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Event 1 When Jacques Cartier first landed in the New World, he traded fur pelts of otter, mink, marten and fox for European tools including pots and liquor.(the pelts were made into hats)

Event 2 During the 1500s Europeans traded with the natives including knives, hatchets, and beads to the Indians in exchange for fur and meat.

4 Captain Chauvin made the first organized attempt to control the fur trade in new France . In 1599 he acquired a monopoly from henry IV and tried to establish a colony. French explorers, Voyageurs and Coureur des bois such as Samuel de Champlain, Radisson, La Salle, and Le Saeur, while seeking routes through the continent, established relationships with Amerindians

3 First nations such as the Mikmaq began to trade with Europeans coming to fish cod off the East Shore. Other Europeans such as the French came to shore to refresh their water supplies.

FIRST NATIONS The First Nations were hunter-gatherers who relied on fishing, hunting and the collecting of foods, and the Ojibwa depended on a mixed economy of wild rice, hunting and horticulture. Their roll was to function as middlemen between the Europeans and different native groups.

The first nations people


British Trading cod to the first nations people for beaver pelts

The British set up stations on the shore to dry their catch, but didnt establish permanent settlement. But they were still there and were known as the fisherman and traded cod and to the first nations people.

The French had come to shore to refresh their water supplies. The main staple of the trade was still beaver for the hat industry. The Ministry of Marine responsible for colonial affairs, leased three overseas enterprises. All permanent residents of New France were permitted to trade for furs with first nations people, but they had to sell the beaver and moose hides to the company at prices fixed by the Ministry of Marine. All other furs were traded on a free market thus the trade was not a monopoly, but the law of supply and demand had been suspended for beaver and moose hides.

French making deals with first nations

The fur trade was not successful at the beginning but then Cartier recorded this successful meeting with a group from Stadacona, they sent two men ashore and wished them no harm. They then made trade relationships with the First nations and Europeans.
Trading on shore

All the groups involved in the fur trade benefited because they established relation ships of peace and friendship. British offered cod and fish, French were permitted to trade for furs with first nations people, and the first nations The first nations were huntergatherers who relied on fishing. All the groups involved at this time benefited in many different ways .

Phase 2 is about the fur trade in the 1603 to the 1670s. During this phase you will find out about who dominated, who became partners and who became enemies and what was being traded . Also you will find out a lot of the roles of different people.

During this phase some people became friends and some became enemies. The groups that became enemies was the haudensone and the French. They decided to have a war The French ,Quendat ,Innu and the Kichensipirin. Became partners in the fur trade.

The French dominated the fur trade and New France be came permanently established. There was two shipping centers during the fur trade Quebec and Montreal. At the shipping centers they where getting goods to trade. And sending goods to trade

The intense trapping and hunting for furs to trade, began to reduce the population of beaver and game population.

The French dominated the fur trade and New France be came permanently established. There was two shipping centers during the fur trade Quebec and Montreal. At the shipping centers they where getting goods to trade. And sending goods to trade

The catholic missionaries established missions among the Mikmaq , ouedant ,Innu ,Kichespiprini
The role of the Coureurs De Bois role was to trade directly with the first Nations The French also dominated the fur trade

The Anishinabe became allies with the French. They worked as trappers , guides and middlemen.
The First Nations also got furs to trade with the French

Trapping the beavers for fur decreased the population. The Anishanabe became partners with the French The French and hadensonee had a war

Phase 3 is about the trading in the 1670s to the 1760s. In this phase you will find out about who emerged, who were voyagers, what origins did the francophone metis have and what role did the Scottish metis have. You will also see what Brittan established and about the Hudson's Bay company.

Britain established The Hudson's Bay co.

Prince Rupert knew that there was a lot of money to be made in the fur trade On May 6, 1670, Hudson's Bay Company was formed It was also known as HBC

The Hudsons Bay co. competed directly with France in the fur trade. Britain offered a group of merchants a monopoly on trade in his land.

The two middle men who emerged where Cree and Nakoda The HBC brought people who could work as middle men to work between forts along the Hudsons bay

They were an essential link in the fur trade

They were hired to make canoe trips along the settlements along the St. Lawrence river They were freighting goods in and out of the west

The origins the Francophone Metis had was to develop direct contact and partnership with the first nations

They fostered cross cultural marriages

The HBC recruited may of Scottish metis men from Scotland's Orkney islands to work for them
They canoed down the river because the river resembled the harsh conditions from were they are from

They take there boats up and down the river wearing only there shirts, they are usually bare footed and bare legged. They took the beaver pelts with them and then had to portage the canoes and pelts. They reach the Michilimacinac and re-eqiup with canoes and provisions. They follow rivers to the back country to get beaver skins, after they have sold there goods the head back to Michilimacinac usually around the beginning of July,

In Phase 4 you will learn about the fur trade in the 1760 to 1821. You will find out about the French and British colony and also about the NWC, Pemmican, metis and metis women.

In 1763 Montreal and Hudsons bay trade came under the British mercantile system. Trade

As the fur trade pushed west trade routes and supply lines connecting forts in the west with shipping points in the east became longer and longer.


After the New France became a British colony, British merchants took control of the fur trade network . To improve odds they united as the north west company.

Routes of NWC

As the fur trade moved west so did the peoples that worked in the trade including the Cree, Nakoda and Anishanabe.


The role of the men was that they became a key to the fur trade as interpreter, guides, traders, provis0ioner and carters. The role of the women was that they would separate the meat from the moose legs and use them for snowshoes. They would use the meat for pemmican to fuel canoe bridges, and rabbit to weave into a warm coat women would help heal the sick and injured.

The trade in pemmican

What the metis men and women did in the fur trade

New France becoming a British colony

When NWC was formed cause then the HBC would have someone to fight with The Territorial Expansions because the people who worked in the fur trade moved with it Cree, Nakoda and Anishanbe moved west with it.

Phase 5 is about the fur trade in 1821 to the 1870s. During this phase you will find out who was at war, who was encouraging, and who started to lose control of there monopoly. Also you will find out what two animals who had almost became extinct.

When the Hudsons bay company and the North West company were at war, the French had decided to encourage both companys to stop the war and merge under the same name known as the Hudsons bay company. They had then been named the most powerful organization in North America.

After the French had advised the Hudsons bay company and the North West company had merged under the name Hudsons bay company the HBC started to loose control of its monopolies.

Cree & Anishabe expanded West with the fur trade. The tribes were now scattered around North America. The Cree continued to move west because the food sources had been decreased. Missionaries followed fur traders & founded schools & churches. The Fur trade brought, French to Manitoba, and the British to set up forts in Alberta.

Beaver became scarce and there was less need for it in Europe. Buffalo began to disappear. Britain had began to worry about losing Ruperts land.

The fur trade was also beginning to change. In 1821, HBC began trading furs from other counties. More importantly, new ways of treating other furs to make them better for felt making made beaver less necessary.