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# Diode logic

Diode logic (DL) or diode-resistor logic constructs Boolean logic gates from diodes acting as electrically operated switches. While diode logic has the advantage of simplicity, the lack of an amplifying stage in each gate limits its application. Not all logical functions can e implemented in diode logic alone! only the non"inverting logical #ND and logical \$% functions can e reali&ed y diode gates. 'f several diode logic gates are cascaded, the voltage levels at each stage are significantly changed, so one"stage applications are used. 'n logic gates, logical functions are performed y parallel or series connected switches controlled y input logical varia les. 'n diode logic, electrically operated switches are implemented y diodes( when forward iased, a diode switch is closed! when ackward iased, the switch is open. )here are two kinds of diode logic gates " \$% and #ND. 't is not possi le to construct N\$) diode gate. )he e*planations elow are true for positive logic (high voltage represents logical 1 and low voltage represents logical 0).

Basic idea
#ND logic gates are implemented y series connected normally open switches. +o, diode #ND logic gates should e implemented y series connected diode switches (like an N,\$+ #ND gate that is implemented y series connected transistor switches). -owever, in contrast to transistors, diodes are two"terminal switching elements, in which the input and output are not separated ut they are the same. #s a result, series connected diode switches cannot e driven y grounded input voltage sources. )o solve this pro lem, diode #ND gates are constructed in the same manner as \$% diode gates " y parallel connected diode switches. -owever, to o tain #ND instead of \$% function according to De ,organ.s laws, the input and output logical varia les are inverted( Y / N\$) (N\$) (X1) \$% N\$) (X2)) / N\$) (N\$) (X1 #ND X2)) / X1 #ND X2, where X1 and X2 are the two input logical varia les! Y is the output varia le. )herefore, the diode #ND logic gate is a modified diode \$% logic gate( the diode AND gate is actually a diode OR gate with inverted inputs and output .

Implementation

'n a diode #ND gate, the output voltage is high if all the input voltages are high. )he output voltage is low if at least one of the input voltage is low.

)o reali&e the asic idea, the diodes are reverse connected and forward iased y an additional voltage source !" (a power supply) through the pull"up resistor %0. )he input voltage sources are connected in opposite direction to the supplying voltage source (traveling along the loop 12 " %0 " D " 2in). )o invert the output voltage and to get a grounded output, the complementary voltage drop (!" " "R1) etween the output and ground is taken as an output instead the floating voltage drop "R1 across the resistor. Input logical ones. When all the input voltages are high, they 3neutrali&e3 the iasing supply voltage !". )he voltage drops across the diodes are &ero and these diode switches are open. )he output voltage is high (output logical 1) since no current flows through the resistor and there is no voltage drop across it. )he output resistance is %0. -ence, the ehavior of the diode switches is reversed " whereas in diode \$% logic gates diodes act as normally open switches, in diode #ND logic gates diodes act as normally closed switches. Input logical zero. 'f the voltage of some input voltage source is low (input logical 0), the power supply passes current through the resistor, diode and the input source. )he diode is forward iased (the diode switch is closed) and the output voltage drop across the diode is low (output logical 0). )he output resistance is low and is determined y the input source. )he rest of diodes connected to high input voltages (input logical1s) are ackward iased and their input sources are disconnected from the output Node 0. 'f two diode #ND logic gates are cascaded, they ehave as current#sin\$ing logic gates( if the first gate produces high output voltage, the second gate does not consume current from the first one! if the first gate produces low output voltage, the second gate in4ects current into the output of the first one. # diode #ND gate uses its own power supply to drive the load through the pull"up resistor.

Applications
Diode logic gates are used to uild diode5transistor logic (D)L) gates as integrated circuits. )he outputs of conventional '6s (with complementary output stages) must never e directly connected together since they act as voltage sources. -owever, diodes can e used to com ine two or more digital (high7low) outputs from an '6 such as a counter. )his wired logic connection can e a useful way of producing simple logic functions without using additional logic gates.