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CONTENTS

TABLE OF CONTENTS

I 1
1.1 1.1.1 1.1.2 1.1.3 1.1.4 1.2 1.2.1 1.2.2 1.2.3 1.2.4

CODE MULTIPLEXING IN MOBILE RADIO The mobile radio marketplace


The historical development of mobile communications The pre-cellular age The first generation of cellular networks The second generation of cellular systems Generation 2.5 The IMT2000 project Objectives of IMT2000 Quality of service (QoS) The IMT2000 competition The Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP)

13 13 13 13 14 16 17 18 18 20 21 23 25 25 26 27 28 30 32 33

2
2.1 2.2 2.2.1 2.2.2 2.2.3 2.3

Multiplexing techniques
Access to the radio transmission medium Multiple access Frequency division multiple access (FDMA) Time division multiple access (TDMA) Code division multiple access (CDMA) Channel definition

3
3.1

Spread spectrum technology


The maximum channel capacity according to Shannon-Hartley Signal spreading Signal processing An example of spreading An example of despreading The basic principle of code multiplexing

33 35 35 37 38 39

3.2 3.2.1 3.2.2 3.2.3 3.2.4

UMTS

3.3 3.3.1 3.3.2 3.3.3 3.3.4 3.4 3.5 3.5.1 3.5.2

Characteristics of spread spectrum signals The chip rate The spreading factor The processing gain CDMA transceivers Alternative spread-spectrum techniques The complete spreading process Channelization Scrambling

40 40 40 40 42 43 44 44 45 46 46 46 48 49 50 50 51 52 54 55 55 56 57 59 60 61 62 63 64

4
4.1 4.1.1 4.1.2 4.1.3 4.2 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3

Orthogonal codes
The basic principle of orthogonality Orthogonal vectors Non-orthogonal vectors Multidimensional vectors Generation of orthogonal codes HADAMARD codes Orthogonal variable spreading factors (OVSFs) Mutual blocking of the OVSFs

5
5.1 5.1.1 5.1.2 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.5.1 5.5.2 5.5.3

Correlation
Coincidence or similarity? Comparison of bit sequences Similarity properties of sequences The autocorrelation function (ACF) The crosscorrelation function (CCF) Correlation characteristics of the OVSFs in UMTS The correlator as a CDMA receiver Matched filters The correlation receiver Despreading with a correlation receiver

CONTENTS

5.5.4

The RAKE receiver

64 65 65 67 67 67 68 69 71 74 76 76 77 77 79 80 81 81 82 84 85 85 86 87 88 89 90 91

6
6.1 6.2 6.2.1 6.2.2 6.2.3 6.2.4 6.2.5 6.2.6 6.2.7 6.2.8 6.3 6.3.1 6.3.2

Scrambling
Reasons for scrambling Generation of PN sequences Definition of pseudo noise Basic application of scrambling codes Shift registers as a source of PN sequences The m-sequences Autocorrelation of PN sequences Crosscorrelation between two m-sequences Gold codes Consequences for the use of scrambling codes Scrambling sequences in UMTS Scrambling codes for the uplink Scrambling codes for the downlink

7
7.1 7.1.1 7.1.2 7.1.3 7.2 7.2.1 7.2.2 7.2.3 7.3 7.3.1 7.3.2 7.3.3

CDMA signal synthesis in UMTS


Generation of an uplink code channel The big picture for uplink encoding Uplink spreading Uplink scrambling Generation of a downlink code channel The big picture for downlink encoding Downlink spreading Downlink scrambling QPSK modulation Pulse shaping I/Q modulation Requirements for power amplifiers

UMTS

II 1
1.1 1.2

THE WCDMA AIR INTERFACE Directional separation of the uplink and downlink
TDD Half-duplex time division duplexing FDD Full-duplex frequency division duplexing

93 93 93 94 95 95 96 98 101 101 102 104 107 109 111 112 114 114 116 117 118 119 119 121 122 122 123

2
2.1 2.2 2.2.1 2.2.2 2.2.3 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.5.1 2.5.2 2.6 2.7 2.7.1 2.7.2 2.8 2.8.1 2.8.2 2.8.3 2.8.4 2.8.5 2.8.6 2.8.7

Channel types on the WCDMA air interface


Frequency channels Communication on the lower protocol layers Layer 1: Physical (PHY) layer Layer 2: Data link layer (MAC and RLC layer) Layer 3: Network layer (RRC layer) Logical channels Transport channels Physical channels Physical channels in the downlink direction Physical channels in the uplink direction Radio frames and timeslots Timeslot formats Uplink DPCCH timeslot format Downlink DPCCH timeslot format Transport channel encoding and channel multiplexing Block encoding for error detection Concatenation of transport blocks and generation of code blocks Channel encoding Interleaving Radio frame equalization Radio frame segmentation Rate matching

CONTENTS

2.8.8 2.8.9

Transport channel multiplexing Data multiplexing onto physical channels

123 123 124 124 126 127 129 131 132 132 133 134 134 135 138 140 140 143 144 146 151 153 153 154 154 155

3
3.1 3.1.1 3.1.2 3.1.3 3.2 3.2.1 3.2.2 3.2.3

Synchronization between the UE and Node B


Cell searching Timeslot synchronization Frame synchronization and identification of the scrambling code group Identification of the scrambling code Cell and network selection criteria Cell selection based on the signal-to-interference (S/I) ratio Cell selection based on absolute received power Cell breathing

4
4.1 4.2 4.3

Transmit power control


The need for transmit power control Transmit power control based on closed loop control Transmit power control based on open loop control

5
5.1 5.1.1 5.1.2 5.1.3 5.2

Establishing a connection
Initial radio network access Paging Establishing the radio connection The complete connection setup procedure Compressed mode

6
6.1 6.2 6.2.1 6.2.2

Handovers
The purpose of a handover Preparing for and controlling the handover procedure Handover When? Handover But which neighbor?

UMTS

6.2.3 6.2.4 6.3 6.3.1 6.3.2 6.3.3

The basic procedure The Tarzan principle Hard and soft handovers The soft handover The softer handover Controlling a soft handover

158 159 160 160 161 162

III 1
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.3.1 1.3.2

WCDMA TEST EQUIPMENT Introduction to WCDMA test equipment


Basic principles of tests on a base station Basic principles of tests on a mobile station Definition of reference measurement channels Uplink 12.2 kbit/s reference measurement channel Downlink 12.2 kbit/s reference measurement channel

164 164 164 167 170 171 173 174 177 178 183 184 188 189 189 189 190 192 192 193

2
2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.4.1 2.4.2 2.5 2.5.1 2.5.2 2.6 2.6.1 2.6.2

Transmitter measurements
Modulation analysis Spectral transmit power measurements Power measurements in the time domain Power measurements in the code domain Code channel measurements on a WCDMA base station Code channel measurements on a mobile station Measurements relating to transmit power control Closed loop transmit power control Open loop transmit power control Transmitter measurements in actual practice Modulation analysis Transmitter spectral power measurements

CONTENTS

2.6.2.1 2.6.2.2 2.6.2.3 2.6.2.4 2.6.2.5 2.6.3 2.6.4 2.6.5

Measuring the total power Measuring the occupied bandwidth Measuring the adjacent channel leakage ratio Tests relating to the transmit power control Spectrum analysis Spectra of different radio signals Measuring the crest factor and the CCDF Signal analysis in the code domain

193 194 195 196 197 199 200 202 207 207 213 216 224 227 229 230 231 232 234 234 235 236 237 238 239 239 240 241 242

3
3.1 3.2 3.3

Receiver measurements
Evaluating WCDMA receivers Causes of bit errors and block errors Bit errors on the AWGN channel

3.4 Fading on the mobile radio channel 3.4.1 Bit errors on the mobile radio channel 3.4.1.1 Simulation of real-world propagation conditions 3.5 3.5.1 3.5.1.1 3.5.1.2 3.5.1.3 3.5.1.4 3.5.1.5 3.5.1.6 3.5.2 3.5.2.1 3.5.2.2 3.5.2.3 3.5.2.4 3.5.2.5 Receiver measurements in actual practice Measurements of receiver characteristics Reference sensitivity measurement Maximum input level Selectivity measurements Adjacent channel selectivity Blocking Measurement of the intermodulation rejection Measuring the receiver performance Reception in static propagation conditions Reception in multipath fading propagation conditions Reception in moving propagation conditions Reception in birth-death conditions Reception in a soft handover

UMTS

IV 1
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.3.1 1.3.1.1 1.3.1.2 1.3.2 1.3.3 1.3.3.1 1.3.3.2 1.3.3.3 1.3.3.4 1.3.3.5

EVOLUTION OF THE UMTS STANDARD Techniques for boosting data rates on the downlink
High-level modulation to increase the data rate A faster automatic repeat request mode: Hybrid ARQ HSDPA Higher data rates on the downlink Transport channels for fast downlink data HS-DSCH: High speed downlink shared channel HS-SCCH: High speed shared control channel High speed channel coding Physical channels HS-PDSCH: High speed physical downlink shared channel HS-DPCCH: High speed dedicated physical control channel HSDPA in the lower protocol layers HSDPA in the user equipment CQI Channel quality information

244 244 245 247 248 251 251 251 252 255 255 256 258 259 260

Measurements on high speed transmitters and receivers


HSDPA-specific transmitter measurements Measurement of the modulation quality on the HSDPA transmitter HS-DPCCH detection HSDPA-specific receiver measurements Maximum input level for 16QAM HS-PDSCH Demodulation of HS-DSCH Reporting of the channel quality indicator

261 262 263 264 265 268 268 270

2.1 2.1.1 2.1.2 2.2 2.2.1 2.2.2 2.2.3

V 1 2 3 4

APPENDICES Sample test setups Bibliography Abbreviations Index

272 272 275 277 295