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Chapter-1 Field Efficiency

Field Efficiency

AFC nWAV nWTV overlap = = =K (1.1) TFC nWTV nWT V Notations FE = field efficiency AFC = actual field capacity, also known as effective field capacity TFC = theoretical field capacity n = number of plow bottoms WT = theoretical width of cut, also known as design width of cut or rated width of cut WA= actual width of cut K= percentage width utilized
FE= Methods to determine Actual field capacity, AFC Method-1 1 TT TT AFC T A TT FE= = = = = 1 TFC T A Te + Ta + Th TT + Ta + Th TT K


Note When the Ta and Th are negligible equation (1.2) reduces into equation (1.1) as follows FE = TT =K TT K

Method-2 AFC= Notations TA= actual time taken per hector TT= the cortical (ideal) time taken per hector Te= effective operating time per hector Ta= time lost per hector which is proportional to area ex turning time Th= time lost per hector which is not proportional to area e.g. time for filling, emptying Unit draft Unit draft, Lu= L/A (1.3) Notations L = draft A = cross sectional area of cut = Width x depth (for rectangular furrow as in tractor drawn MB plough) = x Top width x depth (for triangular furrow as in desi plough) = x (top width+ bottom width) x depth (for trapezoidal furrow as in bullock drawn country plough)

Chapter - 2 Force Analysis upon Tillage Tools

Case 1 When useful and practice forces cant be determined separately Draft, L = (Pcos ) cos = longitudinal and directional component of R Vertical component, V = (P cos ) sin Side force, S= (Psin ) cos = lateral component of R = Side force, also known as landside force Rv = (L2+V2)0.5 = (Pcos cos )2 + (Pcos sin )2 + (Pcos sin )2 = Pcos Rh= (L2+S2)0.5 = (Pcos cos ) 2 + (psin cos R= (Rv2+Rh2)

(2.1) (2.2) (2.3)


Notations P = pull force = resultant pull exerted by tractor or by bullock upon implement R = soil reaction force = resultant of useful and parasitic soil force exerted by tractor or by bullock upon implement Rv = vertical component of soil reaction force Rh= horizontal component of soil reaction force Case 2 When useful forces ( Pv, Ph ) and parasitic forces ( W, F, and f) can be determined separately Rv = W-Pv = W-Psin (2.7) Rh = Ph-F- f = Pcos -F-f (2.8) R=(Rv2+Rh2)

Notations Pv = vertical component of pull Ph = horizontal component of pull P = pull force = resultant pull exerted by tractor or by bullock on the implement F = frictional force = inclination of the pull force with horizontal f = rolling resistance force W= weight of the implement Note Pv can be determined from V=0 i.e. summation of vertical forces = 0 Ph can be determined from H=0 i.e. summation of horizontal forces =0 Another useful concept used in solving such type of problem is M =0 i.e. summation of moments acting at a particular convenient point on tillage implement = 0

Sowing and Planting Device for metering single seed Horizontal plate planter Vertical plate planter
B E (1) Calculation of spacing between seeds along the row (A)Horizontal plate planter N2, T2 N3, T3 D C


B N1, T1

N4, T4

F F d Nr

AB = main driveshaft CD = feed shaft EF = plate drive shaft Speed ratio between plate drive shaft and main drive shaft TT N N = r = 4 = 1 3 = Product of tooth on drivers/Product of tooth on driven N N T2T4 Spacing between seeds along row, L is given by DN = V L= (3.1) nN r nN r Notations N = rpm of ground wheel D = diameter of ground wheel. Nr = rpm of rotor d = diameter of rotor V = velocity of ground wheel n = number of cells on rotor Proof In 1 revolution rotor drops n seeds Number of revolutions to drop 1 seed =

1 n
1 N ( ) n Nr

Corresponding no. of revolutions of ground wheel =

In 1 revolution distance covered by ground wheel = D

1 N 1 N ( ) Revolution distance covered by ground wheel= D ( ). n Nr n Nr DN = V L = nN r nN r (B) Vertical Plate Planter In L = Vt =

d V n Vp


Notations V= velocity of travel Vp= peripheral velocity of plate planter Note Velocity of travel otherwise can be referred as velocity of ground wheel or forward travel speed of planter or velocity of planting Peripheral velocity of plate planter otherwise can be referred as peripheral velocity of rotor or linear cell speed or linear plate speed Proof t = time to cover peripheral distance between two consecutive cells of rotor = time gap between falling of seeds from consecutive cells of the rotor = peripheral distance between two consecutive cells of rotor Vp d =( ) n Vp

L = Vt =

d V V n p

Correlation between equation (2) and (3) is as follows


V V d V d = = nN r dN r n V p n


II. Calculation of velocity of travel, V

V DN D T2T4 = = V p dN r d T1T3


III. Calculation of actual seed rate (Kg/ha):

( DN SZ) m2 of area is equivalent to dropping of x Kg of seed. So from this concept seed rate (Kg/ha) i.e. dropping rate of seed in Kg from 10,000 m2 of area can be calculated. Notations N= revolution of ground wheel to drop x Kg of seed S = spacing between rows Z = number of rows SZ = width of coverage or size of seed drill

IV. Calculation of number of plants required per hectare

nE 10,000 LS Notations X = number of plants required per hectare n = number of seed per hill E = emergence rate L x S = area required per each hill L = distance between plant to plant or hill to hill in a row S = distance between row to row


V. Vertical plate planter with rotor mechanism: Case-I: When rotor turns in same direction as ground wheel

Horizontal distance covered X = Vt Vertical falling distance,

X =V 2h g

h 1


1 = tan-1(x/h)

X = Vt

1 h = gt2

Notations V = net velocity V=VG-VR (using concept of relative velocity) VG = velocity of ground wheel VR = velocity of rotor, also known as peripheral velocity of rotor 1 = angle with which seed strikes bottom with vertical

Case-II: When a rotor turns in opposite direction with respect to ground wheel:-

2 h X Where X = Vt H = gt2 2h X=V g V = VG + VR (using concept of relative velocity) 2 = tan-1(X/h) Where 2 = angle with vertical with which seed strikes bottom 2

Chapter-4 Chaff Cutter

Capacity of a chaff cutter

m = Q = VA = (NLn) (WH)
Note Actual maximum working capacity or rated capacity is 60-70% of theoretical maximum capacity Notations


m = theoretical maximum capacity of chaff cutter, kg/hr = density of feed material, kg/m3 Q = volumetric flow rate of feed material, m3/hr V = linear speed of cutterhead, m/s = linear speed of feed mechanism = rate of advance of material through throat A = cross sectional area of throat, m2 N = rotational speed of cutterhead, rpm L = theoretical length of cut, m = amount of advance of feed mechanism between cuts of two consecutive knives. n = number of knives on cutterhead W = width of throat = minimum width of opening at feed rolls H = height of throat, m = maximum operating clearance between upper and lower feed rolls
V = DN V=NLn (4.2) (4.3)

Notations V = peripheral velocity of feed rolls D = diameter of feed rolls N = rpm of feed rolls
Also V = V So
NLn = DN

When feed rolls are of different diameter and different rpm

NLn =

D1 ' N1 '+D2 ' N 2 '



Notations D1 and D2 = diameter two feed rolls N1 and N2 = rpm of two feed rolls

Vp = D N Vp = peripheral velocity of cutter head, m/s D = diameter of cutter head or fly wheel, m Note There are two types cutter head used in chaff cutter 1. Fly wheel type 2. cylindrical type L=
2ri tan n



L = theoretical length of cut ri = distance of inner edge of throat from fly wheel center = clearance angle between knife support assembly and plane of rotation La =



La = distance travel by fly wheel in one revolution number of knives on flywheel

Analysis for kinetic energy & power of chaff cutter

Kinetic energy of fly wheel in one revolution = MV2 = M (r) 2 = M (2 Nr) 2 = M r2 2 = I 2 (4.8) Power required (consumed) to drive flywheel, P = m Vp2 Also power consumed to drive flywheel, P = 2 NT = 2 NT (F.r) = 2 N (A o ) r

(4.9) (4.10)

Notations T = torque required to drive the flywheel, N.m Ao = effective cut area of fodder, m2 = dynamic shear stress of fodder, N/m2 F = force required to cut per revolution, N r = effective radius of knife rotation, m

Chapter 5 Sprayer

Flow rate of spray material

= Q = (ARv) = (nSVE) Rv = (SVE) Rm


Notations m = mass flow rate of spray material, kg/hr = density of spray material, kg/m3 Q = volumetric flow rate, m3/hr A = area covered by sprayer, ha/hr Rv = volumetric application rate, lit/ha n = number of nozzles S = spacing between nozzles, m V = velocity of travel of sprayer, m/s E = spraying efficiency of a sprayer Rm = mass application rate, kg/ha Mathematically
Rm = Rv A = n SVE Q = nq q = aV = /4 d2 x V (5.2) (5.3) (5.4) (5.5)

Notations n = number nozzles q = discharge per nozzles (m2) a = area of each nozzle (m) V = velocity of water through nozzle (m/s)
G = V G = mass flow rate or mass velocity or mass flux per nozzle, kg /m2s When coefficient of discharge through orifice, Cd is given (5.6)

m = CdQ


Chapter 6 Fuel and combustion Volumetric efficiency, v Case-1 For a cylinder V mA v = A = (6.1) V3 A V3 Methods to calculate A m P 1) A = = (6.2) V RT 2) A = 1 / specific volume, m3/kg (6.3) Notations VA= actual volume of air taken into cylinder, m3 Vs= swept volume of air inside cylinder, m3 mA= air compressed during compression, kg = ambient air density, also known as density of air at inlet, kg/m3 Note m, V, P, T represents mass, volume, Pressure and temperature of ambient air respectively R = 8.31 KJ/ kgmole-K Case-2 For an engine (a) For liquid fuel or fuel of CI engine Volumetric efficiency can be calculated from the following formula

A A Q A A (V Qe ) A = = = F F F F Notations A = air to fuel ratio F A = air taken in or mass flow rate of air, kg/min F = fuel consumed or mass flow rate of fuel, kg/min QA = air taken in or volumetric flow rate of air, m3/min A = ambient air density V = volumetric efficiency Qe = engine displacement (b) For gaseous fuel or fuel of SI engine
(5)A Q A Q A+ F QF V Qe QF V Qe = = = = 1 F QF QF QF QF QF = fuel consumed, m3/min QA+F = air-fuel mixture taken in, m3/min



Thermal Efficiency

Break Thermal Efficiency, BTE is variedly known as engine thermal efficiency or net engine efficiency or thermal efficiency or simply efficiency. Conceptually BTE = Heat actually used Heat input = Actual work output Heat input = Actual out put / time Heat input / time = BHP___ = BHP___ fuel HP

F x CV

Kcal Kcal 641 BHP hr hr = = = Kg Kcal Kg Kcal SFC CV hr Kg BHP hr Kg

Note 1 HP = 641 Kcal/Kg unit of SFC = Kg / HP-hr (for liquid fuel) 3 = m / HP-hr (for gaseous fuel) SFC = specific fuel consumption CV = calorific value of fuel F = fuel consumed or mass flow rate of fuel Indicated thermal efficiency, ITE is also known as indicated engine efficiency Conceptually ITE = Indicated work (output) Heat input IHP IHP = FuelHP F CV In the above expression = BHP = Qe = p (LAn.N) IHP = P Qe = P (LAnN) p = break mean effective pressure (BMEP) P = indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) (6.9)

(6.10) (6.11)

Using equation (7), (9), (10), (11) ---- BTE BHP BMEP ME = = = ITE IHP IMEP Also --------------------(13) BHP = 2 NT = 2 N (Fr) (6.12)


Here, T = engine torque Relative efficiency Relative efficiency = Indicated thermal efficiency( ITE) Air standard efficiency(ASE) = Actual ITE Ideal ITE Where ASE = Net work done Heat input = = WBY Won Qin Qin Qout Qin
1 ek 1 r k 1 k (c 1)


(For Otto cycle) (For Diesel cycle)

= 1-

Note Wby, Won refers to work done by the system and work done on the system respectively Qout = -ve, Qin = + ve, Won = -ve, Wby = + ve

Chapter 7 Traction Theory Drawbar pull Drawbar pull, P is variedly known as net pull or net tractive capacity or draft capacity or pull used for useful work or simply as pull

Conceptually P = F- TF PVa=F Vt- TF Va drawbar power = axle power towed power net tractive power = gross tractive power rolling resistance power


Notations F = force of traction or soil thrust in direction of motion, also known as gross tractive force or simply tractive force TF = towed force, also known as motion resistance Va = actual travel velocity, also known as forward travel velocity Vt = theoretical travel velocity

Theoretical travel velocity, Vt

Vt = r = (2 N)r = 2 N (D/2) = DN Notations r = rolling radius of wheel D = wheel diameter (2)

F = AC + W tan Notations A = area sheared by the equivalent wheel or by the track = bl (for track/crawler type tractor) = 0.78 bl (for wheel / rubber tyre / pneumatic tyre tractor) W = weight on the equivalent wheel or on the track. C = cohesion, N/cm2 = angle of internal friction


Force analysis
P = F TF P F TF = W W W = g - Notations W = dynamic weight on equivalent wheel = coefficient of traction, also known as net coefficient of traction g = gross traction coefficient = rolling resistance coefficient, also known as motion resistance ratio (4)


= 0.75 ( 1 e 0.3 CnS)


= 0.75 ( 1 - e - 0.3 CnS) = 0.75 ( 1 - e - 0.3 CnS)

1.2 + 0.04 Cn
CI (bd ) W

Cn =


Equations (6) & (7) applies to single wheel

Notations W = Dynamic weight on each individual wheel = Dynamic weight on equivalent wheel 2 CI = Cone index, N/cm2 S = Slip (in decimal) Cn=Wheel numeric per wheel b = width of tire (rim) d= Diameter of tire (rim) Note Width of tire is variedly known as sectional width or sectional diameter or sectional thickness

Dynamic weight
Generally dynamic weight refers to dynamic weight on rear wheel. Dynamic weight is also known as true tire load Conceptually, Dynamic weight = static weight distribution on rear wheel + weight of implement + weight transfer from front wheel Physically, Dynamic weight, W, means net load on wheels (i.e. on the equivalent wheel) during pull condition. and static weight means load on wheel in rest condition

Equivalent wheel In two dimensional analyses the 2 wheels on rear axle of tractor are replaced by a single wheel having equivalent force properties as that of 2 wheels. Likewise the 2 wheels on front axle are also replaced by another single wheel. These 2 single wheels, one at rear axle and another at front axle are known as equivalent wheels at the respective axles. Net coefficient of traction,

P.Va Horizontal drawbar pull ( =Pcos )/Dynamic weight on rear wheel T .W

Tractive efficiency, TE

TE = Drawbar Power/ Axle Power P.Va = T .W P.Va = V ( F .r )( t ) r P.Va = F .Vt P = (1 S ) F P /W (1 S ) = F /W

(9) (10)

(11) (12)

(1 s ) g (1 S ) = +

(13) (14)

Notations T=wheel torque R = rolling radius

Slip, S
When wheels are rotating but not moving ahead this condition is known as slip Methods to calculate slip Method 1 In terms of velocity V Va V Slip= t = 1 a Vt Vt
Method 2 To cover a particular distance

Slip =

N1 N 0 N0

Method 2 To register a particular rpm L L1 Slip = 0 L0 In otherworld slip is the difference between ideal distance a wheel should move and the distance actually moved by wheel. So slip is also known as travel reduction. Notations N0, N1 = rpm without and with slip respectively L0, L1 = distance covered without and with slip respectively

When wheels are sliding i.e. moving ahead along the road but not rotating this condition is known as skid e.g. sudden application of brakes rotating wheels\. Thus this is just opposite condition to that of slip. Mathematically Skid=
Va Vt Va = 1 Vt Vt



Mechanics of tractor chassis Weight Transfer


X1 Psin X2 R1 W


P = pull force
= angle of inclination of pull with horizontal R1 = Normal reaction force at front wheel R2 = normal reaction force at rear wheel W = weight of tractor acting through center of gravity of tractor X1 = perpendicular distance between R2 & W X2 = perpendicular distance between R1 & R2 (a) In rest condition R1 + R2 = W W.X1 = R1.X2 (1) (2)

R1 =

WX 1 X2 X1 ) X2

R2 = W (1 -

(b) When implement is attached and pulled

R1 + R2 = W + P sin WX1 = P cos . Y1 + P sin S + R1 X2

(3) (4)

WX 1 P cos .Y1 + p sin .S X2 X 2 P cos .Y1 + p sin .S Thus the amount by which upward reaction at front wheel decreases due X 2
R1 = to pulling of attached implement is called as weight transfer.

Weight transfer =

P cos . y1 + P sin .s X2

PY1 (when pull is parallel to ground) & X2

WX 1 = static weight distribution on front wheel in pull condition X2





WX 1 R1 = 0 X2 Front wheel will leave the ground WX 1 weight transfer > R1 = negative X2 Overturning / toppling about rear wheel WX 1 weight transfer < R1 = positive X2 Stable condition

weight transfer =

Dynamic Weight:

Solving equation 3, 4 simultaneously we get

P cos .Y1 + P sin .S X1 (6) R2 = W 1 X + P sin + X2 2 This equation 6 represents the mathematical expression for dynamic weight on rear wheel (i.e. R2) in pull condition. Here X1 W 1 X = Static weight distribution on rear wheel in pull condition 2 P sin = weight of implement in rear wheel P cos .Y1 + P sin .S = weight transfer X2

How to use in problems Case 1

When in clear words the static weight division on rear wheel and front wheel are given then Dynamic weight on rear wheel, R2 = static weight on rear wheel (given) + weight of implement + weight transfer
Case 2 When static weight division on rear wheel and front wheel are not given then to get dynamic weight on rear wheel, R2 , use equation 6 directly. It is to be noted that this 2nd case is encountered more often in questions. Summary The effects of pulling implement are 1. To add implement weight to rear wheels 2. To transfer some weight from front wheels to rear wheels. Motion of tractor on level ground:

P cos


TFr P sin X1 R1 X2 R2

Equations F = AC + R2 tan (7) Force balance R1 + R2 = W + P sin (8) (9) F = P cos + TFr = P cos + But generally towed force at rear wheel (TFr) is neglected so equation (9) became

F = P cos Momentum balance Concept unstabilizing moment = stabilizing moment Case1 When pull is parallel to ground R1.X2 + P.Y1 = W.X1 Case2



When pull is inclined with horizontal a) When pull is resolved into two components

R1.X2 + P cos .Y1 + p sin .s = W.X1 b) When pull is measured from rear wheel contact point R1.X2 + P.Y1 = W.X1



Y1 = perpendicular distance between hitch point and ground surface Y1 = perpendicular distance between hitch point and rear wheel contact point S = perpendicular distance between hitch point and rear wheel centre point
Motion of tractor up a slope

W sin Y W cos Pcos Y1 P Psin

s .Y1 W F


X1 X1



Equations F = AC + R2 tan Force balance R1 + R2 = W cos + P sin F = Wsin + P cos Momentum balance Concept Unstabilizing moment = stabilizing moment Case 1 When pull is parallel to ground R1X2 + PY1 + W sin Y = W cos.X1

(14) (15) (16)


Case-2 When pull is inclined with horizontal (a) When pull is resolved into 2 components R1X2 + P cos.Y1 + P sin.S +W sin Y = W cos X1 (b)When pull is measured from rear wheel contact (19) R1X2 +P.Y1 = W.X1 Notations Y = perpendicular distance between centre of gravity and ground surface. = angle of slope upon which tractor is moving up the slope X1 = perpendicular distance between reaction at rear wheel R2 and W cos X1= perpendicular distance between rear wheel contact point and point where weight W meets ground.

CHAPTER- 9 Power Transmission in Tractor

Steps Flow chart Piston Cylinder

Connecting rod Crank shaft Clutch Gear box Bevel pinion Ring gear Half axle Final drive Bull gear Rear axle Rear wheel

Bevel pinion and ring gear are parts inside differential Ring gear is known as crown gear or crown wheel Final gear is known as final drive gear Bull gear is known as final drive Differential is known as final differential unit.

Schematic diagram of power flow

Engine 2NeTe Gear box

2NGTG Bevel pinion


Ring gear


Rear wheel

Final drive

Final drive

Rear wheel




2NGTG = 2NeTe x G 2NRTR = 2NbTb x D =2NGTG x D Using equation 1, 2 2NRTR = 2NeTe x G x D

Notations Ne = rpm of engine Te = torque produced at engine NG = rpm at gear box TG = torque produced at engine NR = rpm at ring gear TR = torque at ring gear NLR = rpm at left rear wheel TLR = torque at left rear wheel NRR = rpm at right rear wheel TRR = torque at right rear wheel 2NeTe = power out put from engine 2NGTG = power out put from gear box 2NbTb = power out put from bevel pinion 2NRTR = power out put from ring gear 2NLRTLR = power at left rear wheel 2NRRTRR = power at right rear wheel G = efficiency of power transmission through gear box D = efficiency of power transmission through differential
Gear ratio Gear ratio of tractor is also known as gear reduction in tractor.

(1) (2) (3)

Gear ratio of tractor = gear ratio of gear box X gear ratio of differential X gear ratio of final drive N N N = e G R N G N R N RR Ne rpmatengine = (4) = N RR rpmatrightrearwheel Note RPM at right rear wheel is assumed to be same as that of left rear wheel. Gear ratio or gear reduction through gear box is known as reduction in transmission gear

Mathematical analysis of power transmission Case1 Straight travel of tractor In case of straight travel of tractor, differential is not used a) when no gear reduction of final drive Here rpm of left and right rear wheels remain same as that of ring gear RPM, NR but torque of ring gear, TR became equally divided among left and right rear wheels i. e.

NRTR Left rear wheel Right rear wheel





Power at ring gear = 2NRTR Power at both the rear wheels = PLR + PRR = NRTR +NRTR = 2NRTR Power is conserved (b)with rear gear reduction by a factor n at final drive: In addition to previous case here due to gear reduction by a factor n RPM at both left and right rear wheels became reduced by a factor n and torque at respective wheels became n times e.g.



NR n T TLR= n R 2

NR n T TRR = n R 2


PRR =2NRR TRR PLR = 2NLR TL N N T T = 2 R (n R ) = 2 R ( n R ) 2 n 2 n = TNRTR = T NRTR Power at ring gear = 2 NRTR Power at both the rear wheels =NRTR +NRTR=2NRTR Power is conserved Case 2 Turning condition of tractor In case of turning by tractor differential is used. So that speed of inner wheels became less than speed of outer wheels of tractor i.e. for right turning NRR < NLR. But torque of left and right rear wheels remain same as that of ring gear torque TR. Again rpm of ring gear is distributed among left and right rear wheels. i.e. NLR+NRR= NR NR, TR



PRR =2NRRTRR PLR=2NLRTLR =2N1TR = 2(NR-N1)TR Power at ring gear = 2NRTR Power at both the rear wheels = N1TR + 2 (NR N1) TR = 2NRTR Power is conserved.

CHAPTER - 10 PUMP AND MOTOR Schematic Diagram for flow of fluid and power


WHP Qout


SHP Qout



Pump Q Q Q v = out = out = ac (1) Qin DN Qth (2) oa = v x T Powerout Powerth WHP P.Qout oa = = = = (3) 2 NT Powerin Powerac SHP Motor: Q Q DN v = out = = th (4) Qin Qin Q AC (5) oa = v x T Powerout Powerac SHP 2 NT oa = = = = (6) Powerin Powerth WHP P.Qin Notations SHP = shaft horse power (input power to pump and output power from motor) WHP = water horse power (out put power from pump and input power to motor) Qin = input flow of water to both pump and motor Qout = out put flow of water from both pump and motor Powerth = theoretical power Powerac = actual power v = volumetric efficiency T = torque efficiency , also known as mechanical efficiency oa = overall efficiency D = displacement volume, m3 per revolution N = rpm P = pressure drop across pump or motor, N/m2 T = torque, N.m