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CURRENT STATUS OF FLORICULTURE International Scenario: Total area under flower production in different countries of the world - 3,05,105

ha. Total area in Europe - 44,444 ha. Major production centres in Europe: The Netherlands, Italy, Ger any, !."., #pain and $rance Total area of the world under Green house production of flowers Area Netherlands Italy Ger any !.". #pain $rance Europe India a.i u Total area (ha &,004 ',%54 ',0%% ',1(' 4,3(5 3,')5 !reen house (ha 5,55% 4,40( (,'55 ),)) (,3%) 1,'4' - 4%,00& ha.

*alf of the +orld,s cut flower production and consu ption. area under orna ental crops - &&,%%0 ha. 5),5(' ha 34,000 ha (1,(1& ha 1%,400 ha 10,(&5 ha ),%%1 ha &,01' ha ',%54 ha %,&04 ha %,%(1 ha 4,'5' ha

/hina Indonesia 0apan !.#. 1ra2il Taiwan The Netherlands Italy !.". Ger an /olu 3ia

Area under !reenhouse: 0apan 10,04& ha !# ',1(1 ha The Netherlands 5,51& ha /olu 3ia 4,'10 ha Italy 4,40( ha Ger any (,'13 ha #pain (,44( ha "orea (,(() ha $rance 1,'4' ha 4#ource5 $loriculture International 6lan, 1))'7 8 145 countries are in9ol9ed in $lower production. +holesale 9alue of world floriculture industry - !# : (0.&) 3illion in 1))' and is increasin; < 11 to 15= Consu"ption >nnual increase10 - 15=

Total consu ption of cut flowers in the world 1)&5 : 1(.5 3illion 1))0 : (5 3illion 1))% : 31 3illion ?a.i u per capita flower @ plant consu ption Norway : 14% #wit2er land : 1(% Ger an : && Aen arB : &4 #weden : ') >ustralia : '& Netherlands : '0 $rance : 5& 1el;iu : 5% !#> : 50 0apan : 44 Greece : 3( !.". : () #pain : (% +orld consu ption of potted plants - in 1))0 - : 14.( 3illion 1))5 - : 1) 3illion 40ohn, #tatus of $loriculture in +orld, India and 0 @ " fro a pu3lication on co floriculture 3y Airectorate of E.tension Education, #"!>#T, #ri Na;ar, (0007. I"port 1)&( Total 9alue of i port of cut flowers : (.5 3illion 1))% Increased to '.5 3illion 40ohn, (0007 Total world i port of cut flowers in 1))5 : (.5 3illion Ger any : 1.5 3illion !.# $rance The Netherlands @ #wit2er land E#port o$ cut $lo%er The Netherlands /olu 3ia Israel "enya Ecuador Italy Thailand #pain 5'= of world e.port 14= 4= 3= 3= (= (= (= arBet - Cose, /arnation @ /hrysanthe u

ercial

The a.i u trade in international E#istin& international auction centres:

>ls eer $lower >uction centre, > sterda , The Netherlands ?ia i 4!.#.>7 1o;ota 4/olu 3ia7 Tel >9i9 4Israel7 New centres e er;in; in 0apan, Thailand and ?auritius. !lo'al trends in Floriculture Top () pot plants Top () cut $lo%ers Top () destinations

(# (*)))*))) "alanchoe *edera $icus #aintpaulia 6ot chrysanthe u Aracaena 6ot rose *yacinth 6ri ula 1e;onia

(% 1) 1' 14 1( 11 10 10 ) &

(# (*)))*))) Cose 1%1& Tulip 55( /hrysanthe u 3)) Ger3era (41 /arnation 1)3 $reesia 14) Diliu s 143 >stroe eria 1(% Iris &) Gypsophila &3

(# (*)))*))) Ger any 3354 $rance 1111 !" )%% Italy 3&& 1el;iu 304 #wit2er land (%( >ustralia (5% !.# (10 Aen arB 1&' #weden 1%%

E.port li9e plants @ cuttin;s 1))5 - : (.5 3illion The Netherlands Aen arB 1el;iu Ger any Italy !.#. /anada $rance /osta Cica #pain Ether countries 3= 1= 4)= )= &= 4= 4= 4= 3= 3= (= : 5%3 &= illion ((= 13= 1(= )= 5= 3= 3= (= (= (= (= (= 1=

+orld e.port trade in cut folia;e !.#.>. /ost Cica Italy The Netherlands /anada Aen arB Guate ala #. >frica /hina Ger any ?e.ico Israel $rance Ethers Seed

+orld seed 3usiness of horticultural crops - : 1.4 3illion of which e.port of 9e;eta3le and orna ental seeds - : 1.0 3illion F +orld seed consu ption - : 50 3illion The Netherlands - leadin; e.port of 3ul3s @ nursery stocB - &5= share of world e.port ?aGor i porters of 3ul3s - Ger any @ !.# > on; de9elopin; countries India - Taiwan e.port of seeds and 3ul3s is the hi;hest - e.port of 3ul3s, nursery stocB @ flower seed - worth of

Cs.(50

illion

?aGor producers of flowers are the de9eloped countries Netherlands 33= 0apan (4= !.#.>. 1(= Italy 11= New production centres54Datin > erica @ >frica7 /ountries ;rowin; at 9ery faster rate5 "enya, !;anda, Ecuador, Hi 3a3we, 0a aica, Ao inican Cepu3lic and I9ory /oast Airection towards ore intensi9e floriculture5 India, /hina, Iietna , Guate ala, 6oland, 6hilippines, #ri DanBa and ?alaysia. The total area under production in Traditional centres liBe the Netherlands, 0apan, !#, #pain, Italy and /olu 3ia, will re ain sta3le or increase sli;htly and producti9ity will rise Non-traditional outlets $astest ;rowin; 6redictions of >;ricultural analysts 40= of ;reen house ;rowers in the Netherlands will close down due to financial difficulties No. of producers will increase worldwide 6rice of floriculture products is non increasin; due to o9er production thou;h the world arBet has 3een ;rowin; at 15= per year. $ierce co petition /onsu ers will 3e ore critical of Juality, en9iron entally sound production assort ent and ser9ice and price. /onsu ption and production will re ain a re;ional affair althou;h there is a worldwide trade 4"ras, International sy . on cut flower in Tropoo 41))', >cta *orticulture, 1))) 66 401 -40%7 $lower wholesalers will settle in the new production centres The ore professional wholesalers will aBe co petition +holesalers will specialise in function I portant role is 3ein; assu ed 3y 3i; retailers Cetailer,s role - tre endous i pact on distri3ution and co ercial process The co ercial transaction and distri3ution of production will 3e separated - result in chan;es of new distri3ution structures. Indian Scenario *orticultural production year 1ooB (001 of N*15 Total area under floriculture 6roduction5 Doose flowers5 /ut flowers5 5.0) laBh ?T %&0.% illion nu 3ers &&,%00 ha.

Area and production (+++,-))) (Traditional Flo%ers "arnataBa Ta il Nadu >rea 4ha7 (',&01 1%,'45 6roduction 4?T7 1(4,()0 )(,0)'

+est 1en;al 13,'(0 1',%&5 >ndhra 6radesh &,4(0 3(,)00 4>ru u;a et. al, >;ro India >pril (001 p. ((7 >rea of loose flower culti9ation >rea of cut flower protected culti9ation ?ain crop - Cose for e.port Ethers - /arnation, Erchids, Diliu $loriculture e.port fro '3,53% ha. (50 ha

and other 3ul3ous flowers and ;er3era. Cs. 1)0.%3 crores Cs.&1.(0 crores around 0.35=

India 4(000 - (0017 41))' - 1))&7 -

India,s e.port share in world trade Our "ajor i"porters:

The Netherlands, !#, 0apan, Ger any, Italy, Aen arB, E;ypt, #in;apore, #wit2er land, $rance, >ustralia, !>E, 1el;iu and #ri DanBa. Ao estic floriculture arBet Cs. 500 crore.

Ad.anta&es $or pro"otin& E#port Oriented Floriculture units /li ate No need of artificial li;htin; No need of heatin; of poly house !ntapped fallow land of (40 illion acre /o petiti9e an power cost India lar;est pool of technically Jualifies people in the world ne.t to > erica and Cussia Interest of 6ri9ate #ector co panies in in9estin;.

!o.ern"ent Incenti.es: N*1 pro9ides soft loans with interest rate of 4= to a a.. of Cs. 1 crore - for settin; up infrastructural facilities liBe pre -coolin; units, cold stora;e, pacBa;in; and ;radin; sheds, refri;erated transport and ;reen houses /usto s duty is reduced for i portin; ;reen house eJuip ent fro >pril, 1))3. achinery, peat etc.

#u3sidy 3y Go9t. for drip irri;ation upto Cs.15,000 per ha or 50= of cost of drip irri;ation. ?inistry of >;riculture - su3sidy upto 50= of cost of low cost polyhouses 40= of cost of ediu cost poly houses and 10= of cost of hi;h cost poly houses. ?odel arBets are 3ein; esta3lished in Aelhi, ?u 3ai, /hennai, /alcutta, *ydera3ad, 6une and 1an;alore 3y >6EA> of ?inistry of /o erce in /olla3oration with central and state ;o9ern ent a;encies Cs. 10 crore spent to esta3lish flower arBet at New Aelhi 3y >6EA> and *aryana Go9t. >6EA> also sent dele;ations of ;rowers and officials to Europe to study forei;n arBets for floriculture products and plant Juarantine re;ulations.

Go9ern ent of India authori2ed the plant protection >d9iser, ?inistry of >;ri, Efficer Inchar;e, 6lant Kuarantine and $u i;ation stations and Airectorates of >;riculture and *orticulture of different states to issue certificates of ori;in. >ssistance for the purchase of refri;erated 9ans up to (5= of the cost of the 9ehicle su3Gect to a a.. of Cs.1.5 laBh L unit 3y >6EA>. Cei 3urse ent of airfrei;ht or cost of sa ples to 3e despatched to forei;n 3uyers is allowed upto a ceilin; of Cs.50,000 per e.porter 3y >6EA>. Cei 3urse ent of 40= of preparin; product literature and pu3licity aterial 3y >6EA>.

Flo%er Auction Centre: >t 1an;alore - run 3y "arnataBa >;ro Industries /orporation >nnual turn o9er is ore than ( crore durin; 1)))-(000 Tan$lora Flori /usiness par0 /o in; up near *osur - pro oted 3y Ta il Nadu Industries Ae9elop ent /orporation and //D $lowers Dtd. of 1an;alore. Total area of the parB 50 ha 3 ha &0 ha ;rowin; area odel units.

Growin; area will 3e allotted to (5 e 3ers < 1 or ( ha L e 3er 1usiness parB pro9ide entire infrastructure needed for e.port oriented cur rose production.

Floriculture industr1 in India Cut $olia&e - +orld e.port trade in cut folia;e durin; 1))5 2otted plants production centre 1an;alore, "olBata, Tri9andru , *ydera3ad, >h eda3ad, 6une, ?u 3ai, Aelhi, /hennai, "ali pon; and Gan;toB. Indian folia;e plants are e.ported to iddle east The !# and Europe - !# : 5%3 illion Total No. of appro9ed E.E. cut flower units - 1&% 10' - technical and financial colla3oration with countries liBe the Netherlands 4&17, Israel 41)7, Ger any 4(7, !" 417, $rance 417, Thailand 417, 1ul;aria 417 and New Healand 417 6resently only %0 units of forei;n colla3oration are in production >cti9e non-e.port oriented units -3'.

3ried $lo%ers and plant parts India 45 years old 3usiness constitutes %0= of floriculture e.ports fro >nnual turn o9er 8 Cs. 150 crores India

E.portin; units are located in Tuticorin and "olBata ?aGor i porters - !# Ger an, the !", +est European /ountries, *on; "on;, 0apan and #in;apore.

Netherlands - 1st leadin; e.porter of dried flowers to !#, others /olo 3ia, ?e.ico, India and Israel. >ustralia - e er;in; as a leader.

Status o$ Ta"il Nadu >rea under flower crops 41))) -(000 7 - 1&, 1(0 ha 6roduction of loose flowers - 1.4( laBh ?T Traditional $lo%ers &ro%n: 0as ine, /rossandra, ?ari;old, scented red roses, Tu3erose, /elosia and ;o phrena. 0as ine and Tu3erose - perfu e industry - /oi 3atore ?ari;old - Manthophyll - Erode At. *i;h Tech $loriculture E.port Eriented !nits located at - *osur - Coses /hennai - Erchids >nthuriu , /arnation, ;er3era, >lstroe eria and liliu s - The Nil;iris, Nercaud and "odaiBBanal 6laces identified for culti9ation of >nthuriu , ;er3era, liliu and carnation #ale , Na aBBal, Erode, /oi 3atore, Ahar apuri and the Nil;iris.

Erchids - >dGoinin; coastline areas. /arnation, Erchid and >nthuriu - +estern Ghat areas illion ste s per annu

Ta ilNadu,s. /ut flower production - 55

$lower auction centre is propsed at 6alliBBaranai, near /hennai. Flo%ers O$ 3elhi Aelhi is the silent hu3 of the nation,s enor ous flower traffic. The flowers o9in; in and out of Aelhi in all directions of the ;lo3e are as di9erse as the 9arious sta;es of handlin; they pass throu;h. *owe9er, while roses fro 6une decorate coffee ta3les in a plush Ger an cafO, the perennial stru;;le of flower ;rowers, suppliers and distri3utors ne9er aBe it to the desBtops. 3elhi* Asia4s lar&est $lo%er "ar0et The space around /offee *o e near *anu an ?andir in /onnau;ht 6lace in Aelhi hosts what is ar;ua3ly the lar;est flower arBet in >sia, with )) per cent cut flowers and one per cent ari;old tra9ellin; up fro "olBata. 4/ut flowers are typically used as P9ase-decorationP flowers -- ;ladioli, tulips etc. ?ari;old and Indian rose petals are used for pooja and other cere onial purposes7. There are two other flower arBets in the capital - one at $atehpuri in /handni /howB, which speciali2es in puGa flowers and the other at ?ehrauli, where one pri arily finds ari;old with only (0 per cent of the total flowers 3ein; cut flowers /usto ers at this wholesale arBet are al ost as di9erse as the flowers - ran;in; fro pa9e ent flower sellers to s all florists to owners of spanBy flower parlours as also indi9idual custo ers. 1riG ?ohan "hana;wal, popularly Bnown as 1irGu 1hai, is the PfounderP of the /onnau;ht 6lace flower arBet and is one of the three PpradhansP 4chiefs7 of the >ll India /ut $lower Grower and #upplier >ssociation. *e and his collea;ues used to load flowers on 3icycles and sell at 9arious florists, shops until they felt the need of ha9in; a per anent place to display and sell the flowers.

Thus, after a round of tortuous discussions with the New Aelhi ?unicipal /orporation and the Aelhi Go9ern ent, they ;ot the per ission to esta3lish a pa9e ent flower arBet in front of the /offee *o e at /onnau;ht 6lace, e9ery ornin; 3etween four and nine. 2ro'le"s a'ound 6ro3le s surfaced fi9e years a;o with the esta3lish ent of the arBet, and their a;nitude has not chan;ed uch since then. Today, of the total of a3out 500 flower sellers, a easly 3' hold authori2ed licenses. 1ut flower trade is not hassle-free. /orruption, preferential treat ent and other unfair practices are co on. #till, a license is 3etter than not ha9in; one. It helps to ha9e one while dealin; with air-frei;ht 4i portsLe.ports7, inter-state transportation and BnocBin; on the ;o9ern entPs door. QThe license holders alone pay a3out three to fi9e laBh rupees to the ;o9ern ent in ta.es. Net, the ;o9ern ent is neither issuin; ore licenses, nor pro9idin; any support in the for of 3etter infrastructure for 3etter 3usiness and enhancin; e.ports. There are plans of settin; up arBets at the Indian National >r y 4IN>7 arBet, at EBhla and also at Noida with the initiati9e of the !6 ;o9ern ent, 3ut we continue to suffer,R says 1irGu 3hai. >nother ;rey area is the i port of flowers. QThe ;o9ern ent offers us no su3sidies, the frei;ht char;es are 9ery hi;h and of course transportation re ains a 3i; hassle,R says Na9in /hand 6andey, for er 6ress #ecretary of the >ssociation who sells flowers ;rown in his far in *aldwani near Nainital. 1ut the traders, 3i;;est pro3le re ains lacB of cold stora;e and display facilities. Not only do traders ha9e to sJuat in cra ped space, there is no parBin; facility which forces the to lea9e their 9ehicles where9er they find space. ?oreo9er, the transportation to and fro the train stations and airport re ains cu 3erso e. $lowers are 100 per cent perisha3le, 3ut traders ha9e no safe;uard a;ainst e.tre e Aelhi heat and in onsoon the only thin; they can do is to put up so e te porary plastic shelters to protect flowers. +hate9er they cannot sell durin; four to nine in the ornin;, they du p in the cold stora;es in and around #a32i ?andi area for Cs.(0 per carton per day. Not only are these cold stora;e facilities confined to one place, the ser9ices turn out to 3e horri3ly e.pensi9e ;i9en the 9olu es the traders deal in. India5s $lo%er 'usiness Aelhi ay ha9e the a.i u Sflower traffic, in >sia. The city is the con9er;ence point of dealers in flowers. Traders in ost cities ha9e contacts with dealers in Aelhi and not with dealers in cities where the flowers actually ori;inate. $or instance, flowers fro distant 1an;alore arri9e in Aelhi and are then transported to 1hopal. Erchids are i ported fro Thailand and then e.ported to #in;apore. Aespite the ;rowth and sale of flowers ha9in; spread o9er ost of the country, IndiaPs annual flower production stands at around 1,000 tonnes and the countryPs floriculture industry has a iniscule 0.01 per cent share in the international arBet. Kuite a few flower 9arieties co e fro 6une and 1an;alore - two cities, which 3oast of the a.i u nu 3er of ;reenhouses ainly 3ecause of their ideally te perate cli es. These include the u3iJuitous rose, carnations, and 3ird of paradise. DucBy 3a 3oos are i ported fro Thailand, liBe Erchids. The erry ari;old co es fro "olBata. Gladioli con9er;e at Aelhi fro all o9er the country, while 1an;alore and Thailand a;ain are ho etown for lilies. Co antic raGni;andhas ori;inate in ?u2affarna;ar while tulips a3ound in the hills of #hi la and "ullu. >nd what does Aelhi ha9e to offer, you wonderT QAelhi has only population and pollution. Net, flower sellers all o9er India are dependant on Aelhi,s location and networBs with other cities and countries for sellin; their flowers. The pro3le s faced 3y flower sellers in Aelhi are typically faced 3y those in our 3usiness all o9er India. In fact, ;rowers in re ote areas ha9e e9en ore pronounced pro3le s of transportation,

pacBa;in; and stora;e as these ser9ices are e9en less de9eloped in rural areas,R offers 6ra9een 6ratap #in;h, a wholesaler who sells flowers ;rown in his far at ?u2affarna;ar. $lower de and in Aelhi itself is seasonal and the arBet has enor ous fluctuations. >s 6andey puts it, U1iBa to phool nahin to dhoolU. 4If it sells itPs a flower, otherwise it is dust7. > 3unch of ;er3era, which sells for Cs. &0 in peaB season, costs only Cs. ( when the season is lean. The 4*indu7 arria;e season 3etween Ecto3er and $e3ruary as also the onths of >pril, ?ay and 0une are roarin; 3usiness at the flower arBet. International perspecti.e >ccordin; to a report of the International Da3our Er;anisation 4IDE7 - SThe world cut flower industry5 Trends and prospects, 3y GiGs3ert 9an Die t, /hina and India do inate in ter s of area under culti9ation 3ut their yield per hectare is low. QIn India and /hina, purchasin; power is too low for si2ea3le i ports to taBe place and Juality is too low for si2ea3le e.ports to de9elopR. Ger any is the typical e.a ple of a second ;roup of countries with si2ea3le arBets where i ports satisfy ost de and 4up to '0 per cent7. Coses are the ain traded product and Ger any is the lar;est i port arBet, followed 3y the !nited #tates. > third ;roup, which includes /olu 3ia and "enya, ha9e a s all ho e arBet 3ut a lar;e 9olu e of e.ports. Dastly, The Netherlands is a e 3er of the ;roup with a lar;e ho e arBet co 3ined with a lar;e e.port share. It is the worldPs leadin; e.porter. The de9eloped countries ha9e a co petiti9e ad9anta;e in their 3ein; close to the arBet and to Juality research and e.tension ser9ices. They ha9e roo for inno9ation and 3oast of hi;h Juality physical infrastructure. *owe9er, hi;h la3our costs are a co petiti9e disad9anta;e. Ae9elopin; countries 3enefit fro low cost of anual la3our, 3ut sBilled la3our and technicians can 3e e.pensi9e. They also ha9e a3undant li;ht, ;ood cli atic conditions and low land costs. *owe9er, airfrei;ht adds si;nificantly to the total cost of e.ports. Kuality is the catchword as far as e.ports as concerned. Kuality 3ench arBin; of flowers has any aspects. $or instance, flowers should 3e free fro pla;ues and diseases and they should 3e unda a;ed - ele ents, which can 3e Gud;ed on 9isual inspection. Ether Juality aspects, howe9er, are ore difficult to Gud;e. $or instance, it is hard to see whether flowers ha9e 3een correctly handled once cut. Net this is an i portant deter inant of 9ase life and whether or not the 3ud will open. This is why reputation is so i portant and why ;rowers who ha9e consistently deli9ered hi;h Juality flowers fetch hi;her prices than little Bnown or irre;ular suppliers. +hile a aGority of Indian flowers 3loo in; in the fields are certainly at par in Juality to the ones ;rown in Europe, the pro3le 3e;ins the o ent theyPre cut and co ence their Gourney to the arBet. I proper handlin; after har9est, una9aila3ility of opti u te perature and oisture conditions durin; stora;e and transportation, under or o9er-pacBa;in; leadin; to da a;e and wilterin; are a few factors which ha9e an ad9erse i pact on the Juality of Indian flowers reachin; the consu er - 3oth do estic and international.