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# 3, Coherent and Squeezed States

1. Coherent states
2. Squeezed states
3. Field Correlation Functions
4. Hanbury Brown and Twiss experiment
5. Photon Antibunching
6. Quantum Phenomena in Simple Nonlinear Optics
Ref:
Ch. 2, 4, 16 in ”Quantum Optics,” by M. Scully and M. Zubairy.
Ch. 3, 4 in ”Mesoscopic Quantum Optics,” by Y. Yamamoto and A. Imamoglu.
Ch. 6 in ”The Quantum Theory of Light,” by R. Loudon.
Ch. 5, 7 in ”Introductory Quantum Optics,” by C. Gerry and P. Knight.
Ch. 5, 8 in ”Quantum Optics,” by D. Wall and G. Milburn.

## IPT5340, Fall ’06 – p. 1/5

Uncertainty relation

## Simultaneous measurement of non-commuting observables to an arbitrary degree

of accuracy is thus incompatible.

## variance: ∆Â2 = hΨ|(Â − hÂi)2 |Ψi = hΨ|Â2 |Ψi − hΨ|Â|Ψi2 .

1
∆A2 ∆B 2 ≥ [hF̂ i2 + hĈi2 ],
4

where
[Â, B̂] = iĈ, and F̂ = ÂB̂ + B̂ Â − 2hÂihB̂i.

## Take the operators Â = q̂ (position) and B̂ = p̂ (momentum) for a free particle,

2 2 ~2
[q̂, p̂] = i~ → h∆q̂ ih∆p̂ i ≥ .
4

## IPT5340, Fall ’06 – p. 2/5

Uncertainty relation

## if Re(λ) = 0, Â + iλB̂ is a normal operator, which have orthonormal eigenstates.

the variances,

iλ i
∆Â2 = − [hF̂ i + ihĈi], ∆B̂ 2 = − [hF̂ i − ihĈi],
2 2λ

set λ = λr + iλi ,

1 1
∆Â2 = [λi hF̂ i + λr hĈi], ∆B̂ 2 = ∆ Â 2
, λi hĈi − λr hF̂ i = 0.
2 |λ|2

## if |λ| = 1, then ∆Â2 = ∆B̂ 2 , equal variance minimum uncertainty states.

if |λ| = 1 along with λi = 0, then ∆Â2 = ∆B̂ 2 and hF̂ i = 0, uncorrelated equal
variance minimum uncertainty states.

λi |λ|2 1
if λr 6= 0, then hF̂ i = λr
hĈi, ∆Â2 = 2λr
hĈi, ∆B̂ 2 = 2λr
hĈi.
If Ĉ is a positive operator then the minimum uncertainty states exist only if λr > 0.

## IPT5340, Fall ’06 – p. 3/5

Minimum Uncertainty State

## the minimum uncertainty state is defined as an eigenstate of a non-Hermitian

operator er q̂ + ie−r p̂ with a c-number eigenvalue er hq̂i + ie−r hp̂i.

## the variances of q̂ and p̂ are

~ −2r ~ 2r
h∆q̂ 2 i = e , h∆p̂2 i = e .
2 2

## IPT5340, Fall ’06 – p. 4/5

Quantization of EM fields
P † 1
the Hamiltonian for EM fields becomes: Ĥ = j ~ωj (â j âj + 2 ),

## the electric and magnetic fields become,

X ~ωj
Êx (z, t) = ( )1/2 [âj e−iωj t + â†j eiωj t ] sin(kj z),
j
ǫ0 V
X
= cj [â1j cos ωj t + â2j sin ωj t]uj (r),
j

## IPT5340, Fall ’06 – p. 5/5

Phase diagram for EM waves

where

## the electric and magnetic fields become,

X ~ωj
Êx (z, t) = ( )1/2 [âj e−iωj t + â†j eiωj t ] sin(kj z),
j
ǫ0 V
X
= cj [â1j cos ωj t + â2j sin ωj t]uj (r),
j

note that â and â† are not hermitian operators, but (â† )† = â.
1 1
â1 = 2
(â + â† ) and â2 = 2i
(â − â† ) are two Hermitian (quadrature) operators.

## the commutation relation for â and â† is [â, â† ] = 1,

i
the commutation relation for â and â† is [â1 , â2 ] = 2
,
1
and h∆â21 ih∆â22 i ≥ 16
.

## IPT5340, Fall ’06 – p. 7/5

Minimum Uncertainty State

## (â1 − hâ1 i)|ψi = −iλ(â2 − hâ2 i)|ψi

if we define λ = e−2r , then (er â1 + ie−r â2 )|ψi = (er hâ1 i + ie−r hâ2 i)|ψi,

## the minimum uncertainty state is defined as an eigenstate of a non-Hermitian

operator er â1 + ie−r â2 with a c-number eigenvalue er hâ1 i + ie−r hâ2 i.

## the variances of â1 and â2 are

1 −2r 1 2r
h∆â21 i = e , h∆â22 i = e .
4 4

## when r = 0, the two quadrature amplitudes have identical variances,

1
h∆â21 i = h∆â22 i = ,
4

in this case, the non-Hermitian operator, er â1 + ie−r â2 = â1 + iâ2 = â, and this
minimum uncertainty state is termed a coherent state of the electromagnetic field, an
eigenstate of the annihilation operator, â|αi = α|αi.

## IPT5340, Fall ’06 – p. 8/5

Coherent States
in this case, the non-Hermitian operator, er â1 + ie−r â2 = â1 + iâ2 = â, and this
minimum uncertainty state is termed a coherent state of the electromagnetic field, an
eigenstate of the annihilation operator,

â|αi = α|αi.

## expand the coherent states in the basis of number states,

X X ân X αn
|αi = |nihn|αi = |nih0| √ |αi = √ h0|αi|ni,
n n n! n n!

## imposing the normalization condition, hα|αi = 1, we obtain,

XX (α∗ )m αn 2
1 = hα|αi = hm|ni √ √ = e|α| |h0|αi|2 ,
n m m! n!

we have

−1 |α|2
X αn
|αi = e 2 √ |ni,
n=0 n!

## IPT5340, Fall ’06 – p. 9/5

Properties of Coherent States

the coherent state can be expressed using the photon number eigenstates,

−1 |α|2
X αn
|αi = e 2 √ |ni,
n=0 n!

the probability of finding the photon number n for the coherent state obeys the
Poisson distribution,
2
2e−|α| |α|2n
P (n) ≡ |hn|αi| = ,
n!

the mean and variance of the photon number for the coherent state |αi are,
X
hn̂i = nP (n) = |α|2 ,
n

## IPT5340, Fall ’06 – p. 10/5

Poisson distribution

## IPT5340, Fall ’06 – p. 11/5

Photon number statistics

## For photons are independent of each other, the probability of occurrence of n

photons, or photoelectrons in a time interval T is random. Divide T into N
intervals, the probability to find one photon per interval is, p = n̄/N ,

## the probability to find n photons per interval is,

N!
P (n) = pn (1 − p)N −n ,
n!(N − n)!

## which is a binomial distribution.

when N → ∞,
n̄n exp(−n̄)
P (n) = ,
n!
this is the Poisson distribution and the characteristics of coherent light.

## IPT5340, Fall ’06 – p. 12/5

Real life Poisson distribution

## IPT5340, Fall ’06 – p. 13/5

Displacement operator

coherent states are generated by translating the vacuum state |0i to have a finite
excitation amplitude α,

∞ ∞
1 2 X αn 1 2 X (αâ† )n
|αi = e− 2 |α| √ |ni = e − 2 |α|
|0i,
n=0 n! n=0
n!
1 2 †
= e− 2 |α| eαâ |0i,

∗ â
since â|0i = 0, we have e−α |0i = 0 and

1 2 † ∗ â
|αi = e− 2 |α| eαâ e−α |0i,

## any two noncommuting operators Â and B̂ satisfy the Baker-Hausdorff relation,

1
eÂ+B̂ = eÂ eB̂ e− 2 [Â,B̂] , provided [Â, [Â, B̂]] = 0,

## using Â = αâ† , B̂ = −α∗ â, and [Â, B̂] = |α|2 , we have,

−α∗ â
|αi = D̂(α)|0i = e−αâ |0i,

## where D̂(α) is the displacement operator, which is physically realized by a classical

oscillating current.
IPT5340, Fall ’06 – p. 14/5
Displacement operator

the coherent state is the displaced form of the harmonic oscillator ground state,

† −α∗ â
|αi = D̂(α)|0i = e−αâ |0i,

## where D̂(α) is the displacement operator, which is physically realized by a classical

oscillating current,

## D̂† (α) = D̂(−α) = [D̂(α)]−1 ,

D̂(α) acts as a displacement operator upon the amplitudes â and â† , i.e.

D̂−1 (α)âD̂(α) = â + α,
D̂−1 (α)â† D̂(α) = â† + α∗ ,

## IPT5340, Fall ’06 – p. 15/5

the Hamiltonian (p · A) that describes the interaction between the field and the
current is given by
Z
V= J(r, t) · Â(r, t)d3 r,

where J(r, t) is the classical current and Â(r, t) is quantized vector potential,

X 1
Â(r, t) = −i Ek âk e−iωk t+ik·r + H.c.,
k
ωk

## the interaction picture Schrödinger equation obeys,

d i
|Ψ(t)i = − V|Ψ(t)i,
dt ~

## the solution is |Ψ(t)i = k exp[αk â† − α∗k âk ]|0ik , where

Q

1
Ek 0t dt′ drJ(r, t)eiωt −ik·r ,
R R
αk = ~ω
k

## IPT5340, Fall ’06 – p. 16/5

Properties of Coherent States

## the set of all coherent states |αi is a complete set,

1
Z X Z
2
|αihα|d α = π |nihn|, or |αihα|d2 α = 1,
n
π

## two coherent states corresponding to different eigenstates α and β are not

orthogonal,

1 1 1
hα|βi = exp(− |α|2 + α∗ β − |β|2 ) = exp(− |α − β|2 ),
2 2 2

coherent states are approximately orthogonal only in the limit of large separation of
the two eigenvalues, |α − β| → ∞,

## IPT5340, Fall ’06 – p. 17/5

Properties of Coherent States

therefore, any coherent state can be expanded using other coherent state,

1 1
Z Z
1 2
|αi = d2 β|βihβ|αi = d2 βe− 2 |β−α| |βi,
π π

## the simultaneous measurement of â1 and â2 , represented by the projection

operator |αihα|, is not an exact measurement but instead an approximate
measurement with a finite measurement error.

## IPT5340, Fall ’06 – p. 18/5

q-representation of the coherent state

## coherent state is defined as the eigenstate of the annihilation operator,

â|αi = α|αi,

where â = √ 1 (ω q̂ + ip̂),
2~ω

## the q-representation of the coherent state is,

∂ √
(ωq + ~ )hq|αi = 2~ωαhq|αi,
∂q

## with the solution,

ω 1/4 ω hpi
hq|αi = ( ) exp[− (q − hqi)2 + i q + iθ],
π~ 2~ ~

## IPT5340, Fall ’06 – p. 19/5

Expectation value of the electric field

## hα|Ê(t)|αi = E0 [αe−iωt + α∗ eiωt ] sin kz = 2E0 |α| cos(ωt + φ) sin kz,

similar,
hα|Ê(t)2 |αi = E02 [4|α|2 cos2 (ωt + φ) + 1] sin2 kz,

## the root-mean-square deviation int the electric field is,

s

h∆Ê(t)2 i1/2 = | sin kz|,
2ǫ0 V

## h∆Ê(t)2 i1/2 is independent of the field strength |α|,

quantum noise becomes less important as |α|2 increases, or why a highly excited
coherent state |α| ≫ 1 can be treated as a classical EM field.
IPT5340, Fall ’06 – p. 20/5
Phase diagram for coherent states

## IPT5340, Fall ’06 – p. 21/5

Generation of Coherent States
In classical mechanics we can excite a SHO into motion by, e.g. stretching the
spring to a new equilibrium position,

p2 1
Ĥ = + kx2 − eE0 x,
2m 2
p2 1 eE0 2 1 eE0 2
= + k(x − ) − ( ) ,
2m 2 k 2 k

upon turning off the dc field, i.e. E0 = 0, we will have a coherent state |αi which
oscillates without changing its shape,

## applying the dc field to the SHO is mathematically equivalent to applying the

displacement operator to the state |0i.

## IPT5340, Fall ’06 – p. 22/5

Generation of Coherent States
a classical external force f (t) couples linearly to the generalized coordinate of the
harmonic oscillator,

1
Ĥ = ~ω(ââ† + ) + ~[f (t)â + f ∗ (t)â† ],
2

## |Ψ(t)i = exp[A(t) + C(t)â† ]|0i,

where
Z t Z t” Z t
′ iω(t′ −t”) ′ ′ −t)
A(t) = − dt”f (t”) dt e f (t ), C(t) = −i dt′ eiω(t f ∗ (t′ ),
0 0 0

When the classical driving force f (t) is resonant with the harmonic oscillator,
f (t) = f0 eiωt , we have

−iωt 1 2 |α|2
C(t) = −ie f0 t ≡ α, A(t) = − (f0 t) = − , and |Ψ(t)i = |αi.
2 2

## IPT5340, Fall ’06 – p. 23/5

Attenuation of Coherent States
Glauber showed that a classical oscillating current in free space produces a
multimode coherent state of light.

The quantum noise of a laser operating at far above threshold is close to that of a
coherent state.

A coherent state does not change its quantum noise properties if it is attenuated,

a beam splitter with inputs combined by a coherent state and a vacuum state |0i,

## where κ is a coupling constant between two modes,

√ √
the output state is, with β = T α and γ = 1 − T α,

## |Ψiout = Û |αia |0ib = |βia |γib , with Û = exp[iκ(â† b̂ + âb̂† )t],

The reservoirs consisting of ground state harmonic oscillators inject the vacuum
fluctuation and partially replace the original quantum noise of the coherent state.

Since the vacuum state is also a coherent state, the overall noise is unchanged.

## IPT5340, Fall ’06 – p. 24/5

Coherent and Squeezed States

## Uncertainty Principle: ∆X̂1 ∆X̂2 ≥ 1.

1. Coherent states: ∆X̂1 = ∆X̂2 = 1,
2. Amplitude squeezed states: ∆Xˆ1 < 1,
3. Phase squeezed states: ∆Xˆ2 < 1,

## IPT5340, Fall ’06 – p. 25/5

Squeezed States and SHO

Suppose we again apply a dc field to SHO but with a wall which limits the SHO to a
finite region,

in such a case, it would be expected that the wave packet would be deformed or
’squeezed’ when it is pushed against the barrier.

## Similarly the quadratic displacement potential would be expected to produce a

squeezed wave packet,

p2 1
Ĥ = + kx2 − eE0 (ax − bx2 ),
2m 2

where the ax term will displace the oscillator and the bx2 is added in order to give
us a barrier,
p2 1
Ĥ = + (k + 2ebE0 )x2 − eaE0 x,
2m 2

We again have a displaced ground state, but with the larger effective spring
constant k′ = k + 2ebE0 .

## IPT5340, Fall ’06 – p. 26/5

Squeezed Operator

To generate squeezed state, we need quadratic terms in x, i.e. terms of the form
(â + â† )2 ,

## for the degenerate parametric process, i.e. two-photon, its Hamiltonian is

Ĥ = i~(gâ†2 − g ∗ â2 ),

## define the unitary squeeze operator

1 1
Ŝ(ξ) = exp[ ξ ∗ â2 − ξâ†2 ]
2 2

## IPT5340, Fall ’06 – p. 27/5

Properties of Squeezed Operator

## define the unitary squeeze operator

1 1
Ŝ(ξ) = exp[ ξ ∗ â2 − ξâ†2 ]
2 2

## squeeze operator is unitary, Ŝ † (ξ) = Ŝ −1 (ξ) = Ŝ(−ξ) ,and the unitary

transformation of the squeeze operator,

## Ŝ † (ξ)âŜ(ξ) = â cosh r − â† eiθ sinh r,

Ŝ † (ξ)â† Ŝ(ξ) = â† cosh r − âe−iθ sinh r,

1
with the formula eÂ B̂e−Â = B̂ + [Â, B̂] + 2!
[Â, [Â, B̂]], . . .

A squeezed coherent state |α, ξi is obtained by first acting with the displacement
operator D̂(α) on the vacuum followed by the squeezed operator Ŝ(ξ), i.e.

|α, ξi = Ŝ(ξ)D̂(α)|0i,

with α = |α|exp(iψ).

## IPT5340, Fall ’06 – p. 28/5

Uncertainty relation

## if Re(λ) = 0, Â + iλB̂ is a normal operator, which have orthonormal eigenstates.

the variances,

iλ i
∆Â2 = − [hF̂ i + ihĈi], ∆B̂ 2 = − [hF̂ i − ihĈi],
2 2λ

set λ = λr + iλi ,

1 1
∆Â2 = [λi hF̂ i + λr hĈi], ∆B̂ 2 = ∆ Â 2
, λi hĈi − λr hF̂ i = 0.
2 |λ|2

## if |λ| = 1, then ∆Â2 = ∆B̂ 2 , equal variance minimum uncertainty states.

if |λ| = 1 along with λi = 0, then ∆Â2 = ∆B̂ 2 and hF̂ i = 0, uncorrelated equal
variance minimum uncertainty states.

λi |λ|2 1
if λr 6= 0, then hF̂ i = λr
hĈi, ∆Â2 = 2λr
hĈi, ∆B̂ 2 = 2λr
hĈi.
If Ĉ is a positive operator then the minimum uncertainty states exist only if λr > 0.

## IPT5340, Fall ’06 – p. 29/5

Minimum Uncertainty State

## if we define λ = e−2r , then

(er â1 + ie−r â2 )|ψi = (er hâ1 i + ie−r hâ2 i)|ψi,

## the minimum uncertainty state is defined as an eigenstate of a non-Hermitian

operator er â1 + ie−r â2 with a c-number eigenvalue er hâ1 i + ie−r hâ2 i.

## the variances of â1 and â2 are

1 −2r 1 2r
h∆â21 i = e , h∆â22 i = e .
4 4

Squeezed State

## define the squeezed state as

|Ψs i = Ŝ(ξ)|Ψi,

## where the unitary squeeze operator

1 1
Ŝ(ξ) = exp[ ξ ∗ â2 − ξâ†2 ]
2 2

## squeeze operator is unitary, Ŝ † (ξ) = Ŝ −1 (ξ) = Ŝ(−ξ) ,and the unitary

transformation of the squeeze operator,

## Ŝ † (ξ)âŜ(ξ) = â cosh r − â† eiθ sinh r,

Ŝ † (ξ)â† Ŝ(ξ) = â† cosh r − âe−iθ sinh r,

for |Ψi is the vacuum state |0i, the |Ψs i state is the squeezed vacuum,

|ξi = Ŝ(ξ)|0i,

## IPT5340, Fall ’06 – p. 31/5

Squeezed Vacuum State

for |Ψi is the vacuum state |0i, the |Ψs i state is the squeezed vacuum,

|ξi = Ŝ(ξ)|0i,

## the variances for squeezed vacuum are

1
∆â21 = [cosh2 r + sinh2 r − 2 sinh r cosh r cos θ],
4
1
∆â22 = [cosh2 r + sinh2 r + 2 sinh r cosh r cos θ],
4

for θ = 0, we have

1 −2r 1 +2r
∆â21 = e , and ∆â22 = e ,
4 4

## Ŷ1 + iŶ2 = (â1 + iâ2 )e−iθ/2 = âe−iθ/2 ,

where
0 1 0 10 1
Ŷ1 cos θ/2 sin θ/2 â1
@ A=@ A@ A
Ŷ2 − sin θ/2 cos θ/2 â2

## then Ŝ † (ξ)(Ŷ1 + iŶ2 )Ŝ(ξ) = Ŷ1 e−r + iYˆ2 er ,

1 −2r 1 +2r 1
∆Ŷ12 = e , ∆Ŷ22 = e , and ∆Ŷ1 ∆Ŷ2 = ,
4 4 4

in the complex amplitude plane the coherent state error circle is squeezed into an
error ellipse of the same area,

## the degree of squeezing is determined by r = |ξ| which is called the squeezed

parameter.
IPT5340, Fall ’06 – p. 33/5
Vacuum, Coherent, and Squeezed states

## IPT5340, Fall ’06 – p. 34/5

Squeezed Coherent State

A squeezed coherent state |α, ξi is obtained by first acting with the displacement
operator D̂(α) on the vacuum followed by the squeezed operator Ŝ(ξ), i.e.

|α, ξi = D̂(α)Ŝ(ξ)|0i,

## the expectation values,

hα, ξ|â|α, ξi = α, hâ2 i = α2 − eiθ sinh r cosh r, and hâ† âi = |α|2 + sinh2 r,

## for r → 0 we have coherent state, and α → 0 we have squeezed vacuum.

furthermore

1 −2r 1 +2r
hα, ξ|Ŷ1 + iŶ2 |α, ξi = αe−iθ/2 , h∆Ŷ12 i = e , and h∆Ŷ22 i = e ,
4 4

Squeezed State

## Ŝ(ξ)âŜ † (ξ)Ŝ(ξ)|0i = 0, or Ŝ(ξ)âŜ † (ξ)|ξi = 0,

since Ŝ(ξ)âŜ † (ξ) = â cosh r + â† eiθ sinh r ≡ µâ + νâ† , we have,

## (µâ + νâ† )|ξi = 0,

the squeezed vacuum state is an eigenstate of the operator µâ + νâ† with
eigenvalue zero.

similarly,
D̂(α)Ŝ(ξ)âŜ † (ξ)D̂† (α)D̂(α)|ξi = 0,

## IPT5340, Fall ’06 – p. 36/5

Squeezed State and Minimum Uncertainty State

## (Ŷ1 + ie−2r Ŷ2 )|α, ξi = β1 |α, ξi,

where
β1 = γe−r e−iθ/2 = hŶ1 i + ihŶ2 ie−2r ,

where
µ−ν γ
λ= , and β2 = ,
µ+ν µ+ν

## IPT5340, Fall ’06 – p. 37/5

Squeezed State in the basis of Number states

X
|ξi = Cn |ni,
n=0

## with the operator of (µâ + νâ† )|ξi = 0, we have

ν n 1/2
Cn+1 = − ( ) Cn−1 ,
µ n+1

## (2m − 1)!! 1/2

C2m = (−1)m (eiθ tanh r)m [ ] C0 ,
(2m)!!

where C0 can be determined from the normalization, i.e. C0 = cosh r,

## the squeezed vacuum state is

∞ p
1 X (2m)! imθ
|ξi = √ (−1)m e tanhm
r|2mi,
cosh r m=0
2m m!

## IPT5340, Fall ’06 – p. 38/5

Squeezed State in the basis of Number states

∞ p
1 X (2m)! imθ
|ξi = √ (−1)m m
e tanhm r|2mi,
cosh r m=0
2 m!

## the probability of detecting 2m photons in the field is

2 (2m)! tanh2m r
P2m = |h2m|ξi| = 2m ,
2 (m!)2 cosh r

## the photon probability distribution for a squeezed vacuum state is oscillatory,

vanishing for all odd photon numbers,

the shape of the squeezed vacuum state resembles that of thermal radiation.

## IPT5340, Fall ’06 – p. 39/5

Number distribution of the Squeezed State

0.8

0.6
Pn

0.4

0.2

0
0 2 4 6 8 10
n

## IPT5340, Fall ’06 – p. 40/5

Number distribution of the Squeezed Coherent State

## For a squeezed coherent state,

2
( 21 tanh r)n 1
Pn = |hn|α, ξi| = exp[−|α|2 − (α∗2 eiθ +α2 e−iθ ) tanh r]H2n (γ(eiθ sinh(2r))−1/
n! cosh r 2

0.1

0.08

0.06

0.04

0.02

Ref: 30 40 50 60 70 80
Ch. 5, 7 in ”Introductory Quantum Optics,” by C. Gerry and P. Knight.

## IPT5340, Fall ’06 – p. 41/5

Number distribution of the Squeezed Coherent State

A squeezed coherent state |α, ξi is obtained by first acting with the displacement
operator D̂(α) on the vacuum followed by the squeezed operator Ŝ(ξ), i.e.

|α, ξi = D̂(α)Ŝ(ξ)|0i,

## the expectation values,

hâ† âi = |α|2 + sinh2 r,

0.08 0.012

0.01
0.06
0.008

0.04 0.006

0.004
0.02
0.002

## IPT5340, Fall ’06 – p. 42/5

Generations of Squeezed States

## Generation of quadrature squeezed light are based on some sort of parametric

process utilizing various types of nonlinear optical devices.

## for degenerate parametric down-conversion, the nonlinear medium is pumped by a

field of frequency ωp and that field are converted into pairs of identical photons, of
frequency ω = ωp /2 each,

## where b is the pump mode and a is the signal mode.

assume that the field is in a coherent state |βe−iωp t i and approximate the
operators b̂ and b̂† by classical amplitude βe−iωp t and β ∗ eiωp t , respectively,

## ĤI = i~(η ∗ â2 − ηâ†2 ),

where η = χ(2) β.

## IPT5340, Fall ’06 – p. 43/5

Generations of Squeezed States

## ÛI (t) = exp[−iĤI t/¯] = exp[(η ∗ â2 − ηâ†2 )t] ≡ Ŝ(ξ),

with ξ = 2ηt.

for degenerate four-wave mixing, in which two pump photons are converted into
two signal photons of the same frequency,

## ÛI (t) = exp[(η ∗ â2 − ηâ†2 )t] ≡ Ŝ(ξ),

with ξ = 2χ(3) β 2 t.

## IPT5340, Fall ’06 – p. 44/5

Generations of Squeezed States

Nonlinear optics:

Courtesy of P. K. Lam

## IPT5340, Fall ’06 – p. 45/5

Generation and Detection of Squeezed Vacuum

## 1. Balanced Sagnac Loop (to cancel the mean field),

2. Homodyne Detection.

## M. Rosenbluh and R. M. Shelby, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 153(1991).

IPT5340, Fall ’06 – p. 46/5
Beam Splitters

## â2 = râ1 , â3 = tâ1 ,

where r and t are the complex reflectance and transmittance respectively which
require that |r|2 + |t|2 = 1.

in this case,

[â2 , â†2 ] = |r|2 [â2 , â†2 ] = |r|2 , [â3 , â†3 ] = |t|2 [â2 , â†2 ] = |t|2 , and [â2 , â†3 ] = rt∗ 6= 0,

0 1 0 10 1
â2 r jt â0
@ A=@ A@ A,
â3 jt r â1

## IPT5340, Fall ’06 – p. 47/5

Homodyne detection
ˆ and the
the detectors measure the intensities Ic = hĉ† ĉi and Id = hdˆ† di,
difference in these intensities is,

## Ic − Id = hn̂cd i = hĉ† ĉ − dˆ† di

ˆ = ihâ† b̂ − âb̂† i,

## assuming the b mode to be in the coherent state |βe−iωt i, where β = |β|e−iψ , we

have
hn̂cd i = |β|{âeiωt e−iθ + â† e−iωt eiθ },

where θ = ψ + π/2,

assume that a mode light is also of frequency ω (in practice both the a and b
modes derive from the same laser), i.e. â = â0 e−iωt , we have

hn̂cd i = 2|β|hX̂(θ)i,

where X̂(θ) = 1
2
(â0 e−iθ + â†0 eiθ ) is the field quadrature operator at the angle θ,

## IPT5340, Fall ’06 – p. 48/5

Detection of Squeezed States

## mode a contains the single field that is possibly squeezed,

mode b contains a strong coherent classical field, local oscillator, which may be taken
as coherent state of amplitude β,

## for a balanced homodyne detection, 50 : 50 beam splitter,

ˆ is,
the relation between input (â, b̂) and output (ĉ, d)

1 1
ĉ = √ (â + ib̂), dˆ = √ (b̂ + iâ),
2 2

ˆ and the
the detectors measure the intensities Ic = hĉ† ĉi and Id = hdˆ† di,
difference in these intensities is,

ˆ = ihâ† b̂ − âb̂† i,
Ic − Id = hn̂cd i = hĉ† ĉ − dˆ† di

## IPT5340, Fall ’06 – p. 49/5

Squeezed States in Quantum Optics

## Generation of squeezed states:

nonlinear optics: χ(2) or χ(3) processes,
cavity-QED,
photon-atom interaction,
photonic crystals,
semiconductor, photon-electron/exciton/polariton interaction,
···

## Applications of squeezed states:

Gravitational Waves Detection,
Quantum Non-Demolition Measurement (QND),
Super-Resolved Images (Quantum Images),
Generation of EPR Pairs,
Quantum Informatio Processing, teleportation, cryptography, computing,
···