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Energy Efficiency

in
Hospitals
- Case studies
Presentation by TERI
17
th
December 2009
-Few facts: Hospitals in India
-Energy & hospitals
-Case Study 1: Fortis Hospital, Shalimarbagh, Delhi
-Case study 2: Community Health Center, HAREDA
Presentation Structure
Hospitals in India
Estimated electricity consumption in Hospitals (including
Community Health Centers and Nursing Homes in India), 2008
= 769-1538 Million KWH
Estimated electricity cost = 4324-8748 (Rs. Million)
Few Facts
Facts taken from: Energy Efficiency in Hospitals: Best Practice Guide-Developed by International Resources
Group under USAID ECO-III Project in association with Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE)
24 x 7 usage
Controlled internal climate Most important requirement
Lot of internal heat due to people and equipments
Continuous supply of power required - so standby necessary
Energy expenses for hospitals range between
: 3-8% of total expenses
:15-20% of the hospitals O&M cost
Energy saving = Money saving
Energy Usage Pattern in Hospitals
www.marieclaire.com
Facts taken from: Energy Efficiency in Hospitals: Best Practice Guide-Developed by International Resources
Group under USAID ECO-III Project in association with Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE)
Electricity end users in Hospitals
HVAC: 30- 65%
Lighting: 30- 40%
Water pumping: 10-12%
Others: 5-15%
Figures taken from: Energy Efficiency in Hospitals: Best Practice Guide-Developed by International Resources
Group under USAID ECO-III Project in association with Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE)
Fortis Hospital, Shalimarbagh, Delhi
Case Study 1
Case Study: Fortis Hospital, Shalimarbagh, New Delhi
Description
500-bed facility
Built up area: 64,400 sqm
Comprising of: Cardiology,
renal & gastro intestinal units
Building compliant with
ECBC
Registered for TERI-GRIHA
First hospital in India to have
registered for the building
rating system
Building Design optimization
Conduct thermal analysis using VisDOE
Evaluating impact of different
Energy conservation measures
Develop virtual building model
using Ecotect Software
Calculating Energy Performance Index
Lighting design optimization
Methodology
Base building Fortis hospital, Delhi
1. Building Envelope
External
wall
230 mm brick work plastered
on both sides
U-value = 1.98 W/m
2
K
Cement plaster + 200 mm AAC blocks +
cement plaster
U-value = 0.69 W/m
2
K
Roof 150 mm concrete roof slab +
100 mm brick coba + roof tile
finish
U-value = 2.43 W/m
2
K
150 mm concrete roof slab + 65 mm
vermiculite + 100 mm brick coba + roof tile
finish
U-value = 0.98 W/m
2
K
Glass Single clear 6mm glass
U-value = 5.7 W/m
2
K
SHGC = 0.85
Light transmittance = 89%
Double glazed low emissivity glass
U-value = 2.8 W/m
2
K
SHGC = 0.25
Light transmittance = 46%
Energy efficiency interventions
Base Case Present case Total % Reduction
EPI (kWh/ m2 per annum) 605 593 2
U-value = 3.3 W/m
2
K
SHGC= 0.25
Light transmittance (min) = 27%
U-value = 0.409 W/m
2
K
U-value = 0.44 W/m
2
K
ECBC recommended
Energy efficiency interventions
230 mm brick wall 230 mm brick wall
plaster plaster
Uwall Uwall = 1.98 W/m2K = 1.98 W/m2K
Base building Fortis Hospital building
200 mm AAC blocks 200 mm AAC blocks
plaster plaster
Uwall Uwall = 0.69 W/m2K = 0.69 W/m2K
Wall
Roof
Uwall Uwall = 2.43 W/m2K = 2.43 W/m2K
Roof tile finish Roof tile finish
100 mm brick 100 mm brick coba coba
150 mm concrete roof slab 150 mm concrete roof slab
Uwall Uwall = 0.98 W/m2K = 0.98 W/m2K
Roof tile finish Roof tile finish
100 mm brick 100 mm brick coba coba
150 mm concrete roof slab 150 mm concrete roof slab
65 mm vermiculite 65 mm vermiculite
Base building Fortis hospital, Delhi
2. Lighting
Lamps: T-12 CFL (14 W, 18 W, 28 W) and T-8
Energy efficiency interventions
Base Case Present case Total % Reduction
EPI (kWh/ m2 per annum)
605 476 21
LPD achieved is less than 10W/m2
Energy efficient lamps and fixtures have
been used
LPD = 20 W/m2
Electronic Ballast: Magnetic
Base building Fortis hospital, Delhi
3. HVAC
Chiller efficiency = 1.15 KW/TR
Air cooled chiller
Chiller efficiency = 0.61 KW/TR
Water cooled screw chiller (as
per ECBC)
Energy efficiency interventions
Base Case Present case Total % Reduction
EPI (kWh/ m2 per annum) 605 346 43
Base building Fortis hospital, Delhi
4. Controls for HVAC system
None Variable frequency drive on
chilled water pumps, air handling
units
Energy efficiency interventions
Base Case Present case Total % Reduction
EPI (kWh/ m2 per annum) 605 312 48
EPI (kWh/sqm per annum) % reduction
Base building 605
Envelope optimization 593 2
Lighting optimization 476 21
Efficient chiller 346 43
Controls for HVAC system 312 48
605
593
476
346
312
2
21
43
48
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
ECBC interventions
E
P
I

(
k
W
h
/
s
q
m

p
e
r

a
n
n
u
m
)
EPI (kWh/sqm per annum)
605 593 476 346 312
% reduction
2 21 43 48
Base
building
Envelope
optimization
Lighting
optimization
Efficient
chiller
Controls for
HVAC
Case Study: Fortis Hospital, Shalimarbagh, New Delhi
Base Case Final case Total % Reduction
EPI (kWh/ m2 per annum) 605 593 48
Case study 2:
Energy efficiency recommendations for
Standard design for Community Health
Centre, HAREDA
Case study: Standard design for Community Health Centre, HAREDA
Building design had two
parallel wings
Majority of the
functional rooms were
along two facades
Optimum orientation
Orient building axis at 10
degrees angle with North
N
Zoning recommendations
Relocate functional areas
from E-W facades / provide
insulation in these walls / no
openings in these facades
Design interventions
Critical VSA at morning time= 60
degrees
Projection of column as per
architects design - a good shading
device when integrated with box
window
Shading design
Designed Section Recommended Section
Detail section of shading design
Shading design
1. Planting deciduous trees in front of
the critical facades to filter the direct
solar radiations.
2. Provide pergola or any other type of
roof shading on these facades.
3. Shift the ramp towards right to
protect the adjacent S & W-facade,
through self shading.
Shade the South side by
pergola as presented here
Alternatives for Shading the S-Facade
Shading options
Lighting scheme- Base case
Luminaire Type: Single batten fixture
Lamp Type: 1x 40W Fluorescent tube lamp
Ballast type: Magnetic ballast
Lumen output of lamp: 2450lm
TLD
40W
Artificial lighting optimization
Luminaire type: Efficient mirror optic batwing louver
fixture with surface/suspended mounted with excellent
uniformity and glare control
Lamp type: Twin 28W T5
Lamp output: 2900lm
TCS 398/228
TL5
Luminaire type: Energy efficient ceiling mounted fixture with
better uniformity and glare control
Lamp type: Twin 11W CFL
Lamp output: 900lm
Recommendation: Efficient Lighting
scheme
Artificial lighting optimization
38.7 44.2 Case 1 + Insulation on Roof (EPS) 3
Temperature (
o
C)
Description Cases
28.4 30.0 Case 4 + Two stage Evaporative Cooling, 15 ACH 10
28.5 30.0 Case 4 + Two stage Evaporative Cooling, 10 ACH 9
28.6 30.1 Case 4 + Two stage Evaporative Cooling, 5 ACH 8
31.0 34.0 Case 4 + Direct Evaporative Cooling, 15 ACH 7
31.0 34.0 Case 4 + Direct Evaporative Cooling, 10 ACH 6
31.2 33.9 Case 4 + Direct Evaporative Cooling, 5 ACH 5
38.6 44.1 Case 2 + Reflective Coating on Roof 4
38.7 44.2 Case 1 + Insulation on Roof (Mud Phuska) 2
38.8 44.5 Base Case + Reduced window size & modified shading 1
38.8 44.5
230 mm Brick wall with cement plaster on both sides, 115 mm RCC,
plastered and tiled, Single clear glass
Base
Case
Day Average Max.
Thermal comfort analysis
Simulation conducted using TRNSYS (The Transient Energy System Simulation Tool)
Various thermal comfort strategies were analyzed
Thermal comfort analysis
21.0
23.0
25.0
27.0
29.0
31.0
33.0
35.0
37.0
39.0
41.0
43.0
45.0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24
Time (hour)
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e
Ambient
Base Case
Modified Shading
EPS on Roof +
Reflective Coating
Cavity Wall
Desert Cooler ACH 5
Desert Cooler ACH 10
Desert Cooler ACH 15
Centralized EV Cooler
ACH 5
Centralized EV Cooler
ACH 10
Centralized EV Cooler
ACH 15
Recommendations:
Apply 50 mm expanded polystyrene on roof
Apply reflective coating on roof
Provide centralized single stage evaporative cooler with 10 ACH
THANK YOU
For further queries please write to:
pooja.shukla@teri.res.in