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Law and Society Group Research Report Essay

Topic: Discuss how law develops to bring change in society in Malaysia by presenting a case study. Title: Development o Law and the !hanges in Discrimination towards "emale.
Instructor: Dr Zalina Binti Abdul Halim Tutor :Miss Sik Cheng Peng Tutorial Grou : !ednesda" #$%&'am( )ames : Anis Amni *ohime #+,B&-'''$( Bernard Chie. #+,B&-''&-( Chong /ik +iang #+,B&-''&$( Daniel Mi0an 1a""um #+,B&-''2&( 3rancesca Chen 4in Ci #+,B&-''2$( Goh Hui !en #+,B&-''-'( Ma"liana /unus #+,B&-'&&-( )atas"a A0mi #+,B&-''55( )oor I00atie Zainol #+,B&-''6&( )or A7ira Abdullah #+,B&-''62( *a8ara8es.ari Paraseraman #+,B&-''6$( Tan 9ah Hoa" #+,B&-''$2( /a Chia :un #+,B&-'&';(

Development of law and the changes in female discrimination According to the <=7ord Dictionar"> a societ" is the communit" o7 eo le li?ing in a articular countr" or region and ha?ing shared customs> la.s> and organi0ations@ & Societ" is also de7ined b" Ste?en Aago as a com le= net.ork o7 atterns o7 relationshi s in .hich all members artici ate in ?ar"ing degrees@2 ,mile Durkheim once stated that a erson cannot li?e se aratel" 7rom societ" as he is a art o7 it naturall"@ - !hen a societ" e=ists> rules e=ist to go?ern them@

+a. and social change ha?e a reci rocal relationshi @ Changes in either one .ill bring changes to another@ According to !illiam : 9ilgore> la. is an instrument o7 social change@ B +a.rence 3riedman belie?ed that social change lead to changes in la. instead@ ; +a. has im acts on social change in the as ects o7 human beha?ior> ublic attitude> social ?alues and education@ 5 +a. changes according to the reCuirement o7 the societ"@ It can im ro?e human beha?ior@ 3or e=am le> theoreticall"> b" im lementing the *oad Tra77ic Act> the societ"Ds a.areness regarding road sa7et" is raised@ 6 <n the other hand> change in the societ" can lead to legal inno?ations@ An e=am le o7 legal inno?ation is the introduction o7 tra77ic rules since cars e=isted@ E Societ" can also change the la. through enactment or amendment o7 statutes assed in arliament@ +a. is an instrument o7 social change@ !hen a ne. la. is enacted> the societ" is bound to obe" the la.@ Incom liance .ith the la. .ill bring ad?erse conseCuences to indi?iduals such as unishments and sanctions@ The societ" is com elled to ada t to the change in la. and this causes the social change@ Ho.e?er> social 7actors> s"chological 7actors> cultural 7actors and economic 7actors are other e=ternal 7actors .hich also act as the challenges 7aced in changing the societ" through legal e77orts@ In realit"> la. is o7ten seen as an e77ecti?e instrument in eliminating obsolete customs and norms> and itDs also used in
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<=7ord Ad?anced +earnerDs Dictionar" #Eth ed@( @ #2'&'( @ Fnited 9ingdom : <=7ord Fni?ersit" Press @ Aago > S @ #&$EE( @ +a. and Societ" #2th ed@ ( # @2-B%--&( @ )e. :erse" : Prentice Hall @ Has.ira > )@ M@ H @ > G Anida M@ #2''$( @ +a. > Moralit" > :ustice > 3reedom and ,Cualit" : The underl"ing &6;%&E6 ( @ Mala"sia : McGra. Hill #Mala"sia( Sdn @ Bhd@

Conce ts #
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!illiam :@ 9ilgore> +egal <rders and Social Change> &6'

Has.ira > )@ M@ H @ > G Anida M@ #2''$( @ +a. > Moralit" > :ustice > 3reedom and ,Cualit" : The underl"ing Conce ts # &6;%&E6 ( @ Mala"sia : McGra. Hill #Mala"sia( Sdn @ Bhd@
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Ibid> age &E'%&E& Ibid> age &E2 Ibid> age &E&

Development of law and the changes in female discrimination man" areas such as education> race%relation and crime re?ention@ 3or e=am le the ,ducation Act &$5& $ .as enacted to im ro?e the standard o7 education among the citi0ens .hereas the ,n?ironmental 1ualit" #Amendment( Act 2'&2 .as en7orced to instill a.areness among citi0ens to rotect the en?ironment@
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The de?elo ment o7 la. in societ" can be e=amined through three hases .hich are the rimiti?e societ"> the hierarchical societies and the market societ"@ According to Pro7essor Gordon Childe> moralit" is im ortant to control eo le in the rimiti?e societ" and unishment .ill be 7aced b" member o7 the societ" .ho broke the social rules o7 the societ"@ In Custom % An ,ssa" on Social Codes b" 3erdinand Tonnies> the king .as the authorit" 7igure .hom eo le look u to@ && 3or the hierarchical societies> .hen the 7eudal s"stem .as ada ted> an order 7rom the king is a dominant la.@ +ast but not least> the market societ" is the societ" in .hich is kno.n b" the toda"Ds .orld> it is being ruled b" the ca italist s"stem and ideolog"@&2 Ste?en Aago o ined the la. as ha?ing certain ri?ileges in changing the societ"@ &- In his mind> changes through la. is a .ell% lanned> sensible and out o7 a.areness mo?e to change a certain beha?ior or conduct@ Social change through la. is ercei?ed as something ?alid> sensible> trust.orth"> and .ell% established .hich do not disru t the relationshi bet.een societ" members@ The change itsel7 gains su ort 7rom the mechanisms o7 im lementation and sanction@ In the ?ie. to.ards our societ"> there is no doubt that .omen should be gi?en the right to be treated eCuall" as men in most as ects@ !omen ma" be h"sicall" .eaker and more ?ulnerable than men> but their abilities in all other 7ields are no less than men@ Aung San Suu 9"i> a .oman reno.ned as the Burmese o osition leader had mentioned be7ore that the global education and a ointment o7 .omen .ill result in a more caring> tolerant> 8ust and eace7ul li7e 7or e?er"one@ &B Thus> it cannot be

Act ;;' ,ducation Act &$$5 @ #2''5 ( @*etrie?ed )o?ember 26 > 2'&-> 7rom

htt :HH lani olis@iie @unesco@orgHu loadHMala"siaHMala"siaI,ducationIActI&$$5@ d7


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Act A&BB& ,n?ironmental 1ualit" #Amendment( Act 2'&2@ #2'&2(@ *etrei?ed )o?ember 26> 2'&- 7rom htt :HH...@7ederalga0ette@agc@go?@m"Hout utakta H2'&2'E&5IA&BB&IBIIA&BB&J2'BI@ d7
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Has.ira )or Mohamad Hashim and Anida Mahmood> +a.> Moralit"> :ustice> 3reedom and ,Cualit" : The Fnderl"ing Conce ts> age &612

Ibid> age &6; Aago > S @ #&$EE( @ +a. and Societ" #2th ed@ ( # @2-B( @ )e. :erse" : Prentice Hall @ !omenDs *ights 1uotations #1uotes( and 3amous !ords@ #n@d( @ *etrie?ed )o?ember 26 > 2'&- > 7rom

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htt :HH...@.omensrights.orld@comHhtmlH.omen%Cuotes%.omens%rights@html

Development of law and the changes in female discrimination more ob?ious that our societ" should take into account the abilities o7 indi?iduals and not discriminating an" gender .hen deciding to .hom o.ers should be gi?en to in doing something@ Ho.e?er> gender discrimination has been a menace inherited b" our societ" 7rom long ago@ Prior to the de?elo ment o7 la. eliminating discrimination against .omen> some of the issues arise when the father had dominant rights over the custody of the children more than the mother. 15 The second issue arises .hen marital ra e .as acce ted and condoned b" the societ"@ In 2'''%2''2> the All !omen Action Mo?ement #A!AM( re orted that ;2J o7 .i?es in domestic ?iolence relationshi s 7ace marital ra e re eatedl"@ The last issue that .e are highlighting is the gender discrimination issue at the .orking lace@ This roblem usuall" arises .hen the em lo"ers making discriminating decision to.ards the 7emale em lo"ers b" dismissing the em lo"ees on the ground o7 gender@&5 In the ast> it .as acce ted 7or men to be deemed as more su erior more than the .omen in the conte=t o7 marriage and em lo"ment@ !hen a l"ing 7or 8ob> .omen .ere e= osed to discrimination b" the em lo"ers@ Besides> in the ast> marital ra e .as condoned as acce ted b" the societ" due to stronger religious and cultural ?alues among the societ" com ared to no.@ &6 The rogress in Mala"sia to sto discrimination to.ards .omen .as started in &$$; .hen .e rati7ied the Committee on the ,limination o7 Discrimination against !omen #C,DA!(@&E The 3ederal Constitution .as amended .here the .ord KgenderD .as added into Article E#2( o7 the 3ederal Constitution as a sub8ect rotected 7rom discrimination@
&$

Section ; o7 the Guardianshi o7 In7ants Act

&$5& .as also amended to enable mother to ha?e the same custod" rights as the 7ather 2'@ Besides that>
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Mehrun Sira8@ #2''$(@ Human *ight in Mala"sia: The +ast ten /ears@ *etrie?ed )o?ember 26> 2'&-> 7rom htt :HH...@suhakam@org@m"HcHdocumentIlibrar"HgetI7ileL IlIidM&'&26G7olderIdM5B52EGnameMD+3,%;B&-@ d7
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Police Statistics on Aiolence Against !omen 2'''%2'&2@ #2'&&(@ *etrie?ed )o?ember 26> 2'&-> 7rom htt :HH...@.ao@org@m"HPoliceNStatisticsNonNAiolenceNAgainstN!omenN2'''%2'&2I$$I5I&@htm
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ehrun !ira". #2009$. %uman &ight in alaysia' (he )ast ten *ears. &etrieved +ovem,er 27- 2013from htt.'//www.suha0am.org.my/c/document1li,rary/get1file2 .1l1id3101274folder5d3646284name36)7895413..df
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Con?ention on The ,limination o7 All 3orms o7 Discrimination Against !omen@ #2''$(@ *etrie?ed )o?ember 26> 2'&-> 7rom htt :HH...@un@orgH.omen.atchHda.Hceda.H
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3ederal Constitution@#2'&'(@ *etrie?ed )o?ember 26> 2'&-> 7rom htt :HH...@agc@go?@m"HimagesHPersonalisationHBussH d7H3ederalJ2'ConstiJ2'#BIJ2'te=t(@ d7
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Act -;& Guardianshi o7 In7ants Act &$5&@ #2''5(@ *etrie?ed )o?ember 26> 2'&-> 7rom htt :HH...@agc@go?@m"HAktaHAol@J2'EHActJ2'-;&@ d7

Development of law and the changes in female discrimination Section -6;A .as introduced b" the Penal Code #Amendment( Act 2''5 2& into the Penal Code to re?ent marital ra e@22 These legal changes ha?e gi?en rise to man" non%go?ernmental organi0ations .hich 7ight 7or .omenDs rights and gender eCualit"@ Toda"> discrimination to.ards .omen> though still e=ists> has been reduced through the e77orts o7 legal changes@ The issue o7 domestic ?iolence is not a ne. one@ Domestic ?iolence is said to ha ened .hen a

.omen is occasionall" being hurt> in8ured or tortured b" the ersons among her 7amil" members@ 2- In the ast> rior to the enactment o7 the Domestic Aiolence Act &$$B> there .as no s eci7ic la. to rotect the .omen against the ?iolence .hich occurred .ithin the marriage itsel7@ In a research conducted &$E$> -$J o7 .omen at the age o7 7i7teen and abo?e .ere 7ound to be h"sicall" in8ured b" their s ouses or bo"7riends@2B To make the matter .orst> in a research conducted in &$$' b" *esearch Sur?e" Mala"sia> onl" 2'J o7 the ublic kne. that a .oman .ho is abused b" their artner is entitled .ith the right to lodge a olice re ort@2; This sho.ed that the ublic a.areness regarding the right o7 a .oman in the case o7 domestic ?iolence .ere ?er" lo.@ In 7act> in the ast> the societ" belie?ed that domestic ?iolence .as a norm rather than an issue .hich .as enca sulated .ithin the ri?ate a77airs o7 the s ouses@ Thus> other arties need not to inter?ene .ith the matter@ Ho.e?er> a7ter the enactment o7 this Act in &$$B> the rights and the interests o7 the .omen in their marriage and relationshi are u held b" the Domestic Aiolence Act &$$B .hich is en7orced to rotect the .omen against the ?iolence and abuse caused b" their artners and to unish the abusi?e artners@25 The societ" is no. more a.are .ith this roblem and this issue has been continuousl" ?oiced out b" the local .omen acti?ist grou s such as A!AM and :AG@ 26

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Act A&26- Penal code #Amendment( Act 2''5@ #2'&-(@ *etrie?ed )o?ember 26> 2'&-> 7rom htt :HH...@ne.cl8la.@comHothersHlegislationbro.seActresult@as LaM)FMB,*OACTJ2'A&2622

Akta ;6B Penal Code @ #2''5( @ *etrie?ed )o?ember 26> 2'&- > 7rom htt :HH...@agc@go?@m"HAktaHAol@

J2'&2HActJ2';6B@ d7
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(he alaysian :ar.# 14 ;ugust 2006 $.Domestic Violence. &etrieved +ovem,er 27- from htt.'//www.malaysian,ar.org.my/domestic1violence1.html
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#;,dullah et al.- 1995' 5$ #;,dullah et al.- 1995' 6$ Section ;6B Penal Code @ #2''5( @ *etrie?ed )o?ember 26> 2'&- > 7rom htt :HH...@agc@go?@m"HAktaHAol@

25

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J2'&2HActJ2';6B@ d7
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(he alay ail <nline. Cases of domestic violence spark concern. (August 16, 2013). Retrieved November 20, from http://www.themalaymailonline.com/malaysia/article/cases-of-domestic-violencespark-concern 5

Development of law and the changes in female discrimination As it .as e= lained earlier> the la. and social changes ha?e a reci rocal relationshi @ Ho. the la. .as changed due to a social issue can be seen in the case o7 )oor7adilla bt Ahmad Saikin ? Cha"ed bin Basirun G <rs@2E The lainti77 .as acce ted as Guru Sandaran Tidak Terlatih #GSTT( but the lacement memo .as .ithdra.n b" the de7endant because she .as three%months regnant@ The lainti77 then took legal action against the de7endant@ The court held that the de7endantDs act o7 re?oking memo had ?iolated article E#2( o7 the 3ederal Constitution in tandem .ith Mala"siaDs obligation under the Con?ention on the ,limination o7 All 3orms o7 Discrimination against !omen #C,DA!(@ In this case> our honorable 8udge> DatoD Zaleha e?en e= licitl" amounted the act o7 the em lo"er terminating a regnant em lo"ee as a discriminati?e act against .omen as it is a recise trait o7 a .omen to be regnant@2$ This case bring us a ?er" signi7icant change as no.> the em lo"ers 7rom the go?ernmental sector are ought to treat all .orkers eCuall" des ite o7 their genders and that the em lo"ers are ought to be more care7ul in 7orming their decision to terminate the em lo"ees@ The em lo"ers 7rom the ublic sector are also ought to e=amine that the ground o7 dismissal .as not made on the basis o7 gender@ Another e=am le o7 social change caused b" legal change is seen in the case o7 Sh"am Ishta P uthuchear" ? *a8?eer Singh Dhali.al@-' The issue o7 eCualit" o7 rights o?er custod" o7 the children b" the arents .as raised in this case@ Be7ore the amendment o7 the Guardianshi o7 In7ants Act &$5> Section ; con7ers the custod" o7 the children to the 7ather as the 7ather .as regarded as the legal guardian o7 the in7ant@ Ho.e?er> this ro?ision .as un ractical and se?eral roblems had aroused because o7 it@ Among the roblems .as the registration de artment .ould insist to ha?e the consent 7rom the childrenDs 7ather 7or the ur ose o7 registration@ Thus> this Section .as amended to ro?ide eCualit" 7or both mother and 7ather o?er the custod" o7 their children and at the same time> to o?ercome the said roblem@ This Section .as a lied in the said case@A7ter the amendmentO single mothers ha?e eCual rights 8ust like their 7ormer husbands o?er the custod" o7 their children@ The" are no. not de endent and need not need their 7ormer husbandDs consent each time the" .ant to register their children 7or education or other documents@ -&

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P2'&2Q & I+: --; =2012> 1 5)? 335 P2'&&Q M+:F -$' Mehrun Sira8@ #2''$(@ Human *ight in Mala"sia: The +ast ten /ears@ *etrei?ed )o?ember 26> 2'&->

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7romhtt :HH...@suhakam@org@m"HcHdocumentIlibrar"HgetI7ileL IlIidM&'&26G7olderIdM5B52EGnameMD+3,% ;B&-@ d3

Development of law and the changes in female discrimination In another case o7 Public Prosecutor ? Tengku Shai7ul )i0am Tengku Abd :alal> the de7endant .as accused o7 ra ing his .i7e and .as charged under Section -6;A Penal Code #Amendment( Act@ -2 This section sti ulates that marital ra e is an o77ence@ -- !i?es are rotected b" the criminal la. against marital ra e@ )o.> e?en the husband is sub8ect to the unishment i7 he abuses his .i7e@ This causes change in the societ" .hereas .omen are more a.are o7 their rights and the" can start to take legal action to.ards their husband under this la. i7 the" are abused and 7orced to do se=@ There is signi7icant de?elo ment o7 the la. eliminating discrimination against .omen .hich changes the societ"@ The societ" starts to treat the .omen as eCual to men 7or e=am le more .omen are treated 7airl" in their em lo"ment and some o7 them are gi?en the o ortunit" to be in higher osition 8ust like the men@ Customs and religions norms .hich discriminate .omen are starting to dissi ate such as the rinci le .here the .i7e is bound to be obedience to their husband des ite o7 the husbandDs abusi?e treatment@-B Ho.e?er there are some loo holes that the legislature has "et to co?er such as in the Section E#2( .hich onl" a licable to go?ernment ser?ant and not including ri?ate em lo"ees@ Article E#2( cannot rohibit ersonal la.@ 3or e=am le> in the cases o7 Gu that Article E#2( cannot be a " lastic industr" G Beatrice ? MAS the lainti77s a eal .ere dismissed as the" .ere suing ri?ate com anies@ -; The 8udges in these cases held lied to rohibit ersonal la. i@e@ com anies olic"@ <n the other hand> the la. go?erning the child marriage henomena is not adeCuate to rotect "oung girls@ 3or both Muslims and non Muslims> the girls are currentl" rotected b" the Islamic 3amil" +a. and +a. *e7orm Marriage Act@ Ho.e?er> these la.s merel" ro?ide that a minor .ho .ants to get marr" is bound to seek 7or the ermission 7rom the authorit" as ro?ided in the ro?isions@ Hence> child marriage is still ?alid and it is not entirel" rohibited@-5 It is in our o inion that the la. should make child marriage illegal> as it .ould 7or o7 course ad?ersel" a77ecting the 7uture o7 the girls at the ?er" tender age@ A minor .ould not reasonabl" kno.s .hat is good or bad 7or them as the" are indeed ?er" ?ulnerable@ 3or instance> recentl"> .e can e?aluate ho. a girl at thirteen .as se?erel" a77ected b" her marriage li7e@ She .as married 8ust because she .as ra ed> and a "ear later a7ter recei?ing bad treatment 7rom the husbandDs 7amil"> she .as
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)asir > A@ !@ #2'&' > <ctober $ ( @ Peniaga dituduh aksa isteri seks . Berita Harian@ *etrie?ed 7rom htt :HH...@bharian@com@m"HbharianHarticlesHPeniagadituduh aksaisteriseksHArticle Mala"sian Bar@#2''6(@*etrie?ed )o?ember 2E> 2'&-> 7rom htt :HH...@mala"sianbar@ org@m"HbarIne.sHberitaIbadanI eguamHmi=edIreactionItoImaritalIra eIre7orm@html

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Discrimination against !omen in the De?elo ing Countries: A Com arati?e Stud" International :ournal o7 Social Science and Humanit"> Aol@ 2> )o@ -> Ma" 2'&2 2;5 A@ M@ Sultana and )or ,rlina Bt Mohd Zulke7li
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!omen Aids <rganisation @ #2'&2( @ *etrie?ed )o?ember 2E > 2'&- 7rom htt :HH...2@ohchr@orgHenglishHissuesH.omenHdocsH<ther,ntitiesH!omensAid<rganisationMa la"sia@ d7 36 Cheong Ma" 3ong@ #2'&'(@ Ca acit"@ Contract +a. in Mala"sia # @&2-(@ Mala"sia: Thomson *euters Mala"sia Sdn Bhd@

Development of law and the changes in female discrimination di?orced@-6 Thus> there is a need 7or the child marriage to be strictl" allo.ed in order to rotect the best interest o7 the children@ Moreo?er> the Domestic Aiolence Act should be made s eciali0ed 7or .omen .hile as 7or men and children> a di77erent la. should be enacted and a lied to make it 8ust and eCual to all art o7 the societ"@ The rinci le o7 eCualit" and 8ustice do not .ork in the coherent and similar manner@ !hat is eCual does not guarantee it to be e=ecuted 8ustl"@ The same goes .ith the idea to enact se arate Domestic Aiolence Act 7or .omen> child and men@ The .omen and children should be more rotected .ith the more com rehensi?e la. in line .ith their nature o7 being more ?ulnerable to.ards ?iolence com ared to the men@ In conclusion> .omen should be treated eCuall" as the men as .e belie?e that all humans deser?ed 7air and eCual treatment@ Moreo?er> .omenDs intelligence and abilit" to do .ork is as good as men> so .e do not see the need 7or them to be di77erentl" treated@ According to 9o7i Annan> the se?enth secretar"%general o7 the Fnited )ations> more countries ha?e 7ound out that eCualit" 7or .omen is a 7oremost reCuirement 7or de?elo ment@ -E Hence> .omen can ro?ide .ork7orce o7 no less im ortance than men and the in?ol?ement o7 both men and .omen in e?er" ossible area is the best 7or the nationDs de?elo ment@ Through the changes o7 la. all these "ears> the roblem o7 gender discrimination has been graduall" relie?ed@ )o. is the era .hen the societ" starts to treat .omen and men eCuall"@ !e must not cease in curbing gender discrimination b" romoting gender eCualit" .hile the go?ernment should change the la. .hen necessar" to e77ecti?el" ban gender discrimination b" educating and changing the societ"Ds attitude@ RE"ERE#!ES 1. Act 574 Penal Code . #2006$ . &etrieved +ovem,er 27- 2013 - from htt.'//www.agc.gov.my/;0ta/@ol.A2012/;ctA20574..df 2. ;ct 550 8ducation ;ct 1996 . #2006 $ .&etrieved +ovem,er 27 - 2013- from htt.'//.lani.olis.iie..unesco.org/u.load/ alaysia/ alaysia18ducation1;ct11996..df
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;hmad - + . #2013 - +ovem,er 29$.6ad' 5 agreed to teen daughterBs marriage ,ecause she had ,een ra.ed . Nation . &etrieved +ovem,er 29 - 2013 - from htt.'//www.thestar.com.my/News/+ation/2013/11/29/59had9no9choice9then9says9father9of9teen9girl96ad959 agreed9to9the9marriage9,ecause9she9had9,een9ra.e.as.C DomenEs &ights Fuotations #Fuotes$ and 7amous Dords. #n.d$ . &etrieved +ovem,er 27 - 2013 from htt.'//www.womensrightsworld.com/html/women9Guotes9womens9rights.html

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Development of law and the changes in female discrimination 3. %aswira - +. The :hd. 4. !"ord Ad#anced $earner%s Dictionary #8th ed.$ . #2010$ . Inited Jingdom ' <Cford Iniversity Kress . 5. @ago - ! . #1988$ . $aw and &ociety #2th ed. $ #...2349331$ . +ew ?ersey ' Krentice %all . 6. 'omen%s (ights )uotations *)uotes+ and ,amous 'ords. #n.d$ . &etrieved +ovem,er 27 2013 rights.html 7. ;ct ;1441 8nvironmental Fuality #;mendment$ ;ct 2012. #2012$. &etreived +ovem,er 272013 7rom htt.'//www.federalgaLette.agc.gov.my/out.uta0ta./201208161;14411:51 ;1441A20:5..df 8. ehrun !ira". #2009$. %uman &ight in 272013- from htt.'//www.suha0am.org.my/c/document1li,rary/get1file2 .1l1id310127 4folder5d3646284name36)7895413..df alaysia' (he )ast ten *ears. &etreived +ovem,er from htt.'//www.womensrightsworld.com/html/women9Guotes9womens9 . % . - 4 ;nida . #2009$ . )aw orality - ?ustice - 7reedom and 8Guality ' alaysia ' cHraw %ill # alaysia$ !dn .

underlying Concepts #.. 1759187 $ .

Development of law and the changes in female discrimination 9. Kolice !tatistics on @iolence ;gainst Domen 200092012. #2011$. &etrieved +ovem,er 272013from htt.'//www.wao.org.my/KoliceM!tatisticsMonM@iolenceM;gainst MDomenM2000920121991611.htm 10. Nonvention on (he 8limination of ;ll 7orms of 6iscrimination ;gainst Domen. #2009$. &etrieved +ovem,er 27- 2013- from htt.'//www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/cedaw/ 11. 7ederal Nonstitution.#2010$. &etrieved +ovem,er 27- 2013- from htt.'//www.agc.gov.my / images/Kersonalisation/:uss/.df/7ederalA20NonstiA20#:5A20teCt$..df 12. ;ct 351 Huardianshi. of 5nfants ;ct 1961. #2006$. &etrieved +ovem,er 27- 2013- from htt.'//www.agc.gov.my/;0ta/@ol.A208/;ctA20351..df 13. ;ct ;1273 Kenal code #;mendment$ ;ct 2006. #2013$. &etrieved +ovem,er 27- 2013- from htt.'//www.newcl"law.com/others/legislation,rowse;ctresult.as.2a3+I :8&O ;N(A20;1273
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alaysian :ar.#2007$.&etrieved +ovem,er 28- 2013- from htt.'//www.malaysian,ar.


org.my/,ar1news/,erita1,adan1.eguam/miCed1reaction1to1marital1ra.e1reform.htm)

15. Nasir , A. W. (2010 , October 9 ) . Peniaga dituduh paksa isteri seks . Berita Harian. Retrie ed No e!ber 2",
201# $ro! http%&&'''.bharian.co!

my/,harian/articles/Keniagadituduh.a0saisterise0s/;rticle

16. Domen ;ids <rganisation . #2012$ . &etrieved +ovem,er 28 - 2013 from

htt.'//www2.ohchr.org/english/issues/women/docs/<ther8ntities/Domens;id<rganisation 10

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