
ring with gravel stop, and the drain body or sump.
The strainers may be cast-iron coated or poly-
ethylene dome type (for use where leaves may be
encountered) or flat type (for sunroofs, areaways,
and parking decks). Standard roof drain con-
struction is shown in Figure 4-3. The roof drain
types for all the common roof types are depicted
in Figure 4-4.
When selecting the type of drain to be used,
the engineer must know the roof construction
and thickness. The roof may be flat or pitched,
used to retain water for cooling purposes, have
a sprinkler system for cooling purposes, used as
a terrace, used as a parking deck with heavy
traffic, or used to retain rainwater to limit the
effluent to the storm sewer system.
Roof drains, other than for flat decks, should
have strainers that extend a minimum of 4 in.
(100 mm) above the roof surface immediately ad-
jacent to the drain. Strainers for the roof drains
shall have an available inlet area not less than
1 times the area of the leader that serves the
drain. Dome-type strainers are required to pre-
vent the entrance of leaves, debris, birds, and
small animals. Flat-deck strainers, for use on
sun decks, promenades, and parking garages
where regular maintenance may be expected,
shall have an available inlet area not less than 2
times the area of the leader that serves the drain.
Heel-proof strainers may be required if subjected
to pedestrian traffic.
The flashing ring is used to attach the roof
waterproofing membrane to the drain body to
maintain the watertight integrity of the roof. An
underdeck clamp should be utilized for securing
the drain to the metal or wood decking; poured
concrete roofs do not require these clamps. Drain
receivers should be used on drains for concrete
Figure 4-3 Typical Roof Drain
Source: Reprinted, by permission, from the Jay R. Smith
catalog.
81 Chapter 4 Storm-Drainage Systems
decks. Drains that may receive sand and grit
should be provided with sediment buckets.
Piping system design Once the rainfall rate
has been determined, the drains must be selected
and the piping system designed. Determining the
rate of rainfall for a systems design requires re-
searching the requirements for the particular
structure under consideration. Secondary (over-
flow) drainage systems are required on buildings
with parapet wallsor any other construction
around the perimeter of the roof that would en-
trap rainwater on the roof.
Conventional roof drainage systems are de-
signed to remove rainwater as rapidly as it falls
on a roof.
Example 4-1. For Greenville, South Carolina,
for a 100-year return period with a 5-min dura-
tion, Table 4-1 shows a precipitation-frequency
value of 9.84 in./h/ft
2
(249.9 mm/h/ft
2
). If a roof
area of 1850 ft
2
(172 m
2
) per drain is used, the
roof drain and vertical pipe section (roof drain
leader or downspout) would be sized for a rain-
fall intensity of 9.84 in./h/ft
2
1850 ft
2
= 18,204
in./h (249.9 mm/h/ft
2
172 m
2
= 42 982.8 mm/
h). To convert in./h to gallons per minute (gpm),
multiply by the value of 0.0104 gpm/in./h:
18,204 in./h 0.0104 gpm/in./h = 189.3 gpm
per drain. As seen in the engineering sheet for a
4-in. roof drain (Figure 4-5), the drain can handle
varied flow rates depending on the developed
head of water at the drain. If the purpose of the
drain design is to drain the rainwater from the
roof as quickly as it collects, the design must be
capable of handling the peak flow rate with a
low head of water at the drain. Therefore, the
maximum flow rates per drain shown in Table
4-2 are to be considered conservative.
After calculating the peak flow to the roof
drains, refer to Table 4-2 for sizing the roof drains
and the vertical pipe sections. The roof drain
leader should be sized at least to match the roof
drain connection. Round and rectangular lead-
ers are shown.
Rectangular leaders A rectangular leader, be-
cause of its four sides and corners, experiences
a greater friction loss than the equivalent round
leader, which diminishes its carrying capacity.
To compensate for this increased friction loss, a
rectangular leader should be at least 10% larger
than a round leader to provide the same capac-
ity. Table 4-2 has been adjusted to include the
10% increase for rectangular leaders. If the 10%
increase resulted in an unavailable rectangular
size, the next larger stock size was shown. The
ratio of width to depth of rectangular leaders
should not exceed 3:1. Use Form 4-1, found in
the Appendix at the end of this chapter, for
project roof drain and vertical leader sizing cal-
culations that can be maintained in the project
files.
Gutters and downspouts For sizing horizon-
tal gutters, refer to Table 4-3. This table depicts
semicircular gutters and the equivalent rectan-
gular gutters. The method of selecting sizes is
similar to that used for round and rectangular
leaders. Gutters should be a minimum of 4 in.
(100 mm) widethe more the roof slope, the
wider the gutter should be to prevent the rain-
water from planing over the gutter without en-
tering. The minimum slope the gutter should
maintain is z in./ft (1.6 mm/m).
Downspouts from the gutter should be sheet
metal (which is less susceptible to freezing than
nonmetal materials) to 5 ft (1.5 m) above grade
and cast iron or ductile iron to the tie-in with
the underground piping, as this type of piping is
more resistant to damage. Downspouts should
be a minimum size of 1 2 in. (44.4 57.2
mm) and should be a maximum of 75 ft (22.8 m)
apart (the American Bridge Co. recommends 40
ft [12.2 m]). Outlets that dump onto grade on
splashbacks or are indirectly tied to the under-
ground piping may be provided with screens or
strainers for filtering debris and sediment. For
residential construction, 5-in. (139.7-mm)
minimum semicircular gutters should be used,
and leaders/downspouts should be 3 or 4 in.
(76.2 or 101.6 mm) round, or 2 3 in. (50.8
76.2 mm) or 2 4 in. (50.8 101.6 mm) rectan-
gular.
Piping coordination Any piping layout must
be coordinated with the other trades that may
be affected, such as architecture for furring-in
the proper columns for vertical leaders (also
known as conductors or downspouts)and struc-
tural engineering for pipe support and footing
depths. Other utilities, such as piping, ductwork,
and conduit runs, may also be affected.
If interior floor/hub drains, drains from lower
roofs, clear-water wastes, or areaway drains are
connected to the storm system inside the build-
ing (if allowed by the jurisdictional authority),
the drains must connect at least 10 pipe diam-
eters (10 ft [3.0 m] minimum) downstream of the
ASPE Data Book Volume 2 82
(A)
(B)
(C)
83 Chapter 4 Storm-Drainage Systems
(D)
(E)
(F)
Figure 4-4 Typical Roof-Drain Installations: (A) Steel or Concrete Roof Deck with Insulation
Tapered to the Drain; (B) Precast or Steel Substrate with an Inverted-Membrane Type Roof; (C)
Parapet Drain in Poured Concrete Deck with Downspout Elbow; (D) Planting Area Drain in
Raised Planter Box; (E) Indirect Waste for HVAC Equipment on Concrete Roof Deck; (F) Prom-
enade Drain in Precast Deck with Synthetic Flooring and Underdeck Clamp.
Source: Reprinted by permission of Tyler Pipe/The Wade Division, Tyler, Texas.
ASPE Data Book Volume 2 84
last offset fitting. Clear-water wastes should be
properly trapped and vented (see Figure 4-6).
Traps must be the same size as the horizontal
drain to which they are connected and should
be provided with 4-in. (102-mm) minimum, deep-
seal p-traps, or with water from trap primers or
frequently used fixtures to maintain the trap seal
for drains not receiving water on a regular basis.
Because of the excessive pressure that may
exist in the leader, a low-level drain may become
the vent to relieve the pressure, blowing water
and air from the drain. These drains are subject
to backflow and should be provided with back-
water valves and vented, or routed separately to
tie to the system beyond the point of excess pres-
sure. If backwater valves are used, they can cause
the areas affected not to allow drainage and a
Figure 4-6 Clear-Water Waste Branches for
Connection to Storm System
Source: Reprinted, by permission, from The Illustrated Na-
tional Plumbing Code Design Manual (Ballanco & Shumann
1987).
Figure 4-5 4-In. (101-mm) Roof Drain Flow Chart
Source: Reprinted by permission of the Josam Company from the Design Engineering Sheet.
85 Chapter 4 Storm-Drainage Systems
Table 4-2 Sizes of Roof Drains and Vertical Pipes
Diameter of Leader, in. (mm) Cross-Sectional Water Contact Maximum Discharge
Dimensions of Leader, in. (mm) Area, in.
2
(cm
2
) Area, in.
2
(cm
2
) Capacity, gpm (L/s)
a
2 (50.8) 3.14 (20.3) 6.28 (40.5) 30 (1.2)
2 2 (50.8 50.8) 4.00 (25.8) 8.00 (51.6) 30 (1.2)
1 2 (38.1 63.5) 3.75 (24.2) 8.00 (51.6) 30 (1.2)
2 (63.5) 4.91 (31.7) 7.85 (50.6) 54 (3.4)
2 2 (63.5 63.5) 6.25 (40.3) 9.00 (58.1) 54 (3.4)
3 (76.2) 7.07 (45.6) 9.42 (60.8) 92 (5.8)
2 4 (50.8 101.6) 8.00 (51.6) 12.00 (77.4) 92 (5.8)
2 3 (63.5 76.2) 7.50 (48.4) 11.00 (71.0) 92 (5.8)
4 (101.6) 12.57 (81.1) 12.57 (81.1) 192 (12.1)
3 4 (76.2 107.6) 12.75 (82.3) 14.50 (93.6) 192 (12.1)
3 4 (88.9 101.6) 14.00 (90.3) 14.00 (90.3) 192 (12.1)
5 (127) 19.06 (123.0) 15.07 (97.2) 360 (22.7)
4 5 (101.6 127) 20.00 (129.0) 18.00 (116.1) 360 (22.7)
4 4 (114.3 114.3) 20.25 (130.6) 18.00 (116.1) 360 (22.7)
6 (152.4) 28.27 (183.4) 18.85 (121.6) 563 (35.5)
5 6 (127 152.4) 30.00 (193.5) 22.00 (141.9) 563 (35.5)
5 5 (139.7 139.7) 30.25 (195.2) 22.00 (141.9) 563 (35.5)
8 (203.2) 50.27 (324.3) 25.14 (162.2) 1208 (76.2)
6 8 (152.4 203.2) 48.00 (309.7) 28.00 (180.6) 1208 (76.2)
a
With approximately 1-in. (45-mm) head of water at the drain.
buildup of water may occur. Horizontal piping of
clear-water wastes and vents should be sized as
a sanitary drainage branch is. When such pip-
ing is tied to a leader, an upright wye should be
utilized.
Expansion Expansion and improper anchoring
of the vertical pipe have caused roof drains to be
pushed up above the roof deck, destroying the
integrity of the roof waterproofing by tearing the
flashing and the waterproofing membrane. This
problem can be more apparent in high-rise build-
ings and buildings where the exposed leader is
subjected to cold rainwater or melting snow and
ice that enters piping at the ambient tempera-
ture of the building. An expansion joint at the
roof drain or a horizontal section of the branch
line should be provided to accommodate the
movement of the leader without affecting the roof
drain. See Figure 4-7.
Insulation The horizontal section of pipe and
the roof-drain body should be insulated, per cold
water installations with a vapor barrier, to con-
trol condensation. See Figure 4-8. Low-tempera-
ture liquid flow in the piping will cause
condensation to form on the outside of the pip-
ing, possibly causing stain damage to the ceil-
ings or, where exposed, drip marks on the floor-
ing.
Locating vertical leaders Locating the verti-
cal leaders within the building has several ad-
vantages: convenience, safety, appearances, and
freeze protection. However, leaders located on the
exterior can be installed at a much lower cost
and do not take up any valuable floor space.
To keep the number of leaders to a minimum,
the leaders may combine flows from more than
one roof drain, from a roof drain and a lower-
deck drain, from a roof drain and clear-water
wastes, or from any combination of the above.
The engineer must include the additional flows
when calculating the leader size. This method is
especially beneficial in keeping the costs of high-
rise buildings contained.
If the leaders are to be located at the build-
ing columns, the column footings must be
dropped correspondingly to accommodate the
elbow at the base of the leader (stack). The base
elbow should be a long sweep bend to help alle-
viate any excess pressures in the downstream
pipe, and the elbow should be properly sup-
ported. The elbow may rest directly on the col-
umn footing to act as a support (see Figure 4-8).
ASPE Data Book Volume 2 86
A riser clamp should be provided at each floor
line for support of the leader. Also a cleanout
should be provided at the base of all stacks to
allow the base elbow to be rodded out.
If blockage occurs in the drainage system and
backs up in the vertical leader, the piping sys-
tem may be subjected to a head pressure that is
greater than the joining system is designed for.
To prevent joint failure, pressure pipe may be
considered for the piping system. All exterior lead-
ers that may be exposed to damage, such as oc-
curs in parking or truck-loading areas, should
be protected by metal or concrete guards or re-
cessed in the wall and constructed of a ferrous
alloy pipe, such as cast iron, to 5 ft (1.5 m) above
the paving or loading platforms.
If an offset is 45 or less, the leader can be
sized as a vertical pipe. If the offset is greater
than 45, the pipe must be sized as a horizontal
pipe. To avoid stoppages due to leaves, ice, etc.,
the leader cannot be reduced in size in the di-
rection of flow throughout its length. For ex-
ample, an 8-in. (203-mm) horizontal line must
Table 4-3 Sizes of Semicircular and Equivalent Rectangular Gutters
Diameter of Gutter, in. (mm) Cross-Sectional Water Contact, Slope,
a
Capacity,
Dimensions of Gutter, in. (mm) Area, in.
2
(mm
2
) Area, in.
2
(cm
2
) in./ft (mm/m) gpm (L/min)
3 (76.2) 3.53 (22.83) 4.70 (30.32) z (1.6)
3 (76.2) 3.53 (22.83) 4.70 (30.32) 8 (3.2)
1 2 (38.1 63.4) 3.75 (24.25) 5.50 (35.48) (6.4) 26 (97.5)
1 2 (38.1 63.5) 3.75 (24.25) 5.50 (35.48) (12.7) 40 (150)
4 (101.6) 6.28 (40.61) 6.28 (40.52) z (1.6)
4 (101.6) 6.28 (40.61) 6.28 (40.52) 8 (3.2) 39 (146.25)
2 3 (57.2 76) 6.75 (43.65) 7.50 (48.50) (6.4) 55 (206.25)
2 3 (57.2 76) 6.75 (43.65) 7.50 (48.50) (12.7) 87 (326.25)
5 (127) 9.82 (63.50) 7.85 (50.76) z (1.6)
5 (127) 9.82 (63.50) 7.85 (50.76) 8 (3.2) 74 (277.5)
4 2 (101.6 63.4) 10.00 (64.67) 9.00 (58.20) (6.4) 106 (397.5)
3 3 (76 88.9) 10.00 (64.67) 9.00 (58.20) (12.7) 156 (585)
6 (152) 14.14 (91.44) 9.43 (60.9) z (1.6)
6 (152) 14.14 (91.44) 9.43 (60.9) 8 (3.2) 110 (412.5)
3 5 (76 127) 15.00 (97.00) 11.00 (71.14) (6.4) 157 (588.75)
3 5 (76 127) 15.00 (97.00) 11.00 (71.14) (12.7) 225 (843.75)
8 (203.2) 25.27 (163.42) 12.57 (81.29) z (1.6) 172 (645)
8 (203.2) 25.27 (163.42) 12.57 (81.29) 8 (3.2) 247 (926.25)
4 6 (114.3 152.4) 27.00 (174.6) 15.00 (97.00) (6.4) 348 (1305)
4 6 (114.3 152.4) 27.00 (174.6) 15.00 (97.00) (12.7) 494 (1852.5)
10 (254) 39.77 (257.19) 15.70 (101.52) z (1.6) 331 (1241.25)
10 (254) 39.77 (257.19) 15.70 (101.52) 8 (3.2) 472 (1770)
5 8 (127 203.2) 40.00 (258.7) 18.00 (116.40) (6.4) 651 (2440.25)
4 10 (101.6 254) 40.00 (258.7) 18.00 (116.40) (12.7) 1055 (3956.25)
Note: Figures are based on the Chezy Formula for Discharge of Circular Sewers, n = 0.013, and gutter flowing full.
a
Minimum velocity of 2 fps (0.6 m/s).
87 Chapter 4 Storm-Drainage Systems
Figure 4-8 Typical Roof Drain and Roof Leader
Source: Reprinted, by permission, from
Cast Iron Soil Pipe and Fittings Engineering Manual (Cast-Iron Soil Pipe Institute 1976).
Figure 4-7 Typical Expansion Joint or Horizontal Offset
Source: Reprinted, by permission, from Plumbing Design and Installation Reference Guide (Hicks 1986).
ASPE Data Book Volume 2 88
tie to an 8-in. (203-mm) vertical leader, even if
Table 4-2 requires a smaller size. Vertical lead-
ers should be tied to the horizontal main with
single-wye fittings; double-wye fittings should be
avoided.
Horizontal pipe sizing The horizontal piping
should be sized to flow full under uniform flow
conditions at the peak flow rate, as opposed to
sanitary sewers, which are designed to flow to
Q full. A minimum velocity of 2 ft/s (fps) (0.61
m/s) should be maintained to properly scour the
pipe of grit, sand, and debris. (Some authorities
recommend a minimum velocity of 3 fps [0.91
m/s] to keep the sediment in suspension.)
The horizontal piping must be properly sup-
ported, with bell holes provided for underground
bell-and-spigot piping. Use Form 4-2, in the Ap-
pendix at the end of this chapter, to calculate
the storm-drain horizontal main size. Cleanouts
should be provided at any change in direction
exceeding 45 and at any change in pipe size,
and to meet any applicable local code require-
ments for distances between cleanouts. The
cleanouts should be extended up to grade or the
floor above, or out to the wall face with a wall
plate. The location of cleanout plugs above ceil-
ings may cause damage to the ceiling when the
pipe must be cleaned.
Avoid running horizontal piping above the
ceilings of computer rooms, kitchens, and food-
preparation areas. A pipe rupture above one of
these areas could cause major damage and con-
tamination. Piping under building slabs should
be avoided if feasible; as pipe leaks could erode
the fill below slabs and cause the slab to crack.
Once the peak flow has been determined, the
Manning Formula (Equation 4-3) should be used
for sizing; refer to Table 4-4.
Equation 4-3
Q =
Y
1.486
Z
A R
.67
S
.5
n
where
Q = Flow rate, ft
3
/s (m
3
/s)
A = Area, ft
2
(m
2
)
R = Hydraulic radius of pipe = D/4, ft
(m)
[D = Diameter of pipe, ft (m)]
S = Hydraulic slope, ft/ft (m/m)
n = Coefficient of roughness, constant
The roughness coefficient of the pipe can be
affected by age, corrosion, misalignment of the
pipe, solid deposits in the pipe, and tree roots or
other obstructions. Table 4-4 shows the types of
pipe material that are available for each of the
listed sizes. It also shows the various capacities
of the piping at different slopes. The greater the
slope is, the higher the capacity, but the greater
the slope, the deeper the line and the more exca-
vation required. This may cause significant prob-
lems when the engineer is trying to tie in to an
existing storm sewer or daylight (i.e., discharge
to the open atmosphere as opposed to into an
underground pipe) to a ditch or canal.
Secondary drainage systems may be either
scuppers, which allow the entrapped rainwater
to overflow the roof, or a separately piped drain-
age system to a separate point of discharge. Scup-
pers shall be sized in accordance with Table 4-5.
The secondary piping system shall be designed
similarly to the way the primary drainage sys-
tem was designed. Some codes and designers
prefer that the discharge from secondary drain-
age systems be readily noticeable, to ensure the
prompt repair of the primary drainage systems.
If the storm-drainage system receives con-
tinuous or intermittent flow from sump pumps,
air-conditioning units, or similar devices, the flow
should be added to the drainage system, either
on the roof if the discharge is onto the roof, or in
the piping if the discharge ties directly to the
drainage system.
After the system has been laid out and sized,
the designer should review the proposed system
to determine if revisions to the layout would im-
prove the system from the standpoint of ease of
installation, cost of materials and/or coordina-
tion with other trades.
Controlled-flow storm-drainage system In lieu
of sizing the storm-drainage system on the basis
of the actual maximum projected roof areas, the
roof drainage system (or a part of it) may be sized
on the equivalent or adjusted projected roof ar-
eas that result from the controlled flow and the
storage of storm water on the roof.
Controlled-flow systems collect the rainwa-
ter on the roof and release the flow slowly to the
drainage system. These systems can provide sig-
nificant installation savings by requiring smaller
roof drains, smaller diameter piping and smaller
89 Chapter 4 Storm-Drainage Systems
Table 4-4 Pipe Sizing Chart
Slope Discharge Capacity Velocity
Pipe Pipe Size, in./ft % gpm cfs fps
Material in. (mm) (cm/m) (L/s) (L/s) (m/s)
Cast iron 2 (50) (25) 2.1 19 (1.199) 0.043 (1.217) 1.97 (0.591)
PVC-DWV 2 (50) (50) 4.2 27 (1.703) 0.061 (1.726) 2.80 (0.840)
Steel 2 (50) 1 (100) 8.3 39 (2.460) 0.086 (2.434) 3.94 (1.182)
Cast iron 3 (80) 8 (12.5) 1.0 40 (2.523) 0.090 (2.547) 1.83 (0.549)
Ductile iron 3 (80) (25) 2.1 57 (3.596) 0.127 (3.594) 2.59 (0.867)
PVC-DWV 3 (80) (50) 4.2 81 (5.109) 0.180 (5.094) 3.67 (1.101)
Steel 3 (80) 1 (100) 8.3 114 (7.191) 0.254 (7.188) 5.17 (1.551)
Cast iron 4 (100) 8 (12.5) 1.0 87 (5.488) 0.194 (5.490) 2.22 (0.666)
Ductile iron 4 (100) (25) 2.1 123 (7.759) 0.274 (7.754) 3.14 (0.942)
PVC-DWV 4 (100) (50) 4.2 174 (10.976) 0.390 (11.037) 4.47 (1.341)
Steel 4 (100) 1 (100) 8.3 247 (15.581) 0.550 (15.565) 6.30 (1.890)
Concrete
Vitrified clay
Cast iron 6 (150) z (6.3) 0.5 178 (11.228) 0.397 (10.726) 2.02 (0.606)
Ductile iron 6 (150) 8 (12.5) 1.0 257 (16.212) 0.572 (16.188) 2.91 (0.873)
PVC-DWV 6 (150) x (18.8) 1.5 309 (19.492) 0.687 (19.442) 3.50 (1.050)
Steel 6 (150) (25) 2.1 363 (22.898) 0.808 (22.866) 4.11 (1.233)
Concrete 6 (150) c (31.3) 2.5 398 (25.106) 0.887 (25.102) 4.52 (1.356)
Vitrified clay 6 (150) a (37.5) 3.0 436 (27.503) 0.972 (27.508) 4.95 (1.485)
6 (150) v (43.8) 3.5 471 (29.711) 1.050 (29.715) 5.35 (1.605)
6 (150) (50) 4.2 514 (32.423) 1.145 (32.404) 5.83 (1.749)
6 (150) s (62.5) 5.0 563 (35.514) 1.255 (35.517) 6.39 (1.917)
6 (150) (75) 6.0 617 (38.920) 1.375 (38.913) 7.00 (2.100)
6 (150) d (87.5) 7.0 666 (42.011) 1.485 (42.026) 7.56 (2.268)
Cast iron 8 (200) 0.2 243 (15.328) 0.541 (15.291) 1.55 (0.465)
Ductile iron 8 (200) 0.4 343 (21.636) 0.765 (21.650) 2.19 (0.657)
PVC-DWV 8 (200) z (6.3) 0.5 420 (26.494) 0.937 (26.517) 2.68 (0.804)
Steel 8 (200) 0.8 485 (30.594) 1.082 (30.621) 3.10 (0.930)
Concrete 8 (200) 8 (12.5) 1.0 554 (34.946) 1.234 (34.922) 3.53 (1.059)
Vitrified clay 8 (200) x (18.8) 1.5 665 (41.948) 1.481 (41.912) 4.24 (1.272)
8 (200) (25) 2.1 782 (49.329) 1.742 (49.299) 4.99 (1.497)
8 (200) c (31.3) 2.5 858 (54.123) 1.912 (54.110) 5.48 (1.644)
8 (200) a (37.5) 3.0 940 (59.295) 2.095 (59.289) 6.00 (1.800)
8 (200) v (43.8) 3.5 1,015 (64.026) 2.263 (64.043) 6.48 (1.944)
8 (200) (50) 4.2 1,107 (69.830) 2.467 (69.816) 7.06 (2.118)
8 (200) b (56.3) 4.5 1,152 (72.668) 2.566 (72.618) 7.35 (2.205)
Cast iron 10 (250) 0.2 439 (27.692) 0.980 (27.751) 1.80 (0.540)
Ductile iron 10 (250) 0.4 621 (39.173) 1.380 (39.054) 2.53 (0.759)
PVC-DWV 10 (250) z (6.3) 0.5 761 (48.004) 1.700 (48.110) 3.12 (0.936)
Steel 10 (250) 0.8 879 (55.447) 1.960 (55.468) 3.59 (1.077)
Concrete 10 (250) 8 (12.5) 1.0 1,002 (63.206) 2.230 (63.109) 4.09 (1.227)
Vitrified clay 10 (250) x (18.8) 1.5 1,203 (75.885) 2.680 (75.844) 4.91 (1.473)
10 (250) (25) 2.1 1,414 (89.195) 3.150 (89.145) 5.78 (1.734)
10 (250) c (31.3) 2.5 1,553 (97.963) 3.460 (97.918) 6.34 (1.902)
10 (250) a (37.5) 3.0 1,701 (107.299) 3.790 (107.257) 6.95 (2.085)
10 (250) v (43.8) 3.5 1,837 (115.878) 4.090 (115.747) 7.50 (2.250)
Cast iron 12 (300) 0.2 715 (45.102) 1.590 (44.997) 2.02 (0.606)
Ductile iron 12 (300) 0.4 1,012 (63.837) 2.250 (63.675) 2.86 (0.600)
(Continued)
ASPE Data Book Volume 2 90
PVC-DWV 12 (300) z (6.3) 0.6 1,239 (78.156) 2.760 (78.108) 3.51 (1.053)
Steel 12 (300) 0.8 1,431 (90.267) 3.190 (90.277) 4.06 (1.218)
Concrete 12 (300) 8 (12.5) 1.0 1,632 (102.947) 3.640 (103.012) 4.63 (1.389)
Vitrified clay 12 (300) 1.2 1,752 (110.516) 3.900 (110.370) 4.97 (1.491)
12 (300) 1.4 1,893 (119.410) 4.220 (119.426) 5.37 (1.611)
12 (300) 1.6 2,024 (127.674) 4.510 (127.633) 5.74 (1.722)
12 (300) 1.8 2,146 (135.370) 4.780 (135.274) 6.09 (1.827)
12 (300) (25) 2.1 2,304 (145.336) 5.130 (145.179) 6.53 (1.959)
12 (300) 2.2 2,373 (149.689) 5.290 (149.707) 6.74 (2.022)
12 (300) 2.4 2,478 (156.312) 5.520 (156.216) 7.03 (2.109)
Ductile iron 14 (350) 0.1 760 (47.941) 1.690 (47.827) 1.58 (0.474)
PVC-DWV 14 (350) 0.2 1,074 (67.748) 2.390 (67.637) 2.24 (0.672)
Steel 14 (350) 0.3 1,316 (83.013) 2.930 (82.919) 2.74 (0.822)
14 (350) 0.4 1,519 (95.819) 3.380 (95.654) 3.16 (0.948)
14 (350) z (6.3) 0.5 1,699 (107.173) 3.780 (106.974) 3.54 (1.062)
14 (350) 0.6 1,861 (117.392) 4.150 (117.445) 3.88 (1.164)
14 (350) 0.7 2,010 (126.791) 4.480 (126.784) 4.19 (1.257)
14 (350) 0.8 2,149 (135.559) 4.790 (135.557) 4.48 (1.344)
14 (350) 0.9 2,279 (143.759) 5.080 (143.764) 4.75 (1.425)
14 (350) 8 (12.5) 1.0 2,450 (154.546) 5.460 (154.518) 5.11 (1.533)
14 (350) 1.1 2,519 (158.899) 5.610 (158.763) 5.25 (1.575)
14 (350) 1.2 2,631 (165.963) 5.860 (165.838) 5.48 (1.644)
14 (350) 1.3 2,739 (172.776) 6.100 (172.630) 5.71 (1.713)
14 (350) 1.4 2,842 (179.273) 6.330 (179.139) 5.92 (1.776)
14 (350) x (18.8) 1.5 2,942 (185.581) 6.560 (185.648) 6.14 (1.842)
14 (350) 1.6 3,039 (191.700) 6.770 (191.591) 6.33 (1.899)
14 (350) 1.7 3,132 (197.567) 6.980 (197.534) 6.53 (1.959)
Cast iron 15 (375) 0.1 918 (57.907) 2.040 (57.766) 1.66 (0.498)
Ductile iron 15 (375) 0.2 1,298 (81.878) 2.890 (81.787) 2.36 (0.708)
Concrete 15 (375) 0.3 1,590 (100.297) 3.540 (100.182) 2.89 (0.867)
Vitrified clay 15 (375) 0.4 1,835 (115.752) 4.090 (115.747) 3.33 (0.999)
15 (375) z (6.3) 0.5 2,052 (129.440) 4.570 (129.331) 3.72 (1.116)
15 (375) 0.6 2,248 (141.804) 5.010 (141.783) 4.08 (1.224)
15 (375) 0.7 2,428 (153.158) 5.410 (153.103) 4.41 (1.323)
15 (375) 0.8 2,596 (163.756) 5.780 (163.574) 4.71 (1.413)
15 (375) 0.9 2,753 (173.659) 6.130 (173.479) 5.00 (1.500)
15 (375) 8 (12.5) 1.0 2,960 (186.717) 6.600 (186.780) 5.38 (1.614)
15 (375) 1.1 3,044 (192.016) 6.780 (191.874) 5.53 (1.659)
15 (375) 1.2 3,179 (200.531) 7.080 (200.364) 5.77 (1.731)
15 (375) 1.3 3,309 (208.732) 7.370 (208.571) 6.01 (1.803)
15 (375) 1.4 3,434 (216.617) 7.650 (216.495) 6.23 (1.869)
15 (375) x (18.8) 1.5 3,554 (224.186) 7.920 (224.136) 6.45 (1.935)
15 (375) 1.6 3,671 (231.567) 8.180 (213.494) 6.67 (2.001)
15 (375) 1.7 3,784 (238.695) 8.430 (238.569) 6.87 (2.061)
Ductile iron 16 (400) 0.1 1,049 (66.171) 2.340 (66.222) 1.66 (0.498)
PVC-DWV 16 (400) 0.2 1,484 (93.611) 3.310 (93.673) 2.35 (0.705)
Steel 16 (400) 0.3 1,817 (114.616) 4.050 (114.615) 2.87 (0.861)
16 (400) 0.4 2,099 (132.405) 4.680 (132.444) 3.32 (0.996)
16 (400) z (6.3) 0.5 2,346 (147.986) 5.230 (148.009) 3.71 (1.113)
(Table 4-4 continued) Slope Discharge Capacity Velocity
Pipe Pipe Size, in./ft % gpm cfs fps
Material in. (mm) (cm/m) (L/s) (L/s) (m/s)
(Continued)
91 Chapter 4 Storm-Drainage Systems
16 (400) 0.6 2,570 (162.116) 5.730 (162.159) 4.06 (1.218)
16 (400) 0.7 2,776 (175.110) 6.190 (175.177) 4.39 (1.317)
16 (400) 0.8 2,968 (187.221) 6.610 (187.063) 4.69 (1.407)
16 (400) 0.9 3,148 (198.576) 7.010 (198.383) 4.97 (1.491)
16 (400) 8 (12.5) 1.0 3,385 (213.526) 7.540 (213.382) 5.35 (1.605)
16 (400) 1.1 3,480 (219.518) 7.750 (219.325) 5.50 (1.650)
16 (400) 1.2 3,635 (229.296) 8.100 (229.230) 5.74 (1.722)
16 (400) 1.3 3,783 (238.632) 8.430 (238.569) 5.98 (1.794)
16 (400) 1.4 3,926 (247.652) 8.750 (247.625) 6.21 (1.863)
16 (400) x (18.8) 1.5 4,064 (256.357) 9.050 (256.115) 6.42 (1.957)
Ductile iron 18 (450) 0.1 1,486 (93.737) 3.310 (93.673) 1.87 (0.561)
Steel 18 (450) 0.2 2,101 (132.531) 4.680 (132.444) 2.65 (0.795)
Concrete 18 (450) 0.3 2,574 (162.368) 5.730 (162.159) 3.24 (0.972)
Vitrified clay 18 (450) 0.4 2,972 (187.474) 6.620 (187.346) 3.75 (1.125)
18 (450) z (6.3) 0.5 3,322 (209.552) 7.400 (209.420) 4.19 (1.257)
18 (450) 0.6 3,640 (229.611) 8.110 (229.513) 4.59 (1.377)
18 (450) 0.7 3,931 (247.967) 8.760 (247.908) 4.96 (1.488)
18 (450) 0.8 4,203 (265.125) 9.360 (264.888) 5.30 (1.590)
18 (450) 0.9 4,458 (281.211) 9.930 (281.019) 5.62 (1.686)
18 (450) 8 (12.5) 1.0 4,793 (302.342) 10.680 (302.244) 6.04 (1.812)
18 (450) 1.1 4,928 (310.858) 10.980 (310.734) 6.21 (1.863)
18 (450) 1.2 5,147 (324.673) 11.470 (324.601) 6.49 (1.947)
18 (450) 1.3 5,357 (337.920) 11.940 (337.902) 6.76 (2.028)
18 (450) 1.4 5,560 (350.725) 12.390 (350.637) 7.01 (2.103)
Ductile iron 20 (500) 0.1 1,971 (124.331) 4.390 (124.237) 2.01 (0.603)
Steel 20 (500) 0.2 2,787 (175.804) 6.210 (175.743) 2.85 (0.855)
20 (500) 0.3 3,414 (215.355) 7.610 (215.363) 3.49 (1.064)
20 (500) 0.4 3,942 (248.661) 8.780 (248.474) 4.03 (1.209)
20 (500) z (6.3) 0.5 4,407 (277.994) 9.820 (277.906) 4.50 (1.350)
20 (500) 0.6 4,828 (304.550) 10.760 (304.508) 4.93 (1.479)
20 (500) 0.7 5,215 (328.962) 11.620 (328.846) 5.33 (1.599)
20 (500) 0.8 5,575 (351.671) 12.420 (351.486) 5.69 (1.707)
20 (500) 0.9 5,913 (372.992) 13.170 (372.711) 6.04 (1.812)
20 (500) 8 (12.5) 1.0 6,357 (401.000) 14.160 (400.728) 6.49 (1.947)
20 (500) 1.1 6,537 (412.354) 14.560 (412.048) 6.68 (2.004)
20 (500) 1.2 6,828 (430.710) 15.210 (430.443) 6.97 (2.091)
Concrete 21 (520) 0.1 2,242 (141.425) 5.000 (141.500) 2.08 (0.624)
Vitrified clay 21 (520) 0.2 3,171 (200.027) 7.070 (200.081) 2.94 (0.882)
21 (520) 0.3 3,884 (245.042) 8.650 (244.795) 3.60 (1.080)
21 (520) 0.4 4,485 (282.914) 9.990 (282.717) 4.15 (1.245)
21 (520) z (6.3) 0.5 5,014 (316.283) 11.170 (316.111) 4.64 (1.392)
21 (520) 0.6 5,493 (346.498) 12.240 (346.392) 5.09 (1.527)
21 (520) 0.7 5,933 (374.254) 13.220 (374.126) 5.50 (1.650)
21 (520) 0.8 6,343 (400.116) 14.130 (399.879) 5.88 (1.764)
21 (520) 0.9 6,727 (424.339) 14.990 (424.217) 6.23 (1.869)
21 (520) 8 (12.5) 1.0 7,233 (456.258) 16.120 (456.468) 6.70 (2.010)
21 (520) 1.1 7,437 (469.126) 16.570 (469.210) 6.89 (2.067)
Ductile iron 24 (600) 0.05 2,265 (142.876) 5.040 (142.632) 1.60 (0.480)
Steel 24 (600) 0.1 3,204 (202.108) 7.140 (202.062) 2.27 (0.681)
Concrete 24 (600) 0.2 4,531 (285.815) 10.090 (285.547) 3.21 (0.963)
(Table 4-4 continued) Slope Discharge Capacity Velocity
Pipe Pipe Size, in./ft % gpm cfs fps
Material in. (mm) (cm/m) (L/s) (L/s) (m/s)
(Continued)
ASPE Data Book Volume 2 92
Vitrified clay 24 (600) 0.3 5,549 (350.031) 12.360 (349.788) 3.93 (1.179)
24 (600) 0.4 6,408 (404.217) 14.280 (404.124) 4.54 (1.362)
24 (600) z (6.3) 0.5 7,164 (451.905) 15.960 (451.668) 5.08 (1.524)
24 (600) 0.6 7,848 (495.052) 17.480 (494.684) 5.56 (1.668)
24 (600) 0.7 8,477 (534.729) 18.890 (534.587) 6.01 (1.803)
24 (600) 0.8 9,062 (571.631) 20.190 (571.377) 6.43 1.929)
Concrete 27 (685) 0.05 3,102 (195.674) 6.910 (195.553) 1.74 (0.522)
27 (685) 0.1 4,387 (276.732) 9.770 (276.491) 2.46 (0.738)
27 (685) 0.2 6,204 (391.348) 13.820 (391.106) 3.48 (1.044)
27 (685) 0.3 7,599 (749.345) 16.930 (479.119) 4.26 (1.278)
27 (685) 0.4 8,774 (553.464) 19.550 (553.265) 4.92 (1.476)
27 (685) z (6.3) 0.5 9,810 (618.815) 21.860 (618.638) 5.50 (1.650)
27 (685) 0.6 10,746 (677.858) 23.940 (677.502) 6.02 (1.806)
27 (685) 0.7 11,607 (732.170) 25.860 (731.838) 6.50 (1.950)
Ductile iron 30 (760) 0.05 4,111 (259.322) 9.160 (259.228) 1.87 (0.561)
Steel 30 (760) 0.1 5,813 (366.684) 12.950 (366.485) 2.64 (0.792)
Concrete 30 (760) 0.2 8,221 (518.581) 18.320 (518.456) 3.73 (1.119)
Vitrified clay 30 (760) 0.3 10,069 (635.153) 22.430 (634.769) 4.57 (1.371)
30 (760) 0.4 11,626 (733.368) 25.900 (732.970) 5.28 (1.584)
30 (760) z (6.3) 0.5 12,999 (819.977) 28.960 (819.568) 5.90 (1.770)
30 (760) 0.6 14,239 (898.196) 31.730 (897.959) 6.46 (1.938)
Concrete 33 (840) 0.05 5,302 (334.450) 11.810 (334.223) 1.99 (0.597)
Vitrified clay 33 (840) 0.1 7,498 (472.974) 16.700 (472.610) 2.81 (0.843)
33 (840) 0.2 10,603 (668.837) 23.620 (668.446) 3.98 (1.194)
33 (840) 0.3 12,986 (819.157) 28.930 (818.719) 4.87 (1.461)
33 (840) 0.4 14,995 (945.885) 33.410 (945.503) 5.62 (1.686)
33 (840) z (6.3) 0.5 16,765 (1057.536) 37.350 (1057.005) 6.29 (1.887)
33 (840) 0.6 18,365 (1158.464) 40.920 (1158.036) 6.89 (2.067)
Ductile iron 36 (915) 0.05 6,688 (421.879) 14.900 (421.670) 2.11 (0.633)
Steel 36 (915) 0.1 9,458 (596.611) 21.070 (596.281) 2.98 (0.894)
Concrete 36 (915) 0.2 13,376 (843.758) 29.800 (843.340) 4.22 (1.266)
Vitrified clay 36 (915) 0.3 16,382 (1033.377) 36.500 (1032.950) 5.16 (1.548)
36 (915) 0.4 18,917 (1193.284) 42.150 (1192.845) 5.96 (1.788)
36 (915) z (6.3) 0.5 21,149 (1334.079) 47.120 (1333.496) 6.67 (2.001)
Notes:
1. Calculations for the discharge of circular sewers are based on the Manning Formula: Q =
1.486
AR
2
/3
S
1
/2

2. Pipe capacities for sewers are based on an value of 0.013. This may vary somewhat with depth of flow and with pipe materials as
follows:
Vitrified clay, concrete, unlined ductile iron = 0.013
Cast iron, uncoated = 0.015
Steel = 0.012
PVC-DWV = 0.009
Corrugated = 0.024
3. Pipe capacities are based on the pipe flowing full.
4. Velocity of flow shall not be less than 2 fps (0.61 m/s).
(Table 4-4 continued) Slope Discharge Capacity Velocity
Pipe Pipe Size, in./ft % gpm cfs fps
Material in. (mm) (cm/m) (L/s) (L/s) (m/s)
93 Chapter 4 Storm-Drainage Systems
diameter storm sewers. These systems also help
to alleviate flooding in overtaxed public storm
sewers or drainage canals during heavy rainfalls.
The impact on the sewage treatment plant for a
combined storm/sanitary sewer is considerably
lessened by the use of controlled-flow roof-drain-
age systems.
Controlled-flow systems should not be used
if the roof is used for functions precluding water
storage, such as a sundeck or a parking level, or
if not allowed by the authority having jurisdic-
tion. Holding the water on the roof increases the
structural costs and may require a different roof-
covering material.
The flow-control devices must be acceptable
to the administrative authority. Valves, orifices,
or mechanical devices are not permitted to re-
strict or control flow. The roof drains are pro-
vided with weirs, which are either parabolic,
adjustable rectangular, or triangular, and which
act like small dams to control flow into the drains.
For standard, controlled-flow roof-drain con-
struction, see Figure 4-9.
Certain roof-design details must be incorpo-
rated into the finished roof. The water depth on
the roof must not exceed 3 in. (80 mm) on dead-
flat roofs and an average maximum depth of 3
in. (80 mm) for pitched roofs (6 in. [150 mm]
Table 4-5 Sizes of Scuppers for Secondary Drainage
Length, L, of Weir, in. (cm)
Head, H,
4 (10.2) 6 (15.2) 8 (20.3) 10 (25.4) 12 (30.5) 18 (45.7) 24 (61.0) 30 (76.2) 36 (91.4) 48 (121.9)
in. (cm) Capacity, gpm (L/s)
1 10.7 (0.7) 17.4 (1.1) 23.4 (1.5) 29.3 (1.8) 35.4 (2.2) 53.4 (3.4) 71.5 (4.5) 89.5 (5.6) 107.5 (6.8) 143.7 (9.1)
2 30.5 (1.9) 47.5 (3.0) 64.4 (4.1) 81.4 (5.1) 98.5 (6.2) 149.4 (9.4) 200.3 (12.6) 251.1 (15.8) 302.0 (19.1) 404.0 (25.5)
3 52.9 (3.3) 84.1 (5.3) 115.2 (7.3) 146.3 (9.2) 177.8 (11.2) 271.4 (17.1) 364.9 (23.0) 458.5 (28.9) 552.0 (34.8) 739.0 (46.6)
4 76.7 (4.8) 124.6 (7.9) 172.6 (10.9) 220.5 (13.9) 269.0 (17.0) 413.3 (26.1) 557.5 (35.2) 701.8 (44.3) 846.0 (53.4) 1135.0 (71.6)
6 123.3 (7.8) 211.4 (13.3) 299.5 (18.9) 387.5 (24.4) 476.5 (30.1) 741.1 (46.8) 1005.8 (63.5) 1270.4 (80.1) 1535.0 (96.8) 2067.5 (130.4)
Source: Reprinted by permission of the Ingersol-Rand Co.1981. 16th ed.
Note: Calculations are based on the Francis Formula:
Q = 3.33 (L 0.2H) H
1.5
where
Q = Flow rate, ft
3
/s (m
3
/s)
L = Length of scupper opening, ft (m) (Should be 4 to 8 times H.)
H = Head on scupper, ft (m) (Measured 6 ft [1.83 m] back from opening.)
ASPE Data Book Volume 2 94
maximum from the high point to the low point of
the roof) during the storm. The depth of water
must be representative of the depth over all the
roof and must assume the primary drains are
blocked. The drain-down time is the time, mea-
sured in hours, for the roof to completely drain
after the storm has reached its maximum
intensity and duration and has ceased. The
drain-down time must be in accordance with the
local code but should not exceed 24 hours (12
17 hours maximum recommended).
The flow-control device should be installed
so that the rate of discharge of the water should
not exceed the rate allowed. The roof design for
controlled-flow roof drainage should be based on
a minimum of 30 lb/ft
2
(psf) (1.44 kPa) loading
to provide a safety factor above the 15.6 psf (0.75
kPa) represented by the 3-in. (76.2-mm) design
depth of water. The roof should be level and 45
cants should be installed at any wall or parapet.
The flashing should extend at least 6 in. (152.4
mm) above the roof level. Doors opening onto
the roof must be provided with a curb at least 4
in. (101 mm) high. Flow-control devices should
be protected by strainers and in no case should
the roof surface in the vicinity of the drain be
recessed to create a reservoir.
Roof-drain manufacturers have done much
research on engineering criteria and parameters
regarding the head of water on the roof for the
weir design in controlled-flow roof drains, and
they have established suggested design proce-
dures with flow capacities and charts.
Secondary roof drainage is required in case
the primary drains are blocked, as is discussed
earlier in this chapter. Secondary drainage sys-
tems can reduce the savings potential of con-
trolled-flow roof drainage systems. If scuppers
are utilized, they should be placed in. (12.7
mm) above the maximum designated head, 3
in. (88.9 mm) above the roof level. One scupper,
or secondary drain, should be provided for each
roof drain.
Figure 4-9 Example of a
Controlled-Flow Drain
Source: Reprinted, by permission, from the Jay R. Smith
catalog.
95 Chapter 4 Storm-Drainage Systems
PART TWO:
SITE DRAINAGE SYSTEM DESIGN
General Design Considerations
Part One of this chapter discussed general crite-
ria that must be considered in the design of both
roof and site drainage systems, including mate-
rials, rainfall rates, and pipe sizing. These gen-
eral design considerations apply to Part Two also.
The tables and figures used to illustrate the chap-
ter are consecutive from Part One to Part Two.
Site Drainage
When large areas with fewer drainage points
such as commercial or industrial sites, parking
lots, highways, airports or whole citiesrequire
storm drainage, the methods and tables found
in most codes are not applicable. The solutions
obtained using those methods would result in
systems that are oversized for the flows involved
and are far too large to be economically feasible.
The reason is that, in large systems, time is
required for flows to peak at the inlets and accu-
mulate in the piping system. Because of this time
factor, the peak flow in the piping does not nec-
essarily coincide with the peak rainfall. The de-
sign of large storm-drainage systems usually is
the responsibility of the civil engineer; however,
the applicable theories and principles are often
used by the plumbing engineer.
The rate of runoff from an area is influenced
by many factors, such as:
1. Intensity and duration of the rainfall.
2. Type, imperviousness, and moisture content
of the soil.
3. Slope of the surfaces.
4. Type and amount of vegetation.
5. Surface retention.
6. Temperature of the air, water, and soil.
The Rational Method of System Design
The Rational Method is the most universally
applied and recommended way of calculating
runoff because it takes all these factors into ac-
count. This method assumes that, if rain were
to fall on a totally impervious surface at a con-
stant rate long enough, water would eventually
run off of the surface at the same rate as it was
applied to the surface, and it assumes that the
runoff coefficient would remain constant.
The Rational Method of storm-drainage
design states that the peak discharge is approxi-
mately equal to the product of the area drained,
the runoff coefficient, and the maximum rainfall
intensity, or:
Equation 4-4
Q = CIA
where
Q = Rainfall runoff, ft
3
/s (m
3
/s)
C = Surface runoff, coefficient (depen-
dent on the surface of the area
drained)
I = Rainfall intensity, in./h (mm/h)
A = Drainage area, acres (m
2
)
Note: 1 acre = 43,560 ft
2
(4047 m
2
)
The runoff coefficient is that portion of rain
that falls on an area and flows off as free water
and is not lost to infiltration into the soil, ponding
in surface depressions, or evaporation (expressed
as a decimal). Construction increases have in-
creased the number of impervious surfaces,
which also increases the quantity of runoff. Table
4-6 lists some values for the runoff coefficient as
reported in the American Society of Civil Engi-
neers Manual on the Design and Construction of
Sanitary and Storm Sewers.
The rate of runoff is hard to accurately evalu-
ate and is impacted by the precipitation rate,
Table 4-6 Some Values of the
Rational Coefficient C
Surface Type C Value
Bituminous streets 0.700.95
Concrete streets 0.800.95
Driveways, walks 0.750.85
Roofs 0.751.00
Lawns, sandy soil
Flat, 2% 0.050.10
Average, 27% 0.100.15
Steep, 7% 0.150.20
Lawns, heavy soil
Flat, 2% 0.130.17
Average, 27% 0.180.22
Steep, 7% 0.250.35
Unimproved areas 0.100.30
ASPE Data Book Volume 2 96
surface composition and slope, duration of the
precipitation, and the degree of saturation of the
soil. The infiltration rate is much greater for loose
sandy soils than for hard clay type soils. Once
saturated, the soil will not absorb any more wa-
ter, which causes greater runoff. The longer the
duration of the precipitation and the steeper the
slope of the ground, the lower are the rate of
infiltration and the amount of water held in de-
pressions.
Most engineering designers make use of in-
formation reported in tabular or graphic form,
inserting local conditions per their experience and
practice. Most sites have various surface com-
positions. The runoff coefficient can be weighted
and calculated as follows:
Equation 4-5
C
w
=
(A
1
C
1
) + (A
2
C
2
) + (A
3
C
3
) +...(A
n
C
n
)
A
1
+ A
2
+ A
3
+...A
n
where
C
w
= Surface runoff
A
1
= Drainage area, by surface type, ft
2
(m
2
)
C
1
= Runoff coefficient, by surface type
Figure 4-10 Overland Flow Time
97 Chapter 4 Storm-Drainage Systems
The weighted runoff coefficient must be re-
calculated for each drainage point because the
variables may change.
The time of concentration is the sum of the
overland flow time plus the time of flow in the
pipe above the section of the pipe being designed.
The overland flow time is usually taken from a
nomograph adapted from sources such as the
Engineering Manual of the War Department. See
Figure 4-10 for an example.
Water travels faster across impervious sur-
faces, such as roofs or parking areas, than across
absorbent surfaces such as grassy or wooded
areas. Flow time in piping is usually determined
by using the Manning Formula to find the veloc-
ity in the piping. If the velocity and the distance
of flow are known, the time can be calculated.
The time of concentration is needed to determine
the rainfall intensity affecting the flow at that
point in the system, a minimum of 10 min.
In the application of the Rational Method, a
rainfall intensity, I, must be used, which repre-
sents the average intensity of a storm of given
frequency for the time of concentration, t
c
. The
frequency chosen is largely a matter of econom-
ics.
Factors related to the choice of a design fre-
quency have already been discussed. Frequen-
cies of 1 to 10 years are commonly used where
residential areas are to be protected. For higher-
value districts, 10 to 20 years or higher return
periods often are selected. Local conditions and
practice normally dictate the selection of these
design criteria.
After t
c
and the rainfall frequency have been
ascertained, the rainfall intensity, I, may be ob-
tained from Table 4-1. For values different than
those listed in Table 4-1, the rainfall intensity is
usually obtained by making use of a set of rain-
fall intensity-duration-frequency curves for the
area of design, such as those shown in Figure
4-11.
The tributary area can be accurately mea-
sured from a site plan showing contours and
noting that water can only flow from higher el-
evations to the drain inlet under consideration.
The total tributary area may extend beyond prop-
erty lines.
Example 4-2
Calculate the storm-water runoff into one inlet
from a tributary area having a grassy area of 0.5
acres, a pavement area of 0.5 acres, and a roof
area of 0.2 acres, for a total area of 1.20 acres.
The water must flow across 100 ft (30.5 m) of
grassy area and across 100 ft (30.5 m) of pave-
ment from the most remote point of the tribu-
tary area. The slope of the grass surface is 2%.
The slope of the pavement is 1%. The design
storm frequency is 20 years. The roof drains flow
Figure 4-11 Typical Intensity-Duration-Frequency Curves
ASPE Data Book Volume 2 98
onto the grassy area at the most remote point of
the tributary area.
Solution
The weighted coefficient of runoff for the entire
area will be calculated using Equation 4-5. The
time of concentration will then be determined.
The runoff rate will then be calculated using the
Rational Method Formula (Equation 4-4). Assume
coefficients of runoff for the various portions of
the tributary area to be as follows: grassy area =
0.15, pavement = 0.90, and the roof = 1.00.
Therefore, the weighted runoff coefficient is:
C
w
=
(0.50 0.15) + (0.50 0.90) + (0.20 1.00)
0.50 + 0.50 + 0.20
C
w
=
0.725
= 0.60
1.20
Time of concentration
DistanceInlet to Time for
Most Remote Point, Overland Flow
ft (m) (min)
Grass 100 (30.5) 15
Pavement 100 (30.5) 3
Roof 5
Total 23
Rainfall intensity Using Figure 4-11 and enter-
ing the bottom of the graph at a time concentra-
tion of 23 min, and following the vertical axis of
the graph to where the vertical line intersects
the 20-year frequency curve then horizontally to
the left, a rainfall intensity of approximately 5.1
in./h (129.5 mm/h) is obtained.
Runoff The runoff from this tributary area is
calculated using the Rational Method Formula
(Equation 4-4):
Q =
0.60 5.1 43,560
= 3.1 ft
3
/s
3600 12
Y
Q =
0.60 129.5 4047
= 0.9 m
3
/s
Z 3600 1000
Exterior Piping and Inlets
The designer should obtain drawings of the public
storm sewer available at the project site that
depict materials, locations, sizes, and depths. The
local authority should be contacted to ascertain
that the public storm system has the capacity
for the projected flow. If the available capacity is
not sufficient to handle the additional flow, ei-
ther a controlled-flow roof drainage system or a
retention basin, or both, may be required. The
designer must coordinate the piping layout with
other underground utilities.
The pipe should have a minimum exterior
size of 10 in. (254 mm) unless otherwise noted
by the local code authority and should maintain
a minimum velocity of 23 ft/s (fps) (0.61-0.91
m/s); maximum velocity should be 30 fps (9.1
m/s) to limit erosion of the pipe interior. Use
Table 4-4 for sizing the exterior piping, this siz-
ing is based on the Manning Formula. The flow
rates from other inlets should be accumulated
through the piping system. Use Form 4-3 (Sheets
1-3) in the Appendix at the end of this chapter
for record keeping. The overland flow time to the
first inlet must be added to the pipe flow time.
The pipe flow time is determined by dividing the
length of pipe between two points by the velocity
of flow in the pipe. The size is controlled by ei-
ther the existing storm sewer size or by the al-
lowable slope.
There are three basic inlets to the storm-
drainage system:
1. Drainage inlets. Structures that admit storm
water into the storm-drainage system, located
in areas generally free of sediment or debris.
Bottom is level with outlet pipe invert.
2. Catch basins. Similar to inlets except for
space below the inlet and outlet pipes for re-
tention of sediment. Located in paved areas;
require good maintenance.
3. Manholes. Provide ease of access to pipe con-
nections; use a drop manhole if there is a
difference of 2 ft (0.61 m) or more between
the inlet and the outlet.
Catch basins should be provided at the inlet
to drains, with strainer openings equal to at least
twice the area of the drains. Use site contour
lines to locate site low points; these areas must
be provided with drains to prevent ponding. Park-
ing area and street gutter drains should be open-
throat, curb type drains and should be provided
with hoods. Grate type inlets can become fouled,
decreasing the capacity of the drain. Street in-
lets should be located upstream of flow at the
intersection of streets and so that the maximum
water depth at the curb is approximately Q the
height of the curb and the width of water in the
99 Chapter 4 Storm-Drainage Systems
gutter does not exceed the width of the adja-
cent driving lane.
Street gutters should use a roughness coef-
ficient of 0.015. If trenches are utilized, the
trenches must be wide enough for a drain of the
proper size to connect to the trenches. Location
of drain inlets should be done so as to avoid pe-
destrian crossing zones and to prevent water from
crossing a street or sidewalk to reach the drain.
Inlets should be in grassy areas to prevent wa-
ter from flowing from the grassy area onto paved
areas and especially to prevent water from freez-
ing on the paved areas in colder climates. Fur-
ther, they should be adjacent to buildings to
ensure positive drainage away from the build-
ings. Inlet flow capacities should be limited to
approximately 5 ft
3
/s (0.14 m
3
/s). The maximum
distance between inlets should be 300 ft (91.4 m).
Culvert pipes are storm sewers that are usu-
ally open on both ends. They are commonly
placed in a creek bed or ditch and used to trans-
port storm water from one side of a road or em-
bankment to the other side. Culvert inlets and
outlets should be provided with head walls com-
posed of straight walls for culverts less than 24
in. (0.61 m) in diameter and with wing walls for
culverts greater than 24 in. (0.61 m) in diam-
eter. Head walls tend to improve the hydraulic
characteristics of the culvert and should be pro-
vided with vertical sloped bar strainers to reduce
clogging.
The culvert should be sized to pass the de-
sign flow rate without building up an excessive
water depth on the upstream end of the culvert,
a minimum of 15 in. (381 mm). The culvert de-
sign should provide reasonable freeboard to pre-
vent the water from running over the road or
embankment, yet it cannot allow the water to
build up high enough to cause damage upstream
of the culvert.
Manholes should be provided for cleanout
purposes on exterior piping at changes in direc-
tion, changes in pipe size, and changes in slope;
at multiple pipe connections; and at intervals as
required by the local code, but they should not
be more than 250500 ft (76.2-152.4 m) apart.
Manholes should have a minimum opening of
24 in. (0.61 m) in diameter, have a 48-in. (1.22-
m) minimum base diameter, have a 13-in. (25.4
76.2-mm) drop in invert across the base, be
provided with cast-iron steps at 9 in. (228.6 mm)
on center, have a cast-iron frame and cover for
proper traffic load, and have an impact slab if
the storm water cascades 10 ft (3.1 m) or more.
The layout of the piping system should at-
tempt to keep excavation to a minimum by fol-
lowing the slope of the ground above the pipe
and by limiting manhole depths to a maximum
of 15 ft (4.6 m), if possible, by locating the man-
holes closer together. The layout should also at-
tempt to avoid tree locations because of root
problems, and piping below paving should be
kept to a minimum. The layout should avoid rail-
road tracks. The exfiltration of water from bad
joints and cracks in the pipe can erode the
subgrade of roads or railways. When piping must
cross a road or railway, joints with very little or
no leakage should be selected and the strength
of the pipe must be proper for the trench loads it
will endure.
Subsurface Drainage
The importance of subsurface water-conveying
systems cannot be overemphasized. Each sys-
tem is designed to solve a specific problem. Some
systems are installed to prevent the earth from
losing bearing resistance by water erosion of the
soil, others to prevent uplifting of the building
slabs by hydrostatic pressure. Another reason
for installing subsurface drainage systems is to
prevent the slab or walls below grade from be-
coming wet by capillary action if the ground wa-
ter is too close to the slab. In each case, the
objective of this type of system is to prevent sub-
surface water from rising above a predetermined
elevation.
Source of subsurface water The source of all
subsurface water is rain, hail, snow, or sleet.
Some precipitation finds its way to streams, riv-
ers, lakes, and oceans by surface runoff. Much
Figure 4-12 Sources of Subsurface Water
ASPE Data Book Volume 2 100
of it seeps into the ground, percolates through
the pores of the soil, and, eventually, spills into
large surface bodies of water through under-
ground passages or by becoming surface-borne
again. See Figure 4-12.
There are two basic types of subsurface
water:
1. Perched water is a local accumulation that
has seeped into the ground from previous
rains and is trapped in small pockets by im-
pervious substances, such as clay or rock.
The water accumulates because these sub-
stances form a basin. Because perched wa-
ter does not flow in the absence of rainfall,
the upper surface of the water (called the
water table) is approximately level and the
absence of a constant inflow makes control
of the water straightforward. Pumping will
completely remove this water and local rain-
fall is necessary to replenish it.
2. Flowing water occurs when subsurface wa-
ter passes from deposit to deposit by perco-
lation (constant flowing water table). This
body of water can be a small brook or a large
river. The flow is constant in one direction.
The top of the water table is never level be-
cause of the resistance of the soil to the flow
of water. The quantity of water flowing is re-
lated to the rate of water overflowing the de-
posits, which, in turn, is related to the
amount of percolation entering the deposits.
During regional droughts, there may be no
flow at all.
Site investigation Economics and feasibility
are the bases of all analytical studies. The loca-
tion of a structure is accepted only after a sur-
vey has proven that it is both technically feasible
and economically practical. The contours of the
land have an important bearing on the amount
of excavation and backfilling required. Under-
ground conditions, such as rock and water, can
also be deciding factors.
Land contours and conditions above ground
can easily be determined by direct observation;
underground conditions are more difficult to as-
certain and require special equipment and expe-
rience. The most common method of determining
subsurface conditions is to bore a hole into the
ground and record the texture and strata eleva-
tion of the various types of soil found. Borings
can also reveal water-table elevations, the
strength of the soils, and rock conditions. See
Figure 4-13.
While rock can be useful in providing a good
bearing for the structure, its presence may be
the one factor that prevents the use of the site
due to excessive excavation costs. The soil may
be of a texture that will not sustain the weight of
the structure and piles may have to be driven.
Also, ground water contributes to foundation
problems. The level of the ground water may
cause poor soil bearing values, and often a high
ground-water table will necessitate costly pres-
sure foundation slabs.
Determining capacities of ground water Prior
to designing drainage systems, it is necessary to
determine the quantity of subsurface water that
must be removed to lower the water table to a
safe elevation. These tests are normally per-
formed by a soils engineer or done at the request
of the civil or structural engineer. As is common
with the majority of hydraulic formulae and the
methods devised to ascertain characteristics of
fluids, determination of subsurface water quan-
tities involves an educated guess. With all the
necessary factors for various conditions that
must be used in the formulae, it is improbable
that an accurate answer will be attained. How-
ever, an answer that can be used with the as-
surance that it is the best available can be
obtained by considering the information from the
great number of tests conducted in the labora-
tory and in the field.
Two factors are used to determine quantities
of subsurface water:
1. Coefficient of permeability, or K factor, de-
Figure 4-13 Borings Revealing the Nature
of the Ground, Water Table Elevations,
and Rock Conditions
101 Chapter 4 Storm-Drainage Systems
fined as gallons (liters) of water per day
through 1 square foot (0.09 m
2
) of soil, with
an increasing head of 1 foot (0.3 m) every
linear foot (0.3 m). See Figure 4-14.
2. Coefficient of transmissibility, or Q factor,
defined as gallons (liters) of water per day
through the entire area, with the actual in-
creasing head every linear foot (0.3 m).
Excavation prior to testing is considered the
most accurate method for determining subsur-
face water flows, as the excavation largely elimi-
nates the resistance of the soil to flow. This method
can easily be the most expensive: when contrac-
tors are chosen before the design of the subsur-
face drainage system, the advantage of competitive
bidding is lost. With Q directly determined, K can
be estimated by using the following relationship,
which will enable the design of the pipe and trench
system (see also Figure 4-14).
Equation 4-6
K =
velocity
7.5 gal/ft
3
slope
Y
K =
velocity
1002.4 L/m
3
Z
slope
where
Velocity = Q/area, ft
2
/day (m
2
/day)
Slope = Head per length, ft/ft (m/m)
The term slope refers to the hydraulic gra-
dient in the soil. It is difficult to determine; for
most purposes, however, the slope is 1.
Information derived from borings include tex-
ture and strata of soils, water, rock and samples
of specimens encountered. Direction of the flow
can be determined by the elevation of the water
table in the various borings.
Knowing the various strata and the texture
of the soil, an average K factor can be determined.
A cross-section sketch of the strata information
obtained from the borings can be drawn and the
area of each layer determined. Laboratory tests
or published charts will indicate the K factor for
each texture of soil, and the average K factor of
the cross section can be obtained.
If the table is flowing, it is important to choose
the proper cross section in relation to the direc-
tion of flow. If the water is a deposit (not flow-
ing), an average K for two cross sections, at right
angles to each other, must be determined and
the larger one used.
The following industry standards for K fac-
tors are used:
K Factors of Various Soil Textures,
gal/day/ ft
2
/ ft of head/l ft (L/day/m
2
/m of head/l m)
Clean gravel 100,0001,000,000
(43 852 977438 529 774)
Mixture, sand and gravel 10010,000
(43 8534 385 298)
Mixture, sand, silt, 0.0110
clay, fine sand (4.384385)
Clay 0.00010.001
(0.0440.438)
It can readily be observed from the above
table that the chance of error with this method
is great. To eliminate as much error as possible,
samples of the soils, taken during borings, should
be taken to a laboratory to obtain the proper K
factor. The possibility of error will then be lim-
ited to calculating an average K for the proper
cross section of the site area. It must be realized
that the K factor measures the capacity of the
soil to conduct water not the actual amount flow-
ing. The quantity of water infiltrating the soil
may be less than K but is never more. Thus, the
K factor is a safe criterion for use with the bor-
ing method.
After the average K is determined, Q must
be established.
Equation 4-7
Q = K area slope
Figure 4-14 Cross Section Illustrating
the Concept of the K Factor
ASPE Data Book Volume 2 102
Q should not be modified to reflect local
weather conditions because K reflects the peak
flow possible.
Drainage pipe Drainage pipe is rated accord-
ing to its allowable infiltration rate, in gal/min/
in. of diameter/ft of length (L/s/mm of diam-
eter/m of length). The total infiltration rate of
the piping system must exceed Q.
The selection of a piping system becomes a
matter of economics, with due consideration
given to subsoil conditions, cost of materials, and
labor. The following piping systems are available
for use as subsurface drainage systems:
Open joint pipe This pipe uses a 4-in. (100
mm) minimum separation between the pipe sec-
tions. Care in the bedding of the pipe is required
to prevent soil seepage into the piping. This pipe
should be used when a large quantity of drain-
age is desired and the soil consists of relatively
large particles. The infiltration rate of this mate-
rial can be as high as 25,000 gal/day/ft
2
of pipe
surface/ft of head/l ft (10 962 500 L/day/m
2
/
m/l m), depending upon the opening of the joints.
The amount of soil that can enter the open joint
and, ultimately, render the system useless by
clogging the pipe is great. To prevent washout,
several layers of filter material, carefully gradu-
ated in size, must be installed between the base
soil and the pipe. See Figure 4-15.
Perforated pipe This is the most commonly
used method; it provides good drainage capability
and allows less soil seepage. This pipe should be
used where a large quantity of drainage is required
and the soil is not too coarse. The allowable infil-
tration rate of this material ranges from 15,000 to
20,000 gal/day/ft
2
of pipe surface/ft of head/l ft
(6 577 500 to 8 770 000 L/day/m
2
/m/l m), de-
pending upon the size of the perforations. Wash-
out of base soil is also common with this method,
and carefully chosen graduations of filter materi-
als must be used. The pipe can be obtained with
various size perforations and the filter material
must be selected to satisfy the diameters of the
perforations. See Figure 4-16.
Porous pipe This pipe is the easiest of the three
to clog. It is used when it is imperative that wash-
out be prevented and the length of trenching is
not a major consideration. The infiltration rate
is 9000 to 10,000 gal/day/ft
2
of pipe surface/ft
of head/l ft (3 946 500 to 4 385 000 L/day/m
2
/
m/l m). A filter material is not necessary to pre-
vent washout. The value of this piping material
is its ability to prevent washout; however, its K
factor may necessitate almost twice the length
of trenching or pipe diameter used with others.
Trenching The purpose of trenching is to per-
mit ground water to be transmitted to the drain-
age piping with the least amount of resistance
possible and to accommodate the filter material.
The location of all drainage systems must be
coordinated with the foundation/structural en-
gineer and other underground utilities. It is im-
portant in the system design to give consideration
to trench loading on the pipe, which requires
proper bedding, backfill, and tamping. Refer to
the Concrete Pipe Handbook by the American
Figure 4-15 Open Joint Pipe Surrounded
by Filter Material Figure 4-16 Perforated Pipe in Trench
103 Chapter 4 Storm-Drainage Systems
Concrete Institute and Data Book, Volume 1,
Chapter 2.
To enable the greatest amount of water to
flow into the piping, a filter material is placed
between the pipe and the wall of the trench. If
no filter material were installed between the pipe
and the base soil material, the amount of water
entering the pipe would be only as great as the
amount of water coming through the soil adja-
cent to the pipe, which depends on the K factor
of the soil. The amount of water filtering through
1 linear foot (0.3 m) of trench should be less than
the amount of water 1 linear foot (0.3 m) of pipe
can receive.
The foundation drainage piping should be
placed at the same elevation as the lowest floor
and should be a minimum of 3 ft (0.9 m) from
the foundation wall. The foundation drainage
system should be placed on all sides of the build-
ing, or at least on all sides from which ground
water is expected.
A basic rule of spacing between trenches for
below-slab drainage is that this distance should
be no greater than twice the vertical distance of
the adjacent trenches but should not exceed 10
15 ft (3.04.5 m) on center. The more porous the
soil, the farther apart and the deeper the trenches
should be.
The vertical distance is measured from the
bottom of the pipe to the top of the filter mate-
rial, normally a few inches (mm) to 18 in. (0.45
m) below the slab. This rule is designed to pre-
vent the water table from rising above the eleva-
tion required for safety between the trenches.
During trenching, care must be observed not
to undermine the building footings. A no-man
zone exists from the lower edge of a footing in a
45 angle (angle of repose) down and away from
the footing (see Figure 4-17). To prevent under-
mining the footing, piping should not be placed
within this zoneunless the foundation/struc-
tural engineers approval to do so is obtained.
Filter materials The piping must be sur-
rounded with gravel or another loose, non- absor-
bent material and should be backfilled with a
similar material to at least 1 ft (0.3 m) below the
pipe. Porous materials should be used above the
pipe to direct ground water to the drain and should
be extended up as close as possible to grade.
Filter materials can be obtained in mixtures
ranging from coarse gravel to fine sand and in
any composition. With each mixture, a grain size
curve can be developed to determine the general
size of the mixture, at various percentages, by
weight. The filter material must be tamped to
reduce washout of the base material.
Figure 4-17 Pipe and Footing Locations
Table 4-7 Size Ranges for Filter Material
Filter Material
Size Range, 15% Size, 85% Size,
K factor
a
in. (mm) in. (mm) in. (mm)
Pea gravel 0.040.40 (1.10.2) 0.09 (2.3) 0.25 (6.4) 29,000 (12.7)
Coarse sand 0.050.30 (1.37.6) 0.07 (1.8) 0.20 (5.1) 18,000 (7.9)
Fine sand and medium gravel 0.030.35 (0.88.9) 0.055 (1.4) 0.25 (6.4) 17,000 (7.5)
Coarse sand and medium gravel 0.0250.35 (0.68.9) 0.03 (0.8) 0.24 (6.1) 14,000 (6.1)
Concrete sand 0.030.30 (0.87.6) 0.05 (1.3) 0.20 (5.1) 10,000 (4.4)
a
In gal/day/ft
2
of pipe surface/ft of head/l ft (L/day/m
2
/m/m x 10
6
).
ASPE Data Book Volume 2 104
For open-joint and perforated pipe, the filter
material must be carefully selected to graduate
from twice the size of the pipe openings to the
fine size of the base material at the site.
The thickness of each layer of filter material
around the pipe and in the trench should be at
least 4 in. (101.6 mm). It is sometimes used as
the criterion of trench width, if the K factor of
the soil does not require the width to be broader.
See Figure 4-18.
Table 4-7 includes some common filtering
materials and their size ranges.
Selecting pipe diameter Pipe diameter affects
the functioning of the subsurface drain in two
ways. First, there must be sufficient surface to
permit the required infiltration, and second, the
pipe must be large enough to convey the infiltrated
water but not smaller than 4 in. (101.6 mm).
For example, assume a soil to have a K fac-
tor of 1000 gal/day/ft
2
of pipe surface/ft of head/
l ft (438 500 L/day/m
2
/m/l m) and a trench with
8 ft
2
of surface (sides and bottom)/l ft (0.74 m
2
/
0.3 l m) of trench . Assuming a hydraulic slope
of 1, the infiltration rate will be 8000 gal/day/ft
(99345 L/day/m) of trench .
Using a trial-and-error method of solution,
assume a 4-in. (101.6-mm) pipe. The pipe sur-
face is approximately 1 ft
2
/l ft (0.3 m
2
/l m) for a
4-in. (101.6-mm) porous pipe. Assume an infil-
tration capability of 10,000 gal/day/ft
2
/l ft of
pipe (4 385 000 L/day/m
2
/l m), then the pipe
infiltration rate will be 10,000 gal/day/l ft (4 385
000 L/day/l m) of pipe. This is greater than the
required infiltration rate of 8000 gal/day/l ft (99
345 L/day/m).
Now it must be determined whether this 4-
in. (101.6-mm) pipe is able to convey the water.
In order to solve the problem, certain simplify-
Figure 4-18 Pipe in Trench with Dimensions of Filter Layers
105 Chapter 4 Storm-Drainage Systems
ing assumptions must be made. In most cases,
the drainage piping will be installed flat. How-
ever, water will flow in a flat pipe if the end of
that pipe is open to atmospheric pressure. A con-
servative assumption is that the water acts as if
the pipe had a slope of 0.01 ft/ft (0.01 m/m) or
1%. This enables the use of standard charts for
the discharge of circular pipes based on the
Manning formula. Such a pipe chart would show
that at a 0.01 ft/ft (0.01) slope, a 4-in. (101.6-
mm) pipe will accommodate 150,000 gal/day
(567 750 L/day). With an infiltration rate of 8000
gal/day/l ft (99 345 L/day/m), the 4-in. (101.6-
mm) pipe will be flowing full in 150,000/8000 or
20 ft (6.1 m). If the trench were 100 ft (30.5 m),
requiring a capacity of 800,000 gal/day (3 028
000 L/day), then the chart would indicate that
an 8-in. (203-mm) pipe would be required.
Disposal of ground water Ground water very
often becomes surface borne and a source of
supply to streams, brooks, and rivers. If the natu-
ral flow of ground water is disrupted, a water-
way, important to some individuals, may be
deprived of its supply. After the contours of the
land and the adjacent property are studied, the
ground water may be directed to daylight, a
stream, a ditch, or another natural waterway; or
put back into the ground with diffusion wells,
which may defeat the purpose of the drainage
system.
For many installations, it is neither feasible
nor desirable to return the water into the ground.
The effect of additional ground water on an ad-
jacent structure may be deleterious.
Discharge of subsurface water into munici-
pal storm sewers requires permission from the
authorities having jurisdiction. Storm sewers are
often available and, if the capacity allows it, dis-
charge into them is usually approved. It is a good
practice to install a sediment pit to prevent wash-
out material from entering municipal sewers and
to provide an acceptable backwater valve in the
discharge to the public storm sewer. If the sub-
soil drainage system is lower than the public
storm sewer, pumping may be required.
If the drainage must be pumped, the sub-
surface drainage pipe should terminate with a
bend down into a sump (minimum 18 in. [0.45
m] diameter and 24 in. [0.6 m] deep) with the
end submerged 3 in. (76.2 mm) or less. Venting
of the sump is not required. The sump cover
should be of proper traffic loading, flush with
the floor, and loose fitting, or, if used as an area
drain, it can be open grating. The sump con-
struction should be tile, plastic, fiberglass, steel,
cast iron, concrete, or another approved mate-
rial. The pump should be a duplex unit and, if
considered critical, may require emergency power
or a diesel backup pump. The capacity and head
for the pump must meet the anticipated require-
ments. Subsurface water often contains sand and
silt sediment. Pumps must be designed to ac-
cept some sediment, or damage to the pump com-
ponents will occur.
The pump head must be sufficient to lift the
water from the low-water pump-off level in the
pit (normally 6 in. [127 mm] above the sump
bottom) to the necessary elevation to tie into the
gravity storm main, plus make up for the fric-
tion losses in the pump discharge piping, includ-
ing fittings and valves. A full-flow check valve is
required in the pump discharge piping and an
isolation valve should be provided for servicing
the check valve. If the lift is 3540 ft (10.712.2
m), the check valve should be the spring-loaded
type. The discharge piping should be the same
size as the pump connection, or larger to reduce
the friction losses, and should be of galvanized
steel with cast-iron, screwed fittings. An indi-
vidual branch electrical circuit should be pro-
vided for the pump, with proper waterproof
provisions. See Figure 4-19.
Some subsoil drainage water can have offen-
sive odors or can carry pollutants. Under these
conditions, discharge to the sanitary sewer may
be preferable, or required, and the sump may be
required to be upright. However, directing the
discharge to the sanitary sewer may overload the
public sewer. The designed system should be
reviewed by the jurisdictional authority.
Storm-Water Detention
Within the drainage basins of streams with a
history of flooding, along outfalls with limited
capacities, and in areas where the discharge
could cause overloading of the public storm
sewer, the local authority may require an on-
site storm water detention system with an es-
tablished slow release rate as part of the drainage
plan for a proposed development.
A change in the use of a site, from a wooded
or grassy area to a paved commercial or indus-
trial area, causes a severe impact to natural
waterways including a decrease in infiltration and
ASPE Data Book Volume 2 106
overland travel time and an increase in peak dis-
charges and rainwater runoff. The increase in
runoff also causes problems with soil erosion and
sedimentation. Natural waterways are replaced
or supplemented by paved gutters, storm sew-
ers, channels with predetermined widths and
depths, or other elements of artificial drainage.
This urbanization causes higher peak flow
rates, which necessitate that either the munici-
pality install a drainage system with a higher
capacity or the developer install a detention sys-
tem. Because of the significant costs involved
and ever-increasing development, improvement
of the drainage systems may be impractical.
Therefore, on-site detention systems are required
in many instances.
The theory of a detention system is that peak
runoff rates for a site are determined for both
undisturbed and developed conditions, and the
rate of release from the site is limited to the run-
off rate for the undisturbed conditions. The ex-
cess runoff created by the development must be
detained with a storage system acceptable to the
local authority, the owner, and the designer.
The intent of a detention system is to mini-
mize the discharge rate and consequent flooding
by controlling the release rate. Rainwater can be
held passively by shallow ponding in grassy strips
of land, in parking areas if appropriate, and on
the roofs of buildings (see the discussion in Part
One of Controlled-Flow Drainage System). Wa-
ter can also be held in the piping system by the
installation of weirs or orifices at inlet points such
as manholes, etc.
Three variables in the design require calcu-
lation:
Figure 4-19 Sump-Pump Discharge to the Storm-Drainage System
107 Chapter 4 Storm-Drainage Systems
1. Outflow from the basin (varies as a function
of time).
2. Inflow to the basin (varies as a function of
time).
3. Storage (the difference between items 1 and
2 above).
There are basically two design approaches
to the design of detention basins. The Rational
Method should be utilized for sites that are less
than 1 acre (4046.724 m
2
) (some designers use
it for 10 acres [40,467.24 m
2
] or less), using a
10-year frequency design rainfall rate. For larger
areas, the Soil Conservation Service (SCS) Tech-
nical Release Number 55 (TR-55) Method should
be used for calculating runoff rates and storage
capacity requirements.
The detention basin is installed at or below
ground level, with the depth limited by either
the invert of the public storm sewer that is being
tied to or by the depth of the stream or ditch. A
pond may be used in an area of the site that is
less obtrusive. Detention basins may require
paved overflow spillways and small-diameter de-
watering drains. Trash guards should be pro-
vided on the outlet pipe(s) from the basin. Fences
are often required around ponds and basins for
security and the protection of the public.
One problem with calculating the required
storage is that the gravity outflow rate is depen-
dent upon the amount and the depth of the water
in the pond. The outflow changes instantaneously
as the head varies, and the peak outflow only
occurs when the basin is at peak volume. A con-
stant outflow, such as that provided by a pump,
is much easier to calculate: the storage is sim-
ply the inflow to the basin minus the pumped
outflow.
STANDARD EQUATIONS
Equation 4-8
Gravity inflow, V
n
=
10,500T
T + 25
where
V
n
= Inlet flow per acre imperviousness,
ft
3
/s/acre (m
3
/s/acre)
T = Storage time, from time storage
begins until the peak storage is
attained, min
Equation 4-9
Gravity outflow, V
o
= 40 Q
o
T
where
V
o
= Outlet flow per acre imperviousness
(based on the water level rising at a
constant rate), ft
3
/s/acre (m
3
/s/
acre)
Q
o
= Maximum outflow per acre impervi-
ousness, ft
3
/s/acre (m
3
/s/acre)
T = Storage time, from time storage
begins until the peak storage is
attained, min
Equation 4-10
Q
o
=
Allowable outflow
acreage runoff coefficient
Note: For runoff coefficient, see Table 4-6.
Equation 4-11
T = 25 +

6562.5
Q
o
Once the outflow rate has been determined,
the volume of storage required can be calculated,
as follows:
Equation 4-12
V
s
= V
n
V
o
therefore
V
s
=
10,500T
40 Q
o
T
T + 25
where
V
s
= Maximum water volume stored per
acre imperviousness, ft
3
/s/acre
(m
3
/s/acre)
Equation 4-13
V
t
= V
s
A C
where
V
t
= Maximum total water volume
stored, ft
3
(m
3
)
A = Area, acres
C = Runoff coefficient (see Table 4-6)
If the outlet is to be an orifice operating un-
der a head, select a depth of retention and a cor-
responding outflow pipe that will yield an outflow
ASPE Data Book Volume 2 108
in ft
3
/s (m
3
/s) equal to the maximum allowable
operating condition under the head as deter-
mined by the depth of retention.
Equation 4-14
Orifice area, A =
Q
0.62 2GH
where
A = Area of outlet orifice or pipe, ft
2
(m
3
)
Q = Allowable outflow rate, ft
3
/s (m
3
/s)
G = Acceleration due to gravity = 32.2
ft/s
2
(9.8 m/s
2
)
H = Head, distance of water level to
centerline of the outflow pipe, ft (m).
If the outlet flow is constant, select a depth
of retention and a pump that will yield an out-
flow in ft
3
/s (m
3
/s) equal to the maximum al-
lowable. The constant outflow rate implies that
the total outflow is the outflow rate multiplied
by the duration of the storm.
Equation 4-15
Pumped outflow, V
o
= 60 Q
o
T
Once the pumped (constant) outflow rate has
been determined, the volume of storage required
can be calculated, as follows:
Equation 4-16
V
s
= V
n
V
o
therefore
V
s
=
10,500T
60 Q
o
T
T + 25
Equation 4-17
T = 25 +

4375
Q
o
All systems should be permitted and should
be submitted to the local authority for approval.
109 Chapter 4 Storm-Drainage Systems
APPENDIX
Form 4-1 Storm-Drainage Calculations for Roof Drains and Vertical Leaders
ASPE Data Book Volume 2 110
Form 4-2 Storm-Drainage System Sizing Sheet
111 Chapter 4 Storm-Drainage Systems
Form 4-3 Storm-Water Drainage Worksheet 1
ASPE Data Book Volume 2 112
Form 4-3 Storm-Water Drainage Worksheet 2
113 Chapter 4 Storm-Drainage Systems
Form 4-3 Storm-Water Drainage Worksheet 3
ASPE Data Book Volume 2 114
REFERENCES
1. American Concrete Institute. Concrete pipe hand-
book. Washington, DC.
2. American Society of Civil Engineers. n.d. Manual
on the design and construction of sanitary and
storm sewers.
3. Ballanco, Julius, and Eugene R. Shumann. 1987.
The illustrated national plumbing code design
manual. Ballanco and ShumannIllustrated
Plumbing Codes, Inc.
4. Building Officials and Code Administration
(BOCA). 1981. BOCA basic plumbing code.
5. Cast-Iron Soil Pipe Institute. 1976. Cast-iron soil
pipe and fittings engineering manual. Vol. 1.
Washington, DC.
6. Church, James C. 1979. Practical plumbing de-
sign guide. New York: McGraw-Hill.
7. Frankel, Michael. 1981. Storm water retention
methods. Plumbing Engineer March/April and
May/June.
8. Frederick, Ralph H., Vance A. Meyers, and
Eugene P. Auciello. NOAA, National weather ser-
vice 5-60 minute precipitation frequency for the
eastern and central United States. NWS tech.
memo. HYDRO-35. NTIS Publication PB-272 112.
Silver Spring, MD: National Technical Informa-
tion Service.
9. Hicks, Tyler G., ed. 1986. Plumbing design and
installation reference guide. New York: McGraw-
Hill.
10. Manas, Vincent T. 1968. National plumbing code,
illustrated. St. Petersburg, FL: Manas Publica-
tions.
11. Sansone, John R. 1978. Storm drainage design
and detention using the rational method. Plumb-
ing Engineer July/ August.
12. SBCCI. 1988. Standard plumbing code. Birming-
ham, AL.
13. Soil Conservation Service, Engineering Division.
1986. Urban hydrology for small watersheds.
Technical release no. 55, June. NTIS publication
PB87-101580. Silver Spring, MD: National Tech-
nical Information Service.
14. Steele, Alfred. 1982. Engineered plumbing design.
Chicago: Delta Communications. (Now available
through ASPE.)
15. Steele, Alfred. High-rise plumbing. Plumbing En-
gineer. Chicago: Delta Communications.
16. US War Department. Engineering manual of the
War Department. Misc. publication no. 204.
17. US Department of the Army. Plumbing design
manual no. 3.01.
18. Yrjanainen, Glen, and Alan W. Warren. 1973. A
simple method for retention basin design. Water
and Sewage Works December.
115 Chapter 5 Cold-Water Systems
Cold-Water
Systems
5
INTRODUCTION
Proper design of a buildings water-distribution
system is necessary so that the various fixtures
function properly, that excessive pressure and
pressure fluctuations are prevented, and that
supply failure under normal conditions is
avoided. The amount of cold water used in a
building is a function of structure type, usage,
occupancy, and time of day. It is necessary to
provide the most economical pipe sizes to meet
the peak demand without wasteful excess in pip-
ing or cost. There are at least five reasons why
proper sizing of the piping in a water-distribu-
tion system is essential:
1. Health. This factor is of great importance. In-
adequate sizing can cause negative pressures
in a piping system and lead to contamina-
tion of the water supply by backflow or back-
siphonage.
2. Pressure. If adequate residual pressure can-
not be maintained at equipment and fixtures
because of inadequate pipe sizing, improper
operation will result. Excessive pressures will
cause erosion and noise problems in the pip-
ing and accelerate deterioration of the seals
in faucets.
3. Flow. If flow rates cannot be maintained at
adequate levels because of inadequate pipe
sizing, equipment performance will deteriorate.
4. Water service. Improper sizing can acceler-
ate erosion, corrosion, and scale buildup.
5. Noise. High velocities cause noise and in-
crease the danger of surge pressure shock.
(The accepted maximum velocity is 8 fps
[2.4 m/s].)
DOMESTIC COLD-WATER METERS
Many major municipalities furnish and/or in-
stall a particular type of water meter. In such
locations, the meter characteristics (type, size,
flow, pressure drops, remote readouts, costs, etc.)
can be obtained through the local water depart-
ment. Depending on the type of project being
contemplated, a utility may request a particular
meter (e.g., compound meter vs. turbine meter.)
Whether a utility companys meter or a meter
from another source is used, the above-men-
tioned characteristics must be taken into con-
sideration. The location of the meter is of prime
importance. The meter shall not be subjected to
freezing or submerged conditions. To discour-
age tapping of the piping ahead of the meter, it
may be required that the meter be located di-
rectly inside the building wall. Some jurisdictions
want the meter immediately adjacent to the tap
to prevent illegal connections between the meter
and the tap. Where job conditions mandate such
a location, a meter in an outside pit or manhole
should be watertight against both surface and
ground-water conditions. A reduced-pressure
backflow preventer is recommended at the build-
ing meter and is required by some codes and
municipalities.
Water meters for plumbing use are usually
classified as the positive-displacement type,
which indicate direct flow and record water pas-
sage in gal (L) or ft
3
(m
3
).
ASPE Data Book Volume 2 116
Meter Types
1. Disc meter. These meters are normally s, w,
1, 1, and 2 in. (16, 19.1, 25, 40, and 50
mm) in size; are manufactured to meet the
requirements of AWWA Standard C700; have
a 150 psi (1034 kPa) maximum working pres-
sure; and measure flow in one direction. This
type of meter is common to residential and
small commercial installations and is adapt-
able for remote readout systems.
2. Compound meter. These meters are normally
2, 3, 4, and 6 in. (50, 80, 100, and 150 mm)
in size; are manufactured to meet the require-
ments of AWWA Standard C700; have a 150
psi (1034 kPa) maximum working pressure;
and measure flow in one direction. This type
of meter is used when most of the flow is low
but high flows are anticipated. It is capable
of recording low flows and has the capacity
for high flow rates.
3. Turbine meter. The sizes of this meter are 2,
3, 4, 6, and 10 in. (50, 80, 100, 150, and 250
mm). This type of meter has the characteris-
tics of a compound meter but is more suit-
able for encountering a variety of flows. (A
strainer should be installed upstream of the
meter.)
4. Propeller meter. The sizes of this meter are
272 in. (511829 mm). Propeller meters are
used where low flows never occur.
5. Fire-line meters or detector-check meters. This
type of meter may be required by local codes
in a water service that feeds a fire-protection
sprinkler system or fire-hydrant system. In
such a case, the installation must meet the
requirements of the local fire official and the
appropriate insurance company. The design
should include a minimum of 8 pipe diam-
eters of straight pipe upstream of the meter
before any change in direction or connections.
Various types of meter can be equipped with
optional accessories. Remote-readout systems,
strip-chart recorders, etc. are available for spe-
cific applications.
Sizing the Water Meter
The following design criteria may be used as a
guide for selecting the proper meter:
1. Building occupancy type.
2. Minimum and maximum demand.
3. Water pressure available.
4. Size of building service.
5. Piping, valve, meter, and elevation losses.
6. Meter costs and tap fees.
7. Maintenance costs and fees.
Tables 5-1 to 5-3 from AWWA Standard M22
are reprinted as additional guidelines for water
meters.
SIZING THE WATER LINE
In practically all cases, water can be regarded as
an incompressible fluid and, for calculations at
approximately atmospheric temperature, it is
customary to assume that water has a uniform
density of 62.4 lb/ft
3
(1 kg/L), which holds nearly
constant through a temperature range of 3260F
(015.6C).
For calculations involving water-heating sys-
tems such as boiler-feed pump discharge heads,
it is necessary to take into account the changes
in density, vapor pressure, and viscosity with
temperature. Application of the common empiri-
cal equations for water flow is limited to water at
usual atmospheric temperatures in the 32l00F
(037.8C) range. At higher temperatures, the
changes in density and viscosity have a consid-
erable bearing on flow relations; where accurate
results are desired, use of the common empiri-
cal formulae is not recommended.
Hazen-Williams Formula
Among the many empirical formulae for friction
losses that have been proposed, the Hazen-Wil-
liams equation is the most widely used. In a con-
venient form, it reads as follows:
Equation 5-1
f = 0.2082

Y
100
Z
1.85

Y
q
1.85
Z

C d
4.8655
where
f = Friction head, ft of liquid/100 ft
of pipe (m/100 m)
C = Surface roughness constant
q = Fluid flow, gpm (L/s)
d = Inside diameter of pipe, in. (mm)
117 Chapter 5 Cold-Water Systems
Table 5-1 Displacement-Type Meters Meeting AWWA Specifications
Flow-Pressure Loss Averages
Recommended for Brands
Recommended Design Continuous Flow of
Size, Maximum Capacity Criteria80% 50% of Meters
in. AWWA Flow Criteria of Maximum Capacity Maximum Capacity Avgs.
(mm) gpm (L/s) psi (kPa) gpm (L/s) psi (kPa) gpm (L/s) psi (kPa)
s w
(16 19.1) 20 (1.26) 10.4 (71.76) 16 (1.00) 6.1 (42.19) 10 (0.63) 1.0 (6.9) 6
w (19.1) 30 (1.89) 10.6 (73.13) 24 (1.51) 6.9 (47.61) 15 (0.95) 1.05 (7.24) 6
1 (25.4) 50 (3.15) 9.3 (64.14) 40 (2.52) 6.3 (43.47) 25 (1.58) 1.0 (6.9) 6
1 (38.1) 100 (6.30) 11.3 (77.10) 80 (5.05) 8.6 (59.34) 50 (3.15) 0.9 (6.21) 6
2 (50.8) 160 (10.08) 10.4 (71.76) 128 (8.08) 6.5 (44.85) 80 (5.04) 0.5 (3.45) 6
3 (76.2) 300 (18.93) 13.1 (90.39) 240 (15.14) 8.3 (57.27) 150 (9.46) 1.1 (7.59) 3
Source:AWWA Standard M22.
Table 5-2 Compound-Type Meters Meeting AWWA Specifications
Flow-Pressure Loss Averages
Recommended for Brands
Recommended Design Continuous Flow of
Size Maximum Capacity Criteria80% 50% of Meters
in. AWWA Flow Criteria of Maximum Capacity Maximum Capacity Avgs.
(mm) gpm (L/s) psi (kPa) gpm (L/s) psi (kPa) gpm (L/s) psi (kPa)
2 (30) 160 (10.08) 9.2 (63.48) 128 (8.07) 6.1 (42.09) 80 (5.04) 2.6 (17.94) 3
3 (80) 320 (20.19) 13.4 (92.46) 250 (15.77) 8.9 (61.36) 160 (10.08) 4.2 (28.98) 5
4 (100) 500 (31.54) 9.6 (66.24) 400 (25.23) 6.3 (43.47) 250 (15.77) 3.5 (24.15) 5
6 (150) 1000 (63.09) 9.4 (64.86) 800 (50.46) 5.8 (40.02) 500 (31.54) 2.5 (17.25) 4
8 (203) 1600 (100.94) 12.0 (82.8) 1280 (80.75) 7.8 (53.82) 800 (50.46) 4.0 (27.60) 3
Source:AWWA Standard M22.
Table 5-3 Turbine-Type Meters Meeting AWWA Specifications
Flow-Pressure Loss Averages
Recommended for Brands
Recommended Design Continuous Flow of
Size Maximum Capacity Criteria80% 50% of Meters
in. AWWA Flow Criteria of Maximum Capacity Maximum Capacity Avgs.
(mm) gpm (L/s) psi (kPa) gpm (L/s) psi (kPa) gpm (L/s) psi (kPa)
2 (50) 160 (10.08) 4.5 (31.05) 128 (7.57) 2.8 (19.32) 80 (5.04) 1.0 (6.9) 5
3 (80) 350 (22.37) 4.6 (31.74) 280 (17.66) 3.0 (20.69) 175 (11.04) 1.2 (8.3) 4
4 (100) 600 (37.85) 3.5 (24.15) 480 (30.28) 2.1 (14.5) 300 (18.93) 0.8 (5.5) 4
6 (150) 1250 (78.86) 3.5 (24.15) 1000 (69.09) 2.0 (13.8) 625 (39.43) 0.7 (4.9) 4
Source:AWWA Standard M22.
ASPE Data Book Volume 2 118
F
i
g
u
r
e

5
-
1
F
r
i
c
t
i
o
n

L
o
s
s

o
f

H
e
a
d

C
h
a
r
t
,

C
o
e
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
t

o
f

F
l
o
w

(
C
)

=

1
4
0

(
d
e
r
i
v
e
d

f
r
o
m

t
h
e

H
a
z
e
n

a
n
d

W
i
l
l
i
a
m
s

F
o
r
m
u
l
a
)
119 Chapter 5 Cold-Water Systems
F
i
g
u
r
e

5
-
1

(
M
)

F
r
i
c
t
i
o
n

L
o
s
s

o
f

H
e
a
d

C
h
a
r
t
,

C
o
e
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
t

o
f

f
l
o
w

(
C
)

=

1
4
0

(
d
e
r
i
v
e
d

f
r
o
m

t
h
e

H
a
z
e
n

a
n
d

W
i
l
l
i
a
m
s

F
o
r
m
u
l
a
)
ASPE Data Book Volume 2 120
Figure 5-2 Conversion of Fixture Units, fu, to gpm (L/s)
121 Chapter 5 Cold-Water Systems
This formula is most accurate for the flow of
water in pipes larger than 2 in. (5 cm) and at
velocities less than 10 fps (3 m/s).
Equation 5-1 yields accurate results only
when the kinematic viscosity of the liquid is about
1.1 centistokes, which is the case of water at
60F (15.6C). However, the kinematic viscosity
of water varies with temperature, from 1.8
centistokes at 32F (0C) to 0.29 centistokes at
212F (100C); therefore, the tables are subject
to this error, which may increase the friction loss
by as much as 20% at 32F (0C) and decrease it
by as much as 20% at 212F (100C). Values of
C, for various types of pipe, are shown in Table
5-4, together with the corresponding multipliers
that should apply to the values of the head loss, f.
Figure 5-1 shows the friction loss of head
chart, C = 140, derived from the Hazen-Williams
formula (Equation 5-1). Figure 5-2 illustrates the
conversion of fixture units to gallons per minute
(liters per second).
Factors Affecting Sizing
The three factors affecting the sizing of a water
line are the demand flow rate (gpm) (L/s), the
velocity (fps) (m/s), and the pressure available
for friction loss.
Demand The first factor, flow rate, is the water
demand of the system, in gpm (L/s). There is a
vast difference in the water demand flow rates of
flush valves in different types of occupancy. For
example, ten water closets with flush valves in
an apartment building may have a demand flow
rate of 60 gpm (3.8 L/s), while ten water closets
with flush valves in a public school may have a
demand flow rate of 90 gpm (5.7 L/s). The judg-
ment and experience of the designer plays an
important part in accommodating such differ-
ences in the design of water systems.
Another problem encountered in establish-
ing flow rates is the practice of counting fixtures
that are not normally in use. For example, a ser-
vice sink in an office building is normally used
only by the janitors at night; therefore, it should
not be counted as a fixture in the total demand.
Hose bibbs are other fixtures that should not be
figured at 100% of their number. For example,
the systems of large buildings may have many
hose bibbs installed but only a few will be oper-
ated simultaneously. Individual branch lines
should be sized to handle all the fixtures on the
branch; however, the presence of these infre-
quently used fixtures should not be reflected in
the total demand.
After the designer has determined which fix-
tures to include in the water demand calcula-
tion, the maximum demand can be obtained.
Fixture unit (fu) values for each fixture can be
assigned by using Table 5-5 and a total fu value
can be obtained by adding the fu values of all
water-using fixtures with a normal domestic di-
versity. The total fu value can be converted into
a gpm (L/s) flow rate by using Table 5-6 or Fig-
ures 5-2 or 5-3, each of which includes a diver-
sity factor.
The demand flow rates of all constant-use
fixtures must be added to this flow rate. A con-
stant-use fixture uses water continuously and
does not have normal diversity. Air-conditioning
cooling towers, booster pumps, commercial laun-
dry or dishwashing equipment, lawn sprinklers,
and industrial processes are examples of con-
stant-use fixtures. Any such equipment must be
figured separately and added to the gpm (L/s)
flow rate obtained from the conversion of all fix-
ture units. This combined figure is the peak de-
mand flow rate for the project. (Note: Fixtures
that are timed to operate during off hours
should not be added.)
The fixture-unit listings in Table 5-5 are for
the total water consumption of the fixture. For
the purposes of sizing either the hot or cold-wa-
ter line, the fixture-unit loading for a fixture that
uses both hot and cold water would be 75% of
the total value. The 75% figure applies only to
fixtures served by hot and cold water. It does
not apply to single-service fixtures, such as wa-
ter closets, urinals, and dishwashers.
Velocity The second factor affecting the sizing
of a water line is velocity. A maximum velocity of
15 fps (4.6 m/s), which is suggested by some
model plumbing codes, is much too high for many
installations. A velocity above 6 or 7 fps (1.8 or
2.1 m/s) normally creates noise. Also, depend-
ing on the piping material used and the tem-
perature, hardness, and pH of the water,
velocities above 4 fps (1.2 m/s) can cause ero-
sion of the piping material.
Another justification for lower velocities in a
system is water hammer. Water hammer is the
pounding force created by the sudden starting
or stopping of water flow, which can be caused
by quick-opening or closing valves. The impact
of water hammer is directly proportional to the
change in velocity and is equal to approximately
60 times the velocity change. For instance, if
ASPE Data Book Volume 2 122
water traveling at 15 fps (4.6 m/s) is stopped
suddenly, the increase in pressure within the
pipe line will be approximately 900 psi (6205.3
kPa). This increased pressure can do consider-
able damage to piping systems and connected
equipment.
Pressure The third factor affecting the sizing of a
water line is the pressure available for friction
loss. The first step in ascertaining pressure avail-
able for friction loss is determining (from the lo-
cal water department) the maximum and
minimum water pressures and flow rate to be
encountered at the project site. The maximum
and minimum pressures may be nearly the same
or they may vary greatly; care must be taken to
handle the high pressure as well as the low pres-
sure. If the maximum pressure is above 80 psi,
and a pressure-regulating device is installed, the
pressure regulator will introduce an additional loss
in the piping system when the water system is at
minimum pressure. The water pressure should
be determined from a fire-hydrant flow test, which
is taken as close to the site as possible and in-
cludes static and residual pressures at a flow rate.
Many model plumbing codes state that, if a
pressure-regulating device is installed, the avail-
able pressure must be considered as 80% of the
reduced pressure setting. Spring-operated, pres-
sure-regulating devices have a fall-off pressure
that is below the system pressure setting. Many
engineers design a system incorporating the fall-
off pressure of the equipment they are using;
Table 5-4 Surface Roughness Coefficient (C) Values for Various Types of Pipe
Values of C
Range Average Value Value Commonly
(High = Best, smooth, well-laid for Good, Used for
Type of Pipe Low = Poor or corroded) Clean, New Pipe Design Purposes
Asbestos cement 160140 150 140
Fiber 150 140
Bitumastic-enamel-lined iron or steel
centrifugally applied 160130 148 140
Cement-lined iron or steel centrifugally applied 150 140
Copper, brass, lead, tin or glass pipe and tubing 150120 140 130
Wood stave 145110 120 110
Welded and seamless steel 15080 140 100
Continuous-interior, riveted steel
(no projecting rivets or joints) 139 100
Wrought iron 15080 130 100
Cast iron 15080 130 100
Tar-coated cast iron 14580 130 100
Girth-riveted steel (projecting rivets
in girth seams only) 130 100
Concrete 15285 120 100
Full-riveted steel (projecting rivets in
girth and horizontal seams) 115 100
Vitrified clay 115 100
Spiral-riveted steel (flow with lap) 110 100
Spiral-riveted steel (flow against lap) 110 90
Corrugated steel 60 60
Value of C 150 140 130 120 110 100 90 80 70 60
Multiplier to Correct Tables 0.47 0.54 0.62 0.71 0.84 1.0 1.22 1.50 1.93 2.57
123 Chapter 5 Cold-Water Systems
however, the 80% factor is a rule of thumb that
should not apply to an engineered system.
If the available water pressure at a project
site is high enough to require the use of a
pressure-regulating device, the pressure-regulat-
ing valve is considered the starting point of the
system for the purposes of calculation.
The next step in obtaining the pressure avail-
able for friction loss is to determine the residual
pressure required at the governing fixture or
appliance (not necessarily the farthest fixture).
Residual pressure is the pressure required at
the fixture for it to operate properly with water
flowing. Normally, but not always, 8 psi (55.2
kPa) is required for a flush-tank system and 15
psi (103.4 kPa) is required for a flush-valve sys-
tem. Some flush-valve fixtures require 20 or 25
psi (137.9 or 172.4 kPa); some water closets re-
quire 40 psi (275.8 kPa); commercial dishwash-
ers require 20 or 25 psi (137.9 or 172.4 kPa). It
is evident, then, that the residual pressure
should be figured as the actual pressure needed
at the governing fixture.
The third step is to determine the static pres-
sure loss required to reach the governing fixture
or appliance. The static loss (or gain) is figured
at 0.433 psi/ft (9.8 kPa/m) of elevation differ-
ence, above or below the water main. The differ-
ence in elevation is usually a pressure loss to
the system, as fixtures are normally at a higher
elevation than the source. If the fixture is lower
than the source, there will be an increase in pres-
sure and the static pressure is added to the ini-
tial pressure.
Another pressure loss is created by the wa-
ter meter. This loss of pressure, for a disc type
meter, can be determined from Figure 5-4 or from
the manufacturers flow charts. The flow is de-
termined from charts indicating the total flow
rate, in gpm (L/s), the size and type of the meter,
and the pressure drop for the corresponding flow.
The loss is given in pounds per square inch (psi)
and kilopascals (kPa). The selection of meter size
is very important in the final sizing of the piping
system and is one variable the designer can con-
trol. Many other factors, such as the height of
the building, city water pressure, and require-
ments for backflow protection or water treatment,
are dictated by codes or by the particular situa-
tion. The designer must review the system very
closely prior to the selection of a meter size. Usu-
ally, the larger the meter, the higher the initial
installation price and monthly charge. On the
Table 5-5 Demand Weight of Fixtures,
in Fixture Units
a
Weight Minimum
(fixture units)
c
Connections,
in. (mm)
Fixture Type
b
Cold Hot
Private Public Water Water
Bathtub
d
2 4 2 (13) 2 (13)
Bedpan washer 10 1 (25)
Bidet 2 4 2 (13) 2 (13)
Combination sink
and tray 3 2 (13) 2 (13)
Dental unit or cuspidor 1 a (10)
Dental lavatory 1 2 2 (13) 2 (13)
Drinking fountain 1 2 a (10)
Kitchen sink 2 4 2 (13) 2 (13)
Lavatory 1 2 a (10) a (10)
Laundry tray (1 or 2
compartments) 2 4 2 (13) 2 (13)
Shower, each head
d
2 4 2 (13) 2 (13)
Sink, service 2 4 2 (13) 2 (13)
Urinal, pedestal 10 1 (25)
Urinal (wall lip) 5 2 (13)
Urinal stall 5 w (20)
Urinal with flush tank 3
Wash sink, circular or
multiple (each set of
faucets) 2 2 (13) 2 (13)
Water closet:
Flush valve 6 10 1 (25)
Tank 3 5 a (10)
a
For supply outlets likely to impose continuous demands, esti-
mate the continuous supply separately and add to the total demand
for fixtures.
b
For fixtures not listed, weights may be assumed by comparing
the fixture to a listed one then using water in similar quantities and
at similar rates.
c
The given weights are for the total demand of fixtures with both
hot and cold-water supplies. The weights for maximum separate
demands may be taken as 75% of the listed demand for the sup-
ply.
d
A shower over a bathtub does not add a fixture unit to the group.
ASPE Data Book Volume 2 124
Flow,
Fixture Units
gpm Flush Flush
(L/s) Tank Valve
1 (0.06) 0
2 (0.13) 1
3 (0.19) 3
4 (0.25) 4
5 (0.32) 6
6 (0.38) 7
7 (0.44) 8
8 (0.50) 10
9 (0.57) 12
10 (0.63) 13
11 (0.69) 15
12 (0.76) 16
13 (0.82) 18
14 (0.88) 20
15 (0.95) 21
16 (1.01) 23
17 (1.07) 24
18 (1.13) 26
19 (1.20) 28
20 (1.26) 30
21 (1.32) 32
22 (1.39) 34 5
23 (1.45) 36 6
24 (1.51) 39 7
25 (1.58) 42 8
26 (1.64) 44 9
27 (1.70) 46 10
28 (1.76) 49 11
29 (1.83) 51 12
30 (1.89) 54 13
31 (1.95) 56 14
32 (2.02) 58 15
33 (2.08) 60 16
34 (2.14) 63 18
35 (2.21) 66 20
36 (2.27) 69 21
37 (2.33) 74 23
38 (2.39) 78 25
39 (2.46) 83 26
40 (2.52) 86 28
41 (2.58) 90 30
42 (2.65) 95 31
43 (2.71) 99 33
44 (2.77) 103 35
Table 5-6 ConversionsGallons per Minute (Liters per Second) to Fixture Units
45 (2.84) 107 37
46 (2.90) 111 39
47 (2.96) 115 42
48 (3.02) 119 44
49 (3.09) 123 46
50 (3.15) 127 48
51 (3.21) 130 50
52 (3.28) 135 52
53 (3.34) 141 54
54 (3.40) 146 57
55 (3.47) 151 60
56 (3.53) 155 63
57 (3.59) 160 66
58 (3.65) 165 69
59 (3.72) 170 73
60 (3.78) 175 76
62 (3.91) 185 82
64 (4.03) 195 88
66 (4.16) 205 95
68 (4.28) 215 102
70 (4.41) 225 108
72 (4.54) 236 116
74 (4.66) 245 124
76 (4.79) 254 132
78 (4.91) 264 140
80 (5.04) 275 148
82 (5.17) 284 158
84 (5.29) 294 168
86 (5.42) 305 176
88 (5.54) 315 186
90 (5.67) 326 195
92 (5.80) 337 205
94 (5.92) 348 214
96 (6.05) 359 223
98 (6.17) 370 234
100 (6.30) 380 245
105 (6.62) 406 270
110 (6.93) 431 295
115 (7.25) 455 329
120 (7.56) 479 365
125 (7.88) 506 396
130 (8.19) 533 430
135 (8.51) 559 460
140 (8.82) 585 490
145 (9.14) 611 521
150 (9.45) 638 559
155 (9.77) 665 596
160 (10.08) 692 631
165 (10.40) 719 666
170 (10.71) 748 700
175 (11.03) 778 739
180 (11.34) 809 775
185 (11.66) 840 811
190 (11.97) 874 850
200 (12.60) 945 931
210 (13.23) 1018 1009
220 (13.86) 1091 1091
230 (14.49) 1173 1173
240 (15.12) 1254 1254
250 (15.75) 1335 1335
260 (16.38) 1418 1418
270 (17.01) 1500 1500
280 (17.64) 1583 1583
290 (18.27) 1668 1668
300 (18.90) 1755 1755
310 (19.53) 1845 1845
320 (20.16) 1926 1926
330 (20.79) 2018 2018
340 (21.42) 2110 2110
350 (22.05) 2204 2204
360 (22.68) 2298 2298
370 (23.31) 2388 2388
380 (23.94) 2480 2480
390 (24.57) 2575 2575
400 (25.20) 2670 2670
410 (25.83) 2765 2765
420 (26.46) 2862 2862
430 (27.09) 2960 2960
440 (27.72) 3060 3060
450 (28.35) 3150 3150
500 (31.50) 3620 3620
550 (34.65) 4070 4070
600 (37.80) 4480 4480
700 (44.10) 5380 5380
800 (50.40) 6280 6280
900 (56.70) 7280 7280
1000 (63) 8300 8300
Flow,
Fixture Units
gpm Flush Flush
(L/s) Tank Valve
Flow,
Fixture Units
gpm Flush Flush
(L/s) Tank Valve
125 Chapter 5 Cold-Water Systems
other hand, a larger meter may mean a smaller-
sized piping system, which might prove to be
more economical in the long run. These two fac-
tors are evaluated by the designer and economic
considerations guide the selection. Furthermore,
if a system does not have ample pressure, a
means of preserving the available pressure is to
use a larger meter, thereby decreasing pressure
loss. This fact may well enable the designer to
eliminate the use of a water-pressure booster
system, thereby substantially reducing the
plumbing system costs.
The last step is to determine the other pres-
sure losses encountered between the meter and
the governing fixture. These could be caused by
a water softener, a backflow preventer, a filter,
or any other device that creates a pressure loss
in the system.
The governing fixture or appliance is the
device that has the highest total when the re-
sidual pressure, static pressure, and all other
pressure losses are added. Take, for example,
the system shown in Figure 5-5. To find the gov-
erning fixture or appliance, determine which
device requires the most pressure. Knowing that
the meter loss is the same for all parts of the
system, it can be temporarily ignored. Going from
the meter to the flush-valve water closet, there
are 15 psi (103.4 kPa) residual and no static loss
for a total of 15 psi (103.4 kPa). As a total going
through the backflow preventer, there are 16 psi
(110.3 kPa) residual and 8.66 psi (59.7 kPa) static
for a total loss of 24.66 psi (170 kPa). Going to
the dishwasher, there is a total of 40 psi (275.8
kPa)25 psi (172.4 kPa) residual plus 5 psi (34.5
kPa) loss through the water heater plus 10 psi
(69 kPa) loss through the softener. Therefore, the
dishwasher is the governing fixture, for it has
the highest total when the residual, static, and
other losses are added.
Summarizing the steps, all the system needs
or losses are subtracted from the minimum wa-
ter pressure. The remainder is the pressure avail-
able for friction, defined as the total energy (or
force) available to push the water through the
pipes to the governing fixture or appliance. How
this force is used is up to the designer, who may
decide to use it evenly over the entire system, as
an average pressure loss, or unevenly over the
system. In designing the system, as long as the
designer does not exceed the pressure available
for friction, the system will work. A certain
amount of pressure may be held in reserve, how-
ever, to allow for aging of the piping or decreases
in available water supply pressures as an area
incurs growth.
As previously determined, the governing ap-
pliance in the example in Figure 5-5 is the dish-
washer. For the same example, assume that the
minimum incoming water pressure is 60 psi
(413.7 kPa). To determine the pressure available
for friction, start with 60 psi (413.7 kPa) and
subtract 3 psi (20.7 kPa) for the meter loss, 10
psi 69 kPa) for the softener, 5 psi (34.5 kPa) for
the water-heater coil, and 25 psi (172.4 kPa) re-
sidual for the dishwasher. This leaves a remain-
der of 17 psi (117.2 kPa), which is the pressure
available for friction. The losses for the backflow
preventer and the static do not occur on the line
between the meter and the governing fixture or
appliance; therefore, they are not included in the
calculations at this time. Only losses that occur
on the line between the meter and the governing
fixture or appliance are to be included in the ini-
tial calculations to determine the pressure avail-
able for friction. The other losses will enter into
subsequent calculations.
After obtaining the pressure available for fric-
tion, the next step is to calculate the average
pressure drop. This is the pressure available for
friction divided by the equivalent length of the
run. The quotient is multiplied by l00 to obtain
an answer in terms of loss in psi/100 ft (kPa/
l00 m). In determining the equivalent length of
run, an allowance must be made for fittings. This
can be determined from Table 5-7 or by adding a
percentage to the developed length. The average
pressure drop is an average loss over the system
and should be used only as a guide in sizing
piping.
Part of the system can be designed to exceed
the average pressure drop, while another part is
designed to be less than the average. The aver-
age pressure drop can be exceededas long as
the total pressure available for friction is not
exceeded. The average pressure drop calculation,
which is made initially, pertains only to the line
from the meter to the governing fixture or appli-
ance. Care should be taken to account for the
average pressure drop calculations for the other
lines. The branches off the main line should be
sized on a different pressure-loss basis, or the
branches closest to the meter may take pres-
sure away from the farthest branches. Table 5-8
shows typical flow and pressure required during
flow for various fixtures.
ASPE Data Book Volume 2 126
Example 5-1
Figure 5-6 illustrates how to determine the pres-
sure available for friction.
In the system shown (with a main line run-
ning from the meter, point A, to the governing
fixture or appliance, point L), each section of the
line is equivalent to 10 ft (3.1 m) in length. This
includes an allowance for fittings. The allowable
pressure drop for friction is 10 psi (69 kPa). The
first tabulation is the friction loss in the system.
Section AB has an equivalent length of 10
ft (3.1 m). The average pressure drop is 10 psi/
100 ft (226.2 kPa/100 m). If it is assumed that
Figure 5-3 Conversion of Fixture Units, fu, to gpm (L/s),
Design Load vs. Fixture Units, Mixed System
127 Chapter 5 Cold-Water Systems
precisely sized pipe is obtained to give a pres-
sure loss (due to friction) of exactly 10 psi/100 ft
(226.2 kPa/l00 m), the pressure loss in this sec-
tion is 1 psi (6.9 kPa) and the pressure for fric-
tion at point B is 9 psi (62.1 kPa). In section
KL, at point L, there is 0 pressure left for fric-
tion. This is the governing fixture.
The next tabulation illustrates the sizing of
branches (using a different friction-loss basis
than was used for the main).
10 psi (69 kPa) available for friction loss; long-
est run: AL, 100 ft (30.5 m); average pressure
drop: (10 100)/100 = 10 psi/100 ft (226.2 kPa/
100 m).
Method A uses the same average pressure
loss in the branches as was used in the line to
the governing fixture. The pressure available for
friction at the end of each branch is not 0. At
point M, it is 1 psi (6.9 kPa); at point R, it is 5 psi
(34.5 kPa); and at point U, it reaches a maxi-
mum of 8 psi (55.2 kPa). Unless the pressure to
each fixture is used up as friction loss, it tends
to cause more water than necessary to flow
through the branches to use the excess avail-
able pressure.
Method B illustrates the ideal system. All the
available frictional pressure in each of the
branches is used. In actual practice, this method
can not be utilized. The average pressure loss in
each section is very high, far higher than is nor-
mally accepted in modern construction. Many
engineers and designers would be concerned with
the high pressure loss as well as with the high
velocity shown by this example.
Method C is a modified header system. The
main was sized on the average pressure drop of
the system and the branches sized on their al-
lowable frictional pressure drop. At section MJ,
the total allowable pressure drop over the entire
system (point A to point M) is 10 psi (69 kPa).
Point M has an equivalent length of 90 ft (27.4
m) from point A. This gives an average pressure
Figure 5-4 Typical Friction Losses for Disk-Type Water Meters
4
"
6
"
3
"
2
"
1
-
1
/
2
"
1
"
3
/
4
"
5
/
8
"
137.9
110.3
69.0
62.1
55.2
48.3
41.4
34.5
27.6
20.7
13.8
6.9
20
16
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 30 40 50 60 80 100 200 300 400 600 800 1000
0
.
2
5
0
.
3
2
0
.
3
8
0
.
4
4
0
.
5
0
0
.
5
7
0
.
6
3
1
.
2
6
1
.
8
9
2
.
5
2
3
.
1
5
3
.
7
8
5
.
0
4
6
.
3
0
1
2
.
6
1
8
.
9
2
5
.
2
3
7
.
8
5
0
.
4
6
3
.
0
Flow, liters per second
Flow, gallons per minute
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

L
o
s
s
,

k
i
l
o
P
a
s
c
a
l
s
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

L
o
s
s
,

p
o
u
n
d
s

p
e
r

i
n
c
h

s
q
u
a
r
e
d
ASPE Data Book Volume 2 128
Table 5-7 Allowance for Friction Loss in Valves and Threaded Fittings
Equivalent Length of Pipe for Various Fittings (ft)
Diameter 90 45 Coupling
of Fitting Standard Standard Standard or Straight Gate Globe Angle
(in.) Elbow Elbow T 90 Run of T Valve Valve Valve
a 1 0.6 1.5 0.3 0.2 8 4
2 1.2 3 0.6 0.4 15 8
2.5 1.5 4 0.8 0.5 20 12
1 3 1.8 5 0.9 0.6 25 15
1 4 2.4 6 1.2 0.8 35 18
1 5 3 7 1.5 1 45 22
2 7 4 10 2 1.3 55 28
2 8 5 12 2.5 1.6 65 34
3 10 6 15 3 2 80 40
4 14 8 21 4 2.7 125 55
5 17 10 25 5 3.3 140 70
6 20 12 30 6 4 165 80
Note: Allowances based on nonrecessed threaded fittings. Use the allowances for recessed threaded fittings or streamline solder fittings.
Table 5-7 (M) Allowance for Friction Loss in Valves and Threaded Fittings
Equivalent Length of Pipe for Various Fittings (m)
Diameter 90 45 Coupling
of Fitting Standard Standard Standard or Straight Gate Globe Angle
(mm) Elbow Elbow T 90 Run of T Valve Valve Valve
9.5 0.3 0.2 0.5 0.09 0.06 2.4 1.2
12.7 0.6 0.4 0.9 0.18 0.12 4.6 2.4
19.1 0.8 0.5 1.2 0.24 0.15 6.1 3.7
25.4 0.9 0.6 1.5 0.27 0.18 7.6 4.6
31.8 1.2 0.7 1.8 0.4 0.24 10.7 5.5
38.1 1.5 0.9 2.1 0.5 0.3 13.7 6.7
50.8 2.1 1.2 3.1 0.6 0.4 16.8 8.5
63.5 2.4 1.5 3.7 0.8 0.5 19.8 10.4
76.2 3.1 1.8 4.6 0.9 0.6 24.4 12.2
101.6 4.3 2.4 6.4 1.2 0.8 38.1 16.8
127 5.2 3.1 7.6 1.5 1.0 42.7 21.3
152.4 6.1 3.7 9.1 1.8 1.2 50.3 24.4
Note: Allowances based on nonrecessed threaded fittings. Use the allowances for recessed threaded fittings or streamline solder fittings.
129 Chapter 5 Cold-Water Systems
Table 5-8 Flow and Pressure Required for Various Fixtures during Flow
Fixture Pressure, psi (kPa)
a
Flow, gpm (L/s)
Basin faucet 8 (55.2) 3 (0.19)
Basin faucet, self-closing 12 (82.7) 2.5 (0.16)
Sink faucet, a in. (9.5 mm) 10 (69) 4.5 (0.28)
Sink faucet, in. (12.7 mm) 5 (34.5) 4.5 (0.28)
Dishwasher 1525 (103.4172.4)
b
Bathtub faucet 5 (34.5) 6 (0.38)
Laundry tub cock, in. (6.4 mm) 5 (34.5) 5 (0.32)
Shower 12 (82.7) 310 (0.190.6)
Water closet, ball cock 15 (103.4) 3 (0.19)
Water closet, flush valve 1020 (69137.9) 1540 (0.952.5)
Urinal flush valve 15 (103.4) 15 (0.95)
Garden hose, 50 ft (15.2 m), and sill cock 30 (206.8) 5 (0.32)
a
Residual pressure in the pipe at the entrance of the fixture considered.
b
See manufacturers data.
Figure 5-5 Establishing the Governing Fixture or Appliance
ASPE Data Book Volume 2 130
METHOD A
Developed Developed Friction Friction Loss Total Pressure Pressure at End
Length in Section, Length from Loss, psi/100 ft in Section, Loss from Friction, of Section for
Section ft (m) Point A, ft (m) (kPa/100 m) psi (kPa) psi (kPa) Friction, psi (kPa)
AB 10 (3.1) 10 (3.l) 10 (226.2) 1 (6.9) 1 (6.9) 9 (62.1)
BC 10 (3.1) 20 (6.1) 10 (226.2) 1 (6.9) 2 (13.8) 8 (552)
CD 10 (3.1) 30 (9.1) 10 (226.2) 1 (6.9) 3 (20.7) 7 (48.3)
DE 10 (3.1) 40 (12.2) 10 (226.2) 1 (6.9) 4 (27.6) 6 (41.4)
EF 10 (3.1) 50 (15 2) 10 (226.2) 1 (6 9) 5 (34.5) 5 (34.5)
FG 10 (3.1) 60 (18.3) 10 (226.2) 1 (6.9) 6 (41.4) 4 (27.6)
GH 10 (3.1) 70 (21.3) 10 (226.2) 1 (6.9) 7 (48.3) 3 (20.7)
HJ 10 (3.1) 80 (24.4) 10 (226.2) 1 (6.9) 8 (55.2) 2 (13.8)
JK 10 (3.1) 90 (27.4) 10 (226.2) 1 (6.9) 9 (62.1) 1 (6.9)
KL 10 (3.1) 100 (30.5) 10 (226.2) 1 (6.9) 10 (69) 0 (0)
METHOD B
Developed Developed Pressure Friction Friction Pressure
Length in Section, Length from at Start, Loss, psi/100 ft in Section, at End,
Section ft (m) Point A, ft (m) psi (kPa) (kPa/100 m) psi (kPa) psi (kPa)
MJ 10 (3.1) 90 (27.4) 2 (13.8) 10 (226.2) 1 (6.9) 1 (6.9)
NH 10 (3.1) 80 (24.4) 3 (20.7) 10 (226.2) 1 (6.9) 2 (13.8)
PG 10 (3.1) 70 (21.3) 4 (27.6) 10 (226.2) 1 (6.9) 3 (20.7)
QF 10 (3.1) 60 (18.3) 5 (34.5) 10 (226.2) 1 (6 9) 4 (27.6)
RE 10 (3.1) 50 (15.2) 6 (41.4) 10 (226.2) 1 (6.9) 5 (34 5)
SD 10 (3.1) 40 (12.2) 7 (48.3) 10 (226.2) 1 (6.9) 6 (41.4)
TC 10 (3.1) 30 (9.1) 8 (55.2) 10 (226.2) 1 (6.9) 7 (48.3)
UB 10 (3.1) 20 (6.1) 9 (62.1) 10 (226.2) 1 (6.9) 8 (55.2)
METHOD C
Friction Friction Pressure Friction Friction Pressure
Loss, psi/100 ft in Section, at End, Loss, psi/100 ft in Section, at End,
Section (kPa/100 m) psi (kPa) psi (kPa) (kPa/100 m) psi (kPa) psi (kPa)
MJ 20 (452.4) 2 (13.8) 0 (0) 11.1 (251.1) 1.1 (7.6) 0.90 (6.2)
NH 30 (678.6) 3 (20.7) 0 (0) 12.5 (282.8) 1.25 (8.6) 1.75 (12.1)
PG 40 (904.8) 4 (27.6) 0 (0) 14.3 (323.5) 1.43 (9.9) 2.57 (17.7)
QF 50 (1131) 5 (34.5) 0 (0) 16.6 (375.5) 1.66 (11.5) 3.34 (23)
RE 60 (1357.2) 6 (41.4) 0 (0) 20 (452.4) 2 (13.8) 4 (27.6)
SD 70 (1583.5) 7 (48.3) 0 (0) 25 (565.5) 2.5 (17.2) 4.5 (31)
TC 80 (1809.7) 8 (55.2) 0 (0) 33.3 (753.3) 3.33 (23) 4.66 (32.1)
UB 90 (2035.9) 9 (62.1) 0 (0) 50 (1131) 5 (34.5) 4 (27.6)
Figure 5-6 Determining Pressure Available for Friction
131 Chapter 5 Cold-Water Systems
drop of 11.1 psi (7.6 kPa) and an unused fric-
tional pressure of 0.9 psi (6.2 kPa). By going
through all the branches in the same manner,
one can see that the unused frictional pressure
varies from 0.9 psi (6.2 kPa) to a maximum of
4.66 psi (32.1 kPa). These pressures are far less
than those resulting from Method A and the av-
erage pressure drops are far less than those re-
sulting from Method B. Consequently, Method C
is the one most widely used by designers. In ac-
tual practice, it is not necessary to calculate the
average pressure drop for each branch; usually,
the branches are close together and the changes
in the average pressure drop are very small.
The last step is to take advantage of all avail-
able pressure. For example, a water heater could
be located on the roof of a building. If the water
system was designed to have a residual pres-
sure on the roof of 15 psi (103.4 kPa), then the
hot water piping system can be sized with a static
pressure gain available, to be used for friction
loss in the hot water piping. Another example of
utilizing available pressure is an installation with
a combination of flush valves and flush-tank
water closets sized on the basis of a flush-valve
system having a residual pressure of 15 psi
(103.4 kPa). Within this system, the branches
that have only flush-tank fixtures have an addi-
tional 7 psi (48.3 kPa) of pressure, which can be
used for friction. The 7 psi (48.3 kPa) is the dif-
ference between the 15 psi (103.4 kPa) and 8 psi
(55.2 kPa) residual pressures.
Velocity Method Another method designers
use to size water piping is the velocity method.
The average pressure drop available for friction
is calculated and, if it is greater than 7 or 8 psi/
100 ft (158.4 or 181 kPa/100 m), the lines are
sized on the basis of a 5 or 6-fps (1.5 or 1.8 m/s)
velocity. In this method, the main line is conser-
vatively sized and the short branches may slightly
exceed the average pressure drop. However, the
total pressure drop of the system does not ex-
ceed the allowable pressure loss for friction.
Summary
The following items must be determined and cal-
culated when sizing a system:
1. The maximum flow rate of the system.
2. The maximum and minimum water pressure
in the main.
3. The residual pressure required at the gov-
erning fixture or appliance.
4. The static pressure loss to get to the govern-
ing fixture or appliance.
5. The meter loss.
6. Other losses between the meter and the gov-
erning fixture or appliance.
7. The pressure available for friction.
8. The average pressure drop from the meter to
the governing fixture or appliance.
9. The average pressure drop for the other sys-
tems.
10. The size of the line from the meter to the
governing fixture or appliance.
11. The size of the branch line.
For the convenience of the designer in sizing
water systems, the following tables and figures
are provided:
Table 5-9. Water pipe sizing, fixture units vs.
psi/100 ft (kPa/100 m), Type L copper tub-
ing.
Table 5-10. Water pipe sizing, fixture units
vs. psi/100 ft (kPa/l00 m), galvanized, fairly
rough pipe.
Figure 5-7. Pipe sizing data, copper tubing,
smooth pipe.
Figure 5-8. Pipe sizing data, fairly smooth
pipe.
Figure 5-9. Pipe sizing data, fairly rough pipe.
Figure 5-10. Pipe sizing data, rough pipe.
WATER HAMMER
Water hammer is the term used to define the
destructive forces, pounding noises, and vibra-
tions that develop in a piping system when a
column of noncompressible liquid (water) flow-
ing through a pipeline at a given pressure and
velocity is stopped abruptly. The surge pressure
(or pressure wave) generated at the point of im-
pact or stoppage travels back and forth through
the piping system until the destructive energy is
dissipated in the piping system. This violent ac-
tion accounts for the piping noise and vibration.
The common cause of shock is the quick clos-
ing of electrical, pneumatic, spring-loaded valves
or devices, as well as the quick, hand closure of
valves or fixture trim. The valve closure time is
ASPE Data Book Volume 2 132
directly related to the intensity of the surge
pressure.
Shock Intensity
Quick valve closure may be defined as a closure
time equal to or less than 2L/a seconds, where
L is the length of pipe (ft) (m) from the point of
closure to the point of relief (the point of relief is
usually a larger pipe riser or main or a water
tank), and a is the velocity of propagation of
elastic vibration in the pipe (fps). The expression
2L/a is the time interval required for the pres-
sure wave to travel from the point of closure to
the relief point and back to the point of closure.
Maximum pressure rise can be calculated by
the following, known as Joukowskys formula:
Equation 5-2
P
r
=
wav
144g
where
P
r
= Pressure rise above flow pressure, psi
(kPa)
w = Specific weight of liquid, lb/ft
3
(kg/m
3
)
a = Velocity of pressure wave, fps (4000
4500 average for water) (m/s [1219
1372 average])
v = Change in flow velocity, fps (m/s)
g = Acceleration due to gravity, 32 ft/s
2
(10 m/s
2
)
This action produces a pressure rise of ap-
proximately 60 times the change in velocity. En-
gineers generally employ a velocity between 5 and
10 fps (1.5 and 3.1 m/s), which may produce a
shock pressure of 300600 psi (20684137 kPa).
The resultant water-hammer shock wave trav-
els back and forth in the piping, between the
point of quick closure and the point of relief, at a
rate of 40004500 fps (12191372 m/s).
Although noise is generally associated with
the occurrence of water hammer, water hammer
can occur without audible sound. Quick closure
always creates some degree of shockwith or
without noise. Therefore, the absence of noise
does not indicate that water hammer or shock is
nonexistent in a water-distribution system.
System Protection and Control
Water hammer arresters prolong the life and
service of piping, valves, fittings, trim, equipment,
apparatus, and other devices that are part of, or
connected to, a water-distribution system.
To reduce shock pressure and confine its
action to the section of piping in which it oc-
curs, a suitable means of control must be pro-
vided to absorb and dissipate the energy causing
the shock. Water hammer arresters provide a
diaphragm that moves with the pressure fluc-
tuations, absorbing the shock wave. Air or an-
other gas is the most effective medium to use for
this purpose since it is highly compressible,
thereby offering the maximum displacement
cushion for absorbing the shock.
Air chambers The air chamber has been uti-
lized for controlling shock for many years. The
unit consists of a capped piece of pipe having
the same diameter as the line it serves; its length
ranges from 12 in. to 24 ft (304.8609.6 mm).
The air chamber is constructed in several differ-
ent shapes.
Figure 5-11 shows a few examples of air
chambers. Plain air chambers, Figure 5-11(a) and
(b), are generally placed on the supply lines to
fixtures or equipment. A standpipe type of air
chamber, Figure 5-11(c), is generally placed on
a piping main. A rechargeable type of air cham-
ber, Figure 5-11(d), is generally placed at the end
of a branch line or on a piping main.
The air chambers shown are made of pipe
and fittings. Unless devices are of the correct
size and contain a prescribed volume of air, how-
ever, they cannot be regarded as suitable even
for the temporary control of shock.
Most valves and fittings used in plumbing
water-distribution systems are designed and con-
structed for normal maximum working pressures
of 150 psig (1034 kPa). Therefore, unless an air
chamber can reduce shock pressures to some
degree less than 250 psig (1724 kPa), serious
damage to the valves, fittings, and other compo-
nents of the piping system may result. The com-
monly used air chamber, even when correctly
sized, controls shocks only temporarily after its
initial installation.
Although a correctly sized air chamber tem-
porarily controls shock to within safe limits of
pressure, its performance is effective only while
133 Chapter 5 Cold-Water Systems
Pipe Size,
Pressure
in. (mm)
Loss,
1 1 1 2 2
psi/100 ft
(12.7) (19.1) (25.4) (31.7) (38.1) (50.8) (63.5)
(kPa/100 m) Fixture Units
a
15 69
1.0 0 2 6 12 21 58 155
(22.6)
17 73
1.1 0 2 7 13 22 62 170
(24.9)
20 82
1.2 0 3 7 14 23 67 185
(27.2)
23 91
1.3 0 3 7 15 24 74 199
(29.4)
26 100
1.4 0 3 8 15 25 81 213
(31.7)
28 109
1.5 0 3 8 16 27 86 226
(33.9)
31 120
1.6 0 3 8 17 28 93 241
(36.2)
33 130
1.7 0 4 9 17 30 98 252
(38.5)
36 140
1.8 0 4 9 18 31 105 264
(40.7)
39 150
1.9 0 4 10 19 32 111 277
(43)
42 161
2.0 0 4 10 20 33 115 287
(45.2)
6 48 183
2.2 0 4 11 21 36 127 312
(49.8)
7 53 205
2.4 1 4 12 22 39 138 337
(54.3)
8 59 225
2.6 1 4 12 23 42 150 360
(58.8)
9 66 245
2.8 1 5 13 24 45 160 380
(63.3)
10 74 265
3.0 1 5 13 25 47 171 401
(67.9)
11 81 285
3.2 1 6 14 26 50 183 421
(72.4)
12 87 309
3.4 1 6 15 28 52 194 441
(76.9)
13 95 336
3.6 1 6 15 29 55 205 460
(81.4)
14 102 365
3.8 1 6 16 30 57 215 479
(86)
15 106 390
4.0 1 6 16 31 58 225 500
(90.5)
16 116 410
4.2 1 7 16 32 61 236 517
(95)
18 124 430
4.4 1 7 17 34 63 245 533
(99.5)
5 20 131 448
4.6 2 7 18 35 65 253 549
(104.1)
6 21 139 466
4.8 2 7 19 36 68 263 564
(108.6)
6 22 145 484
5.0 2 7 19 37 72 271 580
(113.1)
7 24 153 504
5.2 2 8 19 38 75 280 597
(117.6)
7 25 163 526
5.4 2 8 20 40 79 289 614
(122.2)
8 26 171 *549
5.6 2 8 20 42 83 298 630
(126.7)
8 27 177 *570
5.8 2 8 21 43 85 306 646
(131.2)
9 29 185 *591
6.0 2 8 21 44 88 314 662
(135.7)
9 30 199 *610
6.2 2 9 22 45 92 323 676
(140.3)
Pipe Size,
Pressure
in. (mm)
Loss,
1 1 1 2 2
psi/100 ft
(12.7) (19.1) (25.4) (31.7) (38.1) (50.8) (63.5)
(kPa/100 m) Fixture Units
a
Table 5-9 Water Pipe SizingFixture Units vs. psi/100 ft (kPa/100 m),
Type L Copper Tubing
Note: Velocities at 5 ( ), 6 ( ), 8 ( ), and 10 ( * ) fps.

a
Numbers in small type are flush-valve fixture units; numbers in large type are flush-tank fixture units.
(Continued)
ASPE Data Book Volume 2 134
10 31 202 *631
6.4 2 9 22 46 95 333 692
(144.8)
10 32 210 *652
6.6 3 9 23 47 97 343 709
(149.3)
11 34 216 *673
6.8 3 9 23 49 101 351 725
(153.8)
11 35 *223 *693
7.0 3 9 23 50 104 359 742
(158.4)
12 37 *231 *713
7.2 3 10 24 51 106 367 758
(162.9)
12 38 *241 *732
7.4 3 10 24 52 109 375 775
(167.4)
13 40 *250 *754
7.6 3 10 24 53 112 385 791
(171.9)
13 41 *259 *774
7.8 3 11 25 54 114 394 808
(176.4)
14 43 *265 *793
8.0 3 11 25 55 117 401 824
(181)
14 44 *273 *811
8.2 3 11 26 56 120 409 840
(185.5)
14 46 *280 *829
8.4 3 11 26 57 123 416 856
(190)
15 47 *286 *848
8.6 3 11 27 57 126 423 872
(194.5)
15 48 *295 *867
8.8 3 11 27 58 128 431 889
(199.1)
16 50 *305 *887
9.0 3 12 27 59 130 437 906
(203.6)
16 51 *314 *908
9.2 3 12 28 60 133 444 925
(208.1)
17 52 *323 *930
9.4 3 12 29 61 136 450 944
(212.6)
17 54 *329 *950
9.6 3 12 29 62 140 455 963
(217.2)
18 *56 *336 *970
9.8 3 12 29 64 145 460 982
(221.7)
19 *58 *346 *993
10.0 4 13 30 65 148 467 1003
(226.2)
20 *61 *366 *1022
10.4 4 13 31 67 153 480 1030
(235.3)
21 *63 *374 *1039
10.6 4 13 31 68 155 487 1044
(239.8)
22 *66 *390 *1068
11.0 4 13 32 71 160 500 1072
(248.8)
23 *70 *405 *1089
11.4 4 14 33 74 166 513 1099
(257.9)
24 *72 *414 *1124
11.6 4 14 34 76 169 520 1124
(262.4)
5 25 *76 *430 *1124
12.0 4 14 34 79 175 533 1124
(271.5)
5 *26 *80 *444 *1124
12.4 4 14 35 82 181 545 1124
(280.5)
6 *27 *81 *452 *1124
12.6 4 15 36 84 184 552 1124
(285)
6 *28 *85 *466 *1124
13.0 4 15 37 86 190 564 1124
(294.1)
6 *29 *88 *480 *1124
13.4 4 15 37 89 195 577 1124
(303.1)
6 *30 *90 *488 *1124
13.6 4 15 38 91 199 583 1124
(307.6)
7 *31 *94 *502 *1124
14.0 5 16 40 94 204 595 1124
(316.7)
7 *32 *98 *517 *1124
14.4 5 16 41 98 208 608 1124
(325.7)
8 *33 *99 *526 *1124
14.6 5 16 41 99 210 614 1124
(330.3)
8 *34 *102 *536 *1124
15.0 5 16 42 101 215 622 1124
(339.3)
Pipe Size,
Pressure
in. (mm)
Loss,
1 1 1 2 2
psi/100 ft
(12.7) (19.1) (25.4) (31.7) (38.1) (50.8) (63.5)
(kPa/100 m) Fixture Units
a
Pipe Size,
Pressure
in. (mm)
Loss,
1 1 1 2 2
psi/100 ft
(12.7) (19.1) (25.4) (31.7) (38.1) (50.8) (63.5)
(kPa/100 m) Fixture Units
a
(Table 5-9 continued)
Note: Velocities at 5 ( ), 6 ( ), 8 ( ), and 10 ( * ) fps.

a
Numbers in small type are flush-valve fixture units; numbers in large type are flush-tank fixture units.
(Continued)
135 Chapter 5 Cold-Water Systems
8 *35 *106 *536 *1124
15.5 5 16 43 104 221 622 1124
(350.6)
9 *37 *110 *536 *1124
16.0 5 17 44 107 227 622 1124
(361.9)
9 *39 *114 *536 *1124
16.5 5 17 45 110 233 622 1124
(373.2)
*10 *41 *119 *536 *1124
17.0 5 18 46 114 239 622 1124
(384.6)
*10 *43 *124 *536 *1124
17.5 5 18 47 117 245 622 1124
(395.9)
*11 *44 *129 *536 *1124
18.0 6 19 49 120 250 622 1124
(407.2)
*11 *46 *134 *536 *1124
18.5 6 19 50 123 257 622 1124
(418.5)
*12 *48 *139 *536 *1124
19.0 6 19 51 126 263 622 1124
(429.8)
*12 *49 *144 *536 *1124
19.5 6 20 52 129 270 622 1124
(441.1)
*13 *51 *149 *536 *1124
20 6 20 53 132 276 622 1124
(452.4)
* *13 *53 *160 *536 *1124
21 6 21 54 138 286 622 1124
(475)
* *14 *57 *160 *536 *1124
22 6 21 56 145 286 622 1124
(497.7)
* *15 *61 *160 *536 *1124
23 7 21 58 152 286 622 1124
(520.3)
* *16 *65 *160 *536 *1124
24 7 22 60 158 286 622 1124
(542.9)
* *16 *68 *160 *536 *1124
25 7 23 62 164 286 622 1124
(565.5)
* *19 *71 *160 *536 *1124
26 7 23 65 168 286 622 1124
(588.1)
* *21 *71 *160 *536 *1124
28 7 24 68 168 286 622 1124
(633.4)
* * *23 *71 *160 *536 *1124
30 8 26 75 168 286 622 1124
(678.6)
* * *26 *71 *160 *536 *1124
32 8 27 81 168 286 622 1124
(723.9)
* * *26 *71 *160 *536 *1124
34 8 28 82 168 286 622 1124
(769.1)
* * *26 *71 *160 *536 *1124
36 9 29 82 168 286 622 1124
(814.4)
* * *26 *71 *160 *536 *1124
38 9 31 82 168 286 622 1124
(859.6)
* * *26 *71 *160 *536 *1124
40 9 32 82 168 286 622 1124
(904.8)
* * *26 *71 *160 *536 *1124
42 10 33 82 168 286 622 1124
(950.1)
* * *26 *71 *160 *536 *1124
44 10 34 82 168 286 622 1124
(995.3)
* * *26 *71 *160 *536 *1124
44 11 35 82 168 286 622 1124
(1040.6)
* * *26 *71 *160 *536 *1124
48 11 35 82 168 286 622 1124
(1085.8)
* * *26 *71 *160 *536 *1124
50 11 35 82 168 286 622 1124
(1131)
* * *26 *71 *160 *536 *1124
55 12 35 82 168 286 622 1124
(1244.1)
* * *26 *71 *160 *536 *1124
60 13 35 82 168 286 622 1124
(1357.2)
* * *26 *71 *160 *536 *1124
80 14 35 82 168 286 622 1124
(1809.7)
* * *26 *71 *160 *536 *1124
100 14 35 82 168 286 622 1124
(2262.1)
Pipe Size,
Pressure
in. (mm)
Loss,
1 1 1 2 2
psi/100 ft
(12.7) (19.1) (25.4) (31.7) (38.1) (50.8) (63.5)
(kPa/100 m) Fixture Units
a
Pipe Size,
Pressure
in. (mm)
Loss,
1 1 1 2 2
psi/100 ft
(12.7) (19.1) (25.4) (31.7) (38.1) (50.8) (63.5)
(kPa/100 m) Fixture Units
a
(Table 5-9 continued)
Note: Velocities at 5 ( ), 6 ( ), 8 ( ), and 10 ( * ) fps.

a
Numbers in small type are flush-valve fixture units; numbers in large type are flush-tank fixture units.
ASPE Data Book Volume 2 136
40 162
3.2 0 3 9 19 35 112 288
(72.4)
6 43 174
3.4 0 3 10 20 36 118 302
(76.9)
7 46 186
3.6 0 4 10 20 38 123 315
(81.4)
7 49 198
3.8 0 4 11 21 40 129 329
(86)
8 52 210
4.0 1 4 11 21 42 135 343
(90.5)
9 54 221
4.2 1 4 12 22 43 141 356
(95)
10 58 238
4.4 1 5 12 23 45 147 369
(99.5)
10 62 345
4.6 1 5 12 23 46 153 380
(104.1)
10 66 256
4.8 1 5 12 24 48 160 391
(108.6)
11 71 265
5.0 1 5 13 24 49 167 403
(113.1)
12 75 278
5.2 1 6 13 25 51 174 415
(117.6)
13 79 290
5.4 1 6 13 26 52 180 426
(122.2)
13 82 302
5.6 1 6 14 27 54 185 436
(126.7)
14 85 314
5.8 1 6 14 27 55 191 446
(131.2)
14 89 329
6.0 1 6 15 28 56 197 455
(135.7)
15 93 343
6.2 1 6 15 29 57 202 465
(140.3)
Table 5-10 Water pipe sizing fixture units versus psi/100 ft. (kPa/100 m),
Galvanized fairly-rough pipe
Pipe Size,
Pressure
in. (mm)
Loss,
1 1 1 2 2
psi/100 ft
(12.7) (19.1) (25.4) (31.7) (38.1) (50.8) (63.5)
(kPa/100 m) Fixture Units
a
8 37
1.0 0 1 4 8 16 42 107
(22.6)
9 42
1.1 0 1 5 9 17 45 115
(24.9)
11 46
1.2 0 1 5 10 19 48 124
(27.2)
12 51
1.3 0 1 6 11 20 51 133
(29.4)
13 55
1.4 0 2 6 11 20 54 143
(31.7)
14 62
1.5 0 2 6 12 21 56 153
(33.9)
15 67
1.6 0 2 6 12 22 58 162
(36.2)
16 74
1.7 0 2 6 12 23 60 171
(38.5)
18 80
1.8 0 2 6 13 23 63 180
(40.7)
20 85
1.9 0 2 7 13 24 66 189
(43)
22 90
2.0 0 3 7 14 25 70 190
(45.2)
25 102
2.2 0 3 7 15 26 77 215
(49.8)
27 112
2.4 0 3 7 15 28 85 231
(54.3)
30 124
2.6 0 3 8 16 30 92 245
(58.8)
33 136
2.8 0 3 8 17 32 99 259
(63.3)
36 148
3.0 0 3 9 18 33 105 275
(67.9)
Pipe Size,
Pressure
in. (mm)
Loss,
1 1 1 2 2
psi/100 ft
(12.7) (19.1) (25.4) (31.7) (38.1) (50.8) (63.5)
(kPa/100 m) Fixture Units
a
Note: Velocities at 5 ( ), 6 ( ), 8 ( ), and 10 ( * ) fps.

a
Numbers in small type are flush-valve fixture units; numbers in large type are flush-tank fixture units.
(Continued)
137 Chapter 5 Cold-Water Systems
8 28 164 557
9.8 1 8 20 41 87 291 636
(221.7)
8 29 170 *570
10.0 1 8 20 42 88 297 646
(226.2)
8 31 175 *592
10.4 2 8 20 43 93 304 663
(235.3)
9 31 177 *603
10.6 2 9 21 44 95 307 669
(239.8)
9 33 186 *620
11.0 2 9 21 45 66 315 684
(248.8)
10 34 193 *638
11.4 2 9 22 46 101 323 697
(257.9)
10 35 197 *647
11.6 2 9 22 47 104 327 704
(262.4)
11 37 208 *666
12.0 2 9 23 48 107 334 719
(271.5)
11 39 213 *687
12.4 2 9 23 49 110 348 737
(280.5)
11 40 218 *698
12.6 3 10 23 50 112 242 746
(285)
12 41 *226 *724
13.0 3 10 24 51 114 362 766
(294.1)
12 43 *234 *745
13.4 3 10 24 52 118 370 783
(303.1)
13 44 *239 *754
13.6 3 10 24 53 128 374 791
(307.6)
13 46 *247 *775
14.0 3 10 24 53 122 382 809
(316.7)
13 47 *255 *795
14.4 3 11 25 54 125 290 826
(325.7)
14 48 *258 *805
14.6 3 11 25 55 126 394 834
(330.3)
15 96 358
6.4 1 6 15 29 58 208 474
(144.8)
16 100 372
6.6 1 6 15 30 59 213 484
(149.3)
17 104 384
6.8 1 7 16 31 61 219 495
(153.8)
18 107 395
7.0 1 7 16 32 62 224 505
(158.4)
19 112 407
7.2 1 7 16 32 64 230 515
(162.9)
20 116 420
7.4 1 7 17 33 66 236 525
(167.4)
20 119 432
7.6 1 7 17 33 67 240 535
(171.9)
5 20 123 443
7.8 1 7 17 34 68 244 544
(176.4)
5 22 127 454
8.0 1 7 18 34 71 249 554
(181)
6 23 131 465
8.2 1 7 18 35 73 253 563
(185.5)
6 24 134 475
8.4 1 7 18 36 75 257 572
(190)
6 25 138 487
8.6 1 7 19 37 77 262 582
(194.5)
7 25 142 498
8.8 1 8 19 38 79 267 591
(199.1)
7 26 146 508
9.0 1 8 19 39 81 272 600
(203.6)
7 26 150 519
9.2 1 8 19 39 83 277 609
(208.1)
7 27 154 532
9.4 1 8 20 40 85 281 618
(212.6)
8 28 160 545
9.6 1 8 20 41 86 286 627
(217.2)
Pipe Size,
Pressure
in. (mm)
Loss,
1 1 1 2 2
psi/100 ft
(12.7) (19.1) (25.4) (31.7) (38.1) (50.8) (63.5)
(kPa/100 m) Fixture Units
a
Pipe Size,
Pressure
in. (mm)
Loss,
1 1 1 2 2
psi/100 ft
(12.7) (19.1) (25.4) (31.7) (38.1) (50.8) (63.5)
(kPa/100 m) Fixture Units
a
(Table 5-10 continued)
Note: Velocities at 5 ( ), 6 ( ), 8 ( ), and 10 ( * ) fps.

a
Numbers in small type are flush-valve fixture units; numbers in large type are flush-tank fixture units.
(Continued)
ASPE Data Book Volume 2 138
* *33 *100 *515 *1173
28 4 16 41 98 225 606 1173
(633.4)
* *35 *118 *521 *1173
30 5 17 43 104 238 611 1173
(678.6)
* *40 *128 *521 *1173
32 5 17 45 112 250 611 1173
(723.9)
* *43 *138 *521 *1173
34 5 18 47 117 262 611 1173
(769.1)
* * *46 *148 *521 *1173
36 6 19 49 123 275 611 1173
(814.4)
* * *49 *159 *521 *1173
38 6 20 51 128 285 611 1173
(859.6)
* * *52 *160 *521 *1173
40 6 20 53 134 286 611 1173
(904.8)
* * *54 *160 *521 *1173
42 6 21 55 141 286 611 1173
(950.1)
* * *59 *160 *521 *1173
44 6 21 56 148 286 611 1173
(995.3)
* * *63 *160 *521 *1173
46 6 22 58 154 286 611 1173
(1040.6)
* * * *64 *160 *521 *1173
48 7 23 60 156 286 611 1173
(1085.8)
* * * *64 *160 *521 *1173
50 7 23 61 156 286 611 1173
(1131)
* * * *64 *160 *521 *1173
55 7 24 66 156 286 611 1173
(1244.1)
* * * *64 *160 *521 *1173
60 7 25 72 156 286 611 1173
(1357.2)
* * * *64 *160 *521 *1173
80 9 31 72 156 286 611 1173
(1809.7)
* * * *64 *160 *521 *1173
100 10 31 72 156 286 611 1173
(2262.1)
14 50 *265 *827
15.0 3 11 26 56 129 401 854
(339.3)
14 52 *275 *851
15.5 3 11 26 57 134 411 875
(350.6)
15 53 *284 *875
16.0 3 12 27 58 138 420 896
(361.9)
16 54 *292 *900
16.5 3 12 27 59 142 428 918
(373.2)
16 57 *302 *924
17.0 3 12 28 61 146 436 939
(384.6)
17 *60 *315 *947
17.5 3 13 29 62 150 444 960
(395.9)
18 *62 *325 *969
18.0 3 13 29 64 153 452 981
(407.2)
19 *64 *336 *992
18.5 3 13 30 65 157 460 1002
(418.5)
20 *66 *350 *1015
19.0 3 13 30 66 160 469 1023
(429.8)
21 *69 *362 *1040
19.5 3 13 31 68 166 477 1045
(441.1)
21 *72 *371 *1066
20 4 13 31 69 169 484 1066
(452.4)
23 *76 *390 *1116
21 4 13 32 74 175 500 1116
(475)
*25 *81 *410 *1165
22 4 14 34 77 183 517 1165
(497.7)
*26 *85 *430 *1173
23 4 14 34 82 190 533 1173
(520.3)
*27 *90 *448 *1173
24 4 15 35 85 198 549 1173
(542.9)
*28 *95 *466 *1173
25 4 15 37 87 205 564 1173
(565.5)
*30 *99 *484 *1173
26 4 15 39 91 211 580 1173
(588.1)
Pipe Size,
Pressure
in. (mm)
Loss,
1 1 1 2 2
psi/100 ft
(12.7) (19.1) (25.4) (31.7) (38.1) (50.8) (63.5)
(kPa/100 m) Fixture Units
a
Pipe Size,
Pressure
in. (mm)
Loss,
1 1 1 2 2
psi/100 ft
(12.7) (19.1) (25.4) (31.7) (38.1) (50.8) (63.5)
(kPa/100 m) Fixture Units
a
(Table 5-10 continued)
Note: Velocities at 5 ( ), 6 ( ), 8 ( ), and 10 ( * ) fps.

a
Numbers in small type are flush-valve fixture units; numbers in large type are flush-tank fixture units.
139 Chapter 5 Cold-Water Systems
Figure 5-7 Pipe Sizing Data, Smooth Pipe
ASPE Data Book Volume 2 140
Figure 5-8 Pipe Sizing Data, Fairly Smooth Pipe
141 Chapter 5 Cold-Water Systems
Figure 5-9 Pipe Sizing Data, Fairly Rough Pipe
ASPE Data Book Volume 2 142
Figure 5-10 Pipe Sizing Data, Rough Pipe
143 Chapter 5 Cold-Water Systems
it retains its initial charge of air. Air-chamber
requirements are shown in Table 5-11.
The air charge can be depleted during the
flow cycle since water is drawn from all direc-
tions during flow. Moreover, the entrapped air is
also diminished by turbulence. During this pro-
cess the water absorbs the air, and as the unit
becomes waterlogged, it loses its ability to ab-
sorb shock.
Water hammer arresters
Symbols There are six manufactured sizes of
water hammer arrester, each having a different
capacity to control shock in piping systems of
varied sizes and scopes. The following symbols,
recommended by the Plumbing and Drainage
Institute (PDI), were devised to denote the range
in size of water hammer arrester:
A B C D E F
A is the smallest-sized unit and F represents
the largest.
Sizing and placement Sizing is based on fix-
ture units for single and multiple-fixture branch
lines and on pipe size.
Table 5-11 Required Air Chambers
Nominal Pipe Flow Velocity,
Required Air Chamber
Pipe Diam., Length, Pressure, fps Volume, Phys. Size,
in. (mm) ft (m) psig (kPa) (m/s) in.
3
(cm
3
) in. (cm)
(12.71) 25 (7.62) 30 (0.79) 10 (3.04) 8 (1.3) 15 (1.9 38.1)
(12.71) 100 (30.5) 60 (1.57) 10 (3.04) 60 (9.8) 1 69 (2.5 176.5)
(19.1) 50 (15.25) 60 (1.57) 5 (1.52) 13 (2.1) 1 5 (2.5 12.7)
(19.1) 200 (61.0) 30 (0.79) 10 (3.04) 108 (17.7) 1 72 (3.2 184.2)
1 (25.4) 100 (30.5) 60 (1.57) 5 (1.52) 19 (3.1) 1 12
7
/10 (3.2 32.3)
1 (25.4) 50 (15.25) 30 (0.79) 10 (3.04) 40 (6.6) 1 27 (3.2 68.6)
1 (31.8) 50 (15.25) 60 (1.57) 10 (3.04) 110 (18.0) 1 54 (3.2 137.2)
1 (38.1) 200 (61.0) 30 (0.79) 5 (1.52) 90 (14.8) 2 27 (5.1 68.6)
1 (38.1) 50 (15.25) 60 (1.57) 10 (3.04) 170 (27.9) 2 50 (5.1 128.3)
2 (50.8) 100 (30.5) 30 (0.79) 10 (3.04) 329 (53.9) 3 44 (7.6 113.0)
2 (50.8) 25 (7.62) 60 (1.57) 10 (3.04) 150 (24.6) 2 31 (6.4 78.7)
2 (50.8) 200 (61.0) 60 (1.57) 5 (1.52) 300 (49.2) 3 40 (7.6 102.9)
In most installations where there are several
fixtures, usually only one fixture valve will be closed
at a time. Occasionally, however, two or more fix-
ture valves may be closed at the same instant.
Table 5-12, Sizing and Selection of Water-Hammer
a b c d
Figure 5-11 Air Chambers: (a, b) Plain Air
Chambers, (c) Standpipe Air Chamber,
(d) Rechargeable Air Chamber
ASPE Data Book Volume 2 144
Arresters, takes into consideration all design fac-
tors, including simultaneous usage, pipe size,
length, flow, pressure, and velocity.
Table 5-12 Sizing and Selection of
Water-Hammer Arresters
PDI Units A B C D E F
Fixture Units 111 1232 3360 61113 114154 155330
In the sizing of cold and hot-water branch
lines, it is usual practice to obtain the total num-
ber of fixture units on each branch line. This
information is then applied to sizing charts to
determine the required size of the branch line.
The properly sized water-hammer arresters
can be selected once the total number of fixture
units for a cold or hot-water branch line is
known. It is only necessary to apply the fixture
units to Table 5-12 and select the appropriate
water-hammer arrester.
Note the following:
When water pressure in the line exceeds 65
psig, select the next larger size water-ham-
mer arrester.
If the fixture-unit total includes a fraction, it
should be rounded up to the next larger whole
number. Thus, if the total is 11 fixture units,
the unit should be sized for 12 fixture units.
All sizing data in this chapter are based on
flow velocities of 10 fps (3 m/s) or less.
It is suggested that the engineer employ PDI
symbols for the riser diagrams for sizing water-
hammer arresters. This practice will enable
manufacturers to furnish the correct units.
The location of the water-hammer arresters
from the start of the horizontal branch line to
the last fixture supply on the branch line should
not exceed 20 ft (6.1 m) in length. When the
branch lines exceed the 20-ft (6.10-m) length,
an additional water-hammer arrester should be
used and each should be sized for half the fix-
ture-unit load. It has been established that the
preferred location for the water-hammer arrester
is at the end of the branch line between the last
two fixtures served. Units for branches serving
pieces of equipment with quick-closing valves
should be placed within a few ft (m) of the equip-
ment isolation valve.
To prevent the harboring of Legionella
pneumophila, bellows containing rubber should
not be used.
BACKFLOW PREVENTION
Theoretically, a well-designed and operated wa-
ter-supply system should always be under a con-
stant positive pressure, and contamination via
backflow or back-siphonage should never be able
to enter the distribution mains. Unfortunately,
accidents do occur when excessive water de-
mands for fire protection, operation of booster
pumps, flushing of water mains, repairs, modi-
fications, and maintenance to the distribution
system cause the water pressure to drop.
Whenever the pressure in the distribution
system becomes low or negative, a condition de-
velops that allows contamination to enter the
distribution system through connections with
fixtures, equipment, or tanks that contain toxic,
unsafe, or unpleasant liquids or gases. These
physical connections by which a water supply
may be contaminated are known as cross con-
nections. There are numerous, well-documented
cases where cross connections have been respon-
sible for contaminating drinking water and, as a
result, sometimes contributing to the spread of
fatal disease.
The contamination of a water system through
cross connections can be avoided. This section
describes the current recommended practice for
the detection and elimination of unprotected
cross connections.
Types of Cross-Connection Control
Device
When plumbing fixtures and equipment in wa-
ter-supply systems are subject to backflow con-
ditions, approved air gaps, backflow preventers,
or vacuum breakers should be used. The follow-
ing methods or devices can be used to protect
against backflow or back-siphonage:
Approved air-gap separation.
Barometric loop.
Mechanical protection devices.
Reduced-pressure-principle backflow devices
(RPBD).
Double-check valve assemblies (DCVA).
Atmospheric vacuum breakers (AVB).
145 Chapter 5 Cold-Water Systems
Pressure vacuum breakers (PVB).
Check valves with vent port (CVB).
The theory of backflow and back-siphonage
and the devices for their prevention are described
in Volume 4, Chapter 9, of the ASPE Data Book
(forthcoming). Refer to local codes and standards
before making selections.
Assessment of Hazard
The correct application of devices depends on the
correct assessment of the degree of hazard, on
whether back pressure or back-siphonage will oc-
cur, and on knowledge of the operation of various
types of approved backflow-prevention device.
In applying the recommendations outlined
in this section, three degrees of hazard must be
considered: severe, moderate, and minor. They
are defined as follows:
1. Severe. A cross connection or probable cross
connection involving any substance in suffi-
cient concentration to cause death or spread
disease or illness or containing any substance
that has a high probability of causing such
an effect.
2. Moderate. A cross connection or probable
cross connection involving any substance
that has a low probability of becoming a se-
vere hazard and would constitute a nuisance
or be aesthetically objectionable if introduced
into the domestic water supply.
3. Minor. An existing connection, or a high prob-
ability of a connection being made, between
the domestic water pipe and any pipe, equip-
ment, vat, or tank intended for carrying or
holding potable water that has a low prob-
ability of becoming contaminated with any
substance.
The application of backflow and back-sipho-
nage prevention devices is related to the prob-
ability of contamination as well as the recognition
of an existing health hazard. For the assessment
of probability, consideration must be given to the
possibility of changes being made to piping, im-
proper use of equipment, negligence of the cus-
tomer, etc.
Where a severe hazard exists, an air-gap
separation or a reduced-pressure-principle,
backflow-prevention device should be used be-
cause these two devices offer the highest known
degree of protection. An atmospheric or pressure
vacuum breaker should be used only to isolate a
severe hazard if area isolation is provided. Where
a moderate hazard exists, a double-check valve
assembly, or pressure or atmospheric vacuum
breaker may be used. Where a minor hazard ex-
ists, a pressure or atmospheric vacuum breaker
or check valves with vent port (no test cocks)
may need to be installed.
Toxicity and probability of occurrence illus-
trate the relationship between assessment of
hazard and application of devices. Because of
the subjective nature of assessing hazard, such
illustrations cannot be used as a strict guide,
providing a fixed answer for all circumstances.
Instead, past experience and local code require-
ments must also be used as guides. Such past
experience was the basis of Tables 5-13 and 5-14.
The requirement of protection increases as a
function of both an increase in the probability
that backflow or back-siphonage will occur and
an increase in the toxicity or possible toxicity of
a potential source of contamination. Where it is
highly probable that backflow or back-siphon-
age will occur, say from a standpipe in a tall
apartment building, the need for a backflow-pre-
vention device is low if the hazard of the poten-
tial source of contamination (sinks, water closets,
etc.) becoming toxic is very low. The converse is
also true, however, where a known health haz-
ard exists, the tendency is to be conservative
when selecting a backflow-prevention device
(RPBD used in place of DVC). The risk factor for
a health hazard is usually of greater concern than
the probability of backflow or back-siphonage in
the selection of a device.
Premise Isolation
In addition to installing backflow-prevention de-
vices at the source of potential contamination, it
may be necessary, or required by code, to install
a backflow-prevention device on the water-ser-
vice pipe to isolate an entire area or premise.
This additional protection for the purveyors wa-
ter system is warranted if the potential health
hazard is severe, or if a high probability exists
that piping within a premise will be changed. If
inspection on private property is restricted, the
only protection for the purveyors water system
is the installation of a backflow-prevention de-
vice on the water-service pipe.
Whenever possible, in-plant isolation is pre-
ferred over premise isolation because it protects
ASPE Data Book Volume 2 146
Table 5-13 Guide to the Assessment of Hazard and Application of Devices
Isolation at the Fixture
Recommended Additional
Description of Assessment of Recommended Device for Area of
Cross Connection Hazard Device at Fixture Premise Isolation
Aspirator (medical) Severe DCAP, AVB or PVB RPBD
Bed pan washers Severe DCAP, AVB or PVB RPBD
Autoclaves Severe DCAP, AVB or PVB RPBD
Specimen tanks Severe DCAP, AVB or PVB RPBD
Sterilizers Severe DCAP, AVB or PVB RPBD
Cuspidors Severe DCAP, AVB or PVB RPBD
Lab bench equipment Severe DCAP, AVB or PVB RPBD
Autopsy & mortuary equip. Severe AVB or PVB
Sewage pump Severe RPBD
Sewage ejectors Severe RPBD
Firefighting system (toxic-foamite) Severe RPBD
Connection to sewer pipe Severe AG
Connection to plating tanks Severe RPBD RPBD
Irrigation system or
chemical injectors or pumps Severe RPBD
Connection to salt-water cooling system Severe RPBD
Tank vats or other vessels containing
toxic substances Severe RPBD
Connection to industrial fluid systems Severe RPBD
Dye vats or machines Severe RPBD
Cooling towers with chemical additives Severe RPBD
Trap primer Severe AG
Steam generators Moderate
a
DCV
Heating equipment Moderate
a
DCV
Irrigation systems Moderate
a
DCV, AVB or PVB
Swimming pools Moderate
a
DCV or AG
Vending machines Moderate
a
DCV or PVB
Ornamental fountains Moderate
a
DCV or AVB or PVB
Degreasing equipment Moderate
a
DCV
Lab bench equipment Minor
a
AVB, PVB or CVP
Hose bibbs and yard hydrants Minor
a
AVB
Trap primers Minor
a
AG
Flexible shower heads Minor
a
AVB
Steam tables Minor
a
AVB
Washing equipment Minor
a
AVB
Shampoo basins Minor
a
AVB
Kitchen equipment Minor
a
AVB
Aspirators Minor
a
AVB
Domestic heating boiler Minor
a
CVP
a
Where a higher hazard exists (due to toxicity or health hazard), additional area protection with RPBD is required. See Table 5-14 for
additional information.
147 Chapter 5 Cold-Water Systems
in-plant personnel and, in most cases, the de-
vice can be sized smaller because in-plant pip-
ing is smaller. However, even with in-plant
isolation, the purveyor may still require premise
isolation.
The choice of devices for in-plant or premise
isolation depends on the degree of hazard. Sev-
eral premises that fall into the severe hazard clas-
sification and should be considered for isolation
from the purveyors system are noted in Tables
5-13 and 5-14 and on the following list.
1. Premises with unapproved auxiliary water
supplies.
2. Premises where inspection is restricted.
3. Hospitals, mortuaries, clinics, etc.
4. Laboratories.
5. Piers, docks, and other waterfront facilities.
6. Sewage-treatment plants.
7. Food and beverage-processing plants.
8. Chemical plants using a water process.
9. Metal-plating plants.
10. Petroleum-processing or storage plants.
11. Radioactive-material-processing plants and
nuclear reactors.
12. Car-washing facilities.
13. Animal-research, care, and processing
plants.
Table 5-14 Guide to the Assessment of Facility Hazard and Application of Devices
Containment of Premise
Recommended Device
Description of Premise Assessment ot Hazard on Water-Service Pipe
Hospital building with operating,
mortuary, or laboratory facilities Severe RPBD
Plants using radioactive material Severe RPBD
Petroleum-processing or stage facilities Severe RPBD
Premise where inspection is restricted Severe RPBD
Sewage-treatment plant Severe RPBD
Commercial laundry Severe RPBD
Plating or chemical plants Severe RPBD
Docks, dockside facilities Severe RPBD
(if no protection at fixture)
DCV
(if protection at fixture)
Food & beverage-processing plants Severe RPBD
Pleasure boat marina Severe RPBD
Tall buildings (protection against
excessive head of water) Moderate DCV
Steam plants Moderate DCV
Fire or sprinkler system to tall building
(protection against excessive head of water) Moderate DCV
ASPE Data Book Volume 2 148
Installation Requirements
1. All backflow devices should be installed in
an accessible area to facilitate inspection,
semiannual or annual testing, and mainte-
nance. Some municipalities now require li-
censed inspectors to test and report on each
device on an annual basis. Consideration
should be given to future changes that may
take place in the plumbing system. The de-
vices should be installed so that they will re-
main accessible regardless of new or future
piping. Check the manufacturers literature
for minimum clearances required for the re-
moval of parts.
2. Adequate drainage should be provided for the
discharge from the reduced-pressure-device,
relief-valve port. Minimum flow rates and
diameters of relief-valve porting are given in
Table 5-15 as a guide in the sizing of drain
pipes.
A. In the case of a reduced-pressure de-
vice installed in a hut, the bore-sighted
daylight drain must be capable of han-
dling the volumes discharged from the
relief valve.
B. The relief-valve outlet of the reduced-
pressure device shall not be directly con-
nected to the drain. An air gap of not less
than 2 diameters of the relief valve outlet
or 1 in. (2.5 cm), whichever is greater,
must separate the drain from the outlet.
C. A funnel type collector or splash screen
should be used to direct the discharge to
the drain to prevent objectionable spillage
or splashing.
3. Pressure and atmospheric vacuum breakers
may also split or spill water. Spillage may
occur during the testing of devices. Care must
be taken in choosing the location of devices
so that spillage will not cause damage or be
a nuisance.
4. Do not install a reduced-pressure device in a
pit below ground unless a drain to the sur-
face is provided. If the atmospheric vent is
submerged in groundwater, a cross connec-
tion is created that may be more serious than
the hazard the device isolates.
5. Before the installion of a backflow-preven-
tion device, pipelines should be thoroughly
flushed to remove all foreign material that
could foul the operation of the device.
Table 5-15 Minimum Flow Rates and Size of Minimum Area of RPBD
Minimum Flow Rate Minimum Diameter of
Size of Device Past Relief Valve Relief Valve Porting (IPS)
in. mm gpm L/s in. mm
and s 15 and 17 2.5 0.19 a 10
and 1 20 and 25 4.15 0.31 15
I and 1 32 and 40 8.30 0.63 20
2 50 16.70 1.27 1 25
2 65 16.70 1.27 1 25
3 80 25.00 1.89 1 32
4 100 33.40 2.53 1 32
6 150 33.40 2.53 1 32
8 200 50.00 3.79 2 50
10 250 50.00 3.79 2 50
12 300 62.50 4.74 2 65
14 350 75.00 5.68 3 80
16 400 83.00 6.29 3 80
149 Chapter 5 Cold-Water Systems
6. Use of an in-line strainer may be required if
the condition is such that foreign material is
continually collecting in the line and lodging
under seating surfaces. No strainer is to be
used in a fire line without the approval of
the insurance underwriters or fire marshal.
7. Isolating valves are necessary on reduced-
pressure backflow devices, double-check
valve assemblies, and pressure vacuum
breakers to permit replacement, testing, and
maintenance.
8. Internally weighted double-check valve as-
semblies must be installed in the horizontal
position. Some brands of spring-loaded,
double-check valve devices also must be in-
stalled in the horizontal position. Check the
list of approved devices issued in each juris-
diction and the manufacturers recommen-
dations.
9. All reduced-pressure-principle devices must
be installed in the horizontal position, un-
less it is specifically noted otherwise in the
manufacturers data.
10. Check with the authority having jurisdiction
and the manufacturer before installing any
backflow device in hot-water lines.
11. Backflow preventers are not to be installed
in corrosive or polluted atmospheres. The
surrounding atmosphere can enter the pipe-
line through the open vent port of atmo-
spheric and pressure vacuum breakers,
check valves with vent ports and reduced-
pressure-principle devices.
12. Reduced-pressure-principle devices, double-
check valves, and vacuum breakers installed
in regions subject to freezing must be pro-
tected by the insulation of the units in above-
ground, heated structures. Care should be
taken to enure that the testing and mainte-
nance of the unit is not hindered by the ap-
plication of the insulating material.
13. For installations where 24-hour, uninter-
rupted service is a necessity, a parallel de-
vice should be provided to permit annual
testing and maintenance. The bypass or par-
allel device must provide the same degree of
protection as the main-line device.
14. For 8-in. (200-mm) and larger units, a
method of lifting and installation is required.
Existing crane facilities should be taken ad-
vantage of when determining a location for a
water-service and backflow-prevention
device.
15. Adequate support should be provided for de-
vices 6 in. (150 mm) and larger to prevent
damage to connected pipe.
16. Backflow-prevention devices should be pro-
tected against damage. Units placed in work
areas, areas with public access, or areas with
vehicular traffic should be protected by
fenced enclosures, stanchions, or some other
means.
17. The possibility of vandalism and theft should
be considered when choosing a location for a
backflow-prevention device.
18. For reduced-pressure-principle and double-
check-valve devices located outside of build-
ings, consideration should be given to the
use of landscaping, etc., to obtain an aes-
thetically pleasing installation.
19. In a device installed in a deep chamber, the
chamber should be self venting. Workers
Compensation Board regulations require that
the air within a chamber be checked for com-
bustible gas and adequate oxygen content
before a workman enters the chamber.
20. A coupling should be installed in the line to
allow flexibility for alignment during instal-
lation.
21. When installing a double-check-valve, check-
valve-with-vent-port, or reduced-pressure-
principle device on the feed waterline to a
pressure vessel, always install the pressure-
relief valve between the backflow device and
the pressure vessel.
22. If possible, a reduced-pressure-principle or
double-check-assembly device should be in-
stalled no more than 3 ft (1 m) above the
floor to facilitate access.
INADEQUATE WATER PRESSURE
When pressure in public water mains is not great
enough to satisfy building requirements, there
are three ways to boost pressure to an accept-
able level: with a hydropneumatic tank, a grav-
ity tank, or a booster pump. These systems can
be used singly or in combination.
ASPE Data Book Volume 2 150
Hydropneumatic-Tank System
A hydropneumatic tank is not a storage tank.
Its sole purpose is to boost inadequate pressure,
though it operates between predetermined pres-
sure limits and always contains a minimum
amount of water.
It was the storage concept that led to the
establishment of many wholly incorrect water-
air ratios, which are still in use today. Formerly,
a 50% tank volume was split into 25% water and
25% air. This resulted in a total of 75% water
and 25% air in the tank. Later, this was re-
fined to 66Q% water and 333% air.
Figure 5-12 illustrates that water remaining
in a tank after a given pressure drop cannot be
used as a reserve. Assume that a sufficient sup-
ply of water is available and that it must be de-
livered to all water-service outlets at a minimum
pressure of 15 psi (103.4 kPa). A 1000-gal (3785-
L) capacity tank is selected and filled using the
rule-of -thumb ratio: q water, 3 air. A minimum
tank pressure of 40 psi (275.8 kPa) is required
to overcome static head and friction losses if a
pressure of 15 psi (103.4 kPa) is required at the
highest and farthest outlet. The maximum pres-
sure differential in the tank is limited by how
much pressure variation the piping system can
tolerate. Usually, a variation of 20 psi (137.9 kPa)
is acceptable. On this basis, the tank high pres-
sure is set at 60 psi (413.7 kPa), and the system
is ready for operation.
Typical installation details for hydro-
pneumatic-tank systems are shown in Figure
5-13.
Three factors are considered in the selection
of a hydropneumatic tank: waterair ratio, pump
capacity, and desired water withdrawal. Assume
the system demand is 100 gpm (6.3 L/s) con-
stant, the maximum number of pumping cycles
is 6/h (5 min on, 5 min off), and withdrawal of
25% of the total tank capacity is desired. Tank
size can be determined by equating of the pump
capacity (limited to no more than 6 pumping
cycles/h) to the 25% withdrawal capacity. For
example, 100 gpm/2 = 50 gpm, and 5 min 50
gpm = 250 gal. Thus, 250 gal should equal 25%
withdrawal. Tank capacity, then, is 100% or 250
4 = 1000 gal.
Selecting capacity on this basis results in a
minimum size tank and maintenance of efficient
cycling operation of the pumps.
Gravity-Tank System
Basically, a gravity-tank system consists of an
elevated tank and a pump or pumps for raising
water to fill the tank. Controls in the tank start
and stop the pumps to maintain fluid level and
Figure 5-12 Hydropneumatic Pressure
System Layout that Determines
the Minimum Tank Pressure
Figure 5-13 Typical
Hydropneumatic Supply System
151 Chapter 5 Cold-Water Systems
capacity. Water then flows from the tank to the
waterlines by gravity action.
Three approaches may be used to determine
tank capacity for a building:
1. Rule of thumb. An arbitrary tank capacity
equal to 30 times pump capacity (gpm) (L/s)
is recommended by some authorities. This
criterion theoretically provides a building
with a 30-min emergency reserve supply of
water in case of power failure or disruption
of the source of water supply.
2. Empirical. With this method, the quantity of
water required for emergency conditions is
arbitrarily fixed. Based on this determina-
tion, the length of time needed for pumping
the water before safe shutdown can be esti-
mated.
3. Cycling of pumps. The capacity of the tank
is sized so that cycling of pumps will not oc-
cur more than 6 times per hour. This trans-
lates to 5 min off, 5 min on. The fewer the
cycles per hour, the less the wear and tear
on motors and the less maintenance required.
Reducing the number of cycles, however, will
produce greater fluctuations in tank-water
reserve.
Selecting a tank that provides a large water
surface relative to its capacity makes it possible
to withdraw a considerable volume of water with-
out appreciably lowering the liquid level. Main-
taining the water level in this way ensures a rela-
tively constant water pressure regardless of
whether demand is at a low or peak condition.
The following piping connections are required at
the tank:
Water supply to the tank.
Water supply to the system.
Overflow line.
Tank drain.
The locations of these connections on the
tank are illustrated in Figure 5-14. The system
shown is also equipped with fire-standpipe and
sprinkler connections to meet local code require-
ments. The tank connections shown in Figure
5-14 provide the required water supply for each
system, with the sprinkler reserve at the bot-
tom, the fire-standpipe reserve at the next level,
and the water storage at the top. Piping connec-
tions to the standpipe and sprinkler systems
should be fitted with bronze strainers within the
tank to prevent any debris from entering those
systems.
Level controls are installed in the tank to start
and stop pumps at low and high levels. The level
control can be a float switch, pressure switch,
electric prober, or any other acceptable device.
Tanks should be equipped with both high and
low-level alarms. The low-level alarm indicates
that the pumps are not keeping up with demand.
Figure 5-14 Piping Connections for a
Gravity Water-Storage Tank with Reserve Capacity for Firefighting
ASPE Data Book Volume 2 152
The high-level alarm warns that water has
reached the overflow level and is spilling to waste.
When storage tanks are used for gravity feed,
consideration must be given to the weight of the
tank and water so proper support can be
provided.
Booster-Pump System
There are two ways to make a continuously run
system deliver a relatively constant system pres-
sure under varying load conditions. One way is
to use a constant-speed pump with a pressure-
regulating valve in the discharge piping. The
other way is to vary the speed of the pump shaft
either at the motor or in the coupling.
A variety of booster-pump systems are cur-
rently in use, with more being introduced all the
time. Detailed information on the design criteria
and operational characteristics of water-pressure
boosting systems is given in the ASPE Pumps
and Pump Systems Handbook.
EXCESS WATER PRESSURE
One of the main sources of trouble in a water-
distribution system is excessive pressure. Un-
less a piece of equipment, fixture, or operation
requires a specified high pressure, a water sys-
tem should not exceed a maximum of 80 psi
(551.6 kPa) (check local code). To ensure this, a
pressure-regulating valve (PRV) should be in-
stalled.
The purpose of a pressure-regulating valve
is to reduce water pressure from higher, supply-
main pressures to desirable and adequate flow
pressures when water is required at fixtures,
appliances, or equipment.
Pressure-Regulating Valves
Definitions The following are definitions of
terms used in discussing, sizing, and ordering
pressure-regulating valves:
Accuracy The degree of fall-off in the outlet
pressure from the set pressure at full-flow ca-
pacity. Also, the capability of producing the same
results for repetitive operations with identical
conditions of flow.
Dead-end service The type of service in which
the PRV is required to close bottle-tight when
there is no demand on the system.
Fall-off The amount that pressure is decreased
from set pressure to meet demand. The amount
of fall-off depends on the quantity of flowthe
greater the flow, the greater the fall-off. A fall-off
of 20 psi (137.9 kPa) is considered to be the maxi-
mum allowable fall-off.
No-flow pressure The pressure maintained in
the system when the PRV is shut tight so that
high pressure at the inlet of the valve is not per-
mitted to enter the system.
Reduced-flow pressure The pressure main-
tained at the PRV outlet when water is flowing.
The no-flow (closed), set-point pressure of a PRV
is always higher than the reduced-flow (open)
pressure. A PRV that is set to open at 45 psi
(310.3 kPa) pressure (no-flow) would deliver a
reduced-flow pressure of 30 psi (206.8 kPa) at
peak demand if a 15 psi (103.4 kPa) fall-off had
been selected. Then the reduced-flow pressure
at peak flow would be 30 psi (206.8 kPa).
Response The capability of a PRV to respond
to change in outlet pressure.
Sensitivity The ability of a PRV to sense a
change in pressure. If the valve is too sensitive
and quick to respond, the results are over-con-
trol and a hunting effect. Not enough sensitivity
results in operation that is sluggish and great
variations in the outlet pressure.
Set pressure That pressure, at the outlet of
the PRV, at which the valve will start to open.
Types of pressure-regulating valve All pres-
sure-regulating valves fall into the following gen-
eral categories:
Single-seateddirect-operated or pilot-oper-
ated.
Double-seateddirect-operated or pilot-oper-
ated.
Single-seated pressure-regulating valves are
used for dead-end service and when the flow to
be regulated is intermittent. For dead-end ser-
vice, the valve must be able to shut tight and
not permit the passage of any water when there
is no demand. Double-seated PRVs are used for
continuous-flow conditions. They are not suited
for dead-end service and should never be used
for this purpose.
153 Chapter 5 Cold-Water Systems
Direct-operated PRVs tend to have a reduc-
tion of the outlet pressure in direct proportion
with the increase of the flow rate. Pilot-operated
PRVs will maintain a close fluctuation of the
outlet pressure independent of the flow rate as-
suming that the valve was sized properly.
Sizing, selection, and installation Initial cost,
maintenance cost, and specific project require-
ments regarding flow rates and pressure should
determine which PRV is recommended for a par-
ticular application.
Sizing and selection of a pressure-regulating
valve can be performed after the following crite-
ria are estimated: inlet pressure, outlet pressure,
and capacity (flow rate). Inlet pressure is the
maximum pressure expected upstream of the
regulating valve. Outlet pressure is the pres-
sure required downstream of the regulating valve.
For large-capacity systems, which may also ex-
perience periods of low flow, or when extreme
pressure reductions are expected, it is not ad-
visable to have only one regulating valve.
A PRV sized to accommodate both small and
large flows has, in general, a high noise level
during operation. In addition, small flows will
produce wire-drawing of the seat and possible
chatter.
In addition to having economic advantages,
the proper application of pressure-regulating
valves can greatly influence the overall perfor-
mance of the system. Under most circumstances,
a good application can increase system perfor-
mance, reduce operating costs, and ensure a
longer life expectancy for regulators.
For example, where initial pressures exceed
200 psi (1379.0 kPa) or where there is a wide
variation between the initial pressure and the
reduced pressure, or where the initial pressure
varies considerably, two-stage reduction is ben-
eficial. Two-stage reduction is the use of two PRVs
to reduce high service pressure proportionately
and to eliminate an extremely wide variance be-
tween the initial and reduced pressure. It is rec-
ommended where the initial pressure is 200 lb
(1379.0 kPa) or more and where the ratio of ini-
tial to reduced pressure is more than 4 to 1 (e.g.,
200 to 50 lb [1379.0 to 344.7 kPa]), or where the
initial pressure fluctuates greatly. The advan-
tage of this installation is that neither valve is
subjected to an excessive range of pressure re-
ductions. This seems to stabilize the final reduced
pressure, ensuring close and accurate perfor-
mance. Also, this type of installation reduces the
velocity of flow (theres less pressure drop across
two regulators than across one), providing longer
valve life.
Selection of PRVs and pressure settings is
fairly simple. The first PRV could reduce from
250 to 150 lb (1723.7 to 1034.2 kPa) and the
second from 150 to approximately 50 lb (1034.2
to 344.7 kPa) or there could be some similar di-
vision. PRV size can be selected according to the
manufacturers capacity tables if it is remem-
bered that each PRV should exceed the total ca-
pacity of the system.
Where there is a wide variation of demand
requirements and where it is vital to maintain a
continuous water supply as well as provide
greater capacity, parallel installation is recom-
mended. Parallel installation is the use of two or
more smaller size pressure-regulating valves
serving a larger size supply-pipe main. This type
of installation should be employed wherever there
is a wide variation of reduced-pressure require-
ments and where it is vital to maintain a con-
tinuous water supply. It also has the advantage
of providing increased capacity beyond that pro-
vided by a single valve where needed. Multiple
installation improves valve performance for
widely variable demands and permits the ser-
vicing of an individual valve without the com-
plete shutdown of the line, thus preventing costly
shutdowns.
For a two-valve parallel installation, the to-
tal capacity of the valves should equal or exceed
the capacity required by the system. One valve
should be set at 10 psi (69.0 kPa) higher delivery
pressure than the other. For example, assume
that the system requires 400 gpm (25.2 L/s) and
the reduced-flow pressure required is 50 psi
(344.7 kPa). Select two valves, each rated at 200
gpm (12.6 L/s), with one valve set at 50 psi (344.7
kPa) and the other valve set 10 psi (69.0 kPa)
higher at 60 psi (413.7 kPa). Thus, when low
volume is required, the higher-set valve oper-
ates alone. When a larger volume is demanded,
both valves open, delivering full-line capacity.
Another possible choice is to install two PRV
combinations of different sizes. This is practical
on larger installations where supply lines are 2
in. (50 mm) and larger and where there are fre-
quent periods of small demand. The smaller PRV
would have the 10-psi (69.0-kPa) higher delivery
pressure and thus operate alone to satisfy small
demands, such as urinals and drinking foun-
ASPE Data Book Volume 2 154
tains. When a larger volume is demanded, the
main PRV would open to satisfy the system de-
mand. For example, take an apartment building
requiring 300 gpm (18.9 L/s) at 60 psi (413.7
kPa). The selection might be a 4-in. (100-mm)
PRV rated for 240 gpm (15.1 L/s) (80% of total
maximum flow rate) and set at 60 psi (413.7 kPa)
and a 1-in. (40-mm) PRV rated for 60 gpm (3.8
L/s) and set at 70 psi (472.7 kPa).
Manufacturers have tables indicating recom-
mended capacities and valve sizes for use in par-
allel installations.
TESTING, CLEANING, AND
DISINFECTION OF DOMESTIC,
WATER-SUPPLY SYSTEMS
Testing
Prior to disinfection, connection to faucets and
equipment, and installation of pipe insulation,
the domestic water system should be hydrostati-
cally tested for leakage. A typical test for interior
piping is accomplished by capping all system
openings, filling the system with water, and then
pumping a static head into the system at a mini-
mum of 1 times the working pressure (100 psi
[689.5 kPa] minimum) for a period of not less
than 2 hours. The aforementioned test require-
ments are acceptable to most inspectors, but note
that 80 psi (551.6 kPa) is the maximum pres-
sure allowed by most designs and codes.
Under conditions where systems are subject
to freezing, and with the approval of the author-
ity having jurisdiction, an air test may be sub-
stituted for the water test. This can be
accomplished by connecting an air compressor
to the system, bringing the system up to 40 psi
(275.8 kPa), checking for leaks with liquid soap,
repairing any leaks, and then subjecting the sys-
tem to a minimum of 1 times the working pres-
sure (100 psi [689.5 kPa] minimum) for a
minimum of 2 hours.
Any equipment that may be damaged by
these tests should be disconnected from the
system.
Cleaning and Disinfecting
New or repaired potable water systems shall be
cleaned and disinfected prior to use whenever
required by the administrative authority. The
method to be followed should be per AWWA or
as follows (or as required by the administrative
authority):
1. Cleaning and disinfection applies to both hot
and cold, domestic (potable) water systems
and should be performed after all pipes,
valves, fixtures, and other components of the
systems are installed, tested, and ready for
operation.
2. All domestic yard, hot and cold-water piping
should be thoroughly flushed with clean, po-
table water prior to disinfection to remove
dirt and other contaminants. Screens of fau-
cets and strainers should be removed before
flushing and reinstalled after completion of
disinfection.
3. Disinfection should be done using chlorine,
either gas or liquid. Calcium or sodium hy-
pochlorite or another approved disinfectant
may be used.
4. A service cock should be provided and lo-
cated at the water-service entrance. The dis-
infecting agent should be injected into and
through the system from this cock only.
5. The disinfecting agent should be injected by
a proportioning pump or device through the
service cock slowly and continuously at an
even rate. During disinfection, flow of the dis-
infecting agent into the main connected to
the public water supply is not permitted.
6. All sectional valves should be opened during
disinfection. All outlets should be fully opened
at least twice during injection and the re-
sidual checked with orthotolidin solution.
7. If chlorine is used, when the chlorine residual
concentration, calculated on the volume of
water the piping will contain, indicates not
less than 50 parts per million (ppm) or milli-
grams per liter (mg/L) at all outlets, then all
valves should be closed and secured.
8. The residual chlorine should be retained in
the piping systems for a period of not less
than 24 hours.
9. After the retention, the residual should be
not less than 5 ppm. If less, then the pro-
cess should be repeated as described above.
10. If satisfactory, then all fixtures should be
flushed with clean, potable water until re-
sidual chlorine by orthotolidin test is not
greater than that of the incoming water sup-
ply (this may be zero).
155 Chapter 5 Cold-Water Systems
11. All work and certification of performance
should be performed by approved applica-
tors or qualified personnel with chemical and
laboratory experience. Certification of perfor-
mance should indicate:
Name and location of the job and date
when disinfection was performed.
Material used for disinfection.
Retention period of disinfectant in pip-
ing system.
Ppm (mg/L) chlorine during retention.
Ppm (mg/L) chlorine after flushing.
Statement that disinfection was per-
formed as specified.
Signature and address of company/per-
son performing disinfection.
12. Upon completion of final flushing (after re-
tention period) the contractor should obtain
a minimum of one water sample from each
hot and cold-water line and submit samples
to a state/province and/or local, approved
laboratory. Samples should be taken from
faucets located at the highest floor and fur-
thest from the meter or main water supply.
The laboratory report should show the fol-
lowing:
Name and address of approved labora-
tory testing the sample.
Name and location of job and date the
samples were obtained.
The coliform organism count. An accept-
able test shall show the absence of
coliform organisms. (Some codes require
an acceptable test for 2 consecutive days.)
Any other tests required by local code
authorities.
13. If analysis does not satisfy the above mini-
mum requirements, the disinfection proce-
dure must be repeated.
14. Before acceptance of the systems, the con-
tractor should submit to the architect (engi-
neer) for his review 3 copies of the laboratory
report and 3 copies of the certification of per-
formance as specified above.
15. Under no circumstances should the contrac-
tor permit the use of any portion of domestic
water systems until they are properly disin-
fected, flushed, and certified.
NOTE: It should be understood that local code
requirements, if more stringent than above sug-
gested procedures, shall be included in the speci-
fications.
REFERENCES
1. American Water Works Association (AWWA).
AWWA cross connection control manual. New York.
2. AWWA. AWWA standard for disinfecting water
mains, AWWA C601.
3. AWWA. AWWA standard for disinfection of water
storage facilities, AWWAD105.
4. AWWA. Standard for hypochlorites, AWWA B300,
AWWA M22.
5. AWWA. Standard for liquid chlorine, AWWAB301.
6. Manas, V.T. National plumbing code illustrated
handbook. New York: McGraw-Hill.
7. n.a. 1978. Piping systems fundamentals and ap-
plication. Plant Engineer Magazine.
8. US Department of Commerce, National Bureau
of Standards. BMS 65, Methods of estimating
loads in plumbing systems, by R.B. Hunter.
Washington, DC.
9. US Department of Commerce, National Bureau
of Standards. BMS 66, Plumbing manual. Wash-
ington, DC.
10. US Department of Commerce, National Bureau
of Standards. BMS 79, Water distributing sys-
tems for buildings, by R.B. Hunter. Washington,
DC.
11. White, George Clifford. 1972. Handbook of chlo-
rination. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
157 Chapter 6 Domestic Water Heating Systems
Domestic
Water-
Heating
Systems
6
INTRODUCTION
Proper design of the domestic hot-water supply
system for any building is extremely important.
Careful planning on the basis of all available data
will ensure an adequate supply of water at the
desired temperature to each fixture at all times.
A properly designed system must, of course, con-
form with all the regulations of the authorities
having jurisdiction.
The design objectives for an efficient hot-
water distribution system include:
1. Providing adequate amounts of water at the
prescribed temperature to all fixtures and
equipment at all times.
2. A system that will perform its function safely.
3. The utilization of an economical heat source.
4. A cost-effective and durable installation.
5. An economical operating system with reason-
able maintenance.
A brief discussion of each of these objectives
is warranted. Any well-designed system should
deliver the prescribed temperature at the outlet
almost instantaneously to avoid the wasteful
running of water until the desired temperature
is achieved. The hot water should be available at
any time of the day or night and during low-
demand periods as well as peak flows.
Safety must be built into any hot-water sys-
tem, and the safety features must operate
automatically. The two paramount dangers to be
guarded against are excessive pressures and tem-
peratures. Exploding hot-water heaters and
scalding water at fixtures must be prevented in
the design stage.
An economic heat source is of prime impor-
tance in conserving energy. Various sources
include coal, gas, oil, steam, condensate, waste
hot water, and solar energy. The availability and
cost of any of these sources or combinations of
these sources will dictate selection. If an espe-
cially economical source is not adequate to satisfy
the total demand, then it can be used to preheat
the cold-water supply to the heater.
An economical and durable installation can
be achieved by judicious selection of the proper
materials and equipment. The piping layout also
has a marked effect on this objective and will
later determine the ease of replacement and
repair.
Cost-effective operation and maintenance
also depend upon the proper pre-selection of
materials and equipment. The choice of
instantaneous or storage type heaters, the se-
lection of insulation on heaters and piping, the
location of piping (avoiding cold, unheated ar-
eas), the ease of circulation (the avoidance of
drops and rises in piping), bypasses around
pumps and tanks, and adequate valving acces-
sibility are all items that affect the operation and
maintenance of a system.
The design of a domestic water-heating sys-
tem begins with estimating the facilitys load
profile and identifying the peak demand times.
To accomplish these steps, the designer must
conduct discussions with the users of the space,
determine the building type, and learn of any
owner requirements. The information thus gath-
ASPE Data Book Volume 2 158
ered will establish the required capacity of the
water heating equipment and the general type of
system to be used.
BASIC FORMULAE AND UNITS
The equations in this chapter are based on the
principle of energy conservation. The fundamen-
tal formula for this expresses a steady-state heat
balance for the heat input and output of the
system:
Equation 6-1
q = r w c T
where
q = Time rate of heat transfer,
Btu/h (kJ/h)
r = Flow rate, gph (L/h)
w = Weight of heated water, lb (kg)
c = Specific heat of water,
Btu/lb/F (kJ/kg/K)
T = Change in heated water temperature
(temperature of leaving water minus
temperature of incoming water,
represented as T
h
T
c
, F [K])
For the purposes of this discussion, the spe-
cific heat of water is constant, c = 1 Btu/lb/F
(c = 4.19 kJ/kg/K), and the weight of water is
constant at 8.33 lb/gal (999.6 kg/m
3
).
Equation 6-2
q = gph

a Y
1 Btu
Z

Y
8.33 lb
Z

(T)

lb/F gal
'

q =
m
3

a Y
4.188 kJ
Z

Y
999.6 kg
Z

(T)
)
____ ____________ ___________
h kg/K m
3
Example 6-1 Calculate the heat output rate
required to heat 600 gph from 50 to 140F (2.27
m
3
/h from 283.15 to 333.15K).
Solution From Equation 6-2,
q = 600 gph

a Y
8.33 Btu
Z

(14050F)


= 449,820 Btu/h
gal /F
'

q =
2.27 m
3

a Y
4188.32 kJ
Z

(333.15283.15 K)

___________ ______________
h m
3
/K
= 475 374 kJ/h
)
Note: The designer should be aware that water
heaters installed in high elevations must be de-
rated based on the elevation. The water heaters
manufacturers data should be consulted for in-
formation on required modifications.
HEAT RECOVERYELECTRIC
WATER HEATERS
It takes 1 Btu of energy to raise 1 lb of water
1F. Since 1 kW is equal to 3413 Btu and 1 gal of
water weighs 8.33 lb, then it would take 1 kW of
electrical power to raise 410 gal (1552.02 L) of
water 1F. This can be expressed in a series of
formulae, as follows:
Equation 6-3
410 gal
= gal of water per kW at T
T
Y
1552.02 L
= L of water per kW at T
Z T
Equation 6-4
gph T
= kW required
410 gal
Y
L/h T
= kW required
Z 1552.02 L
Equation 6-5
gph
= kW required
gal of water per kW at T
Y
L/h
= kW required
Z L of water per kW at T
where
T = Temperature rise (temperature
differential), F (C)
gph = Gallons per hour of hot water
required
159 Chapter 6 Domestic Water Heating Systems
L/h = Liters per hour of hot water
required
Equation 6-3 can be used to establish a
simple table based on the required temperature
rise.
Temperature Rise, T, Gal (L) of Water
F (C) per kW
110 (43) 3.73 (14.12)
100 (38) 4.10 (15.52)
90 (32) 4.55 (17.22)
80 (27) 5.13 (19.42)
70 (21) 5.86 (22.18)
60 (16) 6.83 (25.85)
50 (10) 8.20 (31.04)
40 (4) 10.25 (38.8)
This table can be used with Equation 6-5 to solve
for the kW electric element needed to heat the
required recovery volume of water.
Example 6-2 An electric water heater must be
sized based on the following information: (a) 40
gph (151.42 L/h) of hot water at a temperature
of 140F (43C) is required. (b) The incoming
water supply during winter is 40F (4C).
Solution Using Equation 6-5 and the above
table, we find the following:
40 gph
= 9.8 kW required
4.1 gal (100F)
a
151.42 L/h
= 9.8 kW required
15.52 L (38C)
HOT-WATER TEMPERATURE
The generally accepted minimum hot-water tem-
peratures for various plumbing fixtures and
equipment are given in Table 6-1. Both tempera-
ture and pressure should be verified with the
client and checked against local codes and the
manuals of equipment used.
Table 6-1 Typical Hot-Water Temperatures
for Plumbing Fixtures and Equipment
Use Temperature
F (C)
Lavatory
Hand washing 105 (40)
Shaving 115 (45)
Showers and tubs 110 (43)
Therapeutic baths 95 (35)
Surgical scrubbing 110 (43)
Commercial and institutional
laundry 140180 (6082)
Residential dishwashing
and laundry 140 (60)
Commercial, spray-type dishwashing
(as required by the NSF):
Single or multiple-tank hood
or rack type:
Wash 150 min. (66 min.)
Final rinse 180195 (8291)
Single-tank conveyor type:
Wash 160 min. (71 min.)
Final rinse 180195 (8291)
Single-tank rack or door type:
Single-temperature
wash and rinse 165 min. (74 min.)
Chemical sanitizing glassware:
Wash 140 (60)
Rinse 75 min. (24 min.)
Note: Be aware that temperatures, as dictated by codes, owners,
equipment manufacturers, or regulatory agencies, will occasion-
ally differ from those shown.
MIXED-WATER TEMPERATURE
Mixing water at different temperatures to make
a desired mixed-water temperature is the main
purpose of domestic hot-water systems.
P is a hot-water multiplier and can be used
to determine the percentage of supply hot water
that will blend the hot and cold water to pro-
duce a desired mixed-water temperature.
ASPE Data Book Volume 2 160
Equation 6-6
P =
T
m
T
c
T
h
T
c
where
T
h
= Supply hot-water temperature
T
c
= Inlet cold-water temperature
T
m
= Desired mixed-water temperature
Values of P for a range of hot and cold water
temperatures are given in Table 6-2.
Example 6-3 A group of showers requires 25
gpm (1.58 L/s) of 105F (41C) mixed-water tem-
perature. Determine how much 140F (60C) hot
water must be supplied to the showers when the
cold-water temperature is 50F (10C).
Solution
P =
105 50F
= 0.61
140 50F
Y
P =
41 10C
= 0.61
Z 60 10C
Therefore,
0.61 (25 gpm) = 15.25 gpm of 140F water required
[0.61 (1.58 L/s) = 0.96 L/s of 60C water required].
Table 6-2 may also be used to determine P.
WATER HEATERS
The most commonly used type of water heater
for office buildings, multiple-unit dwellings, and
other similar establishments is the directly
heated, automatic storage heater. Such heat-
ers are simple, inexpensive to install, and very
low maintenance. They are generally low-demand
heaters, with low Btu input so that the heating
of the water is spread over several hours. This
reduces the amount of heating medium required.
Commonly used heating mediums are electric-
ity, fuel gas, and steam.
Instantaneous types of water heater must
have sufficient capacity to provide the maximum
flow rate of hot water at an adequate tempera-
ture. The instantaneous heater finds its best
application where water-heating demands are
constant, such as for swimming pools, certain
dishwasher booster requirements, and industrial
processes, or where space conditions are a prime
consideration. Because of these high flow rates
and the typical on-off operation, the efficiencies
of instantaneous heaters are lower than those of
storage type heaters.
Booster heaters are used to raise the tem-
perature of the regular hot-water supply to some
higher-than-normal temperature needed to per-
form special functions. Booster heaters are
utilized in applications such as commercial dish-
washers where there is a limited use of very hot
water. They can be located near their point of
intended use and have simple controls, minimal
waste, and smooth operation.
Semi-instantaneous heaters contain be-
tween 10 and 20 s of domestic water storage,
according to their rated heating capacity. This
small quantity of water is adequate to allow the
temperature-control system to react to sudden
fluctuations in water flow and to maintain the
outlet water temperature within 5F (2.7C). The
temperature-control system is almost always
included with this type of heater as a package.
Controls
The purpose for having controls on a hot-water
generator is to ensure that a sufficient volume
of hot water at the proper temperature for use is
provided to a facility. The control components
for water heaters differ depending on the type of
heater and the manufacturer. Generally, water
heater controls should be checked with the equip-
ment manufacturer. Also, the various regulatory
and testing agencies have requirements for
controls that depend on the size and type of
equipment used.
Stratification
Because of its lighter density, warm water rises
to the top of a storage tank. The result of this
rising action, known as stratification, occurs
in all unrecirculated tanks. It has been found
that the amount of usable temperature water in
stratified horizontal and vertical tanks is about
65% and 75%, respectively.
Stratification during recovery periods can be
reduced significantly by mechanical circulation
of the water in the tank. During periods of de-
mand, however, it is useful to have good
stratification since this increases the availabil-
ity of water at a usable temperature. If, for
example, a tank were equally stratified between
161 Chapter 6 Domestic Water Heating Systems
Table 6-2 Hot-Water Multiplier, P
T
h
= 110F Hot-Water System Temperature
T
c
, CW
T
m
, Water Temperature at Fixture Outlet (F)
Temp. (F) 110 105 100 95
45 1.00 0.92 0.85 0.77
50 1.00 0.92 0.83 0.75
55 1.00 0.91 0.82 0.73
60 1.00 0.90 0.80 0.70
65 1.00 0.89 0.78 0.67
T
h
= 120F Hot-Water System Temperature
T
c
, CW
T
m
, Water Temperature at Fixture Outlet (F)
Temp. (F) 120 115 110 105 100 95
45 1.00 0.93 0.87 0.80 0.73 0.67
50 1.00 0.93 0.86 0.79 0.71 0.64
55 1.00 0.92 0.85 0.77 0.69 0.62
60 1.00 0.92 0.83 0.75 0.67 0.58
65 1.00 0.91 0.82 0.73 0.64 0.55
T
h
= 130F Hot-Water System Temperature
T
c
, CW
T
m
, Water Temperature at Fixture Outlet (F)
Temp. (F) 130 125 120 115 110 105 100 95
45 1.00 0.94 0.88 0.82 0.76 0.71 0.65 0.59
50 1.00 0.94 0.88 0.81 0.75 0.69 0.63 0.56
55 1.00 0.93 0.87 0.80 0.73 0.67 0.60 0.53
60 1.00 0.93 0.86 0.79 0.71 0.64 0.57 0.50
65 1.00 0.92 0.85 0.77 0.69 0.62 0.54 0.46
T
h
= 140F Hot-Water System Temperature
T
c
, CW
T
m
, Water Temperature at Fixture Outlet (F)
Temp. (F) 140 135 130 125 120 115 110 105 100 95
45 1.00 0.95 0.89 0.84 0.79 0.74 0.68 0.63 0.58 0.53
50 1.00 0.94 0.89 0.83 0.78 0.72 0.67 0.61 0.56 0.50
55 1.00 0.94 0.88 0.82 0.76 0.71 0.65 0.59 0.53 0.47
60 1.00 0.94 0.88 0.81 0.75 0.69 0.63 0.56 0.50 0.44
65 1.00 0.93 0.87 0.80 0.73 0.67 0.60 0.53 0.47 0.40
(Continued)
ASPE Data Book Volume 2 162
T
h
= 150F Hot-Water System Temperature
T
c
, CW
T
m
, Water Temperature at Fixture Outlet (F)
Temp. (F) 150 145 140 135 130 125 120 115 110 105 100
45 1.00 0.95 0.90 0.86 0.81 0.76 0.71 0.67 0.62 0.57 0.52
50 1.00 0.95 0.90 0.85 0.80 0.75 0.70 0.65 0.60 0.55 0.50
55 1.00 0.95 0.89 0.84 0.79 0.74 0.68 0.63 0.58 0.53 0.47
60 1.00 0.94 0.89 0.83 0.78 0.72 0.67 0.61 0.56 0.50 0.44
65 1.00 0.94 0.88 0.82 0.76 0.71 0.65 0.59 0.53 0.47 0.41
T
h
= 160F Hot-Water System Temperature
T
c
, CW
T
m
, Water Temperature at Fixture Outlet (F)
Temp. (F) 160 155 150 145 140 135 130 125 120 115 110
45 1.00 0.96 0.91 0.87 0.83 0.78 0.74 0.70 0.65 0.61 0.57
50 1.00 0.95 0.91 0.86 0.82 0.77 0.73 0.68 0.64 0.59 0.55
55 1.00 0.95 0.90 0.86 0.81 0.76 0.71 0.67 0.62 0.57 0.52
60 1.00 0.95 0.90 0.85 0.80 0.75 0.70 0.65 0.60 0.55 0.50
65 1.00 0.95 0.89 0.84 0.79 0.74 0.68 0.63 0.58 0.53 0.47
T
h
= 180F Hot-Water System Temperature
T
c
, CW
T
m
, Water Temperature at Fixture Outlet (F)
Temp. (F) 180 175 170 165 160 155 150 145 140 135 130
45 1.00 0.96 0.93 0.89 0.85 0.81 0.78 0.74 0.70 0.67 0.63
50 1.00 0.96 0.92 0.88 0.85 0.81 0.77 0.73 0.69 0.65 0.62
55 1.00 0.96 0.92 0.88 0.84 0.80 0.76 0.72 0.68 0.64 0.60
60 1.00 0.96 0.92 0.88 0.83 0.79 0.75 0.71 0.67 0.63 0.58
65 1.00 0.96 0.91 0.87 0.83 0.78 0.74 0.70 0.65 0.61 0.57
110 1.00 0.93 0.86 0.79 0.71 0.64 0.57 0.50 0.43 0.36 0.29
120 1.00 0.92 0.83 0.75 0.67 0.58 0.50 0.42 0.33 0.25 0.17
130 1.00 0.90 0.80 0.70 0.60 0.50 0.40 0.30 0.20 0.10
140 1.00 0.88 0.75 0.63 0.50 0.38 0.25 0.13
150 1.00 0.83 0.67 0.50 0.33 0.17
160 1.00 0.75 0.50 0.25
(Table 6-2 continued)
163 Chapter 6 Domestic Water Heating Systems
T
h
= 43C Hot-Water System Temperature
T
c
, CW
T
m
, Water Temperature at Fixture Outlet (C)
Temp. (C) 43 41 38 35
7 1.00 0.92 0.85 0.77
10 1.00 0.92 0.83 0.75
13 1.00 0.91 0.82 0.73
16 1.00 0.90 0.80 0.70
18 1.00 0.89 0.78 0.67
T
h
= 49C Hot-Water System Temperature
T
c
, CW
T
m
, Water Temperature at Fixture Outlet (C)
Temp. (C) 49 46 43 41 38 35
7 1.00 0.93 0.87 0.80 0.73 0.67
10 1.00 0.93 0.86 0.79 0.71 0.64
13 1.00 0.92 0.85 0.77 0.69 0.62
16 1.00 0.92 0.83 0.75 0.67 0.58
18 1.00 0.91 0.82 0.73 0.64 0.55
T
h
= 54C Hot-Water System Temperature
T
c
, CW
T
m
, Water Temperature at Fixture Outlet (C)
Temp. (C) 54 52 49 46 43 41 38 35
7 1.00 0.94 0.88 0.82 0.76 0.71 0.65 0.59
10 1.00 0.94 0.88 0.81 0.75 0.69 0.63 0.56
13 1.00 0.93 0.87 0.80 0.73 0.67 0.60 0.53
16 1.00 0.93 0.86 0.79 0.71 0.64 0.57 0.50
18 1.00 0.92 0.85 0.77 0.69 0.62 0.54 0.46
T
h
= 60C Hot-Water System Temperature
T
c
, CW
T
m
, Water Temperature at Fixture Outlet (C)
Temp. (C) 60 58 54 52 49 46 43 41 38 35
7 1.00 0.95 0.89 0.84 0.79 0.74 0.68 0.63 0.58 0.53
10 1.00 0.94 0.89 0.83 0.78 0.72 0.67 0.61 0.56 0.50
13 1.00 0.94 0.88 0.82 0.76 0.71 0.65 0.59 0.53 0.47
16 1.00 0.94 0.88 0.81 0.75 0.69 0.63 0.56 0.50 0.44
18 1.00 0.93 0.87 0.80 0.73 0.67 0.60 0.53 0.47 0.40
Table 6-2 (M) Hot-Water Multiplier, P
(Continued)
ASPE Data Book Volume 2 164
T
h
= 66C Hot-Water System Temperature
T
c
, CW
T
m
, Water Temperature at Fixture Outlet (C)
Temp. (C) 66 63 60 58 54 52 49 46 43 41 38
7 1.00 0.95 0.90 0.86 0.81 0.76 0.71 0.67 0.62 0.57 0.52
10 1.00 0.95 0.90 0.85 0.80 0.75 0.70 0.65 0.60 0.55 0.50
13 1.00 0.95 0.89 0.84 0.79 0.74 0.68 0.63 0.58 0.53 0.47
16 1.00 0.94 0.89 0.83 0.78 0.72 0.67 0.61 0.56 0.50 0.44
18 1.00 0.94 0.88 0.82 0.76 0.71 0.65 0.59 0.53 0.47 0.41
T
h
= 71C Hot-Water System Temperature
T
c
, CW
T
m
, Water Temperature at Fixture Outlet (C)
Temp. (C) 71 68 66 63 60 58 54 52 49 46 43
7 1.00 0.96 0.91 0.87 0.83 0.78 0.74 0.70 0.65 0.61 0.57
10 1.00 0.95 0.91 0.86 0.82 0.77 0.73 0.68 0.64 0.59 0.55
13 1.00 0.95 0.90 0.86 0.81 0.76 0.71 0.67 0.62 0.57 0.52
16 1.00 0.95 0.90 0.85 0.80 0.75 0.70 0.65 0.60 0.55 0.50
18 1.00 0.95 0.89 0.84 0.79 0.74 0.68 0.63 0.58 0.53 0.47
T
h
= 82C Hot-Water System Temperature
T
c
, CW
T
m
, Water Temperature at Fixture Outlet (C)
Temp. (C) 82 79 77 74 71 68 66 63 60 58 54
7 1.00 0.96 0.93 0.89 0.85 0.81 0.78 0.74 0.70 0.67 0.63
10 1.00 0.96 0.92 0.88 0.85 0.81 0.77 0.73 0.69 0.65 0.62
13 1.00 0.96 0.92 0.88 0.84 0.80 0.76 0.72 0.68 0.64 0.60
16 1.00 0.96 0.92 0.88 0.83 0.79 0.75 0.71 0.67 0.63 0.58
18 1.00 0.96 0.91 0.87 0.83 0.78 0.74 0.70 0.65 0.61 0.57
43 1.00 0.93 0.86 0.79 0.71 0.64 0.57 0.50 0.43 0.36 0.29
49 1.00 0.92 0.83 0.75 0.67 0.58 0.50 0.42 0.33 0.25 0.17
54 1.00 0.90 0.80 0.70 0.60 0.50 0.40 0.30 0.20 0.10
60 1.00 0.88 0.75 0.63 0.50 0.38 0.25 0.13
66 1.00 0.83 0.67 0.50 0.33 0.17
71 1.00 0.75 0.50 0.25
(Table 6-2 continued)
165 Chapter 6 Domestic Water Heating Systems
140F (60C) at the top and 40F (4C) at the
bottom, this tank, in theory, could still deliver
half its volume at 140F (60C). But, if the two
layers were completely mixed, the tank tempera-
ture would drop to 90F (32C), which, in most
cases, is an unusable temperature.
HOT-WATER TEMPERATURE
MAINTENANCE
Hot water of a desired temperature should be
readily available at any fixture. Either a hot-wa-
ter circulation system or an electronically heated
system shall be used to achieve this purpose.
Hot-Water Circulation Systems
Hot-water supply piping, whether insulated or
not, transmits heat to the surrounding lower-
temperature air by conduction, convection, and
radiation. The user wastes water while waiting
for the desired temperature water to warm up
the piping system.
The sizing of the circulation system includes
selection of the pump, sizing the supply and re-
circulation piping, and selecting the insulation
type and thickness. Recirculation systems may
not be practical for small systems but may be
mandated for systems designed for such places
as food establishments. Proper sizing of the hot-
water circulating system is essential for the
efficient and economical operation of the hot-wa-
ter system. Oversizing will cause the system to
lose additional heat and result in unnecessary
expenditures on equipment and installation.
Undersizing will seriously hamper circulation and
thus starve the fixtures of the desired water tem-
perature.
The procedure for sizing the hot-water cir-
culating piping is as follows:
1. Calculate the heat-loss rates of the hot-wa-
ter supply piping.
2. Calculate the heat-loss rates of the hot-wa-
ter circulating piping.
3. Calculate the circulation rates for all parts
of the circulating piping and the total circu-
lation rate required.
4. Determine the allowable uniform friction-head
loss and the total head required to overcome
friction losses in the piping when the water is
flowing at the required circulation rate.
5. Calculate the rates of flow for various pipe
sizes that will give the uniform pressure drop
established in Step 4, and tabulate the re-
sults.
6. Size the system based upon the tabulation
set up in Step 5.
7. With the sizes as established in Step 6, re-
peat Steps 2 through 6 as a check on the
assumptions made.
As a guide to sizing circulation piping and
circulation pumps, the following empirical meth-
ods are given but are not recommended in lieu
of the more accurate procedures outlined above:
1. An allowance of gpm (0.23 L/min) is as-
signed for each small hot-water riser (1
in. [1.92.54 cm]), 1 gpm (2.2 L/min) for each
medium-sized hot-water riser (1-1 in.
[3.23.8 cm]), and 2 gpm (4.4 L/min) for each
large-sized hot-water riser (2 in.[5 cm] and
larger).
2. An allowance of 1 gpm (2.2 L/min) is assigned
for each group of 20 hot-water-supplied fix-
tures.
Self-Regulating Heat-Trace Systems
A heat-trace system is an economical, energy-
efficient system for domestic hot-water tempera-
ture maintenance. It is a self-regulating heating
cable installed on the hot-water supply pipes un-
derneath the standard pipe insulation. The cable
adjusts its power output to compensate for varia-
tions in water and ambient temperatures. It
produces more heat if the temperature drops and
less heat if the temperature rises. The heating
cable replaces supply-pipe heat losses at the
point where heat loss occurs, thereby providing
continuous, energy-efficient hot-water tempera-
ture maintenance and eliminating the need for a
recirculating system.
A one-pipe, heat-trace system design elimi-
nates the need for designing complex re-
circulation systems with their pumps, piping net-
works, and complicated flow balancing, and
special cases, such as retrofits and multiple-pres-
sure zones, are simple to design.
The installation of a heat-trace system is
simple. The heating cable can be cut to length,
spliced, tee-branched, and terminated at the job
site, which reduces installation costs. Also, fewer
plumbing components are needed; recirculating
ASPE Data Book Volume 2 166
piping, pumps, and balancing valves are all elimi-
nated.
The heat-trace system continuously main-
tains hot-water temperature at every point along
the supply pipe. Unlike conventional recircula-
tion systems, the heat-trace system does not
require the overheating of supply water to allow
for cooling; there is reduced heat loss from energy
supply piping, no heat loss from recirculation
piping, and no pump to run. The heat-trace sys-
tem reduces the energy requirements of typical
domestic hot-water systems.
Components All heating-cable components
shall be UL listed for use as a part of the system
to maintain hot-water temperature. Component
enclosures shall be rated NEMA 4X to prevent
water ingress and corrosion. Installation shall
not require the installing contractor to cut into
heating cable core to expose the bus wires.
Connection systems requiring the installing con-
tractor to strip the bus wires, or that use crimps
or terminal blocks shall not be acceptable. All
components, except for the power connection,
shall be re-enterable for servicing. No component
shall use silicone to seal the electrical connectors.
Performance
1. Operating temperatures. The system shall
maintain a nominal temperature of 105F
(40C), 115F (45C), 125F (50C), or 140F
(60C), at 208VAC.
2. Maintenance temperature. Each hot-water
system temperature shall be maintained by
specifying only one product. Temperature
shall be maintained with heating cable on
the pipe.
Insulation thickness shall be as follows:
Pipe Size, Fiberglass Insulation
in. (mm) Thickness, in. (cm)
1 (1325) 1 (2.54)
12 (3250) 1 (3.81)
26 (65150) 2 (5.08)
Note: For pipe sizes 1 in. and smaller, use
-in. larger diameter insulation to allow for
installation over cable.
3. Power control self-regulating index. The slope
of the powertemperature curve or graph
shall be such that the power of the heating
cable shall increase as the temperature de-
creases, at a rate of at least 0.028W/ft-F
(0.16 W/m-C) from 50100F (1039C).
4. Long-term thermal stability (as determined by
accelerated testing). The power retention of
the heating cable shall be at least 90%, after
300 cycles, between 50 and 212F (10 and
100C).
5. High-temperature withstand. The heater shall
not decrease in resistance, overheat, or burn
when powered at 208VAC and exposed to
499F (205C) in an oven for 30 min.
Selection Variables affecting the performance
of the heat-trace system include the system
range, time to tap, water wastages, and energy
efficiency. The design engineer should consider
these factors along with installation and life-cycle
costs when selecting the proper hot-water,
self-regulating, heat-trace system for a particu-
lar building. The heat-trace system is a good
system, but it cannot be used in all applications.
For more complete design information, refer to
the ASPE Domestic Water Heating Design Manual.
RELIEF VALVES
Water-heating systems shall be protected from
excessive temperatures and pressures by relief
valves. Temperature and pressure (T&P) relief
valves are available either separately or com-
bined. A combination T&P relief valve is preferred
because it offers a more economical and yet ef-
fective protective procedure.
A relief valve on a water-supply system is
exposed to many elements that can affect its
performance, such as corrosive water that at-
tacks materials, and deposits of lime, which close
up waterways and flow passages. For these rea-
sons, the minimum size of the valve should be
in. (19 mm) for inlet and outlet connections,
with the waterways within the valve of an area
not less than the area of the inlet connection.
Relief valves should be tested on a regular basis
to ensure safe and proper operation.
All valves should have a discharge pipe con-
nected to its outlet and terminate at a point where
the discharge will cause no damage to property
or injury to persons. The discharge pipe size shall
be at least the size of the valve discharge outlet,
shall be as short as possible, and shall run down
to its terminal without sags or traps.
Typically, T&P relief valves are tested to com-
ply with the standards of the American Society
of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), the American
Gas Association (AGA), or the National Board of
167 Chapter 6 Domestic Water Heating Systems
Boiler and Pressure Vessel Inspectors (NBBPVI)
and are so labeled. The designer should verify
which agencys standards are applicable to the
water-heating system being designed and follow
those standards for the sizes, types, and loca-
tions of required relief valves.
Sizing Pressure and
Temperature-Relief Valves
The following information applies to heaters with
more than 200,000 Btu (211 000 kJ) input:
Temperature relief valves These shall have the
capacity to prevent water temperature from ex-
ceeding 210F (99C). They shall be water rated
on the basis of 1250 Btu (1319 kJ) for each gph
of water discharged at 30 lb (13.6 kg) working
pressure and a maximum temperature of 210F
(99C).
The temperature rating is the maximum rate
of heat input to a heater on which a tempera-
ture-relief valve can be installed and is
determined as follows:
Equation 6-7
gph water heated 8.33 T(F)
=
Btu valve
0.8
capacity reqd
Y
L/h water heated 1 kg/L T(C)
=
kJ valve
Z 0.8
capacity reqd
Pressure relief valves These shall have the ca-
pacity to prevent a pressure rise in excess of 10%
of the set opening pressure. They shall be set at
a pressure not exceeding the working pressure
of the tank or heater.
The pressure rating is the maximum output
of a boiler or heater on which a pressure-relief
valve can be used and is determined as follows:
Equation 6-8
gph water heated 8.33 T (F) = Btu valve
capacity reqd
[L/h water heated 1.0 kg/L T (C) = kJ valve
capacity reqd]
Determine the Btu capacity required, then refer
to a manufacturers catalog for valve size
selection.
THERMAL EXPANSION
Water expands as it is heated. This expansion
shall be provided for in a domestic hot-water sys-
tem to avoid damage to the piping. Use of a
thermal expansion tank in the cold-water piping
to the water heater will accomplish this. It is
recommended that the designer contact the
manufacturer of the thermal expansion tank for
information on installation and sizing. Plumb-
ing codes require some type of thermal expansion
compensationexpecially when there is either a
backflow-prevention device on the cold-water
service to the building or a check valve in the
system.
Relying only on the T&P relief valve to relieve
the pressure is not good practice. Many local
codes now require expansion tanks for systems
over 4-gal (8.8-L) capacity.
The relevant properties of water are shown
in Table 6-3.
Example 6-4 Using Table 6-3, determine the
thermal expansion of a typical residence. Assume
the initial heating cycle has incoming water at
40F (4C) and a temperature rise of 100F (38C).
The water heater is 50-gal (189-L) capacity and
the piping system volume is 10 gal (38 L).
Solution
Specific volume of water @ 40F = 0.01602 ft
3
/lb
Specific volume of water @ 140F = 0.01629 ft
3
/lb
S
v
40F
=
0.01602
=

1.66% increase in volume
S
v
140F 0.01629
Total volume = 50-gal tank + 10-gal system = 60 gal
60 gal 1.66% volume increase = 1-gal expansion
1 gal 8.33 lb/gal 0.01628 ft
3
/lb = 0.1356 ft
3
=
19.5 in.
3
(Specific volume of water @ 4C = 0.00100 m
3
/kg
Specific volume of water @ 60C = 0.00102 m
3
/kg
S
v
4C
=
0.00100
=

1.66% increase in volume
S
v
60C 0.00102
Total volume = 189-L tank + 38-L system = 227 L
227 L 1.66% volume increase = 3.79-L expansion
3.79 L 1 kg/L 0.0010 m
3
/kg = 0.0038 m
3
= 380
cm
3
expansion)
ASPE Data Book Volume 2 168
Table 6-3 Thermal Properties of Water
Saturation Specific
Temperature Pressure Volume Density Weight Specific Heat
F C psig kPa ft
3
/lb m
3
/kg lb/ft
3
kg/m
3
lb/gal kg/m
3
Btu/lb-F-h J/kg-C-h
32 0.0 29.8 3 019.6 0.01602 0.00100 62.42 999.87 8.345 1001.40 1.0093 4225.74
40 4.4 29.7 3 009.5 0.01602 0.00100 62.42 999.87 8.345 1001.40 1.0048 4206.90
50 10.0 29.6 2 999.4 0.01603 0.00100 62.38 999.23 8.340 1000.80 1.0015 4193.08
60 15.5 29.5 2 989.2 0.01604 0.00100 62.34 998.59 8.334 1000.08 0.9995 4184.71
70 21.1 29.3 2 969.0 0.01606 0.00100 62.27 997.47 8.325 999.00 0.9982 4179.26
80 26.7 28.9 2 928.4 0.01608 0.00100 62.19 996.19 8.314 997.68 0.9975 4176.33
90 32.2 28.6 2 898.0 0.01610 0.00100 62.11 994.91 8.303 996.36 0.9971 4174.66
100 37.8 28.1 2 847.4 0.01613 0.00101 62.00 993.14 8.289 994.68 0.9970 4174.24
110 43.3 27.4 2 776.4 0.01617 0.00101 61.84 990.58 8.267 992.04 0.9971 4174.66
120 48.9 26.6 2 695.4 0.01620 0.00101 61.73 988.82 8.253 990.36 0.9974 4175.91
130 54.4 25.5 2 583.9 0.01625 0.00101 61.54 985.78 8.227 987.24 0.9978 4177.59
140 60.0 24.1 2 442.1 0.01629 0.00102 61.39 983.37 8.207 984.84 0.9984 4180.10
150 65.6 22.4 2 269.8 0.01634 0.00102 61.20 980.33 8.182 981.84 0.9990 4182.61
160 71.1 20.3 2 057.0 0.01639 0.00102 61.01 977.29 8.156 978.72 0.9998 4185.96
170 76.7 17.8 1 803.7 0.01645 0.00103 60.79 973.76 8.127 975.24 1.0007 4189.73
180 82.2 14.7 1 489.6 0.01651 0.00103 60.57 970.24 8.098 971.76 1.0017 4193.92
190 87.8 10.9 1 104.5 0.01657 0.00103 60.35 966.71 8.068 968.16 1.0028 4198.52
200 93.3 6.5 658.6 0.01663 0.00104 60.13 963.19 8.039 964.68 1.0039 4203.13
210 98.9 1.2 121.6 0.01670 0.00104 59.88 959.19 8.005 960.60 1.0052 4208.57
212 100.0 0.0 0.0 0.01672 0.00104 59.81 958.06 7.996 959.52 1.0055 4209.83
220 104.4 2.5 253.3 0.01677 0.00105 59.63 955.18 7.972 956.64 1.0068 4215.27
240 115.6 10.3 1 043.7 0.01692 0.00106 59.10 946.69 7.901 948.12 1.0104 4230.34
260 126.7 20.7 2 097.5 0.01709 0.00107 58.51 937.24 7.822 938.64 1.0148 4248.76
280 137.8 34.5 3 495.9 0.01726 0.00108 57.94 928.11 7.746 929.52 1.0200 4270.54
300 148.9 52.3 5 299.6 0.01745 0.00109 57.31 918.02 7.662 919.44 1.0260 4295.66
350 176.7 119.9 12 149.5 0.01799 0.00112 55.59 890.47 7.432 891.84 1.0440 4371.02
400 204.4 232.6 23 569.4 0.01864 0.00116 55.63 891.11 7.172 860.64 1.0670 4467.32
450 232.2 407.9 41 332.5 0.01940 0.00121 51.55 825.75 6.892 827.04 1.0950 4584.55
500 260.0 666.1 67 495.9 0.02040 0.00127 49.02 785.22 6.553 786.36 1.1300 4731.08
550 287.8 1030.5 104 420.6 0.02180 0.00136 45.87 734.77 6.132 735.84 1.2000 5024.16
600 315.6 1528.2 154 852.5 0.02360 0.00147 42.37 678.70 5.664 679.68 1.3620 5702.42
169 Chapter 6 Domestic Water Heating Systems
THERMAL EFFICIENCY
When inefficiencies of the water-heating process
are considered, the actual input energy is higher
than the usable, or output, energy. Direct-fired
water heaters (i.e., those that use gas, oil, etc.)
lose part of their total energy capability to such
things as heated flue gases, inefficiencies of com-
bustion, and radiation at heated surfaces. Their
thermal efficiency, E
t
, is defined as the heat
actually transferred to the domestic water divided
by the total heat input to the water heater. Ex-
pressed as a percentage, this is
Equation 6-9
E
t
=
q B
100%
q
where
B = Internal heat loss of the water heater,
Btu/h (kJ/h)
q = Time rate of heat transfer, Btu/h
(kJ/h)
Refer to Equations 6-1 and 6-2 to determine q.
Many water heaters and boilers provide input
and output energy information.
Example 6-5 Calculate the heat input rate re-
quired for the water heater in Example 6-1 if
this is a direct gas-fired water heater with a ther-
mal efficiency of 80%.
Solution
From Example 6-1, q = 449,820 Btu/h (475 374 kJ/h).
Heat input =
q
=
449,820 Btu/h
= 562,275 Btu/h
E
t
0.80
Y
q
=
475 374 kJ/h
= 594 217.5 kJ/h

Z
E
t
0.80
SAFETY AND HEALTH CONCERNS
Legionella Pneumophila
(Legionnaires Disease)
Legionnaires disease is a potentially fatal respi-
ratory illness. The disease gained notoriety when
1
For more information regarding Scalding, refer to ASPE
Research Foundation, 1989.
2
Moritz and Henriques, 1947.
a number of American Legionnaires contracted
it during a convention. That outbreak was at-
tributed to the water vapor from the buildings
cooling tower(s). The bacteria that cause Legion-
naires disease are widespread in natural sources
of water, including rivers, lakes, streams, and
ponds. In warm water, the bacteria can grow and
multiply to high concentrations. Drinking water
containing the Legionella bacteria has no known
effects. However, inhalation of the bacteria into
the lungs, e.g., while showering, can cause Le-
gionnaires disease. Much has been published
about this problem, and yet there is still contro-
versy over the exact temperatures that foster the
growth of the bacteria. Further research is re-
quired, for there is still much to be learned. It is
incumbent upon designers to familiarize them-
selves with the latest information on the subject
and to take it into account when designing their
systems. Designers also must be familiar with
and abide by the rules of all regulating agencies
with jurisdiction.
Scalding
1
A research project by Moritz and Henriques at
Harvard Medical College
2
looked at the relation-
ship between time and water temperature
necessary to produce a first-degree burn. A first-
degree burn, the least serious type, results in no
irreversible damage. The results of the research
show that it takes a 3-s exposure to 140F (60C)
water to produce a first-degree burn. At 130F
(54C), it takes approximately 20 s, and at 120F
(49C), it takes 8 min to produce a first-degree
burn.
The normal threshold of pain is approxi-
mately 118F (48C). A person exposed to 120F
(49C) water would immediately experience dis-
comfort; it is unlikely then that the person would
be exposed for the 8 min required to produce a
first-degree burn. People in some occupancies
(e. g., hospitals), as well as those over the age of
65 and under the age of 1, may not sense pain
or move quickly enough to avoid a burn once
pain is sensed. If such a possibility exists, scald-
ing protection should be considered. It is often
required by code. (For more information on skin
damage caused by exposure to hot water, see
Table 6-4.)
ASPE Data Book Volume 2 170
Table 6-4 Time/Water Temperature
Combinations Producing Skin Damage
Water Temperature
F C Time (s)
Over 140 Over 60 Less than 1
140 60 2.6
135 58 5.5
130 54 15
125 52 50
120 49 290
Source: Tom Byrley. 1979. 130 degrees F or 140 degrees F. Con-
tractor Magazine (September). First published in American Journal
of Pathology.
Note: The above data indicate conditions producing the first evi-
dence of skin damage in adult males.
CODES AND STANDARDS
The need to conform to various codes and stan-
dards determines many aspects of the design of
a domestic hot-water system as well as the se-
lection of components and equipment.
Some of the most often used codes and stan-
dards are:
1. Regional, state, and local plumbing codes.
2. American Society of Heating, Refrigerating,
and Air-Conditioning Engineers ASHRAE/
IES 90.1.
3. American Society of Mechanical Engineers
(ASME) code for fired and unfired pressure
vessels.
4. ASME and American Gas Association (AGA)
codes for relief valves.
5. Underwriters Laboratory (UL) listing for elec-
trical components.
6. National Sanitation Foundation (NSF) listing.
7. AGA approval for gas-burning components.
8. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA)
standards.
9. National Electrical Code (NEC).
10. Department of Health and Environmental
Control (DHEC).
In addition, the federal government, the agen-
cies with jurisdiction over public schools and
public housing, and many other agencies have
specific requirements that must be observed
when designing projects and selecting equipment
for them.
REFERENCES
1. ASPE Research Foundation. 1989. Temperature
limits in service hot water systems. Journal of
Environmental Health (June): 38-48.
2. Moritz, A. R., and F. C. Henriques, Jr. 1947. The
relative importance of time and surface tempera-
ture in the causation of cutaneous burns. American
Journal of Pathology 23: 695-720.
173 Chapter 7 Fuel-Gas Piping Systems
Fuel-Gas
Piping
Systems
7
LOW AND MEDIUM-PRESSURE
NATURAL GAS SYSTEMS
The composition, specific gravity, and heating
value of natural gas vary depending upon the
well (or field) from which the gas is gathered.
Natural gas is a mixture of gases, most of which
are hydrocarbons, and the predominant hydro-
carbon is methane. Some natural gases contain
significant quantities of nitrogen, carbon diox-
ide, or sulfur (usually as H
2
S). Natural gases
containing sulfur or carbon dioxide are apt to be
corrosive. These corrosive substances are usu-
ally eliminated by treatment of the natural gas
before it is transmitted to the customers. Readily
condensable petroleum gases are also usually
extracted before the natural gas is put into the
pipeline to prevent condensation during trans-
mission.
The specific gravity of natural gas varies from
0.55 to 1.0 and the heating value varies from
900 to 1100 Btu/ft
3
(33.9 to 41.5 mJ/m
3
). Natu-
ral gas is nominally rated at 1000 Btu/ft
3
(37.7
J/m
3
), manufactured gas is nominally rated at
520 Btu/ft
3
(20 mJ/m
3
), and mixed gas is nomi-
nally rated at 800 Btu/ft
3
(30.1 mJ/m
3
). Liquefied
petroleum gases (LPG) are nominally rated at
2500 Btu/ft
3
(94.1 mJ/m
3
). Natural gas is trans-
mitted from the fields to the local marketing and
distribution systems at very high pressures, usu-
ally in the range of 500 to 1000 psi (3447.4 to
6894.8 kPa). Local distribution systems are at
much lower pressures. The plumbing engineer
should determine the specific gravity, pressure,
and heating value of the gas from the utility com-
pany or LPG provider serving the project area.
This chapter covers fuel-gas systems on con-
sumers premisesthat is, upstream and
downstream from the gas suppliers meter set
assemblyand includes system design and ap-
pliance gas usage, gas train venting, ventilation,
and combustion air requirements. Since natu-
ral gas is a depletable energy resource, the
engineer should design for its efficient use. The
direct utilization of natural gas is preferable to
the use of electrical energy when electricity is
obtained from the combustion of gas or oil. How-
ever, in many areas, the gas supplier and/or
governmental agencies may impose regulations
that restrict the use of natural gas. Refer to the
chapter Energy Conservation in Plumbing Sys-
tems, in Data Book Volume 1, for information
on appliance efficiencies and energy conserva-
tion recommendations.
Design Considerations
The energy available in 1 cubic foot (cubic meter)
of natural gas, at atmospheric pressure, is called
the heating (or caloric) value. The flow of gas,
expressed in cubic feet per hour (cfh) or cubic
meters per hour (m
3
/h), in the distribution pip-
ing depends on the amount of gas being
consumed by the appliances. This quantity of
gas depends on the requirements of the appli-
ances. For example, 33,200 Btu/h (35 mJ/h) are
required to raise the temperature of 40 gal (151.4
L) of water from 40 to 140F (4.4 to 60C) in 1
hour. This value is obtained as follows:
Equation 7-1
Q = m C
p
T
ASPE Data Book Volume 2 174
where
Q = Energy required, Btu/h (J/h)
m = Mass flow, gal/h (L/h)
C
p
= Specific heat of water, 1 Btu/F (J/C)
T = Temperature rise, F (C)
Q = (40 gal/h)(8.33 lb/gal)(1 Btu/lb-F)(100F) =
33,320 Btu/h
[Q = (151 L/h)(1 kg/L)(6.1 kJ/kg-C)(38C) =
35 MJ/h]
If the water heater in this case is 80% effi-
cient, then 41,650 Btu/h (43.8 mJ/h) of gas will
be needed at the appliances burner (33,320 Btu/
h/.80). If natural gas with a heating value of 1000
Btu/ft
3
(37.7 mJ/m
3
) serves the appliance, the
piping system must supply 41.7 cfh (1.2 m
3
/h)
of gas to the appliance with adequate pressure
to allow proper burner operation. The formula
for the flow rate of gas is shown below:
Equation 7-2
Q =
Output
(Eff HV)
where
Q = Gas flow rate, cfh (m
3
/h)
Output = Appliances output, Btu/h (J/h)
Eff = Appliances efficiency, %
HV = Heating value of the fuel gas,
Btu/ft
3
(J/m
3
)
The difference between the input and the out-
put is the heat lost in the burner, the heat
exchanger, and the flue gases. Water heating and
space heating equipment is usually 75 to 85%
efficient, and ratings are given for both input and
output. Cooking and laundry equipment is usu-
ally 75 to 85% efficient, and ratings are given for
both input and output. However, cooking and
laundry equipment is usually rated only by its
input requirements. When the input required for
the appliance is known, Equation 7-2 is ex-
pressed as follows:
Equation 7-3
Q =
Input
HV
where
Q = Gas flow rate, cfh (m
3
/h)
Input = Appliances input, Btu/h (J/h)
HV = Heating value of the fuel gas,
Btu/ft
3
(J/m
3
)
When the exact data on the appliances gas
usage is unavailable from the equipment manu-
facturer, Table 7-1 can be used to obtain the
approximate requirements for common appli-
ances.
The gas pressure in the piping system down-
stream of the meter is usually 5 to 14 in. (127 to
355.6 mm) of water column (wc). Design prac-
tice limits the pressure losses in the piping to
0.5 in. (12.7 mm) wc, or less than 10%, when 5
to 14 in. (127 to 355.6 mm) wc is available at the
meter outlet. However, local codes may dictate a
more stringent pressure drop maximum; these
should be consulted before the system is sized.
Most appliances require approximately 5 in.
(127mm) wc; however, the designer must be
aware that large appliances, such as boilers, may
require higher gas pressures to operate properly.
Where appliances require higher pressures or
where long distribution lines are involved, it may
be necessary to use higher pressures at the meter
outlet to satisfy the appliance requirements or
provide for greater pressure losses in the piping
system. If greater pressure at the meter outlet
can be attained, a greater pressure drop can be
allowed in the piping system. If the greater pres-
sure drop design can be used, a more economical
piping system is possible. Systems are often de-
signed with meter outlet pressures of 3 to 5 psi
(20.7 to 34.5 kPa) and with pressure regulators
to reduce the pressure for appliances as required.
The designer has to allow for the venting of such
regulators, often to the atmosphere, when they
are installed within buildings.
When bottled gas is used, the tank can have
as much as 150 psi (1044.6 kPa) pressure, to be
reduced to the burner design pressure of 11 in.
(279.4 mm) wc. The regulator is normally located
at the tank for this pressure reduction.
To size the gas piping for a distribution sys-
tem, the designer must determine the following
items:
1. The appliance requirements, including the
gas consumption, pressure, and pipe size re-
quired at the appliance connection (total
connected load). Is the appliance provided
with a pressure regulator?
2. The piping layout, showing the length of (hori-
zontal and vertical) piping, number of fittings
and valves, and number of appliances.
175 Chapter 7 Fuel-Gas Piping Systems
Table 7-1 Approximate Gas Demand for Common Appliances
a
Appliance Input, Btu/h (mJ/h)
Commercial kitchen equipment
Small broiler 30,000 (31.7)
Large broiler 60,000 (63.3)
Combination broiler and roaster 66,000 (69.6)
Coffee maker, 3-burner 18,000 (19)
Coffee maker, 4-burner 24,000 (25.3)
Deep fat fryer, 45 lb (20.4 kg) of fat 50,000 (52.8)
Deep fat fryer, 75 lb (34.1 kg) of fat 75,000 (79.1)
Doughnut fryer, 200 lb (90.8 kg) of fat 72,000 (76)
2-deck baking and roasting oven 100,000 (105.5)
3-deck baking oven 96,000 (101.3)
Revolving oven, 4 or 5 trays 210,000 (221.6)
Range with hot top and oven 90,000 (95)
Range with hot top 45,000 (47.5)
Range with fry top and oven 100,000 (105.5)
Range with fry top 50,000 (52.8)
Coffee urn, single, 5-gal (18.9 L) 28,000 (29.5)
Coffee urn, twin, 10-gal. (37.9 L) 56,000 (59.1)
Coffee urn, twin, 15-gal (56.8 L) 84,000 (88.6)
Stackable convection oven, per section of oven 60,000 (63.3)
Residential equipment
Clothes dryer (Type I) 35,000 (36.9)
Range 65,000 (68.6)
Stove-top burners (each) 40,000 (42.2)
Oven 25,000 (26.4)
30-gal (113.6-L) water heater 30,000 (31.7)
40 to 50-gal (151.4 to 189.3-L) water heater 50,000 (52.8)
Log lighter 25,000 (26.4)
Barbecue 50,000 (52.8)
Miscellaneous equipment
Commercial log lighter 50,000 (52.8)
Bunsen burner 5,000 (5.3)
Gas engine, per horsepower (745.7 W) 10,000 (10.6)
Steam boiler, per horsepower (745.7 W) 50,000 (52.8)
Commercial clothes dryer (Type 2) See manufacturers data.
a
The values given in this table should be used only when the manufacturers data are not available.
ASPE Data Book Volume 2 176
3. The fuel gas to be supplied, where and by
whom; also the specific gravity and heating
value of the fuel gas and the pressure to be
provided at the meter outlet.
4. The allowable pressure loss from the meter
to the appliances.
5. The diversity factorthe number of appli-
ances operating at one time compared to the
total number of connected appliances. This
should be provided by the owner and/or user.
Standard engineering methods may be used
to determine pipe sizes for a system, or the ac-
ceptable capacity/pipe size tables may be used
when such tables are available for the specific
operating conditions of the system under con-
sideration. The diversity factor is an important
item when determining the most practical pipe
sizes to be used in occupancies such as mul-
tiple-family dwellings. It is dependent on the type
and number of gas appliances being installed.
Refer to the pipe sizing section later in this
chapter.
The most common material used for gas pip-
ing is black steel; however, many other materials
are utilized, including copper, wrought iron, plas-
tic, brass, and aluminum alloy. The proper
material to be used depends on the specific
installation conditions and local code limitations.
Any condition that could be detrimental to the
integrity of the piping system must be avoided.
Corrosion and physical damage are the most ob-
vious causes of pipe failure. The piping material
itself and/or the provisions taken for the protec-
tion of the piping material must prevent the
possibility of pipe failure. Corrosion can occur
because of electrolysis or because a corrosive ma-
terial is in contact with either the exterior or the
interior surface of the piping.
Coatings are commonly applied to buried me-
tallic pipe to prevent corrosion of the exterior
surface. The gas supplier should be contacted to
determine if the gas contains any corrosive ma-
terial, such as moisture, hydrogen sulfide (H
2
S),
or carbon dioxide (CO
2
). Due to the grave conse-
quences of leakage in the gas piping system, the
designer must carefully consider the piping ma-
terial to be used and the means to protect the
piping and protect against leaks.
Gas piping should be installed only in safe
locations. Buried piping should be installed deep
enough to protect the pipe from physical dam-
age. When piping is installed in concealed spaces,
care should be taken so that, in the event of gas
leakage, gas will not accumulate in the concealed
space. The installation of gas piping in an
unventilated space under a building should be
avoided. Such conditions have resulted in disas-
trous explosions. A gas leak anywhere along the
length of a buried pipe can flow in the annular
space around the pipe and accumulate in a cavity
under the building. Ignition of this accumulated
gas can result in an explosion. For this reason,
it is best to try to locate the gas main above grade
at the point of entrance into the building. If this
is not feasible, the main can be installed in a
ventilated sleeve (containment pipe). The designer
should carefully detail this installation so that
leaked gas will be harmlessly vented to the at-
mosphere and not accumulated in the building.
Gas piping should be located where it will not be
subject to damage by such things as vehicles,
forklifts, cranes, machinery, or occupants. Sup-
port of piping should be in accordance with codes
and as described in the chapter Hangers and
Supports, in Data Book Volume 4 (forthcoming).
Valves, controls, pressure regulators, and
safety devices used in gas systems should be
designed and approved for such use. Shut-off
valves should be installed in accessible locations
and near each appliance, with a union between
the valve and the appliance. Shut-off valves
should be of the plug or cock type with a lever
handle. Larger sizes should be of the lubricated
plug type. The quarter-turn lever handle provides
visual indication of whether the valve is opened
or closed. An approved assembly of semirigid or
flexible tubing and fittings, referred to as an ap-
pliance connector, is sometimes used to connect
the piping outlet to the appliance. Appliance con-
nectors are rated by capacity, based on a specified
pressure, flow, and pressure drop.
Laboratory Gas
Natural gas or propane gas is used in laborato-
ries at lab benches for Bunsen burners and other
minor users. Typical Bunsen burners consume
either 5000 cfh (141.6 m
3
/h) (small burners) or
10,000 cfh (283.2 m
3
/h) (large burners). The
maximum pressure at the burner should not
exceed 14 in. wc (355.6 mm wc).
The gas distribution piping should be sized
in the manner discussed later in this chapter;
however, the following diversities may be applied:
177 Chapter 7 Fuel-Gas Piping Systems
Minimum
Flow,
Number of Outlets Use Factor cfh (m
3
/h)
18 100 9 (0.26)
916 90 15 (0.43)
1729 80 24 (0.68)
3079 60 48 (1.36)
80162 50 82 (2.32)
163325 45 107 (3.03)
326742 40 131 (3.71)
7431570 30 260 (7.36)
15712900 25 472 (13.37)
2901 and up 20 726 (20.56)
Branch piping that serves one or two labora-
tories should be sized for 100% usage regardless
of the number of outlets. Use factors should be
modified to suit special conditions and must be
used with judgment after consultation with the
owner and/or user.
Some local codes require that laboratory gas
systems, especially those in schools or universi-
ties, be supplied with emergency gas shut-off
valves on the supply to each laboratory. The valve
should be normally closed and opened only when
the gas is being used. It should be located inside
the laboratory and used in conjunction with shut-
off valves at the benches or equipment, which
may be required by other codes. The designer
should ensure that locations meet local code re-
quirements.
Where compressed air is also supplied to the
laboratory, aluminum check valves should be
provided on the supply to the laboratory to pre-
vent air from being injected back into the gas
system. An alternative to aluminum check valves
is gas turrets with integral check valves.
Gas Train Vents
Guidelines for the use of vents from pressure
regulators, also referred to as gas-train vents,
can be found in the latest editions of NFPA 54
and Factory Mutual (FM) Loss Prevention Data
Sheet 6-4, as well as in other publications of in-
dustry standards, such as those issued by
Industrial Risk Insurers (IRI) and the American
Gas Association (AGA). As a practical matter,
many boiler manufacturers can provide resource
materials, such as gas-train venting schemes,
that reference standards organizations. Factors
that determine which standard to reference are
based upon the input (Btu/h) and the owners
insurance underwriter. The plumbing designer
must be aware of the existence of these stan-
dardsespecially when designing piping for
boilers with input capacities of 2,500,000 Btu/h
(732 kW) or more that are not listed by a nation-
ally recognized testing laboratory agency, e.g.,
equipment that does not bear a UL label or have
Factory Mutual Research Corporation (FMRC)
approval listing.
Industrial-boiler gas trains often require
multiple, piped, gas-train vents to the atmo-
sphere. These are usually in., and the material
used should follow the classification as specified
in NFPA 54 under the heading Gas Piping Sys-
tem Design, Materials, and Components. Where
multiple gas-train vents are indicated, each shall
run independently to the atmosphere. Care must
be exercised in the location of the termination
points of these pipes. Vent pipes should termi-
nate with 90 ells turned down vertically and be
protected with an insect screen over the outlet.
It should be noted that when the pressure
regulators activate they can release large
amounts of fuel gas. It is not uncommon for a
local fire department to be sumoned to investi-
gate an odor of gas caused by a gas-train vent
discharge. Every attempt should be made to lo-
cate the terminal point of the vents above the
line of the roof and away from doors, windows,
and fresh-air intakes. It should also be located
on a side of the building that is not protected
from the wind. Refer to NFPA 54 and local codes
for vent locations.
Appliances
Most manufacturers of gas appliances rate their
equipment by the gas consumption values that
are used to determine the maximum gas flow
rate in the piping. Table 7-1 shows the approxi-
mate gas consumption for some common
appliances.
The products of combustion from an appli-
ance must be safely exhausted to the outside. This
is accomplished with a gas vent system in most
cases. Where an appliance has a very low rate of
gas consumption (e.g., Bunsen burner or counter-
top coffee maker) or where an appliance has an
exhaust system associated with the appliance
(e.g., gas clothes dryer or range), and the room
size and ventilation are adequate, a gas vent sys-
tem may not be required. Current practice usually
dictates the use of factory-fabricated and listed
ASPE Data Book Volume 2 178
vents for small to medium-sized appliances. Large
appliances and equipment may require specially
designed venting or exhaust systems.
For proper operation, the gas vent system
must satisfy the appliance draft and building
safety requirements. To meet these conditions,
consideration of combustion and ventilation air
supplies, draft hood dilution, startup conditions,
flue gas temperatures, oxygen depletion, exter-
nal wind conditions, and pollution dispersion is
required. For example, appliances equipped with
draft hoods need excess vent capacity to draw in
the draft hood dilution air and prevent draft hood
spillage. Inadequate combustion air supply can
cause oxygen depletion and inadequate firing.
This condition can create a safety hazard because
of a combination of draft hood spillage and inad-
equate flue gas removal. The motive force
exhausting flue gases from an appliance can be
gravity (a natural draft due to the difference in
densities between hot flue gases and ambient
air) or mechanical (induced-draft fan or forced-
draft fan). The motive force involved affects the
size and configurations that may safely be ap-
plied to a vent system. The designer is referred
to the chapter on gas vent systems of the local
mechanical or plumbing code and to the data
developed by the manufacturers of gas vents for
sizing information. Due to the fact that many
codes require that appliances conform to an ap-
proved standard, such as the American Gas
Association (AGA), a simple approach to the de-
sign of vent systems can be as follows:
1. The vent system conforms to the manu-
facturers instructions and the terms of the
listing.
2. The gravity vents cannot exceed certain hori-
zontal lengths, must exceed certain minimum
slopes upward to their vertical chimneys, and
cannot terminate less than 5 ft (1.5 m) above
the appliance outlet.
3. The vent size cannot be smaller than the vent
connector collar size of the appliance.
4. The size of a single vent that services more
than one appliance must not be less than
the area of the largest vent connector served
plus 50% of the areas of the additional vent
connectors.
Since vent chimney heights and flue gas tem-
peratures determine the theoretical draft, there
are many situations where the above approach
will produce oversized vent systems. Whatever
approach is used, a great deal of care must be
taken when designing vents that are horizontal.
It is recommended that every system be engi-
neered and checked for compliance with codes.
A conservative design is warranted in light of
the hazards involved.
Combustion air is required for the proper
operation of gas appliances. In addition to the
theoretical amount of air required for combus-
tion, excess air is necessary to assure complete
combustion. Approximately 1 ft
3
(0.03 m
3
) of air
at standard conditions is needed for each 100
Btu (1055 J) of fuel burned. Air is also required
for the dilution of flue gases when draft hoods
are provided. Some additional amount of air is
also needed for ventilation of the equipment
room. This air for combustion, dilution, and ven-
tilation is usually supplied by permanent
openings or ducts connected to the outdoors. Two
openings should be supplied. One opening should
be high (above the draft hood inlet) and the other
opening should be low (below the combustion
air inlet to the appliance). The size of these open-
ings can be determined by standard engineering
methods, based on the air balance in the equip-
ment room and taking into account the energy
(natural draft or mechanical) available to draw
air into the room; however, these must comply
with codes, which usually give more conserva-
tive opening sizes, based on the area of the
opening required per Btu (J) of gas consumed.
Gas Boosters
Definition A gas booster is a mechanical piece
of equipment that increases the pressure of gas
for the purpose of meeting equipment or func-
tional demands. It is used when there is
insufficient pressure available from the gas utility
or LPG storage device to supply the necessary pres-
sure to the equipment at hand. It is important to
note that the gas service must be capable of the
volumetric flow rate required at the boosted level.
A booster cannot overcome an inadequate volu-
metric supply. (See Sizing a Gas Booster below.)
Gas boosters for natural or liquefied petroleum
gas Boosters for natural or utility-supplied gas
are hermetically sealed and are equipped to de-
liver a volumetric flow rate (user defined but within
the boosters rated capacity) to an elevated pres-
sure beyond the supply pressure. The outlet
pressure usually remains at a constant differen-
tial above the supply pressure within a reasonable
range. The discharge pressure is the sum of the
179 Chapter 7 Fuel-Gas Piping Systems
incoming gas pressure and the booster-added pres-
sure at the chosen flow rate. The incoming gas
pressure usually has an upper safety limit as stipu-
lated by the hermetic gas booster manufacturer.
Therefore, in the engineering literature from the
manufacturer, the engineer may find cautions or
warnings about the upper limits of incoming pres-
sure, usually about 5 psi (34.5 kPa).
Materials of construction
Housing and rotor Boosters used for fuel gas
must be UL listed for the specific duty intended
and shall be hermetically sealed. Casings on
standard boosters are usually constructed of
carbon steel, depending on the equipment sup-
plier. Booster casings are also available in
stainless steel and aluminum. Inlet and outlet
connections are threaded or flanged, depending
on the pipe size connection and the manufac-
turer selected, and the casings are constructed
leak tight. Drive impellers are contained within
the casing and always manufactured of a spark-
resistant material such as aluminum.
Discharge type check valves are furnished on
the booster inlet and on the booster bypass. It is
important that these checks are listed and ap-
proved for use on the gas stream at hand. The
fan, control panel, valves, piping, and interelec-
trical connections can be specified as a
skid-mounted package at the discretion of the
designer. This allows for UL listing of the entire
package rather than of individual components.
Electrical components Motor housings for
gas-booster systems are designed for explosion-
proof (XP) construction and are rated per NEMA
Class 1, Division 1, Group D classification with
thermal overload protection. A factory UL listed
junction box with a protected, sealed inlet is nec-
essary for wiring connections.
Other electrical ancillary equipment Boost-
ers are equipped with low-pressure switches that
monitor the incoming gas pressure. The switch
is designed to shut down the booster should the
utility-supplied pressure fall below a preset limit.
The set point is usually about 3 in. (80 mm) wa-
ter column (wc), but the designer should verify
the limit with the local gas provider. The switch
must be UL listed for use with the gas service at
hand. When the switch opens, it de-energizes
the motor control circuit and simultaneously
outputs both audible and visual signals, which
require manual resetting. The booster can be
equipped with an optional hi/low gas-pressure
switch. This feature equips the booster to run
only when adequate supply pressure is available.
The switch shuts the booster down at the maxi-
mum discharge set-point pressure at the output
line pressure.
Minimum gas flow Gas boosters normally re-
quire a minimum gas flow that serves as an
internal cooling medium. For example, a booster
sized at a flow rate of 10,000 cfh (283.2 m
3
/h)
will have an inherent minimum turndown based
on the minimum flow required to cool the unit.
This rate, in the example, may be, say 2000 cfh
(566.3 m
3
/h) (see Figure 7-2). Should the unit
be required to run below this turndown rate, ad-
ditional supplemental cooling systems must be
incorporated into the booster design. The heat
exchangers normally rated for this use are wa-
ter cooled.
Intrinsic safety Electrical connections are
made through a sealed, explosion-proof conduit
to the XP junction box on the booster unit. Con-
trol panels are rated NEMA 4 for outdoor use
and NEMA 12 for indoor use unless the booster
system is to be located in a hazardous area, which
may have additional requirements. The panel,
as an assembly, must display a UL label specific
for its intended use.
Gas laws
Pressure-volume relationships The gas laws
apply to the relationship of the incoming gas sup-
ply and the boosted service. The standard law for
compressed gas relationships is as follows:
Equation 7-4
PV = RT
where
P = Pressure, psi or in. wc
(kPa or mm wc)
V = Volume, cfh (m
3
/h)
R = Constant for the gas-air mixture
used
T = Temperature, F (C)
Usually the temperature of the gas remains
relatively constant and can therefore be ignored
in the relationship. Therefore, the pressure times
the volume is proportional to a constant R. Fur-
ther, the pressure/volume ratios before and after
the booster are proportional, that is:
ASPE Data Book Volume 2 180
Equation 7-5
P
1
V
1
= P
2
V
2
where
P
1
= Pressure at a point prior to the
booster
P
2
= Pressure at a point after the booster
For almost every case, the volumetric rating
of gas-fired equipment is in Btu/h, which can
readily be converted to cfh. In the booster appli-
cation, sizing criteria should be approached from
a standard cfh (scfh) not an actual cfh (acfh)
rating.
Gas temperatures and density As stated, the
temperature of the gas is usually constant. How-
ever, in the event that the gas is to be heated or
cooled, the above gas laws are affected by tem-
perature. Gas-density changes affect the constant
but usually do not affect the relationship since
the same mixture is boosted across the fan.
High-rise building issues It should be noted
that consideration must be given to the rise ef-
fect in available gas pressure as gas rises in the
piping through a high-rise building. Therefore,
if the gas system supplies a kitchen on the first
level and a boiler in the penthouse of a 50-story
building, it may be necessary to boost the sup-
ply to the kitchen but not to the boiler. The gas
rises to the penthouse through the piping sys-
tem because of the density differential, its rising
is dependent on this stack effect, which is di-
rectly related to the piping system layout.
Design considerations Although a gas booster
is a basic mechanical piece of equipment, there
are significant design considerations that should
be taken into account when applying it:
1. Indoor vs. outdoor location. This may be
driven by local code or the end user. An in-
door location involves a lower initial cost and
lower costs for long-term maintenance. Out-
door locations are inherently safer.
2. Access. The location should be accessible for
installation, inspection, and maintenance. The
unit should not be so accessible as to create a
security issue. Keep the equipment out of
traffic patterns and protect it from heavy equip-
ment.
3. Minimum and maximum flow rates. Boosters
usually have a minumum flow rate that must
be maintained so that the boosters motor is
(A)
181 Chapter 7 Fuel-Gas Piping Systems
(B)
(C)
Figure 7-1 Variations of a Basic Simplex Booster System: (A) Standby Generator
Application with Accumulator Tank Having a Limitation on Maximum Pressure,
(B) Dual Booster System for Critical Systems Like Those in Hospitals,
(C) Heat Exchanger Loop ExampleRequired for High Flow Range with Low Minimum Flow.
ASPE Data Book Volume 2 182
kept cool. When specifying a booster, always
indicate the minimum flow required in addi-
tion to other design parameters. Cooling
devices and bypass loops may be required if
the application requires a turndown in flow
(lowest flow expected) that is higher than the
boosters minimum flow.
4. Controls and interlocking. Determine how the
application should be controlled and what
demands the application will put on the sys-
tem. The control philosophy, method of
electrically interlocking the system to the gas-
fired equipment, and physical hardware will
vary based on the application.
For some specific examples, see the schemat-
ics in Figure 7-1, which shows variations of a
basic simplex booster system for an emergency
generator. In Figure 7-1(A), the regulator con-
trols maximum delivered pressure, and a
combination high/low pressure switch on the
tank cycles the booster to ensure emergency
startup pressure within a design deadband for
the generator. Oversized piping, in this case,
can be substituted for the tank itself. Provide
adequate volume so that the generator can fire
and deliver standby power back to the booster
system to continue operation during main
power interrupt. In Figure 7-1(B), a dual
booster system, the booster is controlled in a
lead/lag control scenario. Should one booster
fail, the second is started automatically. Unit
operation is rotated automatically via the con-
trol panel to share the duty and to keep both
units in operating order. The booster with a
heat-exchanger loop shown in Figure 7-1(C)
has a potential of up to 15 psi (103.4 kPa),
and down to 28 in. wc (711.2 mm wc) supply
pressure. The system automatically diverts gas
around the booster if there is sufficient sup-
ply pressure. While these illustrations
obviously do not cover all the potential appli-
cations, they are provided to give the system
designer some guidance.
Sizing a gas booster A gas boosters main pur-
pose is to elevate the pressure of a volume of gas
to overcome a supply-pressure deficiency. When
sizing a booster, an engineer needs to under-
stand the following terms and issues:
Maximum design flow (Q
max
) The sum of all gas
loads at the maximum capacity rating (MCR) for
all equipment downstream of the booster that could
possibly be required to operate simultaneously.
Minimum design flow (Q
min
) The minimum
volumetric flow that could exist while the booster
is operating. This flow is not always associated
with the smallest Btu/h rated piece of equipment.
For example, when evaluating a 75,000,000 Btu/
h (7.5 mmBtu/h) boiler with a 10:1 turndown ratio
in comparison to 1.0 mmBtu/h (0.3 mmW) hot-
water heater that is on/off in operation, the larger
Btu/h (W) rated boiler has the smaller flow of 0.75
mmBtu/h (0.2 mmW) at its minimum firing rate.
Turndown (TD) ratio The ratio of the MCR in-
put to the equipments minimum or low-fire
input. For example, a 100 mmBtu/h (29.3 mmW)
burner that can fire at a minimum rate of 20
mmBtu/h (5.9 mmW) has a TD ratio of 5:1.
Pressure droop and peak consumption
Pressure droop is the inability of a supply sys-
tem to maintain a steady or consistent inlet
pressure as an increase in volumetric flow is de-
manded. Often, in areas where boosters are
applied, the supply pressure in off-peak months
when gas is not in such demand can be suffi-
cient to run a system. As the local demand for
gas increases, the supply system can no longer
provide the gas efficiently and the pressure falls
off or droops. It is the boosters function to over-
come the droop (or excessive pressure drop) of
the supply system during such times.
Flow rate relationships Do your flows for
separate pieces of equipment relate to each other?
In other words, do the three boilers always oper-
ate in unison while another process machine
always operates off peak and alone? Relation-
ships among the equipment can significantly
affect both maximum and minimum flow rates.
Test block A factor of safety added to design
criteria. Typically, a minimum of 5% added vol-
ume and 10% added static pressure should be
applied to the design criteria. When specifying
the equipment, ensure that you note both the
design and test block conditions. This makes
other people working on the system aware and
ensures that safety factors are not applied to
criteria that already include safety factors.
Minimum inlet pressure (P
I-min
) What is the
minimum supply pressure in in. (mm) wc gage?
This must be evaluated during peak flow de-
mands both for the equipment and for the local
area! Always evaluate during flow, not static, con-
ditions! It is also important to know how high
the inlet pressure is expected to rise during off-
183 Chapter 7 Fuel-Gas Piping Systems
7. Test block flow (Q
TB
) = (1.05 Q
min
) to (1.05
Q
max
)
8. Test block pressure boost: 1.10 P = P
I-eq
+
P
PL
P
I-min
where
P
PL
= Pressure losses, psi (kPa)
Pipe Sizing
A number of formulae can be used to calculate
the capacity of natural gas piping based on such
variables as delivery pressure, pressure drop
through the piping system, pipe size, pipe mate-
rial, and length of piping. Most of these formulae
are referenced in numerous current model codes,
as well as in the NFPA standards. The most com-
monly referenced formula for gas pressures
under 1 psi (10.3 kPa), the NFPA formula listed
in the National Fuel Gas Code, NFPA 54, was used
as the basis for Tables 7-3 and 7-4. The other
commonly referenced equation, the Weymouth
formula, was used as the basis for Table 7-5 and
Appendix Tables 7-A1 through 7-A6. The
Weymouth formula, referenced within these
tables, is applicable only for initial gas pressures
greater than 1 psi (6.9 kPa). A third formula, the
Spitzglass formula, which is shown in Table 7-
A7, is limited to gas pressures under 1 psi (6.9
kPa).
The design of piping systems for gas flow is a
basic fluid flow problem and its solution is simi-
lar to that for any other pipe sizing problem. The
required flow rate can easily be determined, the
pressure losses due to friction can be calculated,
and the required residual pressure at each ap-
pliance is usually known. Using basic engineering
formulae, the engineer can tabulate the various
quantities, establish the pipe sizes for each sec-
tion of piping, and demonstrate the pressure and
flow rate at any point in the system. The flow of
gas in a pipe with pressures not exceeding 1 psi
(6.9 kPa) is often computed using the Spitzglass
formula, as shown below:
Equation 7-6
Q = 3550 K
h
G SL
Q = 3550 K

Y
h
Z

SL
Q = 3550

a
d
5
h


SL

X
1 +
3.6
+ 0.03d

d
peak periods. A booster is typically rated to about
5 psi (34.5 kPa). It may be possible to exceed
this rating during off-peak demand periods,
therefore, a bypass system or other means of pro-
tection is required. Often this pressure can be
specified by the local gas company as the mini-
mum guaranteed gas pressure from their supply
system. Also, the maximum inlet pressure (P
I-
max
) must be determined.
Maximum outlet pressure (P
O-max)
List all maxi-
mum and required supply pressures for the
various pieces of equipment being supplied gas
from the booster. Determine the differential be-
tween the highest expected gas pressure supply
to the booster (e.g., 8 in. wc [203.2 mm wc]) and
the lowest maximum supply pressure rating to
a piece of equipment (e.g., 18 in. wc [457.2 mm
wc]). The boosters pressure gain should not ex-
ceed this differential (for the above example, 18
8 = 10 in. wc [457.2 203.2 = 254 mm wc])
unless other means of protecting the downstream
equipment are provided.
Outlet pressure protection There are several
ways to protect equipment downstream of a
booster should it be necessary due to potential
over-pressurization during off-peak periods. If all
the equipment being serviced operates at nomi-
nally the same pressure, install a regulator on
the inlet or outlet of the booster to maintain a
controlled maximum outlet pressure. If the equip-
ment being serviced operates at various inlet
pressures, it may be best to supply a regulator
for each piece of equipment. Most often, pack-
aged equipment is supplied with its own
regulator. If this is the case, review the equip-
ment regulators maximum inlet pressure.
To perform an evaluation of system require-
ments:
1. Establish design Q
min
and Q
max
per the above
definitions while evaluating TD requirements.
2. Establish P
I-min
and P
I-max
per the above defi-
nitions.
3. Define maximum inlet pressure requirements
to equipment (P
I-eq
)
.
4. Define piping pressure losses (P
PL
) from gas
booster location to each piece of equipment.
5. Design flow rate (Q
D
) = Q
min
to Q
max
,
cfh (m
3
/h)
6. Design pressure boost (P) = P
I-eq
+ P
PL

P
I-min
ASPE Data Book Volume 2 184
where
Q = The gas at standard conditions, cfh (m
3
/h)
K = Constant for a given pipe size
h = The pressure drop, in. (mm) wc
S = Specific gravity of the gas
L = Length of pipe, ft (m)
The constant for a given pipe size (K) may be
calculated by using the following relation:
Equation 7-7
K =
Y
D
5
Z

1 +
3.6
+ 0.03 D
D
where
K = Constant for a given pipe size
D = Inside diameter of the pipe, in. (mm)
The length used in the above formula should
be corrected to allow for the added resistance to
flow caused by valves and fittings in the piping.
This corrected length is called the equiva-
lent length. Table 7-2 gives the equivalent
lengths for various valve and fitting sizes. The
designer is cautioned to conform to applicable
codes for the project location.
The above method is accurate and gives a
solution that has a definite technical basis. How-
ever, in actual practice, published tables show-
ing the capacities for the various pipe sizes and
lengths give solutions that are quickly and eas-
ily obtained and generally adequate for most situ-
ations. These tables are in many model codes
and in National Fire Protection Association
(NFPA) Standard 54. The lengths shown are de-
veloped lengths (lengths measured along the cen-
ter line of the piping plus a fitting allowance).
The pressure drops include an allowance for a
nominal amount of valves and fittings.
To determine the size of each section of pipe
in a gas-supply system using the gas pipe-sizing
tables, the following method should be used:
1. Measure the length of the pipe from the gas
meter location to the most remote outlet on
the system. Add a fitting allowance.
2. Select the column showing that distance (or
the next longer distance, if the table does not
give the exact length).
3. Use the vertical column to locate all gas de-
mand figures for this particular system.
4. Starting at the most remote outlet, find in
the vertical column the selected gas demand
for that outlet. If the exact figure is not
shown, choose the next larger figure below
in the column.
5. Opposite this demand figure, in the first col-
umn at the left, the correct size of pipe will
be found.
Table 7-2 Equivalent Lengths for Various Valve and Fitting Sizes
Pipe Size, in. (mm)
Fitting (19.1) 1 (25.4) 1 (38.1) 2 (50.8) 2 (63.5) 3 (76.2) 4 (101.6) 5 (127) 6 (152.4) 8 (203.2)
Equivalent Lengths, ft (m)
90 elbow 1.00 2.00 2.50 3.00 4.00 5.50 6.50 9.00 12.0 15.0
(0.3) (0.61) (0.76) (0.91) (1.22) (1.68) (1.98) (2.74) (3.66) (4.57)
Tee (run) 0.50 0.75 1.00 1.50 2.00 3.00 3.50 4.50 6.00 7.00
(0.15) (0.23) (0.3) (0.46) (0.61) (0.91) (1.07) (1.37) (1.83) (2.13)
Tee (branch) 2.50 3.50 4.50 5.00 6.00 11.0 13.0 18.0 24.0 30.0
(0.76) (1.07) (1.37) (1.52) (1.83) (3.35) (3.96) (5.49) (7.32) (9.14)
Gas cock 4.00 5.00 7.50 9.00 12.0 17.0 20.0 28.0 37.0 46.0
(approx.) (1.22) (1.52) (2.29) (2.74) (3.66) (5.18) (6.1) (8.53) (11.28) (14.02)
Note: The pressure drop through valves should be taken from manufacturers published data rather than using the equivalent lengths, since
the various patterns of gas cocks can vary greatly.
185 Chapter 7 Fuel-Gas Piping Systems
6. Proceed in a similar manner for each outlet
and each section of pipe. For each section of
pipe, determine the total gas demand sup-
plied by that section.
7. To size all branches, other than the branch
to the most remote outlet, measure the length
of pipe from the outlet to the meter and fol-
low steps 1 through 6 above utilizing the new
length.
For conditions other than those covered
above, the size of each gas piping system may be
determined by standard engineering methods ac-
ceptable to the authority having jurisdiction. The
maximum allowable pressure drop through a
system should not exceed 10% of the supply pres-
sure, which must be verified with the locally
referenced code and the authority having juris-
diction.
Where a gas of a different specific gravity is
delivered or where the pressure differs from what
the referenced gas tables in the local code show,
the size of the piping required must be calcu-
lated by means of standard engineering methods
acceptable to the authority having jurisdiction.
As an example, calculate the following pro-
posed systems pipe size (see Figure 7-2):
1. The distance from the gas meter to outlet A
is 600 ft (182.9 m).
2. For sizing the pipe from outlet A to the meter,
use Table 7-3:
Section 1: 400-ft (123-m) length, carry-
ing 150 cfh (1.2 L/s)using the 400-ft
(123 m) column, the size would be 1
in. (31.8 mm).
Section 2: 550-ft (168-m) length, carry-
ing 600 cfh (4.7 L/s)using an
interpolation between the 500-ft (153.8-
m) column and the 750-ft (230.7-m)
column, the size would be 2 in. (63.5
mm).
Section 3: 600-ft (183-m) length, carry-
ing 2400 cfh (18.9 L/s)using an
interpolation between the 500-ft (153.8-
m) column and the 750-ft (230.7-m)
column, the size would be 4 in. (101.6
mm).
3. For sizing Section 4: from Table 7-3 on the
300-ft (91.4-m) column, carrying 450 cfh (3.5
L/s), size would be 2 in. (50.8 mm)
4. For sizing Section 5: from Table 7-3 on the
100-ft (30.5-m) column, carrying 1800 cfh
(14.2 L/s), size would be 2 in. (63.5 mm)
Figure 7-2
ASPE Data Book Volume 2 186
N
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r
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ASPE Data Book Volume 2 192
Enter chart at left, with cubic feet per hour (liters per second), move horizontally to pipe diameter line, drop perpendicularly to length line and move
horizontally to read pressure drop at right.
Figure 7-3 Pipe Sizing, Low Pressure System with an Initial Pressure Up to 1 psi (6.9 kPa)
Source: Reprinted from data developed by the Pacific Gas and Electric Company.
193 Chapter 7 Fuel-Gas Piping Systems
Enter chart at left, with cubic feet per hour (liters per second), move horizontally to pipe diameter line, drop perpendicu-
larly to length line and move horizontally to read pressure drop at right.
Figure 7-4 Pipe Sizing, Any System with an Initial Pressure
Between 1 and 20 psi (6.9 and 137.8 kPa)
Source: Reprinted from data developed by the Pacific Gas and Electric Company.
ASPE Data Book Volume 2 194
Many codes, including American National
Standards Institute (ANSI) Z223.1 and NFPA 54,
recommend the same procedures detailed above,
except for Step 7. These codes recommend uti-
lizing the same maximum distance column for
all branch lines regardless of the exact distance
from the meter. Steps 3 and 4 of the example
would be, from Table 7-3 on the 750-ft (230.7-
m) column carrying 450 cfh (3.5 L/s) for Section
4 and 1800 cfh (14.2 L/s) for section 5, pipe sizes
of 2 in. (63.5 mm) and 4 in. (91.2 mm), respec-
tively. The designer should investigate the local
code and apply the appropriate sizing procedure.
Therefore, for gas pressures less than 1 psi
(6.895 kPa), use Appendix Table 7-A7 and for
gas pressures less than 1.5 psi (10.3 kPa), use
Tables 7-3 or 7-4. For sizing systems with more
than 1 psi (6.9 kPa) supply pressure, Tables 7-4
and 7-5 and Appendix Tables 7-A1A6 may be
used. For sizing systems with less than 1 psi
(6.9 kPa) pressure, Table 7-A7 may be used. The
use of these tables is similar to that described
for Table 7-3.
Occasionally, it is necessary to size a natu-
ral gas distribution system for pressures other
than the conventional low and medium pressures
already discussed. Figures 7-3 and 7-4 are in-
cluded for such applications. (Proprietary pipe
sizing calculators are available which also solve
the applicable equations.)
Figure 7-3 is for any low-pressure system
with an initial pressure up to 1 psi (6.9 kPa) or
28 in. (711.2 mm) wc, and Figure 7-4 is for any
system with an initial pressure between 1 and
20 psi (6.9 and 137.8 kPa). These graphs can be
used in two ways: one, to determine the pres-
sure drop, and the other, to determine the pipe
size.
Essentially, diversity can only be used to
determine the gas flow rate for a system when
such a system serves laboratories, as previously
discussed, or cooking appliances. Diversity can-
not be applied to water heating or space heating
appliances because these appliances will, at
times, simultaneously demand full capacity gas
flows. For more than 25 years, however, many
codes have recognized that, in multifamily build-
ings, the demand is always less than the total
connected load when gas is used for cooking.
Figures 7-5 and 7-6 indicate the percentage of
the maximum possible demand (diversity) that
can be expected, based on the number of units
in the system.
LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS
Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) is a refined natu-
ral gas developed mainly for use beyond the
utilities gas mains, but it has proven to be com-
petitive within the areas not covered by mains
in rural areas. It is chiefly a blend of propane
and butane with traces of other hydrocarbons
remaining from the various production methods.
The exact blend is controlled by the LPG dis-
tributor to match the climatic conditions of the
area served. For this reason, the engineer must
confirm the heat value of the supplied gas. Un-
like natural gas, LPG has a specific gravity of
1.53 and a rating of 2500 Btu/cf (93 MJ/cm
3
).
The compact storage for relatively large quan-
tities of energy has led to widespread acceptance
and usage of LPG in all areas previously served
by utilities providing other gas to users, includ-
ing automotive users.
Storage
The LPG storage tanks can be provided by the
vendor or the customer and are subject to the
regulations of the US Department of Transpor-
tation (DOT) and the local authority, as well as
NFPA standards, so the plumbing designer has
little opportunity to design storage tanks and
piping, per se. Normally, the designer starts at
the storage supply outlet, and the piping system
is generally in the low-pressure, 11 in. (279 mm)
wc, range. Piping must be designed so that there
is no more than 2 in. (50 mm) wc pressure drop
at any outlet in the system. Gas pipes may be
sized in accordance with NFPA 54, which is ac-
cepted by most jurisdictions.
Small tanks (for example, those for residen-
tial cooking and heating) are allowed to be located
in close proximity to buildings. Large tanks (e.g.,
for industrial or multiple building use), however,
have strict requirements governing their loca-
tion in relation to buildings, public use areas,
and property lines. If large leaks occur, the
heavier-than-air gas will hug the ground and
form a fog. The potential for a hazardous condi-
tion could exist. Proper safety precautions and
equipment, as well as good judgment, must be
utilized when locating large LPG storage tanks.
Note: The following is only a very brief out-
line and is not intended to be used in lieu of
NFPA 54. The designer must use the current ac-
cepted edition.
195 Chapter 7 Fuel-Gas Piping Systems
Figure 7-5 Typical Diversity Curves for Gas Supply to High-Rise Apartments
Figure 7-6 Diversity Percentage for Multifamily Buildings (Average)
ASPE Data Book Volume 2 196
Material
Pipe Wrought iron, modular iron, steel (galva-
nized, plastic-wrapped, or black), brass, and
copper. Aluminum alloy pipe may be used if pres-
sure is not in excess of psi (34 kPa). To qualify,
aluminum piping must be factory coated for ex-
ternal, outdoor use. Cast-iron pipe shall not be
used.
Tubing Copper (K&L), steel, and aluminum al-
loy with same restrictions as in pipe. NFPA 54,
Par. 2.6.3.
Plastic pipe and tubing Plastic pipe and tub-
ing may be used outside underground only. NFPA
54, Par. 2.6.4.
Fittings Whenever pipe lines are run, joints and
fittings are involved. Since these are the weak
points in the system where leaks are most likely
to occur, their selection and installation should
be made with care and NFPA recommendations
should be followed. The following listing includes
some of the more important points to be consid-
ered regarding these connections.
Pipe joints For low-pressure piping ( psi [3.45
kPa] or less) with LPG, the following standards
apply:
Metallic pipe joints may be threaded, flanged,
or welded, and nonferrous metallic pipe may also
be soldered or brazed with material having a melt-
ing point in excess of 1000F (537.8C). Corrosion
of the piping must be prevented and the pipe must
not be in contact with plaster, cement, or damp
insulators and may not be used underground.
Brazing alloy must not contain phosphorous.
Metallic fittings (except valves, strainers, or fil-
ters) must be steel, brass, or malleable or ductile
iron when used with steel or wrought-iron pipe,
and must be copper or brass when used with cop-
per or brass pipe. NFPA 54, Par. 2-6-8(a)-(e).
Cast-iron fittings, in pipe sizes normally used
in LPG installations serving domestic and com-
mercial users, may be authorized by the
authority having jurisdiction for either low or
high-pressure piping. (NFPA 54, Par. 2.6.2.) De-
fective fittings for either pipe or tubing should
be replaced and not repaired. It is not good prac-
tice to use second-hand or used fittings unless
they are cleaned, carefully inspected, and de-
termined to be the equivalent of new before being
reused.
Tubing joints For pressures normally encoun-
tered in the utilization of LPG, the following
requirement is applicable to the methods of join-
ing tubing:
Metallic tubing joints must either be made
with approved gas tubing fittings or be soldered
or brazed with a material having a melting point
in excess of 1000F (537.8C). Metallic, ball
sleeve, compression type tubing fittings must not
be used for this purpose. NFPA 54, Par. 2.6.8(b).
Flared fittings are commonly used in connec-
tion with tube working and are generally less
expensive to use than those involving high-tem-
perature soldering. While sleeve type fittings are
used in some appliances, their use in piping sys-
tems is not approved. Flare nuts used out of doors
in areas where freezing temperatures are encoun-
tered should be of a heavier weight than those
used indoors. These are sometimes referred to
as frost proof and are preferable to the lighter
fittings, which are apt to crack and cause a gas
leak.
Flexible Gas Hose
The practice of connecting hot plates and por-
table space heaters with flexible hose is no longer
considered a safe practice. The current require-
ment regarding their use covers both indoor and
outdoor applications:
Indoor Indoor gas hose connectors may be used
with laboratory shop or ironing equipment that
requires mobility during operation, if listed for
this application. A shut-off valve must be in-
stalled where the connector is attached to the
building piping. The connector must be of mini-
mum length but shall not exceed 6 ft (1.8 m).
The connector must not be concealed and must
not extend from one room to another nor pass
through wall partitions, ceilings, or floors.
Outdoor Outdoor gas hose connectors may be
used to connect portable outdoor gas-fired
appliances, if listed for this application. A shut-
off valve or a listed quick-disconnect device must
be installed where the connector is attached to
the supply piping and in such a manner as to
prevent the accumulation of water or foreign
matter. This connection must be made only in
the outdoor area where the appliance is to be
used. NFPA 54, Par. 5.5.2
197 Chapter 7 Fuel-Gas Piping Systems
Warning
The fact that LPG vapors are heavier than air
has a practical bearing on several items. For one
thing, LPG systems are located in such a man-
ner that the hazard of escaping gas is kept at a
minimum.
Since the heavier-than-air gas tends to settle
in low places, the vent termination of relief valves
must be located at a safe distance from open-
ings into buildings that are below the level of
such valves. With many gas systems, for ex-
ample, both the gas pressure regulator and the
fuel containers are installed adjacently to the
building they serve. This distance must be a least
3 ft (0.91 m) measured horizontally. However,
the required clearances vary according to the
tank size and the adjacent activities. The designer
should refer to the local code and NFPA 54 for
these clearances.
The slope of flash tubes used in connection
with lighting devices is determined by the spe-
cific gravity of the gas. With propane, for example,
the tubes are slanted downward from the burner
to the ignition source as the heavier-than-air gas
tends to flow downward when released. Auto-
matic appliances are normally equipped with
safety pilots, which shut off the flow of gas in
the event of pilot failure. With lighter-than-air
gases, the automatic shut-off valve usually cuts
off the gas to the main burner only, leaving the
pilot burner unprotected. The small amount of
gas that is released is discharged through the
vent or otherwise dissipated. With LPG, however,
gas escaping from the pilot would tend to collect
in a low place and be a hazard. For this reason,
LPG appliances are normally equipped with 100%
safety pilots, which shut off the gas to both the
main burner and the pilot in the event of pilot
failure.
When LPG piping is installed in crawl spaces
or in pipe tunnels, the engineer may consider a
sniffer system, which automatically shuts down
the gas supply, sounds an alarm, and activates
an exhaust system to purge the escaping gas from
the area.
Leak Test
Prior to charging the new piping with LPG, a
satisfactory leak test must be conducted. The
designer should refer to the applicable local code
and NFPA 54 for test requirements.
APPENDIX A
The following gas pipe sizing tables (Tables 7-A1
through 7-A7) are for varying gas pressures in
both inch-pound (IP) and international standard
(SI) units.
These tables are based on the use of sched-
ule 40 black steel pipe with threaded joints.
ASPE Data Book Volume 2 198
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201 Chapter 7 Fuel-Gas Piping Systems
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c
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4
0

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p
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.
ASPE Data Book Volume 2 202
W
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F
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a
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Q
=
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3
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1
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3

L
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