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The American Accent Guide

A
COMPREHENSIVE on THE SOUND SYSTEM of AMERICAN ENGLISH COURSE

by
BEVERLY A. LUJAN, M.S. ccc/sip

Speech- Language Pathologist

Edited by
C. J. S. Wallia, Ph. D.
Editor, IndiaStar Review of Books Instructor, Publishing & Editing Program, U.C. Berkeley extension Berkeley, California USA

ISBN 0-9634139-6-1

Copyright 2006

Lingual Arts
P.O. Box 522168 Salt Lake City, Utah 84152

All Rights Reserved. Printed in the United States of America. No part of this manual or accompanying audio materials may be reproduced, stored, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, audio dubbing or otherwise, without prior written permission from Lingual Arts, Inc.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

TO MY MOTHER

My deepest endeavor. Marshall,

gratitude

to those who contributed to T.C. Van Ausdal

their talent and support and her abundant

in this and

First and foremost Christine Thurmond,

talents

skills. Other contributors

included Jan D. Mayer, Rob Ronald, Rod Burkholz, Brent Amy Norris, Nathan Martinez, Dennis Misurell, Jeff Hansen,

Mark Cantor, Rebecca

Waddups, Adam Blackwell,

Ron Carpenter,

Mike Maughn, Laura Bedore, and Milan Claudio.

ABOUT THE AUTHOR

Beverly A. Lujan, M.S. - ccc/sip

Beverly Lujan is from a bilingual

family and has always had a great interest

in

diverse cultures and languages. She brings particular sensitivity to the problems that non-native speakers sometimes have in speaking the English language clearly and effectively. Beverly studied Linguistics teaching, non-native at San Diego State University from the University and attained BS and MS of Utah. Her research, of

degrees in Speech Language Pathology and work in American

English speech have focused on the problems individuals.

speakers and of speech/ language-challenged

She has been a practicing speech therapist for over 18 years, counseling hundreds of non-native speakers of English in Utah from 26 countries around the world. She taught American English pronunciation University. She founded the Lingual to international students at Hawthorne Arts School in Salt Lake City that has

conducted courses and seminars on accent modification for corporate, government and educational clients. As a clinical supervisor at the University of Utah, she mentored graduate students to provide training in assessment and instruction on accent reduction. She also taught English speaking skills in the public school system. She is certified by ASHA (The American Speech-Language and Hearing Association) Languages). Ms. Lujan developed The American Accent Guide as a direct result of her experience in teaching English to non-native speakers. The exercises contained in the Guide were developed as part of her work in the field. and is a member of TESOL (Teachers of English to Speakers of Other

Beverly A. Lujan offers speech evaluation and personalized speech coaching for individuals, educational, and corporate clients.

See details at the end of this book.

CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION
THE PROGRAM

xi xi xi, xi,
THE DIALECT

APPLICATION THE PREMISE

xii xiii
xv
......

THE APPROACH

xii,

THE LAYOUT

Suggestions for the Student Explanatory Notes Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . ... . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

xix xx

SECTION 1

OVERVIEW

OF AMERICAN

ENGLISH

SPEECH

PATTERNS 1.1

INTONATION & STRESS


INTONATION 1.1 STRESS 1.2 1.2 1.4 1.5 AT THE WORD LEVEL BEYOND THE WORD LEVEL

FALLING AND RISING INFLECTION

Questions

1.5 1.6

PRIMARY STRESS AND FINAL INFLECTION STRESS FOR EMPHASIS

1.7 1.7 1.8

Stress for Emphasis and Final Inflection RHYTHM Reductions Practicing 1.9 Linking 1.9
1.10

Rhythm and Stress

SECTION 2

THE ENGLISH

VOWELS
2.1

INTRODUCTION

TO ENGLISH VOWELS AND DIPHTHONGS FOR VOWELS 2.1 OF VOWELS 2.2 2.3

THE IPASYMBOLS PRODUCTION

AND CLASSIFICATION

LENGTHS

OF VOWELS AND DIPHTHONGS

THE SIMPLE VOWELS THE SCHWA VOWEL 2.4 SCHWA SCHWA

2.4

IAI lal
Iii

THE STRESSED

(up)

2.5

THE UNSTRESSED

(YJ2on) 2.5 2.8

(bee) (bit)

2.6 2.7 Contrast: li/- /II Contrast: /1/- IA!

/I

2.9

The COMPREHENSIVE American Accent Guide


THE SIMPLE VOWELS

(Continued)
2.9 2.11

hi lrel

(bgt) (bgt)

Contrast: hi-I Contrast: hl-

/\1 lrel

2.10 2.12 2.12 2.15 2.16 2.18 2.19 2.21

Contrast: Ire I - 1/\1

101 (bgll) I'J I (QMght) lul lul larl IArI (book) (soon)
(athIT) (hgr.)

2.14

Contrast:

10/- lre/

Contrast: 101- 1/\1


2.17 2.18 2.20

Contrast: I'J 1- 1/\1 Contrast: lul - I AI Contrast:

lu/- lul

2.21 ,2.24 2.21

Contrast: IAr/- letl Contrast: I Ar I- I or I

2.23 2.23

THE DIPHTHONGS

2.25 2.25 2.28 2.29 2.31 2.32 2.31 2.33

leII larl loul laul I'JII

(bflit) (bitg) (Qwg) (out) (bQJi.)

Contrast: I el - I ell Contrast: I all - I rei Contrast: loul Contrast

2.26 2.29 2.30

- 101

laul - loul

2.32

BONUS EXERCISES MINIMAL PAIRS

- Vowels/Dipthongs

SECTION 3

WORD STRESS

STRESS AND MEANING COMPOUND WORDS 3.1 TWO-PART 3.4 VERBS

3.1

3.2
3.5

Two-Part Verbs as Idioms


PREFIXES AND SUFFIXES PREFIXES AND WORD STRESS SUFFIXES AND WORD STRESS 3.5 3.7

Meanings Determined by Stress on the Suffix


SUFFIXES AND STRESS PLACEMENT PROPER NAMES, TITLES, TIMES 3.8

3.7

3.21

Abbreviations
BONUS EXERCISE

3.22 3.23

Times and Dates

3.22

Practice Word Lists:, ABBREVIATIONS COMPOUND WORDS

3.23

COMMON PREFIXES 3.23 PATTERNS

3.24

VERB & NOUN-STRESS

3.25 3.25

Two - Three Syllable Words Three - Five Syllable Words

3.25 3.26

Three - Four Syllable Words

VI

SECTION 4

THE RHYTHM OF AMERICAN

ENGLISH

IDENTIFYING REDUCED

SPEECH RHYTHM

4 .1

FORMS AND RHYTHM FUNCTION

4.3 4.4
4.4

REDUCING

WORDS

Simplifying Vowels
Underlying

4.4 The English Articles 4.5 4.10

Rules for Use of Articles

Simplifying

Consonants 4.14

BONUS EXERCISES

REDUCED

WORD GROUPS Consonants

4.15 4.15 4.16 4.16

Combining

Linking with the Tapped t

Common Two-Word Reductions


BONUS EXERCISES

4.18

Omissions CONTRACTED FORMS

of hand . ..

t 4.19
.. . .. .. .. . .. .. . .. .. .. . .. .. . .. . .. . .. .. . ..

4.20

BONUS EXERCISES REDUCED SEGMENTS

4.23
WITH CONTRACTED

FORMS

4.2.
4.26

PUTTING

IT ALL TOGETHER Exercise


4.28

Conversational

SECTION 5

THE AMERICAN
INTRODUCTION

ENGLISH CONSONANTS:

The Stops & The Continuants


5.1

THE IPA SYMBOLS FOR CONSONANTS CLASSIFICATION OF CONSONANTS Tongue Tip Placement Aspiration
/p,

5.1 5.2 5.3

5.3

Use of Voice for Consonants 5.3

bl It, dl Ik, gl

THE STOP CONSONANTS........ 5.5 5.6 5.7

5.5

INITIAL STOP CONSONANTS FINAL STOP CONSONANTS MIDDLE STOP CONSONANTS The Glottal Stop LINKING: LINKING: 5.7

Middle t, d 5.7

The Tapped t - VOWELS 5.9

5.8

STOP CONSONANTS CONSONANTS 5.11

- CONSONANTS

5.10

THE SUFFIX -ed

Stop Consonants
Contrast: Voiceless Linking: Suffix -ed Linking: Suffix -ed BONUS EXERCISES

+ Suffix -ed
Vowels

5.11 5. 12

-ed - 'Voiced -ed


5.12 Consonants 5.13

5.l3
5.16

MINIMAL PAIRS - FINAL STOP CONSONANTS SILENT SPELLINGS - p, b

t, d

k, g

5.17

Vll

The COMPREHENSIVE American Accent Guide


THE CONTINUANT CONSONANTS

18, '01 (thin, then)


Contrast: 181- It! Contrast 181- Isl Sound Clusters
PRACTICE BONUS

5.18 5.19 5.21 Contrast 1'01- Idl Contrast 1'01- Izl 5.22 5.24 5.25 5.20 5.22

18,'01
WORDS

EXERCISES

If, v]
Contrast If I - Ivl 5.26

5.26

Contrast If. vi - 18,'01 5.27 Suffix -s, Suffix -ed Contrast: Ivl -/bl 5.27

5.28 5.29 5.29 5.30

Irregular Plurals Ilvzl


PRACTICE BONUS WORDS

EXERCISE

SECTION 6

THE AMERICAN ENGLISH CONSONANTS: The Sibilants Is, zl IJ, 31 (share, rouge)
INITIAL SIBILANT 151 BLENDS

6.1

ItS, d31 (0air,jam)


SOUNDS 6.3

6.2

6.5
SOUNDS 6.6

FINAL SIBILANT

Contrast: Contrast: Contrast:

Isl - Izl

6.6

Contrast: If!- Itf!

6.8

Itf/ - Id31 6.8 131- Other Sibilant Sounds


+S 6.10 6.9

STOP CONSONANTS

Suffix -s
CONSONANT

6.10
-S

Contrast: Suffix - s Voiceless - Suffix


CLUSTERS WITH Isl 6.14

Voiced 6.11

Contrast Isl Clusters Ipsl - Ibzl 6.11 Iksl - Iskl 6.12 Suffixes:

6.14 Iksl - Igzl 6.12 Itsl - Idzl 6.13 6.17

-es 6.15 -ize 6.16 -tion,- sion, -cian -cial, -tial -est 6.19 -sian, -sion 6.18 -ist -geous, gious 6.18
6.19

6.17 -cious, -tious, -xious 6.17

Vlll

THE SIBILANT SOUNDS SIBILANTS

(Continued)
6.18

+ Suffix -ed

Contrast: I-stl - I-zdl Linking Sibilants - Other Sibilants Conversational Exercise


6.23 6.21 6.22

Linking Sibilants + Suffix -ed - Vowels Silent Spellings of S 6.24 Spelling "ch" Pronounced

If I

6.24

MINIMALPAIRS- FINALSIBILANTSOUNDS 6.24

SECTION 7
Irl

THE AMERICAN ENGLISH CONSONANTS:

The Glides & The Nasals


7.1

Irl BLENDS 7.2 Contrast Irl Blends:


MIDDLE Irl BLENDS 7.4

Voiceless

- Voiced 7.3
7.5

FINAL //rl BLENDS

Contrast: Irtl -/rdl Contrast Irsl -lrzI More Practice Words - Irl Blends
BONUS EXERCISES 7.6-

7.6

/1/
THE CLEAR

7.8

III 7.8 + III 7.8


7.10 7.9

LONG VOWEL

III BLENDS
FINAL

Contrast III Blends: Voiceless - Voiced III 7.10 A final consonant + III
THE BACK III I 7.11

Contrast: III -I

rl

7.12 7.12

Contrast: III Blends - Irl Blends The Suffix -ly 7.13 Conversational SilentI Exercise - Sounds 7.14

Irl & III


7.14

MORE PRACTICE WORDS BONUS EXERCISES 7.14

Irl & III

Iwl Contrast: Ivl - Iwl Ijl Ihl


Silent h 7.19 BONUS EXERCISE 7.19 7.16 7.17 BONUS EXERCISE

7.15

(yet) Contrast Ij/- Id31 7.17

7.17

7.19

IX

The COMPREHENSIVE American Accent Guide


THE NASAL SOUNDS

Iml, Inl Contrast: Iml - Inl


7.20 7.21

7.20

Contrast: Voiceless - Voiced Endings Contrast: III - I nl


!r) 7.21

(s i!JJ:}

7.22

Contrast: Inl - IrJI Contrast: Ink! - IrJI

7.22 7.23
7.23

. Contrast Suffix Endings -s, -d The Suffix - ing


BONUS EXERCISE

7.24 7.24
7.24

Contrast Endings -nking - nging

SECTION

MORE ON STRESS AND INTONATION


8.1

INTONATION AND MEANING

Polite Tones 8.1

Mildly Rising Inflection


8.4

8.2

Sharply Rising Inflection 8.3 Sharply Falling Inflection


VARIATIONS AND EXCEPTIONS

Swinging pitch inflection 8.3

8.5 8.5 8.5

Yes/No Question Form with Falling inflection


Declarative Form with Rising Inflection

wh
VARIATIONS

Questions with Rising Inflection


IN STRESS 8.5

8.5

Stress on Descriptive Words 8.7 Degrees of Stress 8.8 Conversational Exercise 8.8 Stress with Lower Pitch
PRACTICING STRESS FOR EMPHASIS AND EXPLAINING . 8.13 8.13 8.14 8.10 8.12 CLARIFYING

8.9
8.10

INTONATION AND PAUSES MESSAGES

THAT REQUIRE PAUSES Addressing Responses

the Listener by Name beginning with Yes or No

Messages with Tag Forms


PAUSES IN LONGER SENTENCES

8.14
8.16

Compound sentences 8.16 Parenthetical Statements 8.17 STATING OPTIONS 8.18 Two Options 8.18 Conversational Exercise 8.18 More than Two Options 8.19
STATING ITEMS OR SEQUENCES 8.19

Indefinite Listings or Choices 8.20 Conversational Exercise 8.20


DESCRIPTIONS, DIRECTIONS

or INSTRUCTIONS
8.20

8.21 8.21

Conversational

Exercises - Putting it All Together... ...

BONUS EXERCISES

INTRODUCTION

THE PROGRAM
The American Accent Guide, Second Edition, is a complete program on the sound system of American hensive instruction instruction engaging on the intonation, and efficient. audio well as on pronunciation stress, book and audio instructional provides compreas of American approach English English. This program and rhythm

of the speech sounds. The interactive

makes the

The American Accent Guide consists of a manual and eight hours of easy-to-follow instruction, along with additional exercises and practice word lists.

APPLICATION
The approaches and techniques used in TheAmericanAccentGuidehave students of many language levels. as a self-study program, and by to advanced proven effective backgrounds who

over the past 15 years with non-native speak English at low intermediate

The American Accent Guide can be used by individuals speech-language language pathologists and ESL teachers It has been successfully backgrounds. used with individuals

as a main instructional

resource.

or with groups of same or of mixed

THE PREMISE
The American Accent Guide is based communication of the sound system of that language on the premise that improving speech and

in a new language is more efficient ifthe student gains an understanding while practicing new skills. the

In the process of learning to identify and apply new sounds and voice patterns, student also attains improved comprehension of the language as it is spoken.

Xl

The COMPREHENSIVE American Accent Guide


THE DIALECT
The dialect referred to by many as Standard American English is the model for this program. This dialect is used widely in the United States as well as in parts of Canada. As the preferred standard of communication, it is also known as "broadcaster English." Exercises in The American Accent Guide reflect the communication style of American culture, and they typify the use of language in everyday social and professional situations.

The International

Phonetic Alphabet (IPA)

For the non-native speaker, a difficult part of learning how to speak English well is a result of written spellings. While there are 41 speech sounds in American English, there are only 26 letters to represent them. This Program uses the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA), a system that provides a symbol for each English vowel and consonant sound. Several dictionaries featuring IPA symbols are now available at bookstores. It is recommended that each student obtain one for personal use.

THE APPROACH
Interactive
Students participate in a variety of exercises. These involve listening and repeating, listening and responding, and many types of interactions utilizing analogies, synonyms, paraphrasing, and verbal exchanges. Exercises lend themselves and student. to interaction between teacher and student or student

Integrative
An integrative approach makes The American Accent Guide compact. It gives continuity to instruction and makes every lesson widely applicable to students of all language backgrounds. While each section is complete previous sections, i.e., in itself, the lessons address subject matter from

Word Stress - Practice words in most lessons are grouped according to their stress patterns in order to facilitate using proper word stress. Linking - Lessons on consonants show how to link sounds in order to facilitate English rhythm.

xu

Various lessons facilitate

improved grammar and vocabulary,

e.g.,

Grammar and Usage The section on Rhythm includes a lesson on the pronunciation and use of articles a, an, and the and reviews the underlying rules for their use. The section on Consonants addresses pronunciation and usage of suffixes and provides repeated practice of the suffixes -ed , -s, -es, and S,

Vocabulary Exercises using synonyms, antonyms, and paraphrasing are designed to help the student learn new vocabulary.

THE LAYOUT
The book is divided into eight sections, each with its own numbering sequence and a corresponding CD. Following is a summary of sections in The American Accent Guide:

Section 1

AN OVERVIEW OF AMERICAN ENGLISH SPEECH PATTERNS

The overview shows how stress, intonation, and rhythm work together to create the voice patterns of the English dialect that is standard in North America. It illustrates the key role that vowel sounds have in stressed and in unstressed segments.

Section 2

THE AMERICAN ENGLISH VOWELS

Because of their impact on intelligibility and their role in stress and in rhythm, vowel sounds are addressed early in the program. A lesson on each of the 17 simple vowels and diphthongs gives attention to the varying lengths of the sounds based on the different contexts in which they normally occur. Exercises contrast sounds that are often confused by learners of English, and brief probes survey the student's ability to differentiate between these sounds.

Section 3

WORD STRESS

Lessons demonstrate the correlation between grammatical function and stress patterns of various word types, including compound words and two-part verbs. They show how the suffix can determine which syllable is given primary stress, and they feature exercises that compare and contrast word stress patterns.

~l

The COMPREHENSIVE American Accent Guide

Section 4 The student

THE RHYTHM OF AMERICAN ENGLISH is shown how to identify reduced forms and apply new rhythm words rhythm. patterns. Focus is that

given to common give the American

of function

and to colloquialisms

English dialect its characteristic

Sections

5, 6 & 7

THE AMERICAN ENGLISH CONSONANTS addresses variations of the sounds.

A lesson on each of the English consonants Sounds speakers, that occur frequently

and are commonly

difficult

for the non-native

such as, I, r; and th, are given greater focus.

Exercises contrast sounds often confused survey the student's ability to differentiate

by learners of English, and they help to between sounds that are similar.

Main focus commonly

is given to consonant difficult for non-native

sounds speakers.

at ends of words, The contrasts

the context

most and

between voiceless

voiced endings are addressed,

for example:

bat versus bad; lack versus lag.

Particular Contrasting = kt, bagged

attention

is given to articulation

of consonant

blends

and clusters.

voiced-voiceless

endings that include suffixes (-ed and -s as in backed

= gd; backs = ks, bags - gz) are practiced repeatedly.

Section 8 Lessons inflections

MORE ON INTONATION AND STRESS introduce more patterns Attention of intonation and stress and the underlyand pitch include longer,

ing meanings more complex

they convey. sentences,

is given to the use of pauses Exercises with paragraphs.

that serve to emphasize

and clarify meaning.

and conclude

XIV

Suggestions for the Student

Before you begin to work on speaking English more clearly, here are some hints to help you get started:

Set your goals and establish your priorities


Try to identify what you want to improve and determine how much effort you want to put against your goals. Work on as many goals at one time as you find comfortable. For example, focus on a single pattern that is quite difficult for you or on several that are relatively easy.

Practice Faithfully
Make a commitment to practice daily and repeat each lesson as often as is necessary. Give yourself the practice time to do the job. It has been our experience that it takes at least three hours per week to make steady improvement in pronunciation. Language is an art, and it is the most complex of human behaviors - so there is no quick and easy way to master speaking a new language clearly. It does take dedicated practice and persistence. As you learn to interpret and apply new speech sounds, you may achieve the additional benefits of improved comprehension of spoken English and improved English grammar, particularly in using articles and suffixes. This can also help you become better aware of correct English spellings, particularly at ends of words.

Focus on Good Listening


Increase your awareness of English pronunciation by focusing on the speech sounds and patterns of the spoken language as you listen to The American Accent Guide. Remember that listening, not reading, is the key to learning English pronunciation. It is recommended that you use the book along with the audio instruction at least the first time you study a section. Then practice again and again relying primarily on the audio instruction. Listen to all of the American English conversational speech that you can. American movies and television programs are also good ways to focus on American English speech.

xv

The

COMPREHENSIVE

American Accent Guide

Relax, relax
New speech unnecessary postures will feel unnatural at first. Learn to relax, because Try not to

tension can interfere with your speech movements.

tighten the muscles in your throat, your jaw, or your face. Whatever tension you need to speak English is focused only in the tongue and the lips.

Proper breathing is important in order to relax and to speak effectively. Avoid holding your breath when you feel nervous. Allow each breath to flow deeply and smoothly. You can practice proper breathing by closing your eyes and relaxing as you focus entirely on your breathing. Feel each breath flow past your throat into your abdomen and out again. On a daily basis, practice meditation or another relaxation technique that will improve your concentration for speech and will promote good breathing practice.

Allow yourself to yawn and experience

the feeling of openness

in the throat

area. An open, relaxed posture in the back of the mouth and throat is essential for achieving the proper sound for English speech.

Record Your Own Speech Frequently


Often you are not aware of how you are speaking a language until you hear your own voice played back to you. Use a tape recorder to practice as you work on those sounds, words, and concepts with which you are having the most difficulty. This will allow you to track your progress and see the improvement you are making. As you do this, you will gain confidence with enormous encouragement to continue practicing. in your ability to produce with ease new sounds and patterns. This experience will provide you

Take Every Opportunity to Converse in English


To attain mastery of English speech requires that you also involve yourself as often as you can in situations where you speak English. The more you engage in English conversation, can English. the better chance you have to improve your English speech. It will be especially helpful to converse with others who speak Ameri-

XVI

Familiarize yourself with the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA)


In English, there are 41 speech sounds, represented more than one way. To alleviate International confusion with English spellings
The American Accent Guide uses the

by 26 letter symbols. Each

letter represents more than one sound. In addition, many of the sounds are spelled

Phonetic Alphabet (IPA), a system that provides one symbol for each

sound. The IPA symbols will help you to identify more easily the individual sounds of American English. Remember to focus on sound rather than on spelling and to use the IPA symbols to identify the individual sounds. As a sound is addressed in a lesson, practice writing its symbol. Various dictionaries recommended featuring IPA symbols are now available at bookstores. It is

that you obtain one for personal use.

Facial Expressions and Gestures


All communication has non-verbal aspects. You can see how speakers of a language and gestures as part of their communication. and/or

in a culture use facial expression

Become aware of how speakers of American English use these in conjunction with voice patterns to convey underlying meaning. Note how facial expression gestures often accompany words that are stressed for emphasis. As a part of learning communication more literature communication. television. English, pursue information on non-speech There aspects aspects of of

as used by speakers and other resources

of the language. available

is increasingly

on the non-speech or delivering

You can also increase your insights through watching movies and a speech, and

If you can, videotape yourself conversing

make notice of how you use non-speech aspects in your expression. Anyone who wishes to become a better speaker could benefit from observing him- or herself in this manner.

Use a mirror to learn new speech movements and postures


A mirror can help you as you practice new articulation movements and It is important also

postures, such as learning to place your tongue for the "th" sound, or learning to round or retract your lips for a vowel sound. to produce sounds correctly. These movements that you be aware of visible speech movements and postures required and postures in person.
XVll

provide the listener visual cues when you communicate

The COMPREHENSIVE American Accent Guide

Train your Muscles for Speech


The use of muscles for speech varies from one language to another. Learning to speak a new language usually requires learning to position your mouth and tongue in new ways and training new muscles. Some vowel sounds in American English require rounding the lips and some require retracting them. It may be that you will need to achieve greater flexibility order to speak the sounds of American English. as well in tongue movement in

At right are tongue postures that are used in English speech. These postures can be difficult for many non-native speakers. To train them, practice in front of a mirror. Use your fingers and a spoon if necessary to help you position your tongue as shown

tongue spread

tongue narrowed

Be Aware of Your Voice


Become aware of how you use your voice as you learn new intonation patterns. Voice originates in the larynx, which is commonly referred to as "the voice box." The larynx, houses the vocal cords and is located in the throat area. To feel the vocal cords vibrate as you speak, place your fingers on your throat. pitched tones and lower for lower-pitched tones. Sing or hum different tones and you will feel the larynx vibrate higher in the throat for higher-

Incorporate New Sounds Gradually into Your Conversational Speech


Incorporating a new sound or speech pattern with ease into your conversational Begin by using the new sound or pattern speech (perhaps five minutes) a few times

speech is usually a gradual process. during short periods of conversational a day to increasingly

longer periods until you can use it effortlessly.

XV111

Explanatory Notes

In the audio instruction, themselves,

some consonants

are referred to by their sound,

others by their spelling. This is because some sounds when produced by cannot be heard clearly on a recording. words that have identical pronunciation, are written together,

Different separated

by slash marks. For example, cite/sight/site.

In word exercises, most words are grouped according to their stress pattern, as in the following examples: day time many minute about today important accounting

LISTEN - This icon appears where audio instruction

begins on a

lesson.

READ ONLY - This icon appears when information

is provided in writ-

ing only.

TO ,kODUCE;

Hol4do9l'llIlie1'lpofyour

t<mgllC.wpbcc:lhtlOllp:sik$ap1lISttMlIpPtt

Hsofyom mootl.-Rmelhc.~loftkloap to1!I'MdJhe.a1nol.trridttlofumta~~ DIftt:!theatrfWwforntd~1br91lPtbe

A shaded box contains information that is not included in the audio instruction. Stop the audio to read the.contents .

SHADOW THE SPEAKER


Travelingll~oneolthe"-I enjlClyablltlNngayou,*,do,provicIedyou __ mlat.ke . First.ifyou travelingbjlcar,beau luretr.e youfillyourc.rwith

ga.bet . .,..... nd.oIcou . mike oil Is at the rlghl level. Next.chKk your tires. II the al.~r.llur. is Jow. nil you,

A box with a shadow invites you to shadow the speaker. This means, read along and follow as closely as you can the voice and speech patterns ofthe speaker.

XIX

The COMPREHENSIVE American Accent Guide Glossary

Airflow: Aspiration: Articulators: Articulation: Carryover: Continuant: Diphthong: Final position: Intelligibility: Intonation: Inflection: Initial position: Larynx:

The breathed air used in speech. The audible rush of air produced with some voiceless consonants. The structures that produce the speech sounds. The production of speech sounds. The process of applying newly-learned patterns in conversational speech. A linguistic classification for sounds that are produced with a continuous air flow.
A vowel produced as the articulators move from one place to another.

The occurrence of a sound at the end of a word. Speech clarity; the degree to which speech is understandable. The changes in voice during speech. The changes in pitch on intonation. The occurrence of a sound in the beginning of a word. The structure that contains the vocal cords. These vibrate the airflow to produce voice. The larynx is sometimes referred to as the "voice box." The airflow is held on one sound and released on the next sound. Linking connects sounds between adjacent words and thereby gives flow to speech.

Linking:

Middle position: The occurrence of a sound in the middle of a word. Pitch:

This term, usually associated with musical notes, refers in this course to the voice tones in speech.

Reduced forms: The simplification of sounds or words. Stress:

The accent given a specific syllable by increasing its loudness and length, and changing its pitch. Any verbal expression. A consonant sound produced as the vocal cords vibrate.
A consonant sound produced without the use of voice.

Utterance:

Voiced consonant:

Voiceless consonant:

xx

An OVERVIEW of AMERICAN ENGLISH

SPEECH PATTERNS

This overview gives main focus to the vocal patterns of standard American English speech. We want to show you how intonation, stress, and rhythm work together and with the individual sounds, particularly the vowel sounds, to create the English dialect that is considered standard in America and is also spoken widely in parts of Canada.

INTONATION AND STRESS


In verbal communication, we do not express ourselves with words alone. In addition to our facial expressions, gestures, and other body movements, our vocal patterns add. underlying meaning to what we say. One sentence can, therefore, have a variety of meanings depending on how it is expressed. Each language has its own basic vocal patterns and ways in which these are modified to convey underlying meaning. To communicate clearly and effectively in a new language, it is, therefore, important to learn to apply the vocal patterns used by speakers of that language.
INTONATION

Intonation is simply how we use and change our voice. As we speak, the pitch tones in our voices change in a way that is similar to when we sing. These changes are called pitch inflections.

1.1

Do you know what I mean?

The COMPREHENSIVE American Accent Guide


STRESS In English speech, intonation works together with stress to make certain parts in a message clearer and more distinct. Stress is given to a word by accentuating certain syllables. Normally, one syllable is accentuated more strongly than others. This is, therefore, the syllable with primary stress. Other stressed syllables are given secondary stress. A stressed syllable is spoken longer and louder and with higher pitch. The vowel within a stressed syllable is pronounced fully. An unstressed syllable, on the other hand, is spoken shorter and quicker, making the vowel reduced.

THE SYLLABLE
---------------------------------. VOWEL PRONOUNCED FULLY

~
::: .
"C

<
--

PRIMARY SECONDARY
unstressed

STRESS STRESS
syllable

---------------------------------

---------------------------------.

~
"fi :~

VOWEL REDUCED

---------------------------------. length of vowel

As a result of reductions made to stressed syllables, most vowels in these syllables are pronounced as the schwa, /a/, as in, condition or available. This vowel is represented by a symbol that looks like an upside-down e. This is a symbol of the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA). The schwa is the shortest and simplest sound in English speech, and it is the sound most frequently used. Other vowels used often in unstressed syllables are the vowel III, as in citizen, and larl as in other.

AT THE WORD LEVEL Within a word, pitch rises to its highest level on the syllable with primary stress. From there, it falls, or it rises more. This inflection in pitch is made as a step or as a glide. Following are examples:
STEP INFLECTION - Pitch steps down from the stressed syllable onto an unstressed syllable. Listen to examples spoken with a falling inflection.

simple

amazing

accurate

impossible

1.2

Overview
Now listen to the same words spoken with rising inflection.

simple

amazing

accurate

impossible

GLIDING INFLECTION - Pitch glides on the syllable with primary stress when the word

consists of one syllable, or when that syllable ends a word. Listen to examples with falling inflection:

now

agreed

guaranteed

Now listen to the same words with a rising inflection .

.
now

..} guaranteed

agreed

Repeat the following words using a falling inflection:

money never open

correct

enough
today

expensive forever tomorrow

animal customer manager

application demonstration obligation

responsibility

qualification

Repeat the following using a rising inflection:

.J
never today forever

obligation

responsibility

qualification

1.3

The COMPREHENSIVE American Accent Guide


CONTENT WORDS
Examples:
NOUNS VERBS ADJECTIVES ADVERBS

FUNCTION WORDS
Examples:

person go good very

place run bad almost

thing think right quite

ARTICLES AUXILIARY (helping verbs) CONJUNCTIONS MODALS PREPOSITIONS PRONOUNS

a, an, the, any, some is, are, am, do, does, did and, but, if, or can, will, could, should, would in, on, of, into, about, with he, she, it, they, him, her, them

BEYOND THE WORD LEVEL

In phrases or in sentences, only certain words are normally given stress. These are the words classified as content words, because they contain most of the information III a message. Content words are nouns, verbs, adjectives, not stressed are classified as function words. and adverbs. Words that are normally

Function words serve more to provide the grammar structure that connects content words into phrases and sentences. Function words include articles, conjunctions, pronouns, and prepositions. Listen to the following sentence:

CONTENT

WORDS

FUNCTION

WORDS

The TIME is NOW.

TIME NOW

the, is

As you can see, content words carry the meaning in a message. Listen to another example:

CONTENT

WORDS

FUNCTION

WORDS

WHERE are ALL the PEOple?

WHERE ALL PEOple

are, the

Are function words used in your native language? If they are not, you may have difficulty applying them in your English speech. You may also have difficulty hearing some function words as they are spoken in English, because they are normally reduced and are thereby spoken quickly.

1.4

Overview
FALLING AND RISING INFLECTION Final inflection, which is the pitch change at the end of an utterance, has underlying meaning. Generally, in connected speech a fall in pitch indicates that the speaker has finished a thought, while a rise in pitch indicates that the speaker intends to continue on the thought. Listen to examples:

I know what you mean.

I know what you mean, but I don't agree.

Questions are spoken with either a falling or rising inflection.

Wh- Questions, which are those that begin with question words such as who, what, or when, are normally spoken with a falling inflection, as in:

The Question Words are: what, when, where, which, who, whom, why & how

\
Who called? What's new?

Repeat the following:

Who is that? When does it start? Why not? How come?

What is it called? Where is it? Which way? How did you do that?

Yes/No Questions, which are those that request a yes or a no response, are normally spoken with a rising inflection. Listen:

)
Is that right?

)
Can you join me?

Repeat the following:

)
Are you ready? Will you be there? Do you think so?

)
Should I call? Would that be okay? Did you check your e-mail?

1.5

The COMPREHENSIVE American Accent Guide


PRIMARY STRESS AND FINAL INFLECTION In phrases and in sentences, primary stress is normally placed on the last content word, and that is where final inflection occurs. In the following sets of sentences, the first ends with a content word, and the second ends with one or more function words. Listen to an example:
Grammatical Forms of Final Words

..

What did you think? What did you think! of it?

"' :..

VERB

Preposition, Pronoun

Repeat the following sets to contrast their final inflection patterns.

VERB

Did you notice? Did you noticelher?

Pronoun

ADJECTIVE

We were familiad We were familiarl with it.

Preposition, Pronoun

!
ADVERB

I waited patientlvl > I waited patiently!for them.

Preposition, Pronoun



ADVERB

Is it good enough? Is it good enough !for you?

Preposition, Pronoun

..
l.6

i
NOUN -

Did you show the notebook? Did you show the notebook: to her?

(compound word) Preposition, Pronoun

Overview
STRESS FOR EMPHASIS

While primary stress is normally placed on the last content word of an utterance, in everyday speaking situations intonation and stress work together in a flexible manner to convey underlying meaning. Stress is shifted in a sentence to emphasize the words that mean more specifically what the speaker wishes to express. Listen to an example spoken first with normal stress. Sam called last night. Now listen to the sentence spoken with shifted stress.

Has anyone called?

Sam called last night.

To communicate a distinction between what the listener expects and what you mean, you can shift stress to call attention to the distinction, as in the following response:

Sam must have called tonight.

No, Sam called last night.

Stress can also be shifted within a word for clarification, as in the following: I understand the people there are unfriendly. Some are unfriendly, but most are friendly.

Stress for Emphasis and Final Inflection

When primary stress is shifted in a phrase or in a sentence, final inflection also shifts. Listen to an example with falling inflection.

We are interested.

We are interested.

We are interested.

Now listen to an example with rising inflection:

Are you interested?

Are you interested?

Are you interested?

Repeat examples with falling inflection:

This is correct. They are special.

This is correct. They are special.

. .

This is correct. They are special.

1.7

The COMPREHENSIVE American Accent Guide


Repeat examples with rising inflection:

Is this correct? Do you agree?

. .

Is this correct? Do you agree?

Is this correct? Do you agree?

RHYTHM Rhythm in speech results from the timing in connected segments. This rhythm can be compared to the timing in drumbeats. English syllables, for example, are like long and short beats, with stressed syllables spoken longer and stronger, and unstressed syllables spoken quicker and lighter. Function words are normally unstressed and therefore are often spoken with the same timing as unstressed syllables. Following are pairs of words and phrases, for example, that usually sound identical in connected speech. Listen:

announce offense

an ounce a fence

arresting as sorted

are resting assorted.

In each of the following

sets, the items have the same timing. Listen:

today

The day.

available

It's capable.

Repeat the following:

entertain They're the same.

entertaining Who is waiting?

introduce What's the use?

introducing We are choosing.

organization

..

organizational

..

Where is the station?

What did you make of it?

1.8

Overview
Now listen to sentences and phrases with matching stress and rhythm.
Absolutely true! false! Extremely careful.

That's completely

I can't remember. Do not forget it.

What on earth is that!

Repeat the following with matching stress and rhythm patterns.


Terribly difficult. Where did you look for it? Why can't you wait for me? Absolutely ridiculous!

I had nothing to do with it! That is not what I'm looking for!

Reductions

Besides reductions to unstressed syllables, other reductions are made to sounds or words in connected speech which also influence its rhythm. (These reductions are addressed in Section 4 of this Program.) For example:
going to ...> "gonna" want to ...> "wanna"

Linking

Rhythm is also affected by the ways in which words are connected in running speech. In English, words are linked in the following ways: Often, the end of a word is pronounced the next word. For example: found it
... > ... >

as though it might begin

found~it

talked all day Two adjoining consonants For example:


What time? Keep pace.

that are identical are produced as one.

... > ... >

What~time? Keep
j

pace.

1.9

The COMPREHENSIVE American Accent Guide


PRACTICING RHYTHM AND STRESS Practice rhythm as well as stress for emphasis in the following phrases. Each set of phrases has matching rhythm and stress. The first is spoken with normal stress and the second with stress for emphasis. Listen to an example:
It's obvious. ... It's clear to me. It's obvious! ... It's clear to me!

Now repeat the following:


I'm positive. Careful. I'm thankful. Correct. Impossible. I'm sure of it. Watch it. I thank you. You're right. This can't be it. I'm positive! Careful! I'm thankful! correct! Impossible! I'm sure of it! Watch it! I thank you! You're right! This can't be it!

Conversational

Exercise:

Focus on the patterns of stress, intonation and rhythm as you listen to the following dialogue.
Excuse me. are you the corRECT person to talk with to make reservations for dinner tonight? ................ Yes. That's MY responsibility. Do you have anything open for 7:30 p.m.? ................ Let me open the reservation book and check RIGHT away. Now...let's see. That s 7:30 p.m. tonight. corRECT? That's the right time. ................ Oh, and that's for TWO people? aGREED? Well. let me corrECT you on that. It's actually for two COUPles. Yes. It seems that we DO have something open for FOUR at that time. That's aMAZing! ble. I'm glad we had something open. Thanks for calling. I thought getting reservations now would be imPOSsi-

Knowing how to apply the is key to speaking English in the audio instruction in work together and with the standard in North America.

proper voice patterns of intonation, stress, and rhythm clearly and effectively. As you listen to the speakers this Program, give attention to how these components individual sounds to produce the English dialect that is

1.10

THE ENGLISH VOWELS

OJ

INTRODUCTION

TO ENGLISH VOWELS
together to create speech. There

A vowel is the sound that connects consonants are two basic vowel types .

The Simple Vowels are produced with the tongue, the jaw, and the lips in one position. The Diphthongs are produced with the tongue, the jaw, and the lips moving from one position to another.

THE IPA SYMBOLS FOR VOWELS


There are 12 simple vowels and 5 diphthongs in English, but there are only five letters to represent them. These are: a, e, i, 0 and u. Therefore, each letter represents more than one sound. And each sound is spelled more than one way. The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) alleviates the confusion with English spellings by providing one symbol for each sound.
IPASymbol

As in:

Spellings:

Iii
/II

letl"

181 lrel lal hi lou/* lul lul lal IAI larl IArI
tei!"

lau/* 181/*
*
These are diphthongs.

eat it ate end at on old own put soon ov~n Qven mother her Veye how toy

ea, ee, e, Ie, ei, 1,eo, oe, uay, ae, y . . 1, e, u, ee, u, y, ei a, e, ai, ay, ei, ey, ea, ue, ee, au, a_ e, et e, ue, ea, a, re, at a, ai a,ea,o,aw, ow, au, oa 0, a, ou, oa, aw, ow o,oa, ow, oe, oU,eau, oO,au,o_e 0,00, u,ou u, ue, ew, 0, ou, oe, ui, wo, u_ e . . a, u, 01, u, ei, at, e, 1, 00, 0, e ia, ah, oe, u ur, er, or, ar, ure, yr, oar ur, er, ir, ear, or, our . . .. 1,y, uy, et, eye, ui, 1_e ou, ow, au 01,OY

The COMPREHENSIVE American Accent Guide


PRODUCTION AND CLASSIFICATION OF VOWELS

OJ

The voiced airflow is shaped by the tongue, the jaw, and the lips to form vowels. These sounds are classified based on the position of the tongue in relation to the dimensions of the mouth, ranging from front to back and from high to low.

The jaw ranges in position from high to low, aligned with the tongue.

The lips are retracted for vowels that are produced high and in front, and they are rounded for vowels produced high and in back. They remain neutral for other sounds.

Tongue/Jaw Position High High Mid becoming high Mid

Lip Posture Retracted Slightly retracted Neutral becoming retracted Neutral

Tongue Tenseness tense lax lax becoming tense lax

Tongue Tenseness Tense Lax Lax becoming Tense Lax Lax

Lip Posture Rounded Rounded Rounded becoming more rounded Slightly rounded Neutral

Low

Neutral

lax

The lips are neutral for vowels tarl, la/, and /AI . These are dipthongs. The other dipthongs are: tall, laul, and 1011.

Nasal Passage Tongue

The Tongue
CENTER

Ups

Larynx Vocal Cords .........

, , ,

BLADE

TtP

2.2

Vowels
LENGTHS OF VOWELS English vowels vary in length. Some are referred to as long vowels and others are referred to as short vowels. The length of a vowel is additionally influenced as follows:

OJ

A vowel in a stressed syllable is longer than a vowel in an unstressed syllable.

finish

winning

An open vowel (one that ends a word) is longer than a closed vowel (one that is followed by a consonant).
Open vowels Closed vowels

me may

mean main

A closed vowel is longer when it is followed by a voiced consonant than when it is followed by a voiceless consonant.

ad

at

bead

beat

(The difference between voiced and voiceless consonants is explained on page 5.3')

MIRROR WORK

: View your jaw and lip movements : as you practice new vowel sounds.

2.3

The COMPREHENSIVE American Accent Guide


THE ENGLISH VOWELS
Each lesson on a simple vowel or diphthong demonstrates how that sound may vary in duration. The sound is shortest when followed by a voiceless consonant and longest when it ends a word. Listen to words with the sounds Iii and lei! as examples.

Vowel + Voiceless Consonant

Vowel + Voiced Consonant

Vowel + No Consonant

Iii

leII

beat safe

bead save

bel bee
say

THE SIMPLE VOWELS


TO PRODUCE: Keep your tongue

relaxed in a central position. The lips remain neutral.

THE SCHWA VOWEL The schwa is the shortest, the most simple, and the most frequent sound in English speech. The schwa vowel requires no movement of the tongue, the jaw, or the lips; and there is no visible face movement. The sound is felt only at the larynx as a short, voiced sound. There are two versions of the schwa: one stressed and one unstressed.

2.4

Vowels

II
THE STRESSED SCHWA
This sound is used in stressed syllables. Listen:
but/butt
/bAt/

TO PRODUCE:Keep your tongue relaxed in a central position. The lips remain neutral.

bud
/bAd/

cup
IkAp/

cub
IkAb/

hunt
IhAnt/

hum
IhAm/

Notice how the consonant after the vowel affects the vowel's length. Practice the stressed schwa. Repeat:

mutt - mud tuck - tug

nut runt -

none/nun run

let - THE

UNSTRESSED SCHWA

This sound is used in unstressed syllables. The following words contain both the stressed and the unstressed schwa. Listen: te, A/ /A.a/ /A.a/

above

Repeat these words:

,
B

sudden

trouble

adult adjust among


SYNONYMS -

conduct enough result

cousin husband oven

Practice the schwa vowel, stressed and unstressed, in synonyms. After you hear A and B, repeat B.
A A B

carpet confidence

rug trust

allow for a pair difficulty

budget a couple trouble

2.5

The COMPREHENSIVE American Accent Guide


After you hear A, you say B. Then listen to the model.
A B A B

amount amusement finished

sum fun done

fortune haste

luck rush

TO PRODUCE: With your lips

retracted, raise your tongue highandshift itforward slightly. feeliiur t side~ press againstthe r sides of your mouth as your produce this long vowel sound.

Listen:
beaUbeet bead be/bee feet/fete feed fee

Practice the vowel Ii/ as you focus on length. Repeat:


keep - keen - key neat - need - knee seek - seam/seem - sea/see teach - team - tea/tee

The following words contain both the vowel Ii/ and the schwa. Repeat:
li, e! Ii, el to, if la)1

"\
decent even evil reason recent season appeal appear believe

"\
complete machine police

2.6

Vowels

TO PRODUCE: With your lips

retracted very slightly, raise your tongue mid-high in front so that its sides touch the upper side teeth. Keep the tongue relaxed. To find the right placementfor III, moveyourtonguebetween vowels Iii and la/.

This vowel occurs frequently in English speech. It is a new sound for many non-native speakers of the language. Listen:

hit

hid

lit

lid

wit

win

Practice /II as you focus on its length. Repeat:

it

in

hint

him

mitt

mid

sit

sin

SYNONYMS -

Practice the vowel /II in synonyms. After you hear A, and B, repeat B.
A B A B

boundary danger large

limit risk big

occupied terminate intimidate

busy finish inhibit

This time after you hear A, you say B. Then listen to the model.
A B A B

excavate strike

dig hit

smooch wealthy

kiss rich

2.7

The COMPREHENSIVE American Accent Guide

Contrast:

Iif - /II
Listen to word pairs. You will hear

Can you differentiate between these sounds? one word again. Which is it?

deed
Answers:

did
deed fit

feet
hit

fit

heat

hit

Practice words and sentences with both vowels Iii and /II. Repeat, and listen again to the sentence each time. bean is sit did willfit it - been ease seat deed wheel feet eat The bean has been planted. It is. done with ease. Let's sit in that seat. Who did that deed? I will turn the wheel. Will they fit your feet? It will not eat.

Practice alternating between vowels /II and Iii in sentences. Feel your tongue relax for /II and tense for Iii. Repeat: He did eat it. Ii, I, i, II He will meet his niece. Ii, I, i, I, il Did she give me this? /I, i, I, i, II He will need his jeans. Ii, I, i, I, il Steve will leave it clean. Ii, I, i, I, il /I, i, I, i, II Will he fill these bins?

ANTONYMS

- Practice contrasting vowels /Iland Iii in antonyms. After you hear A, select its antonym in B. You will hear a model after.
A B A B

arrive didn't poor


Answers: arrive - leave

live/leave did/deed rich/reach


didn't - did poor - rich

head die unfit

fit/feet live/leave fit/feet


head - feet die - live unfit - fit

2.8

Vowels
LENGTI: TONGUE:
LIPS:

w' SHORT
High in front and relaxed Slightly retracted

/11

III/
SHORT
Centered and relaxed Neutral

Contrast:

/II - 1111

Can you differentiate between these sounds? Listen to word pairs. You will hear one word again. Which is it?
been
Answers:

bun
been him

him
SIn

hum

sin

son/sun

Repeat these words and sentences. Listen again to the sentence each time.
big - bug him - hum win - one tin - ton How big is the bug? ~ I heard him sing and hum. Win that one. The tin weighs a ton.

Practice words with both vowels /II and I al. Repeat:

admit commit unfit

minute timid women

TO PRODUCE: Position your tongue mid-high in front and slightly forward. Keepyour lips neutral.

Listen:
bent bend debt dead let led

2.9

The

COMPREHENSIVE

American Accent Guide

Practice the vowel 18/ as you focus on vowel length. Repeat: meant - mend pet - pen spent - spend went - wed

SYNONYMS - Practice the sound If) in synonyms. After you hear A, you say B. You

will hear a model after.


A B A B

convey curve finest

send bend best

permit untidy vacant

let messy empty

Ie/
LENGnt
TONGUE: Llr;'S:

/ /II

SJOR"
Mid high, relaxed Neutral

SHORT
Centered, relaxed Neutral

Contrast:

tel - IAI

Can you differentiate between these sounds? Listen to word pairs. You will hear one word again. Which is it? bet
Answers:

but
bet just

jest _just_
must

must

messed

Repeat the following words and sentences: rest met net I need to rest. .. We have never met. .. They fish with a net. .. . . . rust mutt nut The metal has rust. The dog is a mutt. Don't act like a nut.

Practice words containing te.et

both the vowel 18/ and the schwa. te.et te,et

Repeat:

.\
address affect again collect

.\
connect offend select upset credit debit merit template

2.10

Vowels

PRODUCE: With your tongue relaxed and its "middle raised mid-high, lower your jaw slightly. Press down both the back and the front of the tongue. Keep your lips neutral. TO

Listen:

can't

can

map

man

rank

rang

Practice I rei as you focus on its length. Repeat:

mat - mad

tank - tan

rat - ram

sank - sang

SYNONYMS A

Practice the vowel


B

lrel in synonyms. After you hear A and B, repeat B.


A B

chuckle deficiency evil

laugh lack bad

father obese prohibit

dad fat ban

This time after you hear A, you say B. You will hear a model after.
A B A B

angry applaud __

mad clap

money unhappy __

cash sad

2.11

The COMPREHENSIVE American Accent Guide


leI
LENGTH: TONGUE: LIPS: SHORT Mid high, relaxed. Neutral

/re/
SHORT Centered and relaxed, low in front and in back. Neutral

Contrast:

tel -Leet

Can you differentiate between these sounds? Listen to word pairs. You will hear one word again. Which is it?
head had
Answers: had send

send
tan

sand

ten

tan

Repeat these words and sentences. Listen again to the sentence each time.
guess - gas head - had men - man pen - pan said - sad I guess the car needs gas. Two men or one man? The pen is by the pan. They said it was sad.

fn:>

The head of the group had left.

/aa/
LENGTH: TONGUE: LIPS: SHORT High in middle, relaxed & low in front and in back. Neutral

//\/
SHORT Centered and relaxed. Neutral

Contrast:

teet -1111

Can you differentiate between these sounds? Listen to word pairs. You will hear one word again. Which is it? bat but
Answers: bat cap

cap _
mast

cup __

mast

must

Repeat the following words and sentences. Listen to the sentence again each time.
bat - but cap - cup cat - cut lack -luck ran - run The bat can hear but not see. The cap is by that cup. The cat will cut the string. That team has a lack of luck. must have a mast. I ran and I will run again.

must - mast A sailboat

2.12

Vowels
SYNONYMS - Contrast
A

lael with I AI in synonyms. After you hear A and


B A B

B, repeat B.

container crumble

can crush

collapse particle

crash crumb

This time after you hear A, you say B. You will hear a model after.
A B A B

reckless hurry

rash rush

jogged jog

ran run

Practice words containing


/re,a/

both the vowel

I rei and the schwa. Repeat:


/ e.eet

asset happen salad talent

.\
attach attack command Japan

Listen carefully to the statements after each response.

and answer the questions. You will hear a model

He spilled a cup of water on his cap.


How much water did he spill? On what? A cup. His cap.

He has a mutt. It is named Matt.


What does he have? What is its name?
A mutt.

Matt.

She called Dan when she was done.


Whom did she call? When? Dan. When she was done.

2.13

The

COMPREHENSIVE

American Accent Guide to FdroElUCE: Low3'r your" jaw, as you press down slightly the back of your tongue. Keep ~~!Jr retped,nd IlJtral~

II
Listen: got gone hot hall

19

lot

log

Practice 1a 1 as you focus on its length. Repeat: cop - call jot - job not pot nod pond rock - rod top - tall

Each word group contains 1al and the schwa. Repeat:


l a.el to,at

common honest office promise


SYNONYMS -

o'clock upon along belong

Practice the sound lal in synonyms. Upon hearing A and B, say B.


A B A B

blemish corrupt suitable

spot rotten proper

timely truthful

prompt honest

This time upon hearing A, you say B. Then listen to the model.
A B A B

cry aloud steal

sob rob

highest stone

top rock

2.14

Vowels
101
LENGTH: TONt3UI:: JAW; LIPS: SHORT Low in back, relaxed Lowered Neutral

lrel
SHORT Mid-high and relaxed Lowered slightly Neutral

Contrast:

lal-/rel

Can you differentiate between these sounds? Listen to word pairs. You will hear one word again. Which is it?

hot
Answers:

hat
hat pot Ann

pot

Pat

on

Ann

Now practice both sounds /re/ and /0/ in one sentence. again to the sentence each time.
Ann - on hot not Pat hat gnat pot Ann is on the phone. ~

Repeat and then listen

It's too hot to wear a hat. That insect is not a gnat. Pat made a PQ1of tea. Try not to rock the rack. Ron and I ran.

rock - rack Ron - ran

Listen carefully to the following hear a model after each response.

statements

and answer the questions.

You will

He took off his hat, because the weather What did he take off? How was the weather?

was hot.
His hat. Hot.

She washed the pot, and Pat dried it. What did she wash? Who dried it?
The pot. Pat.

The rack was light, but the rock was heavy. What was light? What was heavy?
The rack. The rock.

2.15

The

COMPREHENSIVE

American Accent Guide


101
LENGTH: TONGUE: SHORT Low in back, relaxed Lowered Neutral

IAI
SHORT Central and relaxed Central Neutral

JAW:
LIPS:

Contrast:

101 - IAI

Can you differentiate between these sounds? Listen to word pairs. You will hear one word again. Which is it?
got_
Answers:

gut_
gut hog not

hog_

hug _

not_

nut

Repeat these words and sentences. Then listen to the sentence again each time.
boss - bus hug - hog hot - hut not - nut color - collar My boss takes the bus. Can you illJg a big hog? It was hot inside the hut. I could not crack the nut. What color is the collar?

Listen carefully to the following hear a model after each response.

statements

and answer the questions.

You will

He talked with his boss, as he waited for the bus.


With whom did he talk? What was he waiting for? His boss. The bus.

They stayed in the hut, when the weather was hot.


Where did they stay? How was the weather? In the hut. Hot.

She called Don when she was done.


Whom did she call? When? Don. When she was done.

The collar was torn, and the color was faded.


What was torn? What was faded? The collar. Theca/or.

2.16

Vowels
/0/ versus /0/ English dictionaries make a distinction between these vowels, 'and both \towels are used widely in the Eastem and Southern regions of the United States. In the Midwest and Western regions, including California, however, the vowel 101 is used instead of /3/ in many words. In audio exercises accompanying this book; you will hear the vowe1 la! used predominantly.

TO PRODUCE: Lower your jaw and slightly raise your tongue in back to mid-high. Round your lips slightly.

Listen:

bought

bond

colt

cold

lawn

law

Practice the vowel /'J/ as you focus on its length. Repeat:

walk

wall

salt

song

pause

paw

wrong

raw

SYNONYMS -

Practice the vowel /'J/ in synonyms. Upon hearing A and B, repeat B.


A B

aged agree

old conform

form increased

mold more

This time upon hearing A, you say B. Then listen to the model.
A B A B

chilly combat

cold war

entrance once more

door encore

2.17

The

COMPREHENSIVE

American Accent Guide


I:JI -11l1

Contrast:

Can you differentiate between these sounds? Listen to a pair of words. You will hear one word again. Which is it? bought _
Answers:

but_
bought cut

caught _
done

cut

dawn

done

Repeat these words and sentences: caught The criminal was caught. dawn I woke up before dawn. .. cough I heard someone cough. .. cut The prices were cut. done What have you done? cuff The shirt has a dirty cuff.

TO PRODUCE: Raise your tongue in back so that its sides touch the upper sides of your mouth. Keep the tongue relaxed. Round your lips. Produce a short vowel sound.

Listen:

cook

could

foot

fu II

put

pull

Repeat these words: book shook stood took wood wool cookie cooking looking

2.18

Vowels

SYNONYMS
A

-Practice the vowel /u/ in synonyms. Upon hearing


B A B

and

B,

repeat

B.

engine cover pad

hood cushion

shrub stream

bush brook

This time, upon hearing A, you say B. Then listen to the model.
A B A B

drag glance

pull look

shove lady

push woman

Practice the vowel /u/ in sentences. Repeat, and then listen again.
Could you Q..Y.t the book here? He took the cookie. Would you look for a good cook? It looks like it could be full. ~

lal
LENGTH:

1111
SHORT

SHORT
Mi83highin!~cl<
Neutral

TO'MGUE:
LIPS:

alrelaxJ

cehtral Neutral

Contrast:

l o! - IAI schwa
Listen to word pairs. You will hear

Can you differentiate between these sounds? one word again. Which is it?
book
Answers:

buck
book look

look
took

luck

tuck

took

Repeat these words and sentences:


buck luck tuck Is a dollar a buck? I wish you luck. Tuck in your shirt. . . . . . book look took Did you read the book? Take a good look. I took the shirt.

2.19

The

COMPREHENSIVE

American Accent Guide


TO PRODUCE: Raise your tongue high from the middle to the back, and tense it slightly so that its sides press lightly against the upper sides of your mouth. Round your lips. Produce a long vowel.

II
Listen:
duke doom do suit

soon

sue

Practice lul as you focus on its length. Repeat:


noose news knew hoop whom who

Say the vowel lul twice in phrases. Repeat:


Do two. Due soon.
SYNONYMS
A

New shoes. Too soon.

You do. Who moved?

-Practice

the vowel lul in synonyms. Upon hearing A and B, repeat B.


B

double evidence

two clue

fresh unrefined

new crude

This time after hearing A, you say B. Then listen to the model.
A B A B

naked noon time

nude noon

tossed select

threw choose

Practice word groups containing


/a,u/

the vowel lu/ plus another vowel. Repeat:


/I,U/ /I,U/

assume balloon

issue tissue

remove renew

2.20

Vowels
lul
LENGTH: TONGUE: LONG High in back and tensed. $1~b!19~ouhded

lu/
SHORT Mid-high in back and relaxed. Lelll\fOUnded

Contrast:

lu! - lut

Can you differentiate between these sounds? Listen to word pairs. You will hear one word again. Which is it? Luke
Answers:

look
look pool

pool_
suit

pull_

suit

soot

Practice using sounds lul and lul in the following phrases. Repeat:
lu, u/ to, u/

New wool. Too full. Who took? You cook.

Could do. Cook soon. Took two. Good food.

TO PRODUCE: Arch your tongue

high in the middle with its sides touching the upper sides of your mouth. Draw the tongue tip backward. keeping the lips relaxed. DO NOT touch any part of your mO~1h with the tongue tip.
ill

There is a stressed version as well as an unstressed version of this sound.

Tf)etongue remaIns in one poJition during sound l'dr/. This produces a sound that is different from the consonant ttl. If you can produce Ir I, prolong the sound without moving your tongue and you will say the sound /ar/.

2.21

The

COMPREHENSIVE

American Accent Guide

'"r'
Listen:

STRESSED

hurt

heard

her

first

firm

fur

Practice / sr] as you focus on its length. Repeat:

perk - perm - per

surf - serve - sir

work - word - were

Practice groups of words containing

the vowel / /\f/ plus another vowel. Repeat:

during hurry jury journey

perfect person purchase purpose

alert concern disturb prefer

SYNONYMS A

Practice / sr! in synonyms.


B

Upon hearing A and B, repeat B.


A B

blister gain anxiety

burn earn concern

bravery city leniency

courage urban mercy

This time upon hearing A, you say B. Then listen to the model.
A B A B

gentleman labor

sir work

solid world

.firm earth

2.22

Vowels
Contrast:

lsrl=-Lerl
for l etl the tongue glides from vowel

For /M/, the tongue stays in one position; 181 to Ir/.

Can you differentiate between these sounds? Listen to word pairs. You will hear one word again. Which is it?
fur fair
fur pair stare

per_

pair_

stir

stare

Answers:

Note the contrast between the sounds l sr] and tet! as you repeat word pairs.
curry - carry courage - carriage during - daring furry - fairy hurry - hairy jury - Jerry

Repeat these words and sentences:


her fur were per I spoke with her. .. The cat has soft fur. . That's where we were How much per person? . . . . hair fare wear pair I cut my hair. How much is the bus fare? What did you wear? Which pair of shoes?

Contrast:

I nr! - I orl

For IArI, the tongue stays in one position; for l zt], the tongue glides from vowel hi to Ir/. Can you differentiate between these sounds? Listen to word pairs. You will hear one word again. Which is it?

firm
Answers:

form
firm short

shirt
wore

short

were

wore

Repeat these words and sentences:


were fur shirt Tell me where you were. The animal has soft fur. That is a good-looking shirt. wore for short That is what I wore. What is that for? That movie was short.

2.23

The

COMPREHENSIVE

American Accent Guide

far! - UNSTRESSED

Listen: after gather bother sister

Say these words: dinner effort favor proper other water correct direct perhaps

When /ar/ occurs twice in a word, keep the tongue raised in one position for both occurrences. Repeat: error mirror terror emperor laborer terrorist cheeseburger hamburger

SYNONYMS
A

Practice the vowel /ar/ in synonyms. Upon hearing A and B, repeat B.


B A B

afterward amusement bygone

later humor former

not ever preferred

never better

This time after you hear A, you say B. Then listen to the model.
A B A B

across below

over under

dad mom

father mother

2.24

Vowels
THE DIPHTHONGS
A diphthong combines two vowels to create one sound. The diphthongs are all long sounds. The tongue and the mouth move from one position to another to form a diphthong, as in the following. Listen: l etl gauge height l oul dough count

Iall

laul

TO PRODUCE: Move from the well b the Vowellil raisIQ9 rt and retracting your lips slightly. Practice moving smoothly between the two vowels until you produce diphthong lesl.
l

If you have difficulty producing this sound before a consonant (as 1ndate). d9 the following: Break the word into parts (example: date ~ /der + t/). Repeat the parts saying them closer and closer together, until you can say them as one word. Listen:

rate

raid

ray

wait

wade

way

Practice lei! as you focus on its length. Repeat:

date - days - day mate - made - may

gate - game - gay pace - pain - pay

Repeat these phrases:

Day eight. May wait. Same rate.

Pay late. Same day. Hate waste.

They came. Way late. Main train.

2.25

The

COMPREHENSIVE
SYNONYMS -

American Accent Guide


Practice lerl in synonyms.
B

After you hear A and


A B

B,

Repeat

B.

attack docile

raid tame

humiliation popularity

shame fame

This time, after you hear A, you say B. You will hear a model after.
A B A B

donated flavor

gave taste

tardy perhaps

late maybe

Practice words with both


Io.et!

I ell and the schwa vowel. Repeat:


te.eit away buffet contain
lo.et!

arrange attain await

estate obtain today

Contrast:

lel=Lesl

Can you differentiate between these sounds? Listen to word pairs. You will hear one word again. Which is it?
date
Answers:

debt
debt matn

main
wet

men

wait

wet

Repeat these words and sentences. Listen again each time.


met - mate wet - wait get - gate debt - date let - late He met his mate there. You'll get wet if you don't wait. I will

ggl; the gate.

Pay the debt by that date. Don't let them be late.

2.26

Vowels
ANTONYMS -

Contrast

lell with tet in antonyms. After you hear A and its opposite,

B, repeat B.
A B A B

release condemn

press praise

early don't allow

late let

After you hear A, you say its opposite, B. Then listen to the model.
A B A B

east preserve

west waste

dry proceed

wet wait

Listen carefully to the statements model after each response.

and then answer the questions.

You will hear a

She opened the gate to get in.


What did she open? What for? _ _ The gate. To get in.

The debt is due on that date.


What is due? When? The debt. On that date.

Repeat these phrases with both sounds I ell and Iel:

l ei.el

l ei.el

Day ten. Eight men. Wait there.

Pay then. Say when. They said.

2.27

The

COMPREHENSIVE

American Accent Guide


TO PRODUCE:

Beginwith your tongue slightly low in the center,and raise it into the vowel foIl. AStyourise. YO\i jaw,IstraOJ;rour lips sliifltly.

If you find this vowel especially difficult to produce when it is followed by a consonant,as in time orlike, do the following: Breakthe words ini> paf'tst (Example:lime;: ltOI + m/). Repeatthe two partscloser and closer together,untilyou can say them as one word.

Listen: ice I'm eye bite buys buy

Practice I all as you focus on its length. Repeat: dice - dime - die/dye light - lied - lie type - time - tie cite/site/sight - side/sighed

sigh

Repeat these phrases:


l et.et] l st.ett lsi.etl

Fine time. Right side.

Like mine. Right kind.

I might. Try mine.

Practice words with both laII and the schwa lel . Repeat:
l e.etl le.etl

tet.e!

alike alive
SYNONYMS -

comply polite

final rival

Practice let! in synonyms.


A B

After you hear A and B, repeat B.


A B

bashful detect

shy find

indication pleasant

sign nice

2.28

Vowels
After you hear A, you say B. Listen to the model after.
A B

purchase quiet

buy silent

A similar this evening _

B alike tonight

/aII
DIPHTHONG

leel
SIMPLE VOWEL SHORT

LENGTH: TONGUE:

LONG

Contrast:

letl - lee!
LIPS:

From low in middle to high in front. From relaxed to tense. From neutral to retracted.

Midhigh in front. Low in front & in back. Relaxed Neutral

Repeat these words and sentences: mine fine side light Those are mine. . I feel fine It's on the right side. That is a bright light.

. . .

man fan sad lad

I saw the man. We need a fan. The movie was sad. A boy is called a lad.

Practice both I rei and I all in these phrases. Repeat:


lee, all
leu, eel

Add mine. Sad time.

Fine lad. Kind man.

TO PRODUCE: Begin with your tongue low in back, and your lips rounded slightly. Then raise your tongue in back to fuf, as you round your lips more.

)@) @
~~
( \ I

Listen: goat goal go wrote rode row

2.29

The

COMPREHENSIVE

American Accent Guide


dope - dome - doe/dough hope - home - hoe note - known - know/no soap - sewn/sown - sew/so

Repeat these words:

Repeat these phrases:


l oo, out l oo, out

Go home. No coat.

So slow. Low tone.

Practice words with loul and the schwa la/. Repeat:


l oo, a/ l ou, a/
fa, out fa, out

focus modem
SYNONYMS A

notice open

ago arose

oppose suppose

Practice foul in synonyms.


B

After you hear A and B, repeat B.


A B

jacket drench near

coat soak close

out of money false understand

broke phony know

loot
DIPHTHONG

101
SIMPLE VOWEL SHORT

LENGTH:

LONG

Contrast: loul - 101 Can you differentiate between these sounds? Listen to word pairs. You will hear one word again. Which is it? hole
Answers:

TONGUE: LIPS:

Moves from mid high to high in back I relaxed. Rounded to more rounded,

Low in back I relaxed.

Neutral

hall
hall

note
not wrote

not

rote/wrote _

rot _

Repeat these words and sentences. John - Joan rod - road won't - want note - not coat - cot

Listen again after each sentence. He is John, and she is Joan. fin:> There was a rod on the road. I won't go unless I want to. The note is not there. The coat is on the cot.

2.30

Vowels
ROOUgE: Begin "'WIth your jaw lowered, your tongue low in the middle, and your lips relaxed. Then move into vowel Iu/ or lul, raIsing your Jawand tongue god rounding your lips.

,If

Listen:

bound

bow

noun

now

sound

sow

Repeat these words: bout - bowed route - round out - owl Repeat these phrases:
lau, au, aul lau, au, aul

drought - drown doubt - down house - how

Count down now. Found out how.

Count out loud. Sounds how loud?

Practice words that contain both the schwa /a/ and /aul.
i e.eol la,aul

Repeat:

about account allowed


SYNONYMS -

amount announce around /au/ in synonyms. After you hear A and B,

Practice the diphthong

repeat B.
A B A B

distrust tone

doubt sound

let encircle

allow surround

2.31

The

COMPREHENSIVE

American Accent Guide

This time after you hear A, you say B. Then listen to the model.

circular city

round town

noisy yell

loud shout

Contrast:

laul - loot
LENGTH: TONGUE: LIPS:

ieu!
DIPHTHONG LONG

loot
DIPHTHONG LONG

Can you differentiate between these sounds? Listen to word pairs. You will hear one word again. Which is it?

Moves from low to higWin back! relaxed. Go from neutral to rounded.

Moves from mid high in back I

to d.

Go from roundedio more rounded.

found
Answers:

phoned _
phoned know / no

now
town

know/no _

town

tone

Repeat these words and sentences. Listen again to the sentence each time. found - phoned hose - house how - hoe now - know I found out who phoned. fJ'l::> The hose is by the house. How do I hoe the garden? Now I know.

II
Listen:

TO PRODUCE: Begin with your longue low in back and your lips rounded. Then raise your tongue high in front and retract your lipS, as for vowel IiI or /II .

m""

1m.?

boil

boy

join

joy

2.32

Vowels
Repeat these word pairs:

coil - coy

soil - soy

toil - toy

Practice words with the schwa lal and I'JII. Repeat:


t a, ail
le, :JIt

annoy appoint avoid

destroy enjoy employ

SYNONYMS

Practice I'JII in synonyms. After you hear A and B, repeat B.


A attach damp B

join moist

A male child option

boy choice

This time, after you hear A, you say B. Then listen to the model.
A B A B

gladness celebrate

joy rejoice

tip bother

point annoy

Conversational

Exercise: speech. Shadow the

Practice pronouncing the vowels and diphthongs in connected speaker in the following conversational exercise.

Traveling provided

is undoubtedly

one of the most enjoyable

things you can do, by car,

you avoid common mistakes.

First, if you are traveling

be sure you fill your car with gas before you leave and, of course, make sure the oil is at the right level. Next, check your tires. If the air pressure is low, fill your tires to the higher level recommended by the manufacturer.

You may need to bring a map to read in case you lose your way. Also, be sure to obey all the traffic laws along your route. One rule to remember is that red means "stop," and green means "go." Try not to drive when you're tired. If you feel drowsy, pull over to the side of the road and rest, or let someone else drive. It's the smartest advice on how get to where you are going, safe and sound.

2.33

The

COMPREHENSIVE

American Accent Guide


BONUS EXERCISES

Practice the diphthongs: the phrase aloud.


They go out. I owe eight.

In the following phrases each word contains a diphthong. I knowhow. No way out.
I know why. So I know. How they go. Why buy now?

Say

Say why now.

The correct IPA spelling: Pronunciation iii 01' II!?

Select the correct pronunciation

fOT

the underlined

words.

1. Where have you ~? 2. What!lli:!yoli do there? 3. How is y other? 4. Eat your les.
Answ~:1./blnl Pronunciation lEI or /te!? 1. Islept ina soft mm.

/bm/ _ Ibin/ Idld/_/aidl ltz! /It I _


2./dld/

5. Didthe gloves fit? 6. Didthe Mgt melt th(%ioo~ 7. IJid you save me' en willYO!;! arr
5. IfItl 1:1. !hit/

Ifit/_
Ihit/ __

Isit/_ fwill_
8.

1. lfiltl

/wIII

2. The car needs ~. 3. Iwrote witha blackIl!ill.


Answers: 1./bedl

Ibed/_ Iges/_ /pen/_


2. /g~sl

/bred_
Igres/_ Ipren/_
3. Ipenl

4. There are groooriesinthe lmg. Ibeg/_ reg/_ 5. First 1 stood, and then 1 ~ Isetl /sret/_ 6. The news was very sad. Ised/_/sredl _
4./b~g/ 5. /s~tl 6./s~d/

Pronunciation lasl or /III?

1. She wore a red gm. 2. Didyou wear a hat? 3. Iwish you good Jygs. 4. Ilikeditvery much.
Answers:

/krep/ _ /hretl _ /Irekl _ /mretJl_

/kl\p/ _
Ihl\t/_ /ll\k/_ Iml\tJI_ Ill\kl

5. Youmust see that movie. Imrest/_ 6. We had fun at the party. Ifrenl 7. Thafs a baseball bill. fbretl 4. /ml\tf/ 5. /ml\st/

/ml\st/_ Ifl\n/_ Ibl\t/_

1. /krepl

2. Ihret/a.

6. IfAn/

7. /bret/

Pronunciation hi/ or tatt 1. Itwalk


2.1

g/_/hag/_

I~l!sglar/_
Inat/_ Ihat/__
2./dAn/ 3./goll 4. /jag/ 5./hAgI

3. We have 9Q! 0 go. 4. I liketojQgforexercise.


AnS\VetS:l. /dAk/

6./kAlarl

'1./nAtl

8./hat!

Which IPA symbol represents

the vowel or diphthong

in each of the following words?


laII,

/ii, III, text, tel, teet, 101, Iool, 1. hot_ 2.home __


Answers:

leo}, 131, 1311

3. high_ 4. hold_

5. hat_ 6. hit_

7.hair_ 8. how_

9.hate_ 10. head __

11. heal 12. ham


11. Ii/ 12. I~I

1./0/

2. lou/

3./al/

4./01

5./~/

6./11

7.1&/

S./aul

9./el/

10.1&/

2.34

Vowels
Practice the IPA symbols for simple vowels & diphthongs: Identify the wordswJ:JttelL,(n IP~symbols:
1./wet/_ 2./borl/_ 5./waI/_ 6./sed/_ 7./hau/_ 8./Jou/_ 9./bret/_ 13./bers/_ 14./sred/_ 1./per/_ 2Udaun/_ 22./daIl/_ 23./haI/_ 20./mred/_ 24. /kout/_ 17. /tarm/_ 18./Jar/_ 19./kold/_ 25./hrt/_ 26. ded/_ 27./lelt/_ 28./gud/_

10./wer/_
11.)hu/_ 12. 'Jminf __

3./tum/_
4./nou/_ Correct: 1. wet 2. b<m 3. him 4. know/no

1'6: ItOI7"-

5.why 6. said 7. how 8. show

9. bat 10. way/weigh 11. who 12. mean

13. base '4. sad 15. pay 16. toy

17. time 18. shy 19. cold 20. mad

21. down 22. dial 23. high 24. coat

25. hit 26. dead 27. late 28. good

Write the'IPA symbo] ot:thevo~il s0'ild cqutained in each wprd, For example: bat lcel bed lei

1. boat 2. beal_ 3. out_ 4. deedCorrect:


1. 00' 2. i 3. au
4.

5. 6. 7. 8.

bay_ birQ __ cat_ did-

9. boot_ 1.2: borl'L..,,date_ 12. cow_

n.

13. but_ 14. ball_._ 15. type_ 16. toy_


13.
I\,

17. 18. 19. 20.

bed_ bull_ put_ phone_

5. e,J;
6. Ar 7. ee

9. u
10. 0 11. er 12. au

14. a

8.

15. ar 16. or

'7. e 18. u 19. u 20. ou

Compare tongue position for simple vowels & diphthongs: Say the words in each set and compare the positioning of your tongue for the vowel sounds. Which vowel sound isproduced !}lore a~ the front in the mouth.

1. bet - boot 2. feet - foot 3. hate - hot


Corte~: 1. bet 2. feet
3. hate

4. boat - beat 5. put - pat 6. we woe


4. beat 5. pat 6. we

7. lot -let 8. tip - top 9. how - high


7. let 8. tip
9. high

10. cat - caught 11. knee-now 12. came - comb


to. cat
11. knee

12. came

Say the words iff each set and compare the poSitioning of your tongue for the vowel sound. Which vowel sound is produced higher in the mouth?

1. see-saw 2. rot - root 3. put - pot


Correct: 1. see 2. toot 3. put

4. boot - bought 5. late -lot 6. fought - feet

7. bet - boat 8. saw - see' 9. meet - mat

10. lot - let 11. sit- sat 12. mud - mood to. let
11. sit 12. mood

4. boot 5. late 6. feet

7. bet 8. see 9. meet

2.35

The

COMPREHENSIVE

American Accent Guide

bead- bid bean - been/bin beatlbeet bit cheap - chip deeo did deem... - dim deep - (jip deep~r - dipper feast - fist feel fill f~etlfete fit

'bih - buo bit -,put did - dud

dl~ - DoUgJdug

bid - bed Qig - beg bill- bell bin - Ben bft- bet, .,

diq dead
fill~fl:fll

hid~head l1i11 h~1I

bed -bud b~st.bust bet but den - done

2.36

Vowels
MINIMAL PAIRS ...continued

l el - leel
bed - bad bend- band bet - bat better - batter blend - bland blessed - blast dead- dad deo,iii;b)an dense - danae fed - fad lend - fanned .~em * guess - s guest - gassed head - had hem - ham left - laughed lend -land las~. man mesh - mash met - mat net - gnat pest - past pet- pat. re'nt rant said - sad send - sand set - sat shell- shall 4t.ech - t8m1<' temper - tamper ten - tan tend - tanned text;- taxed trek - track vest - vast vet - vat wreck - rack

g~en.

~n

pe<m -pacl<
pen- pan

fead/led lad

11)/,"- I q(M .:.11


bucks - box buddy - body bum - bomb buss - boss but/bVtt bought cub -'cob cuff - cough cup - cop cut - cot/caught dona- dawn duck - dock fun - fawn gun - gone gush - gosh gut - got bug - hog cut" caught done - Don Doug/dug dog fun - fawn fuo1 " fondl. gut ~ got hut- hot jug - jog jut jot Jocism 4 lug'-~og Pi lust - lost muck mock shut - shot nut - knot/not slush - slosh pun - pawn spun - spawn puppy - poppy stuck - stock/stalk futt pot stump - stomp Tub - Rob sub - sob run - Ron suck - sock Russ - Ross sucker - soccer rut - rot sung - song scuff -i~off thug~~thawe.d shuck - shock tuck - talk shun- Sean/Shawn

jug - jog jut - jot color - collar/caller e cup - cop

Iuc!l-..

lair-/or:J1
backs - box bag -bog band -bond bass- boss bat - bouglit batch - botch black - block brat - brought cab - cob cad - cod cap - cop cat - cot, caught can - con cast - cost chap- chop ~Iack k
MiW crass-

hag - hog hat - hot jab- job j g

o
lack -Iock lag -log lap -lop

Dan - Don/dawn. fan - fawn fat - fought fox - go~ gnat - knot/not hack - hock

s
laughed - loft Mack - mock

map - mop nab - knob pad - pod Dan - pawn '!@'PfWI t pat- po rack - rock ramp - romp ran - Ron !at rot,~[ougQl '&ack - sock sang - song sap - sop

sass - sauce sat - sought shall- shawl smack- smock span- spawn stack - stock, stalk stamp - stomp tack- talk tap - top whack-walk

2.37

The

COMPREHENSIVE

American Accent Guide

MINIMAL PAIRS ...continued

teet - IAI
back - buck bag - bug bass - bus batter - butter cap - cup cat - cut cram - crumb crash - crush dam/damn - dumb damp - dump Dan - done drank - drunk fan - fun fanny - funny ham - hum lack -luck lamp -lump last - lust mad - mud mast - must pan - pun rag - rug ran - run rant - runt shack - shuck stack - stuck staff - stuff stamp - stump tack - tuck tan - ton task - tusk track - truck tramp - trump

bell- baf! Ben - bane best- baste/based bled - blade bread - braid breast - braced chest - chaste debt - date Ed - aid/aide ell- ail/ale

etch h fed - fade fell - fail gel- jail get - gait/gate less -lace let - late hell - hail/hale Jen -Jane Ken - cane

kept - caped men- main/mane met- mate pen - pain pest - paste press - praise rest - raced said - Sade sell - sail/sale shed- shade

take teU tall/tale test - taste tread - trade trend - trained wed - wade well - whale/wail west - waist/waste wet - wait wren - rain

Ire/-laII
a-I ad -J'd back - bike bad-Bide bat - 1511e canned- kind cat - kite dad - died darn- dime fat fight qram- grime grand - grind lack -like Mac- Mike man- mine mat - might/mite gnat night pan - pine ,rap/wrap - ripe rat - right/write stripe tyKe ap- type van - vine

laul - loot
about - a boat bough/bow- bowlbeau bow - bow/bough clown - clone cowl- coal crown - crone doubt - dote drown - drone foul- foal found - phoned how - how jowl- Joe known - noun loud -load now - know/no out - oat pouch - poach route - wrote sow - sew/so tout - tote wow - woe

2.38

WORD STRESS

To speak English clearly one must use proper stress on words. The way a word is

stressed can affect its meaning. So it is important to focus on word stress as a part of learning to speak English clearly and effectively. In this section, we will review some ofthe most basic and frequently used word-stress patterns. There are many word-stress patterns in English. Most words consist of more than one syllable, with both stressed and unstressed syllables. There are also words that consist of two words which combined, create one meaning. We will begin with these.

STRESS AND MEANING

COMPOUND WORDS A compound word combines two words into one and creates its own meaning. A compound word may be written as one word or as two. The first is spoken with primary stress, and the second with secondary stress. Listen:

bus stop

freeway

newspaper

coffee shop

Repeat these compound words:

airport drive in handshake

drawback outcome passport

credit card paperwork parking lot

3.1

The

COMPREHENSIVE

American Accent Guide

In the following sets of exchanges, practice contrasting a compound word with its two component words. After you hear A and B, repeat B.
A B

Wheredid you growthose plants? Wheredo they live?

. .

In the greenhouse. In the green house.

Didyou missyourfamily? Didyou comedownwith the flu?

. .

Yes, I was homesick. Yes, I was home sick.

Whichbookdid you take? Whatdid you do?

. .

I took the paperback. I took the paper back.

Didyou see a streetsign? Didyou see a bus go by?

. .

No, I saw a bus stop. No, I saw a bus stop.

These sentences contain both the compound word and its component words. Repeat:
I had my hair cut last month, so I need another haircut. She is not my girlfriend, she is a girl friend.

TWO-PART VERBS Many idioms are two-part verbs, and many two-part verbs are idioms. A two-part verb consists of a verb and a preposition, as in sit down or stand up. Certain verband- preposition combinations that are two-part verbs are also compound words. The difference is in their stress patterns. In a two-part verb, it is the second word, the preposition, which is stressed. Contrast two-part verbs with compound words. Listen:
compound word two-part verb compound word two-part verb

checkup cleanup

\
take off takeover -

\
take off take over

check up clean up

Listen to these words and sentences:


check in Check in time is 11 a.m rip off A rip off is a theft. . . . check in rip off Did you check in on time? To rip off is to steal.

3.2

Word Stress
Repeat the following: workout work out layoff layoff backup back up tryout tryout check in check in . . . I had a good workout today. I work out at the spa. The company is planning a layoff. How many employees did they layoff? Is there a backup copy of the letter? I back up all my computer files. They are holding tryouts for the team. She will try out for the play. Check in time is at 11 a.m. What time did you check in? saying the

Some two-part verbs, like the following, can be separated. Practice following two-part verbs. After you hear A and B, repeat B.
A B

Here's my phone number. . It's a real problem! Was the story true? We should start right away. .

. . . .

I'll call you UJ2tomorrow. Hope you can work it mLt. No, they made it UJ2. Yes, let's not P.Y1 it Qff.

COMPOUND WORDS ~eacfline drive-in freeway greenhouse hand~lfa~e passport pickup restroom credit card" overtime paperwork parking lot

See page 3.25 for more compound words.

Some two-part verbs have more than one meaning. Items in A provide clues to the meanings of the two-part verbs in B. make up
A B

It was not true. ........~...., ' . Are they stil1'mad ateflch otber',?"w, .... , . Have you dEfcided yet? , ................ Is hard work enough? .

Did thel make up the story? 0, tAeymade up.' No, I haven't made up my mind. Hard work is important, but it doesn't always make up for experience.

work out A B
I do my eXE$iises at tJ:Le gym. J,_~ .... ;, Mi@.1 work q~t at the sea. We found a solution, ...... How did you work it out? Everything went according to plan. ........ I'm glad everything is working out.

3.3

The COMPREHENSIVE American Accent Guide

3.4

Word Stress
Prefixes and suffixes allow a word to take various fOnDS and meanings. For example: like likes liked alike likely likeness unlike e likeable likene unlikely likeliest likeliness
blcodedts-

SOME COMMON PREFIXES


biweekly co-payment depart disapl9ear immofal intake misbehave outcome prehistoric react unlike bi-racial coincidence derail discover immovable invite mistrust outdo prenatal rerun untie bi-lingual co-siqner detain distract impatient invest misunderstand outperform preview recycle unrest

likellh

lminmlsoutprereun-

Prefixes and suffixes also allow the English vocabulary to continue to grow. FOTexample,
information documentary + commercial + drama

= infomercial = docudrama

See page 3.24 for a more complete list.

PREFIXES AND SUFFIXES


Many English words consist of a root word plus a prefix at the beginning or a suffix at the end. The root word is sometimes easy to identify. For example:
In biweekly the root word is week. In co-worker, the root word is work.

PREFIXES AND WORD STRESS Prefixes are used in many English words, and they carry meaning. Most prefixes are unstressed. (Stresses on suffixes are less predictable.) When the prefix is stressed, it is often a noun; when the prefix is unstressed, it is often a verb. Although these words are spelled the same, the difference between them is made clear in spoken English by their stress patterns. To contrast stress and pronunciation on such noun-and-verb pairs, listen:
noun
verb

object present produce

"\

object present produce

Repeat these words and sentences in order to hear the contrast between nouns and verbs.
record - record That is a good record. Please record the lecture. They are taking a survey. They must survey the damage. They were rewarded for good conduct. They will conduct a workshop. What is the content of the letter? We were content with the outcome.

survey - survey...........

conduct - conduct

.....

content - content........

3.5

The COMPREHENSIVE American Accent Guide


Practice both the noun and the verb in one sentence. Repeat, and then listen again.
They might object if the object is not removed.

tn:>

They will not permit you to enter without a permit. A farmer can produce a lot of produce.

NOUN & VERB FORMS


address affect conduct contract contrast convert address affect conduct contract contrast convert rerun subject survey Implement supplement rerun subject survey implement supplement

EXCEPTIONS: Following are examples of words that serve as either nouns or verbs. In these types of words, the noun and the verb have the same stress and the same pronunciation. For example: noun - That is a good purchase. verbThey will purchase it.

demand design exchange

COMMON SUFFIXES

Primary stress is placed on the syllable before the following suffixes:


-lal -graphy -lan
"'.-

-le
Ieal -ience -ient -ify -ily -inal

............. artificial ......... biography .... ... ~ ." . muslclan ." ~-~:,. ...... ~tlahtrc .. ............ comical ........... patience ........... convenient ............ justify
,~ "

-ion

............ .. ~ ......
"

...........
"0 ~ ~

-ional .ii1~ " -loue -ious,-eous,-uous -ity ........... -logy ...........

primarily criminal opiruon ~'Xceptl0/J;!:1J ~elicious envious ability apology

credential geography librarian ~clfic ffi!1 ,ogical conscience deficient terrify necessarily terminal ellion caSion~: contagio ":$ courageous facility biology

potential photography po~~jcian SPf:r,ptfic typical convenience sufficient testify temporarily original religion vocational suspicious continuous stability technology

Primary stress is placed two syllables before these suffixes:


-ary .... "..... -lJraph "";....... -itude/-itute .Ise/-ize iqary"li graprlJ attitude advertise . 'tar ragf' magnitu e modernize

Primary stress is placed on these suffixes:


-ee -eer -ese -ique .ette absentee ~areer Chinese 15:outiqu brunette refugee engineer AI"p,anese '~chnique oassette trainee volunteer I?o~guese unrque cigarette

. .

3.6

Word Stress
SUFFIXES AND WORD STRESS Suffixes serve to mark past tense verbs and plural nouns. Suffixes also serve to change word structure. For example: creation: a noun create: a verb creative: an adjective creatively: an adverb

Meanings Determined

by Stress on the Suffix

Most suffixes change a word into either a noun, a verb, an adjective, or an adverb. However, there are exceptions. Certain suffixes can denote either a noun or a verb. The difference between them is made clear in the way they are stressed. The noun is spoken with the suffix unstressed, and the verb is spoken with the suffix stressed. Listen to these examples:
adjective verb adjective verb

alternate duplicate

alternate duplicate

appropriate

appropriate

Repeat these words and sentences in order to contrast nouns and verbs:
associate associate duplicate duplicate estimate estimate separate separate appropriate appropriate . . . . He is an associate of mine. Do you associate with your neighbors? This is a duplicate copy. Please duplicate this key. Here is an estimate of the costs. Will you please estimate the charges? Do you want separate checks? Separate them by code. It is not appropriate to interrupt. The company will appropriate the funds.

Practice both the noun and the verb in one sentence. Repeat, and then listen again.
Can you estimate when the estimate will be complete? She will graduate from graduate school next Spring. ~

3.7

The COMPREHENSIVE American Accent Guide


SUFFIXES AND STRESS PLACEMENT
Meanings Determined by the Suffix

In the exercises that follow, we will practice some common suffixes. We will review general underlying rules that determine how a suffix affects word stress. We will focus on primary stress as well as on secondary stress and on reduced syllables. You will notice that pronunciation, especially of vowels, is also based on a word's stress pattern. Most exercises provide enough examples to demonstrate predictable patterns.

-able
This suffix forms adjectives, and it does not affect stress. Listen to the following verbs and the corresponding adjectives:
verb adjective verb adjective

dispose

disposable

manage

- manageable

Repeat these words:


excuse predict excusable market marketable

- predictable

EXCEPTIONS: The following are exceptions. These adjectives are pronounced either of

two ways. Listen:

reparable comparable

or or

reparable comparable

-ity, -ility
These suffixes form nouns. As a general rule, stress is placed on the syllable before the suffix. Listen to this adjective and the corresponding noun formed by the suffix -ity.
adjective noun

.\
serene serenity

3.8

Word Stres
Repeat these pairs:

mature I maturity secure / security sincere I sincerity

..".--.,...,..". ,.,""'" -,~,."""''"' -- I

- - ~ - - - -= ,.~.-,. -.'~-->

"., --

""""'" . ~- ~""

Do you live near Universe City?

Thepi~~~"~h~~~'y~~'go %h~~~~~J:~
Listen to these adjectives and the corresponding

~~ __~_~"<C":":'~~-::'~'~":;.~'~'~'~" ~h_ ~~s~~_I~v~ _~e~~ ~_n~v_e:~I!~._ i


nouns formed by the suffix -ility:

_t~:

..

adjective

noun

adjective

noun

able

ability

credible

credibility

To practice applying stress on long words, break the word into manageable parts, and then say the complete word. Plural suffix: -ities Lets practice on the word responsibility. Repeat:
respon si bility responsi bility responsibility
ability - abilities capability - capabilities possibility - possibilities responsibility - responsibilities

Repeat the following words. Listen again to the noun.

capable possible

capability possibility

available responsible

availability responsibility

eligible

eligibility

The COMPREHENSIVE American Accent Guide


Practice suffixes in these exchanges. After you hear A and B, repeat B.
A B

I like sincere people. . What is the availability? What is possible? Is the schedule flexible enough? Listen to this dialogue:

. . . .

Yes, sincerity is important. The availability of what? There are many possibilities. We need more flexibility than that.

It's late, and they haven't arrived . ............................... What do you think possibly happened? It's possible they got lost. ............................... Another possibility is that they forgot.

Practice applying proper stress: In each set below, say the last word to complete two matching pairs. After you hear three words, say the fourth. Then listen to the model. mature secure probable available maturity / sincere - __ security / serene - __ - probability / possible - __ - availability / responsible - __ sincerity serenity possibility responsibility

-ive,

-ittve

These suffixes form adjectives. As a general rule, primary stress is placed on the syllable before the suffix. Repeat these pairs of verbs and the corresponding adjectives: -;ve
verb adjective verb

-itive
adjective

"\
impress permit describe impressive permissive descriptive

'\
compete declare repeat competitive declarative repetitive

The following is an exception. Listen to this pair. Which syllable is omitted in the adjective?
EXCEPTION:

decor

decorative

3.10

Word Stress
Practice suffixes in exchanges. After you hear A and B, repeat B.
A B

They made a good impression Dothey like to compete? There was too much repetition

. Yes, they were impressive. . They are very competitive. . Yes, it was repetitive.

-ion, -sion, -tion


These suffixes form nouns. As a general rule, primary stress is placed on the syllable before the suffix. Listen to these verbs and the corresponding
verb

nouns:
noun

rebel convert Repeat these pairs:' collide /collision decide / decision

rebellion conversion

divide / division revise / revision

EXCEPTIONS

Primary stress is placed on the first syllable in these words. Repeat them:

supervision

television

Repeat these verbs and nouns with the suffixes -sion IIanl and -tion IIan/:
verb noun verb noun

.\
discuss omit permit discussion omission permission attract collect elect attraction collection election

Repeat these pairs: connect - connection correct - correction inspect - inspection select - selection

3.11

The COMPREHENSIVE American Accent Guide


The following are verbs and their corresponding nouns. Notice that in addition to a shift in primary stress the first syllable in the noun is given secondary stress. Listen:
verb
noun

compete compose

competition composition

It is important to apply secondary stress when necessary.

Instead of,

competition,

say,

competition.

Repeat these pairs. Listen again to the noun. define oppose repeat definition opposition - repetition

Focus on both primary and secondary stress as you repeat these verbs and nouns:

constitute institute substitute

constitution institution substitution

Listen to these verbs and the corresponding nouns. Notice that the first syllable is reduced in the verb, while it is stressed in the noun. Repeat these words:
verb
noun

verb

noun

"\
admire Repeat these pairs: invite - invitation observe - observation admiration

confirm converse declare resign

confirmation conversation declaration resignation

prepare reserve

- preparation - reservation

3.12

Word Stress
The suffix -ate on a verb becomes -ation on a noun. Listen:
verb noun

hesitate

hesitation

Focus on both primary and secondary stress as you repeat these words.

complicate concentrate

complication - concentration

demonstrate generate -

- demonstration generation

Repeat the following pairs. Listen again to each pair.


celebrate educate imitate immigrate celebration education imitation immigration ~

Practice pronouncing repeat B.


A

suffixes in the following exchanges. After you hear A and B,


B

Was there enough to select from? Are you going to.aQQ!y? Were you invited? We need to reserve seats Would you like a substitution?

No, the selection was poor.

. I filled out an application today. . Yes, we got an invitation in the mail. . I'll call and make reservations. . Yes, but can you substitute rice for pasta?

The following are longer verbs and the corresponding in the verb, and how many are in the noun? Listen:
verb

nouns. How many syllables are

noun

abbreviate accom modate


Answer:

abbreviation accommodation

four,

five

Listen again as you focus on the second syllable in both words.


eliminate elimination negotiate negQtiation

3.13

The COMPREHENSIVE American Accent Guide


Note that the second syllable is given primary stress on the verb and secondary stress on the noun. Remember to stress the noun correctly. For example:

Instead Instead

of of

appreciation, accommodation,

say say

appreciation. accommodation

Practice breaking these five-syllable words into manageable parts. Let's try the word appreciation. Repeat: appre ci ation appre ciation appreciation

Repeat the following words. Listen again to the noun.


verb noun verb noun

appreciate associate

- appreciation - association

communicate congratulate

- communication - congratulations

Repeat these pairs: cooperate - cooperation discriminate - discrimination investigate participate - investigation - participation

Practice saying suffixes in the following exchanges. After you hear A and B, repeat B.
A
B

Congratulations. . Didthey cooperate? Didthey investigate it? Didthey appreciate that? Howdo you abbreviate this?

. . . . .

Congratulations for what? They gave their full cooperation. There is an investigation underway. Yes, they showed their appreciation. There is no abbreviation for that.

Practice applying stress. After you hear three words, say the fourth. Then listen to the model. concentrate - concentration / celebrate - __ complicate - complication / dedicate - __ institutes - institutions / substitutes - __ accommodate - accommodation / cooperate - __ discriminate - discrimination / participate - __ negotiate - negotiation / appreciatecelebration dedication substitutions cooperation participation appreciation

3.14

Word Stress
-ify
This suffix forms verbs. As a general rule, primary stress is placed on the syllable before the suffix. Listen to these words and the corresponding verbs:

noun

verb

adjective

verb

class

classify

simple

simplify

Now practice adding the suffix -tion. Repeat. Then listen again to the noun:
verb noun

beautify verify

beautification verification

Notice again that stress shifts to the syllable before the suffix -tion.

Focus on both primary and secondary stress as you repeat these words:
certify - certification classify - classification qualify specify - qualification - specification

Repeat these pairs:

justify - justification simplify - simplification

Practice saying suffixes in the following exchanges. After you hear A and B, repeat B.
A B

Do they ill!illlfy for the job? Canthey justify it? Where are the specifications?

Yes, their qualifications There is no justification

are good. for it. you want?

Are these the specifications

3.15

The COMPREHENSIVE American Accent Guide


Practice applying proper stress. After you hear three words, say the fourth. Then listen to the model.
amplify - amplification verify - verification / justifyjustification qualifications specification

classify - classifications / qualify/ specify - __

See page 3.26 for a list of words with the suffix -tion.

-ize
This suffix forms verbs. It does not affect primary stress. Repeat these adjectives and the corresponding verbs:

real - realize

sanitary -

sanitize

social -

socialize

Repeat the following verbs and nouns ending in the suffix -tion. Listen again to the noun.
verb

noun

realize generalize standardize

realization generalization standardization

-a/ This suffix forms adjectives. It does not affect primary stress. Repeat these nouns and the corresponding adjectives:
noun
adjective noun adjective

comic critic logic

comical critical logical

convention occasion vocation

conventional occasional vocational

3.16

Word Stress
-ial, -cial, -tial
These suffixes form adjectives. As a general rule, primary stress is placed on the syllable before the suffix. The following are nouns and the corresponding adjectives formed by these suffixes. Listen:

noun

adjective

noun

adjective

memory commerce

memorial commercial

territory resident

territorial residential

Repeat these nouns and adjectives:


noun adjective noun adjective

offi ce finance commerce

official financial commercial

confidence residence

confidential residential

Listen to this dialogue: What is occupational? ...................... It has to do with one's occupation. What is vocational? ...................... It has to do with vocation. They mean about the same. Yes, my occupation is also my vocation.

-Iy, -ally
These suffixes form adverbs. Neither suffix affects primary stress. Listen to these adjectives and the corresponding adverbs:
adjective adverb

basic critic thorough basically critically thoroughly

3.17

The COMPREHENSIVE American Accent Guide


Notice that the suffixes -ly and -ally are pronounced the same. Repeat these noun-andadverb pairs:
noun adverb noun adverb

actual casual total

actually casually totally

practical physical

practically physically

initial specific

initially specifically

absolute

absolutely

The following adverbs are exceptions. They are pronounced with primary stress on either the first syllable or the syllable before -ly. Listen:
EXCEPTIONS: -

negatively relatively positively

or or or

negatively relatively positively

Repeat these adjectives and the corresponding adverbs:

adjective

adverb

adjective

adverb

official potential

officially potentially

confidential

confidentially

emotional exceptional occasional professional

emotionally exceptionally occasionally professionally

3.18

Word Stress
Practice the suffix ly in exchanges. After you hear A and B, repeat B.
A B

Is the answer positive? How severe was the damage? Is that the absolute truth? Was that intentional?

. . . .

Yes, I'm positively sure. It was severely damaged. Absolutely. No. I didn't do it intentionally.

Practice applying proper stress. After you hear three words, say the fourth. Then listen to the model.
convention - conventional/intention severe - severely / sincere __ practical - practically / physical - __ / professional - __ intentional sincerely physically professionally confidential

intentional - intentionally

residence - residential/confidence

-ian, -cian
These suffixes form nouns relating to other nouns. As a general rule, primary stress is placed on the syllable before the suffix. Practice saying the suffix -ian. Repeat:
noun noun noun noun

comedy Canada

comedian Canadian

library

librarian

Practice saying the suffix -cian. Repeat:

music clinic

musician clinician

electric mathematics

electrician mathematician

Practice changing adjectives to nouns. Repeat:


adjective
noun

adjective

noun

musical physical technical

musician physician technician

political

politician

3.19

The COMPREHENSIVE American Accent Guide


Listen to these dialogues:
Is he a physician, a musician or a politician? ............. He's a doctor who is interested in music and politics.

She's musically talented . ...............What musical instrument does she play? She plays classical piano.

-logy, -graphy, -metry, -omy These suffixes form nouns. As a general rule, primary stress is placed on the syllable before the suffix. The following are nouns and two forms of corresponding listen again to the last word.
noun adjective

adjectives.

Repeat, and

adjective

economy geography geometry

economic geographic geometric

economical geographical geometrical

Repeat these nouns, adjectives,


noun

and adverbs. Listen again to the adverb.


adjective adverb

biology ecology geology psychology technology

biological ecological geological psychological tech nolog ica I

biologically ecologically geologically psychologically technologically

Practice applying proper stress. After you hear three words, say the fourth. Then listen to the model. geographic - geography / photographic - __ biology - biological/psychology - __ ecological - ecology / technological - __
photography psychological technology

3.20

Word Stress
After you hear A and B, repeat B.
A B

Name a branch of math. What is a technician's field? Did you study geography? You take great photographs.

Geometry. Technology. No, but I like National Geographic.

I studied photography.

-etic
This suffix forms adjectives. As a general rule, primary stress is placed on the syllable before this suffix. Repeat these nouns and the corresponding adjectives:
noun adjective
noun

adjective

empathy energy sympathy -

empathetic energetic sympathetic

apology

apologetic

PROPER NAMES, TITLES, TIMES


The last word in a proper name or title is given primary stress. Repeat the following examples:

Mahatma Gandhi Martin Luther King Mr. and Mrs. John Doe The President Ambassador of the United States of the United Nations

Columbia

University

The College of Law St. John's College at Cambridge The Metropolitan Museum of Fine Arts

Repeat the following names of North American cities and states or provinces:
Atlanta, Georgia Chicago, Illinois Denver, Colorado San Francisco, Toronto, Ontario Montreal, Quebec California

Repeat the following names of publications:


Sports Illustrated Los Angeles Times Time Magazine

3.21

The

COMPREHENSIVE

American Accent Guide

Repeat the following names of roads:


Memory Lane Carriage Circle Boulevard

Park Avenue

Washington

Pacific Highway

Tobacco Road

EXCEPTION: The names of streets are an exception. Stress is placed on the word before Street. Repeat the following: Main Street Second Street Twenty First Street

Abbreviations

- The last letter receives primary

stress in abbreviations.
ATM ASAP USA
UK

Repeat the

following:
CO 10 DVO HDTV

Practice saying abbreviations repeat B.


A

in the following responses. After you hear A and B,


B

Bachelor of Arts Medical Doctor Doctor of Philosophy........................... Master of Science Doctor of Dental Science Master of Business Administration

BA MO PhO MS DDS MBA

Times and Dates -

The final item is given primary stress on times and dates. Repeat:
Wednesday the 20th. Monday afternoon, June 10th . Saturday morning, the 20th . Friday, October 15, 2004.

Ten to five. 12:00 o'clock. 1:30 p.m. 4:05 am.

Listen to the following dialogue:


Where do you live? ......... In Washington. Washington, What D.C.? State. Seattle, Washington. ......... No, in Washington is your address? .......... 113 Thirteenth Street,

3.22

Word Stress
Practice applying
A

proper stress in the following

responses. After you hear A and


B

B,

repeat

B.

Where is The United Nations Building? What is the highest mountain in the world? Where are The Hawaiian Islands? Where is Buckingham Palace? Where is the Acropolis? Where is The Capitol of the United States? Where is The Eiffel Tower? Where is The Golden Gate Bridge? What is the last day of the 1900's? What does UCLA stand for?

In New York Mt. Everest.

City.

In the Pacific Ocean. In London, England. In Athens, Greece. In Washington, D.C. In Paris, France. In San Francisco, California. Decem ber 31, 1999. The University of California in Los Angeles.

BONUS EXERCISE
Practice applying proper stress on names - Name at least one each of the following:
1. An address of someone you Know.

5. The city and country where you were born. 6. An English teacher.

2. A famous musician.

3. A university
4. A professor wh

liege. you know.

1,.
8.

otlsactor" ous actress.

ABBREVIATIONS
cassette disc video cassette recorder unidentified flying object Alcoholics Anonymous Automatic Teller Machine British Broadcasting Corporation GED

R
UFO AA ATM BBC CPA CEO

s
National Broadcasting National Public Radio New York University Public Broadcasting United Kingdom United States Service Company

LA NBC NPR NYU PBS UK US

Certified Public Accountant Chief Executive Officer

3.23

The COMPREHENSIVE American Accent Guide

3.24

Word Stress
COMPOUND WORDS

A compound word combines two words into a single word wit~ its own meaning. The compound word may be written as one word or as two words. The first IS spoken with pnmary stress, and the second with secondary streS~!M

bus driver cab driver handwriting newspaper post office school teacher scratch paper screwdriver Skyscraper sunglasses turn signal

basketball coffee shop comic book copyright credit card database dlninaroom fingerprint grocery store living room overcast overcoat

overpass paperback paperwork railroad track shopping cart shopping mall steering wheel swimming pool taxi cab tennis match traffic light underpass

baby sitter motor cycle trouble shooter undertaking vacuum cleaner

airplane airport armrest background backlog backpack backtrack backyard bathroom bathtub bedroom billboard blackboard bookcase bookmark bookshelf bookstore boom box boyfriend bridegroom briefcase bunk bed bus stop carport checkbook courtyard crosswalk daycare

daytime deadline deskt~p doormat doorstep downtown drive-in driveway earthquake feedback flashback flashflood flashlight football footrest freeway French fries gearshift girlfriend haircut hairdo hairstyle han ake har re headcounf headlarnp high school highway

homework hot dog ~ot tub 'housework ice box jetlag joy stick keyboard keypad landlord laptop lifestyle lifetime light switch mailbox makeshift network notebook notepad part time passport past time llaycheck "' payday phone booth playground popcorn postcard

postmark restroom roommate scorecard shortcut sidekick sideline sidewalk six pack skylight snowman software someone staircase stop sign suitcase sunset takeout toothbrush toothpaste touchdown trademark uptown washcloth well fare wheelchair windshield wristwatch 3.25

The COMPREHENSIVE American Accent Guide

VERB & NOUN STRESS PATTERNS


Two-Syllable Verb and the Corresponding Three-5yllable Noun

VERB

NOUN

VERB

NOUN

VERB

NOUN

"\
adopt admit assume attend attract collect compress conduct" confess connect construct convene convict" correct create deceive deduct describe destroy detain detect dictate direct donate elect adoption admission assumption attention attraction collection compression conduction confession connection construction convention conviction correction creation deception deduction descrl'pllon destruction detention detection dictation direction donaU!;>n election

"\
employ except expense extinct frustrate impress infect inject inscribe inspect instruct jntend invent locate migrate narrate object' obstruct oppress
perfect"

"\
employment exception expensive extinction frustration
j

prevent produce" profess progress' project'

prevention production profession progression projection iftection reaction reception reduction reflection regression fej~ction relation reparation restriction retraction rotation Sc:l!leotion

ssion

pr
re receive reduce reflect regress reje~~

in ection injection inscription inspection instruction int~ntion invention location migration narration
0 0

relate
repair restrict retract rotate s s ribe transcribe

subscription transcription translation transmission vacation VJbration

permit' possess predict prescribe pretend

permission possession prediction ,pr'fl:efiption pretension

translate transmit vacate vibrlife

These words also function as nouns, wirh primary stress on the first syllable.

3.26

Word Stress

!Ii

pOnd[ng Fourl'SyUable Nolin

NOUN

operate radiate segregate

operatlof
radiation segregation separation situation sttmulatton sfipula;tJon
tetminatioh

separate
situate

toletation

vacolnatlon
vegetatfon yentiJaHon

VER~

NOUN

recommendation representation

..

3.27

The COMPREHENSIVE American Accent Guide

VERB

& NOUN STRESS PATTERNS


continued ....

Four-Syllable

Verb and the Corresponding

Five-Syllable

Noun

VERB

NOUN

VERB

NOUN

VERB

NOUN

abbreviate accelerate accommodate appreciate approximate articulate asphyxiate associate communicate

congratulate cooperate coordinate decelerate discriminate elaborate eliminate evaporate exaggerate congratulations cooperation coordination deceleration discrimination elaboration elimination evaporation exaggeration refrigerate humiliate incinerate initiate investigate manipulate negotiate participate procrastinate refrigeration humiliation incineration initiation investigation manipulation negotiation participation procrastination

abbreviation acceleration accommodation appreciation approximation articulation asphyxiation association communication

3.28

THE RHYTHM

of
AMERICAN ENGLISH

Rhythm. Just what is it? Rhythm is a pattern in timing. We can see rhythm patterns in many things, such as in dancing, in music, and in speech. The rhythm of speech is based on the timing of sound segments. In English, these segments are the word syllables.

IDENTIFYING

SPEECH RHYTHM

Every spoken language has a distinct rhythm. This rhythm is easily seen in its music, its poems, and its rhymes. The rhythm of English can be identified, for example, in this common rhyme.
One for the money. Two for the show. Three to get ready, and four to go.

The uneven timing in stressed and in unstressed syllables gives English speech its characteristic rhythm. This timing consists of long and short beats as of a drum. Listen:

I'd LIKE to TAKE my DOG for a WALK.

A person who speaks English with the rhythm of another language is said to speak with an accent. Many who speak English with an accent tend to apply equal stress on all syllables. In English, this pattern is used only on messages which consist of one-syllable content words. Listen to an example, and then to beats matching its rhythm:

THAT BUS STOPS HERE TWO TIMES EACH WEEK

The

COMPREHENSIVE

American Accent Guide

Now listen to a pattern that is more typical:

The BUS STOPS at LEAST TWICE a WEEK. To further contrast equal stress with unequal stress, listen to these sentences:

TAKE MORE TIME OUT.

The TIME is OUT.

Note that content words are spoken fully and clearly, while function words are simplified and spoken quickly. This time listen, and then use your fingers to tap the beats of the rhythm you just heard .

READ ONE BOOK EACH DAY.

READ a BOOK a DAY.

THOSE BOOTS DON'T LOOK LIKE MINE .

The BOOTS on TOP are MINE. To distinguish how function words affect timing, listen to sentences with just content words. Then listen to those sentences with added function words:
CALL RIGHT BACK.

I will CALL you RIGHT BACK. Will you CALL me RIGHT BACK?

Notice that the added function words do not make the sentence sound significantly longer. Here's another example:
TIME GOES FAST.

TIME will GO FAST. Will the TIME GO as FAST? 4.2

Rhythm
This time, repeat what you hear and tap a beat on each stressed syllable .

JUST TRY. BUY MORE.

I was JUST TRYing it. I will BUY MORE of them .

CLOSE THAT DOOR. TAKE MORE TIME.

I was CLOSing THAT DOOR. It will TAKE some MORE TIME.

In the following dialogue, the sets of sentences in A and those in B each have a matching rhythm. Repeat both sides, as you tap a beat on each content word.
A B

WHAT do you THINK? WHERE should we GO? WHEN should we LEAVE?

I was THINKing toDAY would be GREAT for a WALK. It's a WONderful DAY for a WALK in the PARK. I'll be REAdy as SOON as I FINish my WORK.

Can you identify the rhythmpatterns in your native language? Are you applying that rhythm to your English speech? To apply the rhythm of English, it may be necessary that you slow your speech rate to allowfor proper timing on syllables. Knowing reduced forms will help you to comprehend spoken English more easily, and using them will help yOu achieve the rhythm of the dialect that is standard in North America.

REDUCED FORMS AND RHYTHM


Reduced forms are words or groups of words that are normally spoken simply and quickly. Vowels become unstressed and consonants combine or become silent. For example:

Who is he?

------'7

/hU~IZI/

What do you mean?

------'7

/wJ\.daja~min/

Reduced forms give flow and rhythm to speech and make it easier to express whole thoughts. Even the most articulate speakers of the standard English dialect of North America use them.

4.3

The

COMPREHENSIVE

American Accent Guide

REDUCING FUNCTION WORDS

Simplifying

Vowels

Function words are normally spoken with reduced vowels. In many cases, the schwa vowel, the most simple English sound, is used. The word can, for example, is pronounced /kan/, as in,
/ken/ /ken/

can wait.

Can anyone do that?

On the other hand, in certain circumstances function words are spoken clearly, with the vowel pronounced fully. These circumstances are: a) When the function word is stressed for emphasis, as in,
Yes, I can make it.

Can you really?

b)

When the function word ends an utterance, as in:


I think I can.

We can.

The English Articles

The articles are: some and any, as in:


Some day. Any time.

a, an, and the, as in:


A desk. An office. The conference room.

4.4

Rhythm
Can you determine when to use an article? One sentence in each set below is not correct Which is it? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. a) a) a) a) a) c) I have nice friends. 'I have a nice friend. .. ,1?;l 1 hswe nice fr!~nd. c) The car needs some gas. The car needs a gas. ... b) The car needs gas. c) They brought gift. They brought some gifts..... b} They brought gifts. I watched a video. ... b) I watched videos. c) I watched video. We don't have an~Jllaps. ... p~ We ,Elon'tIi'ave map. ". c) We don't have maps. Answers: 1. b, 2. a, 3. c) 4. c) 5. b)

Utlder!yingeRules for CJseof Articles


the - (definite article) Use this article with a singular or a plural noun:
!!i!

1) When you are identifying

the items you are referencing. I like the paintings on your wall.

I saw the movie that you recommended. 2)

When you assume the listener is familiar with what you are referencing. It's somewhere in/he city. It's at the library.

a, an - (indefinite articles) I watched a video.

Use these with a singular noun that is not yet identified. I watched an interesting video. dialogues

To speak English correctly, you need to include articles. The following provide examples of when to use and when not to use articles. trow do'You geftot~ top floor?
K

There:IS an elevator, an escalator, and stairs.


(Unidentified Nouns) (Indefinite number) I don't like stairs; they take too long. members of a class)

(Idenrfied noun)

Do you ever take the stairs?


(ldent!ft~dnoiJ(411

Do you take the elevator?


(Identified noun)

Elevators scare me.


(Nolin referenced in general terms)
.. ",.., .

ij,ow do you !it thet:e? .. w' What is an escalator?


(Unidentified noun)

I talfythe escalator,
(ldeifitji~d ndifln)

Look over there. ,.......... That r.


(After is and beforepredicate)

The ill()"Ying stairs?


(Identifiedplural noun)

Do YOliknd_minda'l

~Pkno~.r,i1iRa, bUt' dOlll~wtJ1iul,he's the Linda that


(Unidentifiednoun)

you k:n.ow.

(No article withproper name)

(Identificationof a class)

4.5

The

COMPREHENSIVE

American Accent Guide

the Say loal before a consonant. Move the tongue directly from 101 to the consonant, as In,
/58 peest/ The past. /58 tarrn/ The time.

(th' past)

(th'time)

Say loil before a vowel, as in,


The idea. The office.

To contrast loal with loil, listen:


15a/* 15il 15al 15il

The bad.

The ad.

The sale. - The ale.

ANTONYMS -

Practice the sounds loal and loil in these antonyms. Repeat:


The lower limit; the upper limit. The west side; the east side. The new way; the old way.

The difficult one; the easy one. The full one; the empty one. The closed door; the open door.

* /5/:

IPA symbol for the sound usually spelled tho (Section 5)

a, an Use a before consonants, reduced:


lal lanl

and an before vowels. Listen to these words

lei A border -

lenl

A spy.

An eye.

An order.

ANTONYMS -

Practice both articles in these antonyms. Repeat:


lanl lal lanl

lal

A question. A full one. A new idea.

An answer.

A difficult one. A lower level. A beginning.

- An easy one. - An upper level. An end.

- An empty one. - An old idea.

4.6

Rhythm
Stressing articles gives emphasis to the words they reference.
A B

Listen:

Who's that man? Is that an old invention? Is it one of the best?

That man is the president. * No, it's a new technology. No, it's the best. *

Other Function Words


as, at, can Listen to these function words reduced:
/az/ Just as good. fat! Home at last.
/kan/

What can happen?

Now repeat:
/az/ /at/
/kan/

As good as gold. As soon as possible.

Look at that. All at once.

We can try. Can anyone join?

In the following exchanges, stressed. Listen:


A

function words

as, at, and can are reduced or


B

Is that as good as this? Can you be ready by nine?

Not as good, but almost. I'll see if I can.

If you can, let me know.


T ell

me where it's at.

It's at the end of the street. No,

Near the corner?

at the corner.

are, or, for, your - Listen to these function words reduced:


./ ar /

/far/

Yes or no? Twofor one.

/ar/

/jar/*

These are fine. What's your name?

Repeat the following:


/ar/ /far/

One or the other. What's for dinner?

/far/

It's for you.

/jar/*

Are those your keys?

* /j/:

IPA symbol for the sound usually spelledy.

(Section 7)

4.7

The COMPREHENSIVE American Accent Guide


In the following exchanges,
A How about Tuesday or Wednesday?....... Are these fine? Is this from your friend? How was your day?

are, or, and for are reduced or stressed.


B

Listen:

No, just one: Tuesday or Wednesday. They

are, but those are better.

No, it's for my friend. Fine, and yours?

was

Listen to this function word reduced:


/waz/

What was that? Was that interesting?

Repeat:
/waz/

Who was there? That was thoughtful. Was that part of the agreement?

Listen to was reduced and stressed in this dialogue:

Who was at the conference? ............... I was. I thought you were out of town. ................. I was, but I got back on time.

will

Listen to this function word reduced:


/wal/ /wal/

It will rain.

What will happen?

Repeat:
When will that be? Who will know? Will that be okay?

Listen to will reduced and stressed:


Will you be there? I will, but I don't know what time.

4.8

Rhythm
could, should, would
Ikedl

Listen to these function words reduced:


Ifed/* Iwedl

It could rain.

We should ask.

I would not ask.

Repeat:
What could happen? Who should attend? Would that matter?

Listen to could, should, and would reduced or stressed in this dialogue: Would you like to go? ........... I would, but I should finish this. You could finish later. But I would miss the deadline. That could be a problem. It would be.

If I : IPA symbol for the sound usually spelled sh. (Section 6)

that

This word can serve as an adverb that indicates reference, word. As an adverb it spoken fully, as in:

or as a function

That one.

I doubt that.

As a function word, that is normally reduced. Listen:


15etl 15etl 158tl

I know that it's right.

I heard that you called.

Tell me that it's okay.

Practice that as a reduced function word. Repeat:


I doubt that I'll go. I'm glad that you're happy.

I hope that everyone I heerd that everything

makes it. went well.

4.9

The

COMPREHENSIVE

American Accent Guide

Listen to that stressed and reduced in this dialogue:

That's the book that I read. Do you recommend that I read it? I think that you would like that one better.

to, you

Listen to these function words reduced:


Ital

Easy to do.

Ijal

You have to try it.

Repeat:
Ita I

Ready to wear. Easy to forget.

Ijal

Will you go? Were you there?

Listen to the words to and you reduced and stressed:

Are you going to the party?................. I want to..

Yes, are you going? Hope to see you there.

do, does, did These words can serve as verbs or as helping verbs. As verbs, they are spoken clearly with the vowel pronounced fully, as in: They do accounting. She does computer graphics. I did my paperwork.

As helping verbs, do, does, and did are normally reduced. Listen:
Ida/ Idaz/ Idldl

What do you need?

What does it mean?

When did it start?

Practice do, does, and did as helping verbs. Repeat:


What do they want? How did that happen? Where does it belong? Where did the time go?

4.10

Rhythm
Listen to do, did, and does reduced or stressed in these exchanges:
A B

Do you know what I mean? Does she agree with you?

. No, what do you mean? . Yes, she does agree with me. . They did.

Did they complete the assignment?

Simplifying

Consonants
are often omitted or not spoken clearly,

In some function words, certain consonants as in the function words that follow.

and

This conjunction
landl

is often pronounced

landi, as in:
You and I.

Nice and easy.

Before a consonant,

the d in and is often not clearly pronounced


rock 'n roll.

as in,

Ian I

Now and then.

Practice reducing and in these antonyms. Repeat:


Hot and cold. Good and bad. Night and day. This and that. Stop and go. Before and after.

In this dialogue, and is spoken reduced or stressed. Listen: Would you like soup or salad? ........................ I'd like soup and salad. What kind of dressing? ........................ Oil and vinegar. What to drink? Coffee with cream and sugar. And for dessert, we have cake or ice cream. ......................... I'll take cake and ice cream.

4.11

The

COMPREHENSIVE

American Accent Guide

of The preposition spelled o.f. is pronounced lavl, unlike the preposition spelled o.t.i. which is pronounced laf/. In the word of, the f is often not clearly pronounced when it is before a consonant, as in,
lal Lots of luck. lal It's kind of nice.

Repeat these phrases:


le, ev!

Ie, evl

t, evl

Out of date. Out of order.

One of each. All of a sudden.

Most of the time. One of the best.

have, has, had These words serve as verbs or as helping verbs. As verbs, they are pronounced clearly, as in:
We have plans. Tom has to know. Teresa had

a great time.

As helping verbs, have, has, and had are normally reduced, with h omitted.

Listen:

lavl What have you been up to?

lazl Tom has gone to work.

ladl Teresa had arrived.

Repeat these sentences:


I might have known. What has happened? They had already left.

In these exchanges,
A

have, has, and had are reduced or stressed. Listen:


B

Who had applied? Who has change for a dollar? Has Sheila made an appointment?

. . .

She had. I have it. She has one tomorrow.

4.12

Rhythm
In the following dialogue, listen to have as a verb or as a helping verb:
Have you made plans? .................... Yes, we have a commitment. We'll have to try another time. ................... We have the following week open.

he, him, his, her, hers These pronouns are often spoken with the h silent, as in:
ler] Give her this copy. JImJ Tell him I'll call him later.

Repeat these sentences:


Tell her hello for me. I'd like to meet her. I just saw him. Do you know him well?

In this dialogue, listen to him reduced or stressed:


I ran into Robert. ....................... Where did you see him? Dan.

I saw him downtown with his brother ....................... Dan?

I haven't met him.

them

This word is normally reduced in two ways. Listen:


lOamI lam I

Get th/m. Check thm

. out.

. .

Get 'em. Check 'em out.

Practice them reduced two ways. Repeat:


lOamI laml

Who has them now? Do we need them? Give them to me. . Take them

. . . .

Who has them now? Do we need them? Give them to me. Take them.

In this dialogue, them is reduced and stressed. Listen:


Which of them do you like? ...................... ...................... I like them, over there.

Would you like to try them on? Not necessary, I'll take them.

4.13

The

COMPREHENSIVE

American Accent Guide

Practice applying articles:

In the fo !lowing sets, er)'tet;ltlle al?prQ;pt;iate phrases. Then say pothpprases. . one boringone. 1) _late bus. - ~early bus. 4) _ open door, - _,qloed d09[" g. - _ weS'twiog. 2) _ down side. - _ up side. 5) _ did ope. 'o'k- new one, 3) _ entrance. - _ exit. 6) ...4, end; -...4, beginning, ~ 9) ,.- question. - uanswer,
. _

'w

Correct: 1) A late bus. - i\u eatly bus. 2) A down up side. 3) An entrance. exit.

1) 1 brought _ a.\?ple1 2) r need __ pe.neil, ~. 3) I want)! 4) 1 saw ~


Correct;

.'_

er
.

red ""-':.2_~ elephani;! -+-

1) I brought an apple, a pear, and a 2) I need a pencil, an 3) I'want a red one, an 4) I saw an elephant, a tiger,and it

e .

Practice reducing function wordsi

the following sentences b~pome analogies when, the' aPl?{ Complete each analogy and the:\! say ilil.as ydUnractice example:
Puppies iartel dogs, asJdt.tens la Winter IlZte/ cold as 8zim'f1Ui!r tl:Z

is to dark as day_, south as east_. 3) Ears are to hearing as eyes_, 4) The'moon is to night as the sun_. 5) Hunger is to food as thirst __ . 6) Girls are to women as boys_.
1) Night 2)

Nottn t to

Last word: 1) light 2) west 7) near, 8) hands

4.14

Rhythm
Practice reducing function words: Practice reducing the function word and as you name two each ofthe following. For example:

Sports:

Swimming fen! soccer. 5. 6. 7. 8. flavors pf ice cream Seasons of the year. Days of the week. Months of the year.

1. C%rsw 2. Numbers Onder 10. 3. kinds of pets. 4. kinds of fruit.

Circle the function words in the following sentences. Then say each sentences with the function words reduced. 1. The sky is blue. 2. How was it? 3. The big house on the corn er is mine. 4. Why don't you tell me abotlt1t. 5. What wililrappen next? 6. What do you think of that?
4

7. Put it on the table. 8. What time is it now? 9. Nine is my lucky number. 10. That is one of a kind. 11, Should I try now, or later? 12. It's close to the end.
7. Put ~ table. 8. What time i.s.it now? 9. Nine is m lucky number. 10. That is.one.of.a.kind. 11. ShmJJ.dl try now, mlater? 12. III close ~ end.

Correct: 1. The sky is blue. 2.How~ 3. The big house ~ corner is mine. 4. Why don't ~ tell me about it. 5. What Mll happen next? 6. What ~ think Qf that?

REDUCED

WORD GROUPS - Final t followed by y is often pronounced

Combining Consonants
/tJa/*

ItJ!, as in,

Wonuou?

Why

can 'U!.ou?

Final d followed by y is often pronounced

/d3/, as in,

Didyou?
Repeat these sentences:
/tJa/

Woutdxou go?

/d3e/

Don 'U!.ou think so?


Aren t.so interested? Do whatyou want.

Couldyou please? Where didyou go? Wouldyou like to dance?

Now say sentences with both reductions:


Where

Wouldyou, or wouldn 'tyout didyou putyour keys?


Wouldyou
let me know whaLJ!,OU want?

* /tJf : ** /d3/:

IPA symbol for the sound usually spelled ch. (Section 6) IPA symbol fot the sound usually spelledj, or g. (Section 6)

I
4.15

The

COMPREHENSIVE

American Accent Guide

Listen to both reduced and stressed forms in these exchanges: What did you think of the play? .................... I thought It was great. What did you think? it was fantastic!

When di~get .................... Yesterday.

your order? Today. When did you get yours?

Linking with the Tapped t - Between vowels, final t or d are usually tapped, as in: Notatall. What~abouUt?

.*

Production of the tapped t is addressed on page 5.8.

Repeat these sentences: WhatJs your name? Wait~a minute. Thatis what) heard. Where couldit be? You saidjtall. How abouta drink?

Practice the tapped t in idioms. After you hear A and B, repeat B.


A B

I'll do that later. .. Is it)mpossible? Do you think the chances are good? What do you think of it?
Common Two-Word Reductions

. . . .

Don't putitoff. Yes, it's outof the question. I wouldn't beton it. I'm crazy aboutIt.

Some function words combine into reduced phrases. In the following, the tapped t is used. Listen:
ought to got to what do

latal Igatal IWl\dal

We oughtto I've

leave soon.

got fo make the deadline. What jdo you think?

Repeat these sentences:

I've

got to go now.

What do you want us to do?

You oughtto

give it a try.

4.l6

Rhythm
Listen to these exchanges with both reduced and stressed forms:
A B

What.jdo you expect? We ought.Jo plan ahead.

Not much, and what do you expect? Yes, we ought to.

I've got_to leave soon. You've got to be kidding! What_do you mean? You just got here.

want to - /wAna/

The phrase want to is often reduced to /wl\na/, as in:


Why do you want to do that?

Want to join me?

Repeat these sentences:


We al/ want to go. I want to learn how. I don't want to miss the train. What do you want to know?

Listen to want to reduced or stressed: What do you want to do? What do you want to do? I want to go to the lecture. I want to also. going to - /gl\na/ Listen to going to followed by a noun: I'm going to the dentist.

I'm going to school.

Listen to going to followed by a verb or by a verb phrase:


What are we going to do? We're going to have to rush!

Going to followed by a noun is always pronounced /g:)11)tu/, * while going to followed by a verb or verb phrase is often pronounced /gl\na/. Repeat these sentences with the pronunciation /gl\na/:
Are you going to be home later? We're going to go somewhere. I'm going to do my best. What are you going to do next?

/rJ/ : IPA symbol that represents the consonant sound usually spelled ng. (See page 7.22)

4.17

The

COMPREHENSIVE

American Accent Guide


IgoII) tul and Igl\na/:

Repeat sentences with both pronunciations

I'm going to the City, so I'm going to take the subway. We're going to have to hurry, if we're going to the wedding.

Listen to both going to and gonna in these exchanges: Are you going to finish that today? .......................................... Yes, I am going to.

We're going to New York City. ........................................ Are you going to see any Broadway shows? Yes, we're going to see THE LION KING.

4.18

Rhythm
Practice reduced forms in questions:
Play the game Twenty Questions

Rules of the game: Two or more persons can participate. One individual thinks of a person, a place, or a thing, and the other(s) try to guess what the person, place, or thing is by asking questions. Only questions that request a response of yes or no are allowed. The goal of the person(s) asking questions is to guess correctly before asking twenty question. Apply reduced forms, Examples: /Izrtl Is it __
?

/dazlt/

Does it have

Omissions of hand t The h in he, his, her, and hers is often omitted when these pronouns connect with other words, particularly function words, as in:
IIzil

Is he your friend?

/rzarl

Is her name Diana?

Listen to this dialogue: Is he here yet? No, what time does his bus arrive? Here is his schedule. Okay, this is his arrival time.

is, does + pronoun


fIzi/ fIZIZ/ fIzar/ Where is he?

Repeat these sentences:


/dAZi/ /dAZIZ/ /dAzar/ What does he do? When does his plane leave? She does her work neatly.

What is his name? What is her fax number?

was, has + pronoun


/wAzi/ /WAZIZ/ /WAzar/

Repeat these sentences:


/hcezi/ /hcezrz/ /hcezar/

Where was he?

Has he made reservations?


Who has his phone number? She has her ticket.

Was his report ready?


What was her reason?

4.19

The

COMPREHENSIVE

American Accent Guide


Repeat these sentences:
/drdi/ /drdrz/ /drdar/

had, did + pronoun


/hCEdi/ /heedrz,' /heedar/

What had he done? He had his turn. Had her mother arrived?

When did he call?

Did his fax arrive?


Did her family visit?

will, would + pronoun


/wrli/ /wrliz/ /wrlar/

Repeat these sentences:


/wlldi/ /wlldiz/ /wlldar/

Will he be there? Will his family be there? When will her plane arrive?

Would he be interested? Would his sister know his whereabouts? Would her plans change?

The h on pronouns is pronounced to this dialogue:

when the pronoun is stressed for emphasis. Listen

I saw Paul at the hospital. .................. What was he doing there? He was visiting his father. .................. Is he a patient? No, he's an anesthesiologist.

CONTRACTED

FORMS

Standard contracted forms of English, like other reduced forms, give English speech its characteristic rhythm. With some practice, you will discover that they add ease to speaking.

am, are Practice these contracted listen again.


A B

forms. Listen to A and B, then repeat B. Then


A B

I am you are have

I'm ready

we are they are

We're on our way. They're just fine.

You're welcome.

Practice the following.


A

Listen to A and B, then repeat B. Listen again.


B

I have you have we have they have could have would have

I've been working. You've done a good job. We've been wondering about that. They've gone to lunch. We could've done more. I would've been prepared.

4.20

Rhythm
will Practice the following. Listen to A and B, then repeat B. Then listen again.
A
B

I will you will she will he will it will we will they will who will In these exchanges,
A

~ You'll soon find out. She'll look into it. He'll be here anytime. It'll be too late. We'll let you know. They'll ship it today. Who'll know the difference? in A are stressed for emphasis in B. Listen:
B

ill see you later.

words contracted

I'm not sure. .. They're delicious.. .. I've never tried those I think they've left. .. I'm sure he'll do a great job ill take the box to the car.

. . . . .

I am.

They are tasty. I have tried them. Yes, they have left. He will do a great job. No, I'LL take it for you.

is, has These are spelled and pronounced the same. Practice saying both in the following. After you hear A and B, repeat B.
A B A B

he is she is iUs that is what is where is who is

He's left She's friendly It's late That's all right. What's happening? Where's the dog? Who's applying?

. . . . . . .

he has she has it has that has what has where has who has

He's gone. She's got many friends. It's gotten late. That's got to be all right. What's happened? Where's the dog gone? Who's applied?

Practice contracting
A

is and has. After you hear A and B, repeat B.


B

Has he gone? Is he going? Is she an undergraduate? Has she finished school? Is the movie almost over? Has the movie started? Is he an adolescent? Has he matured?

. . . . . .

Yes, he's gone. Yes, he's going. No, she's a graduate student. Yes, she's graduated. No, it's just starting. It's already started.

. No, he's a grown up. . Yes, he's grown up.

4.21

The

COMPREHENSIVE

American Accent Guide


of both is and has. Repeat.

Practice sentences with contractions

It's sunny, so it's got to be warm. He's finished, so he's going home. Who's already done, and who's still working? would, had Contracted forms of would and had with a particular pronoun are spelled and pronounced the same. Practice saying contracted forms of both would and had in the following. After you hear A and B, repeat B.
A B A B

I would He would she would you would we would they would who would Practice contracting
A

I'd listen. . He'd agree. . She'd know about it. You'd want to go. . We'd be interested They'd leave early. . Who'd take it?

. I had . he had . she had . you had . we had . they had . who had

I'd listened. He'd agreed. She'd known about it. You'd already gone. We'd been interested. They'd left early. Who'd taken it?

would and had. After you hear A and B, repeat B.


B

Would you go? Had you gone? Would he take it? Had he taken it? Would she be there? Had she been there? Would I like it? Had I been told?

. . . . . . . .

Yes, I'd go. Yes, I'd gone. Yes, he'd take it. Yes, he'd taken it. Yes, she'd be there. Yes, she'd been there. I think you'd like it. I think you'd been told. We'd complain about it. We'd complained about it. They'd be disappointed. They'd been disappointed.

What would you do about it? . What had you done about it? . How would they feel? How had they felt? Practice sentences with contractions

of both would and had. Repeat:

We'd left early, so we'd be on time. I thought I'd go because I'd never been there. If you'd prefer that one, you'd better take it. In the following Listen:
A

exchanges,

words contracted
B

in A are stressed for emphasis in B.

He'd never agree to that. . I'd be shocked They'd done a good job. .

. Right, he would never agree. . I would be too. . They had.

4.22

Rhythm
BONUS EXERCISES Practice contracted forms - For each sentence, identify the two words that are contained in the contracted form. Select A, or B. is
or

has?
left. my best friend.

A
He is She is It is That is_

13
He has She has It has That has __

A
5. ~happened? 6. Where's he been? 7. Who's going?
What is Where is Who is

B
What has Where has_ Who has

1. ~already

2. ~

3. It's already here.

4. That's fine. Correct: 1) B 2) A

3) A

4) A

5) '13

6) 13

7)A

had or would?
1. J.:Q al ready seen it.
2.

A
I had Ihad __ She had They had_

B
I would I would __ she would they would_

B
he would we would who would

5.

He'd already left. like to join you. know?

he had w&had who had

J.:Q prefer

that one:

6. ~

3. ~
4.~seenit.

like that.

7. \lll.!'J.Q:.d ever

Correct: :

1) A

2) B

3) B

4) A

5) A

6) B

7) B

Practice contracted forms within reduced phrases - Change each negative statement to a negative question. Then state the question using the reduced form of the words that are underlined.
1. It isn't official.
2.~here.

5. It doesn't work.

6. He doesn't know it. 7. His phone doesn't ring. 8. ~ computer doesn't have enough memory.
5. ! dxzrnrt/ work?

3. His application isn't complete.


4. Her exam isn't on Tuesday. Questions: 1. /IZlOIt/ of.ficial? 2. /IzInr/ here? 3. ttztsva! application complete? 4. /rzmar! exam on Tuesday?

6. I dxzmr/ know It. '7. Idflz:rOIz/ phone ring?


8. IdAzmar/ computer have enough memory?

1. It wasn't fair. 2. He wasn't there. 3. His mother wasn't home.

5. It hasn't started. 6. He hasn't left. 7. His mother hasn't arrived. 8. Her class hasn't started. 5. /heeznrt/ started? .6. Ihcezni/ left? 7. !hcezmz/ mother arrived? 8. /heeznsr/ class started?

4. Her brother wasn't there.


As Questions: 1. /wAZmt/ fair? 2. !wAZnzi! there? 3. /wAzmz! mother home? 4. /wflznar! brother there?

1. It didn't rain after all. 2. He didn't get the job. 3. His bike has a flat tire. 4. Her CD player broke, As Questions:

4. 5. 6. 7.

It hadn't been cancelled. He hadn't responded. His mother hadn't arrived. Her class hadn't started.

1. I dtdnrt/ rain after all?


2. ! drdnt/ get the job? 3. Idrdmzl bike have a flat tire? 4. I drdnar / CD player break?

4. 5. 6. 7.

!hcednrtl been cancelled? Ihcedm/ responded? /heedruz/ mother arrived? /hesdnsr / class started?

4.23

The

COMPREHENSIVE

American Accent Guide

1. It wouldn't be the same. 2. He wouldn't be there. 3. It shouldn't be easy?


As Questions: 1. IWAdmtl 2. IWAdml 3. IJAdmtl be the same? be there? be easy?

4. It couldn't be complete. 5. He couldn't be on time. 6. He shouldn't be there.

4. lkAdmt/ 5. IkAdml

be complete? be on time?

6. IJAdm/ be there?

Pronunciation:

To produce the blend lanl in didn t hadn't, couldn't, wouldn't, or shouldn't, . alveolar ridge fo~ d as enasalpassage.

do tQe followio.g;:>~aceyour tougue tongue centelto direct the aitfiow th The following pronunciations

Y;~isba;rply raise the

are acceptable as well:

/drdsnt, eedent, kudsnt, wudant, judsnt/

REDUCED SEGMENTS WITH CONTRACTED FORMS The final' in a contracted form is often omitted. When a pronoun such as he or have follow, the h is omitted as well. For example, "couldn 't he" is pronounced "couldn't have" is pronounced
Ikudnil Ikudnav/

couldn't,

shouldn't,

wouldn't

+ have

The following are full pronunciations could not have should not have would not have

and reduced forms of these. Listen: . . . couldn '{ have


shouldn't have

wouldn

'I

have

Repeat these sentences with reduced forms:


We couldn't have forgotten.

It shouldn't have happened. I wouldn


'f

have done that.

4.24

Rhythm
In the following, couldn't have, shouldn't have, and wouldn't have are each spoken as reduced forms; and then they are stressed for emphasis in two ways. Listen: It couldn't have been They shouldn't have. I wouldn't have. In the following exchanges,
A B

It couldn't

have been have

It could not have been. They should not have. I would not have.

They shouldn't I wouldn't have.

listen to A and B, then repeat B.

I took care of it for you. It couldn't have been worse. Had I known that, I would have gone.
isn't, doesn't + pronoun

Oh, you shouldn't have. I agree, it could not have. I wouldn't have.

Practice these in reduced forms. Listen to A and B, then repeat B. Listen again to B.
A B

/Izamt/ /Izani/ /Izanar/ /dl\zamt/ /dl\zamz/ /dl\zanar/

Isn't it pleasant? Isn't he due back soon? Isn't her middle name Anne? Doesn 'f it make sense to you? Doesn 'f his answering machine work? Doesn 'f her hair look nice?

The following sentences contain both positive and negative reduced forms. Repeat them: Is it, or isn 't if? Does it, or doesn't it? Is he, or isn 't he? Does he, or doesn't he?
hasn't, wasn't + pronoun

Practice reduced forms of these. Listen to A and B, then repeat B. Listen to B again.
A B

/heezanrt/ /heezani/ /hffizanar/ /wl\zamt/ /wl\zani/ /wl\zanar/

Why hasn 't it been shipped? Hasn 't he picked up the phone? Hasn 't her package arrived? Wasn 'f if your turn? Why wasn 'f he there? That wasn 't her fault.

The following sentences contain both positive and negative reduced forms. Repeat them: Has it, or hasn 't it? Was it, or wasn 't it? Has he, or hasn 'f he? Was he, or wasn't he?

4.25

The

COMPREHENSIVE
didn't,

American Accent Guide


Practice these in reduced forms. Listen to A and B, then
B

hadn't + pronoun

repeat B. Listen again to B.


A

/drdnrt/ /drdni/ Idrdnar/ /heednrt/ /heedni/ /heednar/ /heednrz/

Didn't it matter at all? Why didn't he show up? Didn't her membership expire? Hadn't it occurred to you? Why hadn't he returned? Hadn't her sister called? Hadn't his family arrived?

The following sentences contain both positive and negative reduced forms. Repeat them:

Did it, or didn 'f it? Did he, or didn 't he?
couldn't, shouldn't, wouldn't + pronoun

Had it, or hadn 't it? Had he, or hadn 't he?
Practice these in reduced forms. Listen

to A and B, then repeat B. Listen again to B.


A B

/kudmt/ Ikudni/ /wudmt/ Iwudnar/ IJudmt/ IJudni/

Couldn't it be possible? tn> Couldn 't he be there? Wouldn't it be wise? Why wouldn't her car start? Shouldn't it be left alone? Shouldn't he be notified?

The following sentences contain both positive and negative reduced forms. Repeat them:

Couldn't it, or could it? Would he, or wouldn t he? Shouldn't he, or should he?
In these exchanges the responses are spoken with emphasis. Listen:
A
B

He isn't going.

. is it?

. . . . .

Isn't he? No, that is not her signature. No, he does not. Hasn't it? Wasn't he?

That isn't her signature, Doesn't he live nearby?

The package has not arrived yet. He wasn't at the meeting

4.26

Rhythm
PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER

Practice using reduced forms and contracted forms to achieve the rhythm of American English. In the following groups of exchanges, the items in A and in B each have matching rhythm. After you hear A and B, repeat B.
A B

Did you agree? Did you apply? Where had they gone? Would you have known?

. I could not agree. . I applied today. . They had gone to town. . I might not have guessed.

Wasn't that plenty? Wouldn't it matter? Didn't she make it? Hadn't he noticed?

. . . .

It isn't merely enough. It wouldn't matter at all. She didn't make it on time. He might've noticed it too.

When should we meet? When could you go? When will you call? Where should we meet?

. . . .

We can meet after lunch. I could leave in an hour. We will call you at ten. We should meet at the park.

Isn't it about complete? Isn't he a friend of yours? Wasn't she about to leave? Doesn't it belong to you?

. . . .

No, No, No, No,

they did not complete the task. he is not a friend of mine. she had just returned from there. it does not belong to us.

Did they get any help? Do you need any more? Are you ready to start? Are you planning to go?

. . . .

They did it all by themselves. We've got enough for a week. I'm going to start in a while. I'm sure we'll go if we can.

Where did you learn to dance? What are you doing next? When would she like to start? Why did you stay at home?

. . . .

I learned to dance in school. I'll have to get a job. She plans to start today. I stayed at home to rest.

What are your plans for summer? What do you want to study? . When do you think you'll do that? Why don't you try to call them? ...

I plan to go to school. I want to study math. I think I'll start in June. I'll have to look them up.

4.27

The

COMPREHENSIVE

American Accent Guide


Exercise

Conversational

Practice the rhythm patterns you have learned in this section. Repeat both speakers in the following conversation.

So... got any suggestions for lunch? Anywhere you want to go is fine with me. How does Middle Eastern food sound? Didn't we have that last week? Yeah, I guess we did. How about that sandwich shop down the street? Well, last time I went there, we couldn't find a seat, and I have way too much work to do to wait. Okay, How does Thai food strike you? I'm really in the mood for curry. Gee. Thai food doesn't sit well with my sensitive stomach. So... got any suggestions for lunch? Anywhere you want to go is fine with me.

4.28

THE ENGLISH CONSONANTS

CD

INTRODUCTION
THE IPA SYMBOLS

TO ENGLISH CONSONANTS
FOR CONSONANTS

Following are each of the 24 English consonants and the IPA symbols that represent them. Notice that some of the symbols are identical to spellings in written English.
IPA
AS IN: SPELLINGS

Ipl Ibl ItI Idl Ikl Igl ItJI Id31 IfI Ivl 191 101 Isl Izl IJI 131 Ihl Iwl Ijl Irl II/ Iml Inl Igl

]2ay

QOY
lea gay key go chew jet fee yan think the see ~oo she beige hot way you run lie me no SIng

p,pp b, bb,pb t, tt, ed, ght, th d,dd k, c, ck,cc, ch g,gg, gh, gue ch, tch, ti, t, te, tu j, g,gg,d~ge, dge,di f, ff, ph, gh v, f, ph th th s, c, cc, sc, ps, Z Z, ZZ, s, ss sh, si, ce, ti, ci, s, ch . . si, su, g, ZI h, wh,j w, u, 0, wh y, I, U rr, rr, wr, rh

1, 11
m,mb,mn,mm n,nn,kn,pn,gn ng,ngue

5.1

The

COMPREHENSIVE

American Accent Guide


OF CONSONANTS

CLASSIFICATION

These consonants are classified by the place where they are produced and by the manner in which they are produced.
Pre Palate

Alveolar. Nasal Passage

Teeth ..

Lips .. :

. ......
..... Tongue

Tip

The Speech Structures:


Jaw

Larynx ...
Also known as the "voice box" and contains the vocal cords.

PLACE of ARTICULATION MANNER of ARTICULATION Airflow stopped and released sharply Airflow released through a constricted passage
Top Teeth & Bottom Lip Tongue Tip Top Teeth

The Lips

Tongue Tip Alveolar Ridge

ongue Blade Pre-palate

Tongue Front Tongue Center Front Palate

Central Palate

Tongue Back & Velum

Near the Larynx

p, b f,
V

t.d

k, 9

8,5

s, z

1.3 t1. d3

Airflow stopped and then released continuously Airflow released as the tongue glides

j I

Airflow released over one side of tongue

Airflow released through nasal passage

IJ

Consonants

OJ

Tongue Tip Placement

The tongue tip rests behind the bottom front teeth during most of English speech. The very back of the tongue stays in a low, relaxed position, creating a feeling of openness in the back of the mouth.
Use of Voice for Consonants

Nine of the English consonants are produced without voice. Each of these, except /h/, has a partner sound that is produced in the same place and in the same manner, but with
VOIce.

Voiceless: Voiced:

Ipl Ibl

It I Idl

Ikl Igl

If I Ivl

181 lal

Isl Izl

ISI 131

Ihl

To contrast the feel of a voiceless consonant with that of a voiced consonant, place your hand on your throat to feel the larynx as you say these word pairs:
pin - bin ten - den came - game

The vibration at your throat should be shorter in duration on the first word of each pair. This is because no voice is used for the first consonant on those words. If you stop the voice too quickly on words ending with voiced consonants, you might say one word when you mean to say another. For example:

lap instead of lab

bat instead of bad

back instead of bag

To feel the contrast between a voiceless ending and a voiced ending, place your hand on the larynx area and say these word pairs:
voiceless - voiced voiceless voiced voiceless voiced

tap at

tab add

cap bat

cab bad

nap sat

nab sad

Vibration should be slightly longer on a word that ends with a voiced consonant. You will find that producing the final consonant with voice makes the preceding vowel longer.
Page 5.16 contains more wordpairs for contrasting voiceless endings with voiced endings. Aspiration

At the beginnings of words, stop consonants are released with a slight burst of air. The sound of air produced is called aspiration. To contrast the aspiration of a voiceless sound with that of a voiced sound, hold the back of your hand close to your mouth as you say the words below. You should feel stronger aspiration on the first word of each set.
ten - den pin - bin come - gum

The COMPREHENSIVE American Accent Guide

Ipl - voiceless

Ib/-

voiced

TO PRODUCE: Stop the airflow by holding your lips

together. Then part the lips quickly to release the airflow with sudden pressure.

It! - voiceless

Id/-

voiced

TO PRODUCE: Place your tongue tip on the alveolar

ridge (the bump behind your upper front teeth) to stop the airflow. Then lower the tip sharply to release the airflow with sudden pressure.

Ikl - voiceless
TO PRODUCE:

Ig/-

voiced

Raise the back of your tongue against the palate to stop the airflow. Drop the tongue quickly to release the airflow with sudden pressure.

5.4

Consonants
THE STOP CONSONANTS
The stop consonants are pairs of sounds that are produced in the same way except that one is voiceless and the other is voiced. They are:

Ipl pit
It I ten Ikl cap

Ibl bit Idl den


191 gap

INITIAL STOP CONSONANTS

Listen to the contrast between voiceless stop consonants and voiced stop consonants. pan - ban pay - bay too/two - do tip - dip came - game cap - gap

Can you hear a marked difference between a voiceless and a voiced initial oonsonant? Listen to word pairs. You will hear one word again. Which is it? pit_ bit_
pit

ten
den

den
could

could

good _

llnsvvers:

Repeat these pairs: cave - gave coat - goat pan - ban pay - bay time - dime ten - den

After you hear A and B, repeat B.


A B

How's the weather? What kind of ring?

It's cold. It's gold.

What is a ringlet? Is it a boyar a girl?

A curl. A girl.

Is that a jacket? Is that a sheep?

It's a coat. It's a goat.

5.5

The

COMPREHENSIVE

American Accent Guide

FINAL STOP CONSONANTS

Contrast: Voiceless Endings

- Voiced Endings are not aspirated. Instead, they are released


back bag

At the ends of words stop consonants softly. Listen:


at add

cap cab

Can you differentiate between these voiceless and voiced final consonants? to word pairs. You will hear one word again. Which is it?
neat_ need

Listen

Answers:

cub

lack

need

Contrast voiceless and voiced final consonants. Repeat these word pairs as you focus on their endings.
back - bag buck - bug lap - lab knack - nag rote/ wrote - road set - said

Which ending is longer, the voiceless or the voiced?

Contrast voiceless with voiced endings in these sentences. Repeat:


I'll be right back. It sat on my @Q. Look under the mat. The room looks neat. The sun has set. What's in the bag? She works in a lab. Don't get mad. What did you need? It's what you said.

Complete each set of sentences You will hear a model after.


A

to contrast their endings. Upon hearing A, say B.


B
A

He wore a blue A laboratory is called a _ It's not good, it's _ I sleep in a_ We went for a long _

cap. lab. bad. bed. ride.

He took a taxi The napkin is on my _ In baseball, you use a _ A gamble is a _ Left is opposite of _

cab. lap. bat. bet. right.

Consonants
Practice using voiceless and voiced endings. Listen carefully to these statements and answer the questions. You will hear a model after each response. He left his cap in the cab.
What did he leave? Where? His cap. In the cab.

He carried a bag on his back.


What did he carry? Where?
A bag.

On his back.

They found the rag on a rack.


What did they find? Where? The rag. On the rack.

Abe sat down and watched the ape.


Who sat down? What did he watch? Abe. The ape.

They will write and then go for a ride.


What will they do first? What will they do next? Write. Go for a ride.

MIDDLE STOP CONSONANTS

A middle voiceless consonant is aspirated when it begins a stressed syllable. Listen for a contrast:
appear - upper upon - open occur - acre become - backup

Practice aspirating middle stop consonants.


appear - appearance appeal - appealing account - accounting Middle

Repeat:
become - becoming occur - occurring contain - containing

t and d

The Glottal Stop - Middle t followed by n is produced as a glottal stop. This sound is made by stopping the airflow at the larynx and then releasing it quickly, as in "button." Listen to the contrast between aspirated t and the glottal stop.
attain - eaten contain cotton retain - written

5.7

The

COMPREHENSIVE

American Accent Guide


button - buttoning sweeten - sweetening

Listen to the glottal stop in word pairs:

Repeat these words: fatten - fattening lighten - lightening tighten - tightening

Repeat these words and sentences: button certain witness........ fattening lightening Push the button. I'm not certain. Was there a witness? Those sweets are fattening. When there's thunder, there's lightening.

The glottal stop is occasionally used for t at the ends of words. For instance, one side of a phone conversation might sound like this: What? I hope not. Was it? Where at? What's that? Oh, that one.

The Tapped T - Between vowels, t and d are sometimes produced as the tapped t. This sound is made by tapping the tongue tip across the alveolar ridge. It is identical to the r sound in many languages, as in "vedy nice" for "very nice." Listen to the contrast between the tapped t and the aspirated t or d:
tapped aspirated tapped aspirated

eating adding

- attend - adapt

mating auto

- maintain - adore

Listen to words that sound the same because both t and d are produced as the tapped t. atom - Adam heating - heeding liter - leader matter - madder

Practice words that contain the aspirated t or d as well as the tapped t. Repeat: potato total tomato data tutor dating

5.8

Consonants
LINKING:
STOP CONSONANTS with VOWELS

Final t and d are produced as the tapped t when they occur after a vowel and are followed by another vowel. Listen:
Who wrote the letter?........ Who rode the bus? Who set the table? Who said that? . We

wrote.It,

We rode Jt. We

setIt.

We sald.jt.

Practice the tapped t in sentences. After you hear A and B, repeat B.


A B

Are you ready? Should I total it? Is the report ready? Did you like the joke? Did you have plans? Your efforts were rewarded Did you decide?

. . . . . .

No, wait~a minute. Yes, add.Jt up. It~is ready. I didn't geUt. No, we plaved

It by ear. thouqhtjaboutIt.

Yes, they paidjoff,

. I haven't even

As you listen to the following dialogue, mark the t's and d's that are produced as the tapped t.
A B

What do you need from the store? See you later. What is it? Is that everything?

I made out a list. Here it is. Wait a minute, I thought of something else.

We need potatoes, lettuce, tomatoes, and avocados. Oh yes, we need cat litter too.

The tapped t shown in bold letters:


What....do you need from the store? See you later. What is it? Is that everything? I madeout;a list. Here it.Js.

Wait....a minute, I thought....of something else. We need potatoes, lettuce, tomatoes and avocados.

Oh yes, we need cat litter too.

5.9

The

COMPREHENSIVE
LINKING:

American Accent Guide


STOP CONSONANTS with VOWELS

A final consonant other than t or d is linked to a vowel as though it begins the next word. Listen, and focus on the responses:
Ipl Ibl

What's on the table?.

The cap js.


Ik/

What's in the street?..

The cab js.


191

The door is unlocked... I'll lock jt,

Write down the time. ..

I'll logJt.

PARAPHRASE - Practice linking. hear both, repeat B.


A

Items in A and B have similar meanings.


B

After you

Squeezeit. Tastethe drink. . Sendthe packages. . Pretend you know how Takea quick look. .

. Grip_it. . Sip.Jt. . Ship.jhern. . Fake_it. . Take_a peek.

This time, after you hear A, state the response in B. Listen to the models after.
A

Cut it up. . Tradeit for another. Embracethem. . Inspect it.

. . . .

Chop jt. Swap jt. Hug fhem. Checkitout.

LINKING:

CONSONANTS

- CONSONANTS

Avoid adding an extra vowel between consonants. The result can dramatically change meaning. Listen: Add numbers. - Add a number. Take turns. - Take a turn. Type papers. - Type a paper. Wrap gifts. - Wrap a gift.

In English speech, identical consonants between words are produced as one. Listen: Good_day. WhaCtime? The topjprioritv,

Take.jcare,

5.10

Consonants
To link different stop consonants, on the other hand, hold the airflow on the first one and release it on the second. Listen: big~time. Practice linking consonants in these compound words. Repeat: backQack hoLctog notebook
popcorn

feedback we.b.p.age

Practice linking stop consonants in sentences. After you hear A and B, repeat B.
A B

Who did the driving? . We took..turns. Which one do you want? . I'll take.jboth. Were you the photographer? . Yes, I took.pictures. Is it a kitten? . No, it's a big~cat. They look like football players. .. . Yes, they're big~guys.

The Suffix -ed forms past tense verbs and adjectives. For example: past tense verB:

THE SUFFIX -ed Stop Consonants + Suffix -ed

adjective:

The furnace heated the building. The apartment pool is heated.

The suffix -ed is pronounced ladl after tor d, for example:


want - wanted need - needed date - dated

The suffix -ed is pronounced ItI after voiceless consonants and Idl after voiced consonants, for example:
Ik, ktl Ig, gdl

back - backed bag - bagged

Ip, ptl Ib, bdl

rope - roped robe - robed

EXCEPTIONS - In the following adjectives, the ending -ed is

pronounced lad/:

crooked jagged

naked

ragged

wicked

Can you hear the suffix -ed clearly? Listen to word pairs. You will hear one word again. Which is it? beg _ begged_ talk talked tap _ tapped_ rob_ robbed
Answers: talk tapped begged rob

5.11

The COMPREHENSIVE American Accent Guide


Contrast: Voiceless

-ed -

Voiced

-ed

Pay attention to the lengths of the vowels in the following word sets. Listen:
Iptl Ibdl Iktl Igdl

mopped napped -

mobbed nabbed

backed - bagged locked - logged or the voiced endings?

Which sound longer, the voiceless,

Repeat these words:


Itedl Idadl Iptl

noted rented wanted

added loaded needed

dipped dropped stopped

Iktl

Ibdl

Igdl

knocked looked talked

nabbed robbed sobbed

begged hugged tagged

LINKING: Suffix -ed to Vowels: Practice linking the suffix -ed to vowels. After you hear A and B, repeat B.
A ladl B

Were they on time? Did you share? Will she be there? Did the audience like it? It broke. Did you take it with you?...

No, we waited.and waited for them. We dlvlded.It equally. We tnvlted.her; They dapped.,a lot. Who droppedIt? No, I shlpped.jt.

Iptl

Ibdl

The bathtub looks clean. ... I scrubbed.Jt. Did you change your mind? Did you ring the doorbell?.. Is the VCR ready? The TV is not working. Did they boast? Yes, I backedout. No, I knockedon the door. Yes, it's hooked.jup. Is it pluqqed In? Yes, they braqqedja lot.

Iktl

Igdl

5.12

Consonants
LINKING: Suffix -ed - Consonants - Practice linking the suffix -ed with consonants in responses. After you hear A and B, repeat B.
A B

How long did you wait? Did you like it there? How did they look? Which one did you like? What did you think? How much weight did you lose?

. . . . . .

I waitedtwo hours.

I hated.to leave.
They lookedtired, I likedboth. They lookedqreat, I droppedten pounds.

r.. rrt

The suffix -ed is not pronounced precisely when if'is linked to another consonant. Eorif1ailec[ the sounds very rnuchljl$:e mqil the in the following sent
/ already mailed the letter. I will mail the letter.

The suffix. -ed is not heard at all when it is linked to tor d. For example: talked to sounds identical to talk to in the following sentences:
I talked to her yesterday I talk to her every day

SYNONYMS

Practice the suffix -ed on groups of verb synonyms. Repeat each word:
1. arrested - detained - captured - apprehended

2. 3.
4. 5. 6.

bet - gambled expected found

- risked -

- speculated anticipated - contemplated

- awaited -

- detected -

located

- discovered - reminisced

remembered ordered

recalled -

- recollected demanded

- required - sampled

- r.equested

7. tested

- inspected

- examined - triumphed

8. succeeded

- accomplished

- prevailed

BONUS EXERCISES Compare the lengths of vowel sounds - In each set that follows, circle the word that contains the longer vowel or diphthong sound.
1. bid - bit 2. mate - made 3. wake - way Answers: I. bid 2. made 3. way 4. safe - save 5. house - how 6. bite - buy 7. my- might 8. lack -lag 9. feet - feed 10. been - bean 11. mutt - mud

12. said - set


10. bean II. mud 12. said

4. save 5. how 6. buy

7.my 8. lag 9. feed

5.13

The

COMPREHENSIVE

American Accent Guide

Compare the lengths of voWel sounds -ill (}I~hset ihat follows, one wcftd has a voiceless ending, and the other has a voiced ending. Which of the two words is spoken with a longer vowel?
1. mate

made

5. lied 6. locked 7. pig 8. (apped_


3. sighed 4. robed 5. lied 6. logged

2. hack 3. sight

r.
made

hag sighed_ robed


2. hag

light logged_ pick

8. tabbed

4. roped _
Answers:

tabbed
7. pig

Review the vowel sounds- Say the following words aloud as you practice pronouncing the stop consonants with different vowels.
Ipl Ibl
It I

Idl

Ikl

Igl

Iii
III

lei letl lre/


fA! 101

loul lu/ lul lal/ laul

pea pin pet pay pass pun pot post pull pooch pie pout

belbee bin/been bet bay bass bun ball boast bull booth by/bye/buy about

team tip ten tame taR ton taught toe/tow took to/too/two ~ie tout

deem dip den dame ~afl done dot doe/dough do/due die/dye doubt

keep kid kept came cab come caught/cot coat could cool kind cow

geese give guest game gab gum got goat good goose guJde gown

Practice the suffix -ed


SYNONYNS -

In each the following word groups, all of the words are synonyms, except one. Say all the words and state which one is ,o,otsimi}a:rin mealJ,mgto tue others.
,@

1. arrested - detained - talked - captured - apprehended 2. bet - awaited - gambled - risked - speculated 3. expected - awaited - rejected - anticipated - contemplated 4. found - detected - located - ordered - discovered 5. looked - reme~bered - tecalle~ - recoyected -J~minisced 6. ordered - requited - demandE1g-requested - answered 7. tested - started - sampled - inspected - examined 8. succeeded - stopped - accomplished - prevailed - triumphed 9. believed - demanded - accepted - understood - concluded
The different word; I. talked 2a 6. answered 7.s 3. rejected 8~sttlpped 4. ordered 9. ~Emanded 5. looked

5.14

Consonants
Practice the suffix -ed: The following sentences are either in the present or in the future tense. Change the verb to past tense and state the sentence. Remember to link the suffixed -ed to the sound that follows it.
1. I like everything about it. 2. I will thank everyone. 3. 4. We will look everywhere. I arrive on time. 7. The bus will stop here. 8. I will pick up the phone. 9. We investigate the problem.

10. She will finish early. 11. The police will arrest him. 12. She will invite all her friends.

5. I intend to call my parents. 6. As l. 2. 3. 4. They work hard to finish the job.

to Past Tense: I likedeverything about it I thankedeveryone, We lookedeverywhere, I arrived on time. 5. I intend~ _to call my parents. 6. They worked _hard_ to finish the job.

7. 8. 9. 10. I I. 12.

The bus stopped _here. I pickedup the phone. We investigatedthe problem. She finishedearly, The police arrestedhim. She invitedall her friends.

Practice irregular past tense verbs: The following sentences are either in the present or in future tense. Change the verb to its irregular past tense form and then state the sentence.
1. I think it is right. 2. I take the morning train. 3. I will bring you flowers. 4. I find the right street. 5. She will go to that college. 6. The kids run all the way to school .. 7. We wiil buy

new computer.

8. We drive carefully.

As Irregular Past Tense: I. I J;bQygb! it was right. 2. I took the morning train. 3. I broyght you flowers. 4. I found the right street.

5. She ~ to that college. 6. The kids ran all the way to school. 7. We bought a new computer. 8. We ~ carefully.

Practice the suffix oed in conversational speech: Tell about events in your day. Use regular verbs that require suffix -ed as well as irregular verbs. For example: "I walked to the bus stop and waited about ten minutes for the bus. dropped checked me off at the library. out some books ...." There, I studied, The bus and

I looked up information,

-------

----

------

5.15

The COMPREHENSIVE American Accent Guide


MINIMAl:: PAIRS
of

F~ALSTOPCONSONANTS
P. b
cap - cab cup - cub flap - flab gap - gab lap -lab loop -Jube mop - mob nap - nab gup - pub slop - slob sOI1- sob tap - tab swap - swab

Pip - rib
rope - robe slap - slab

t, d
at - ad/add ate - aid/aide bat - bad beat/beet-bead bet - bed bit - bid brat - Brad bright - bride brute - brewed but - bud coat - code cot - cod k,g back - bag buck - bug clock - clog Dick - dig duck - Doug dock - dog flack - flag flock - flog pt, bd roped - robed looped - lubed mopped - mobbed napped - nabbed ripped - r12bed roped - rmled
,,,: .)@

cute - cued fat - fad fate - fade float - flowed fright - fried gloat - glowed grate/great - grade hat - had heat - heed mate - made/maid oat - owed pat - pad

rate - raid rTghtlrite/write - ride rot - rod rote/wrote - road/rode sat - sad seat - seed set - said 'W!lght/site- slde/sighErd slight - slide slit - slid state - stayed straight - strayed

suit - sued suite/sweet - Swede tight - tide/tied tote - toad trait - trade trite - tried wait/weight - wadelweighed wef-wed wept - webbed wheat - weed/we'd white - wide

frock - frog hack - hag Jack - jag jock - jog knack - nag leak - league lack -lag lock - log

luck - lug peck - peg pick - pig pluck - plug rack - rag Rick - rigt' sack - sag shack - shag

smock - smog snack - snag stack - stag tack - tag* tuck - tug 'W' whack - wag wick - wig

swapped - swabbed tapped - tapped

kt, gd backed - bagged bucked - bugged flocked, - flogged lacked - lagged locked - logged plucked - plugged sacked - sagged snacked - snagged ed/tG!lt~gg~tl tucked - tugged whacked - wagged

5.16

Consonants

SILENT SPELLINGS

Spellings p, b - These are not p}.;onounced it} the following words:

bome' clirnJ{ corni1' crumb' dem

douJ<rl dume' larni1' lim){ nurnl1'

thumJl tome' wom){

cOW~ coup psalm psyche plurnaer plumJoflng psychic recei,fft sueite

cupboard
pneumonia j1'seudonym psychologist psychology

Spellings

t, d - These are not pronounced in the following words:


filleY gourmeY rapport valet fa s/e n hasren lis;en moisren offen soften mustn't brisjle cas)1e morYgage Chrisjfnas nanasorne han!ikerchief Weclnesday wrestle

ballet bouquet buffe)"

debur'
depoY

hustle
whistle

Spellings k,

c, g - These are not pronounced in the following words:


li)lht mi~t ni.'t ou~t rei~ ri~t si~ si~t sou~t tault thougfit wei~ wei~t wrou,9'f1t aliin fprei.t aIi,lment arraipnment assi.'ment consi~ment desi,ler

bou~t bri~t brou~t cau~t drou~t fe~ fipht fou9"t hei~t hi~ ~ack Jlnee Jlnock

ass~ 'nowledge ben~n rnusple carnpaigf sovereijm champagne Gonsiin desi)in distrau,9'f1t Indiyf malii resi~ toni~t

J<hOW

5.l7

The

COMPREHENSIVE

American Accent Guide


CONSONANTS

CONTINUANT

The sounds that follow in this section are produced with continuous airflow.

Keep your tongue flattened, as you raise its sides against your upper side teeth. Place the flattened tongue tip below the upper front teeth, allowing a passage for the airflow.
TO PRODUCE:

The airflow must be continuous. If you are placing your tongue tip below the top teeth but are still producing a s~und that is. more Ilk~ It! Qr Id~\.you are.stopping the airflow. To a'old'this, Ibwerthe tiP sufficiently. ' Try the following technique: Place the tongue tip low enough to produce the sound Ihl, and then raise it gradually uritil'you are producing 19t. Practiced!on the words below. Say them at first with the Ihl sound, and then gradually raise the tip until you are saying them with 10/. While you do this, hold the back of rour hand close to yeur mouth '80 that you can casSellethat the air is flowing between the tip and upper teeth.

lei - voiceless

lal - voiced

Fe'Y if:nglish wo~ds cO'ntain1he sounds 10, 51. Som~ of these words, nowev,er, are used very frequently, including;
W

the, this, that, these, those, they, than, then, and thank.

5.18

Consonants
lei lal

thin, thank then, that

Contrast: lei - It I Can you differentiate between these sounds? Listen to word pairs. You will hear one word again. Which is it?
thank_ thick Answers: tank_ tick_ thank tick bath_ booth bath bat_ boot_ booth

Say the following words to contrast the 181 and It! sounds. Remember that the airflow is continuous for /8/, while stopped for It/. Repeat:
thought - taught thread - tread thin - tin threw/throuqh three - tree with - wit true both - boat faith - fate math - mat

See page 5.24 for more practice words that contain the sounds 161 and It/.

Now repeat these words and sentences:


thank - tank thick - tick bath - bat booth - boot Whom should I thank? The fog is thick I took a hot bath Where's the phone booth? . . . . I filled up the tank. It's a loud tick. Is that a bird or a bat? Where's the other boot?

Try sentences with both /e/ and /t/. Repeat, and then listen again.

Is it one tree, or three?


We both went on the boat.

Thank you for filling the tank.

Is it true you are through?

..

5.19

The

COMPREHENSIVE

American Accent Guide

Practice contrasting the 181 and It I sounds. After you hear A, say the correct response in B. You will hear a model after.
A B
A

It involves numbers. . . Short for Matthew. .. . It's an idea. .. Past tense for teach. The upper leg. .. Short for necktie. .. . . . .

Math. Matt. A thought. Taught. The thigh. Tie. A booth. A boot. Death. A debt.

A washing It's used in baseball. It's a number A tall woody plant. Opposite of thick. . A kind of metal. One and the other. . A water craft.

. . . . . . . .

A bath. A bat. Three. A tree. Thin. Tin. Both A boat.

A kind of enclosure. .. .. You wear it on your foot. No one can avoid this. .. A liability. .. .

Contrast: lal - Idl Can you hear the contrast between the 101 and Idl sounds? Listen to these word pairs. You will hear one word again. Which is it?
there then dare den den they _ breathe day breathe day_ breed

Answers: there

Remember that the airflow is continuous for 101, while it is stopped for Id/. Repeat:
those - doze though - dough lather - ladder soothe - sued

Now say these words and sentences. Repeat:


then they den day Now or then? Leave it there. Who are they? I need those. It's in the den. Do you dare? Have a nice day. A nap is a doze.

there - dare those - doze

Practice both 101 and Idl in sentences. Repeat, and listen again.
I then went to the den. They took one day.

t:n>

Did you say dose or those? I don't dare go there.

5.20

Consonants

Contrast: 161 - Isl Can you differentiate between 181 and Is/? Listen to these word pairs. You will hear one word again. Which is it?
faith face force faith force thank thing_ thank sank sing_ thing

forth/fourth Answers:

Repeat these word pairs:


mouth - mouse tenth - tense think - sink thought - sought thumb - some/sum worth - worse

Repeat these words and sentences:


forth - force thawsaw worth - worse thing - sing thumb - sum He paced back and forth. To melt is to thaw. .. How much is it worth? That is a good thing. .. .. Press with your thumb. . . . . It hit with force. That's not what I saw. It couldn't be worse. I heard the chorus sing. The total is the sum.

Practice both 181 and Isl in sentences. Repeat, and listen again.
It's no sin to be thin. I think it's in the sink. There's something on my thumb. ~

After you hear A, state the correct response in B. You will hear a model after.
A B A B

It's part of the hand.... The total. It means narrow. A wrongdoing. The date after the third. It means power.

The thumb. The sum. Thin. A sin. The fourth. Force.

Opposite of thin. He's ill. Another name for object. _ What a choir does. It's below the nose. It's by the computer....

Thick. He's sick. Thing. Sing. The mouth. The mouse.

5.21

The COMPREHENSIVE American Accent Guide


Contrast: f()/ - /z/ Can you differentiate between these sounds? Listen to word pairs. You will hear one word again. Which is it?
breathe Answers: breeze breeze clothing_ clothing Zen closing_ then Zen

Repeat these words and sentences:


breathe clothing teethingbreeze closing teasing We all must breathe. I like the clothing The baby is teething. I feel a cool breeze. The store is closing. I was only teasing.

Practice both 10/ and Izl sounds in sentences. Repeat, and listen again.
The clothing store is closing. Breathe in the cool breeze. He then studied Zen.

Practice numbers containing the sound 18/. Repeat:

3, 13

30,333

1000, 1033

3000,3030

Sound Clusters - 18, ()I When 181 follows Inl, place the tongue tip for Inl in the same place as for 18/, with the tongue tip between the upper and lower teeth. Repeat these numbers:

In the following words, the consonant before 18, 01 is produced in the same place as 18, 01. First stop the airflow, and then lower the tongue tip quickly for 18, 01. Repeat:
eighth length width

5.22

Consonants
To produce /8/ + /s/, move the tongue tip from the position of /8/ into the position of /s/ without touching the alveolar ridge. Repeat: booths eighths fifths fourths months tenths

Practice linking /8, 51 with It! or Id/. Repeat: What~thing? Who didthat? I'll waitthere. Didthey? I wouldthank him. You might)hink that.

Practice 18, 5/ sounds in synonyms. After you hear A, say its synonym, B. Then listen to the model.
SYNONYMS A B A B

defrost disturb dirty grateful skinny an idea


ANTONYMS -

_ _ _

thaw bother filthy thankful thin a thought

arithmetic dirt religion richness dentures sports

_ _ _

math filth faith wealth false teeth athletics

Practice both /8, 5/ sounds in antonyms within phrases. After you hear A, say its opposite, B. Listen to the model after.
A

_ They're apart It's a birth. It's ours. It's either. _ My father. Is it here? They're nearer. _ Go north. Do it now.

They're together. Its a death. Its theirs. It s neither. My mother. Is it there? They're farther. Go south. Do it then.

Two sisters. I have nothing. I like those. Look at that. Very thick. Go with us. We are. What's the length? With sugar.

Two brothers. I have something. I like these. Look at this. Very thin. Go with them. They are.
-

What s the width? Without sugar.

Practice the sounds /8, 51 in a dialogue. After you hear A and B, repeat B.
A B

I think these are the best ones. No, there's another kind over there. Yes, they're the new ones. .. . .

I thought they were the only ones. Those on the right? I think those are even better than these.

5.23

The

COMPREHENSIVE

American Accent Guide


Exercise typifies the frequent use of the /8, 5/ sounds in conversational

Conversational

The following dialogue speech. Listen.

Excuse me? Do you have that in blue? ................... No, that! This? No, that right there. Just so we understand each other, is this the "that" you were referring to? That's it! But I do have a question. What exactly is the difference between this, that, and those over there? .................... That I can understand. .................... Well, it basically boils down to this: This, that, and the other. Thanks for clearing that up for me. Hey. It's this simple: That's my job. Do I have this in blue?

Practice Words with Sounds /01 & l(jl


As yo'ff'say theJ'611owJng wor~. 'r.fIowpass een 'our tonllie tip'8lld your 1;rontupl1er teeth. Hold the back of your hand close to your mouth to feel a continuous airflow;
Initial

161

thank theft thick thief thigh

think third thorn thought thumb

th uJ thi ty thirty thousand

'*ptI'IorCfugh Thursday tfiankfully thoroughly

Final & I!IU(,ldl~,al


t

booth both death eatth faith Initial & Final math moth mouth, teett1 with author ethics nOJlllnp sam-eth infji! truthful athlete bathtub phone@gooth ~Qotm;'yClsh toothpaste athletic' authentic pathetic s'hthetic

fal

\
t"'an that them there/their Middle

they this though those

by therefore therein

'bathe breathe smooth

faf

bother breathing brother clottling either father feather

mother neither other

smoothie soothing weather/whether

another together

Ieath

5.24

Consonants
BONUS EXERCISES
Identify pronunciations of the suffix -ed:

How are the endings of the following words pronounced? Select from the sounds shown above the words. od/ Iptl Ibdl /ktl Igdl 1ft! Ivdl
7. a~ted__ 8.loved __ 9.added __
[W

lodl
10. baked__ 11. laughed __ 12. bathed__

1. packed__
2. tipped __ 3. booted__
Correct:

4.~egged_ 5. robbed 6. peaked __

I. Ikt! 2. Ipt!
3. laQJ

4. Igdl

!:

~I

7. lad! 8. Ivdl

10. !ktl II. 1ft!

9. ~d1

12. Mdl

Practice the sounds leI and lat in sentences:

Below are sets of synonyms. For each item say a sentence containing both words. For example:
SYNONYMS -

"Another word for arith'me#Cfo ~lhath."

or

';4.r#hmette mea11tnf);same as math. "


B A B

1. arithmetic 2. defrost 3, dentures

math thaw false teeth filtl! '

5. dirty 6. disturb

filthy bother thankful thouglit

9. religion

faith thin athletics

10. richness wealth

4. dirt

7. grateful 8. idea

11. skinny
12. spcrts

ANTONYNS - Match each word under A with its antonym under B (The first set is matched for you). Then say sentences containing both words. For example:
"Apart is the opposite of together./'
J3

or

'

and tOfJether are"opposites. "


4 13

apart birth deposit either 5. father 6. here 7. 'bearer 8. north 9. now 10. ours 1. 2. 3. 4.

there south farther together death the' wi nelt er mother then

11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19.

sister something these thick this us th without

length that them brother with nothing those they thin

Corresponding Antonym:

1. 'together 2. death 3.with .~. sou~. tficng.ip, thei '15. that . 16. them w17. they

'r'

4. neither 5. mother 6. there 7. farther brotlitlt 12. no,thing 13. those 14. thin 18. length 19. with w

5.25

The COMPREHENSIVE American Accent Guide


TO PRODUCE: Placeyourbottom lip underyourtrontupperteeth,
allowing a passage tor a continuous Sound/t/isaspiratedwhen airflow. itbeginsa wordorastressedsyllable.

-rIf I voiceless fine, few, phone

lvl - voiced
vine, view, vinyl

Contrast:

IfI - Ivl

Can you differentiate between these sounds? Listen to these word pairs. You will hear one word again. Which is it?
face Answers: vase vase leave leaf save leave safe save

Repeat these words:


fan van rifle surface rival - service

fine - vine

Repeat these words and sentences.


vine - fine refuse - reviews leave -leaf save - safe The vine looks fine. I refuse to read the reviews. Did you leave the leaf? Save the money in a safe.

5.26

Consonants
Contrast:

If, vI - 16, (jl

Can you differentiate between /8, 5/ and If I or Iv/? Listen to word pairs. You will hear one word again. Which one is it?

Answers:

thirst

fink

vat

Repeat these words and sentences:


think - fink thirst - first these - fees that - vat Stop and think. . . . . . . . Is a cheater a fink? Do first things first. What are the fees? The big tub is a vat.

This will quench your thirst. I'll take one of these. Take a look at that!

See page 5.29 and 5.30 for more practice words on the sounds If! and Iv!

f + suffix
V

~S

'i.. /fsl

+ -suffix - s

= Ivzl

Suffix -s Suffix -s is voiceless after If I, and it is voiced after Iv/. Listen:

proofs

proves

safes -

saves

waifs

waves

Repeat these words:


laughs paragraphs photographs loves involves dissolves negatives relatives

f + suffix -ed

= 1ft{

v + -suffix - ed = /vdl Suffix -ed Suffix -ed is voiceless after If I, and it is voiced after Iv/. Listen:

laughed

loved

lift - lived

proofed -

proved

5.27

The COMPREHENSIVE American Accent Guide


Repeat the following words:
1ft! Ivdl Ivdl

coughed craft lift

lived proved shoved

behaved believed involved

Practice If I and Ivl plus -ed. After you hear A and B, repeat B.
Iftl A B

Did he find it funny? Did they work hard? Did you leave late? Was it included?

. . . .

Yes, he laughed about it. No, they goofed off. No, I left early. No, it was left out.
Ivdl

Does he still have a mustache? How was the movie? Did you have any doubt? Did the package arrive?

No, he shaved it off. . I loved it. . No, I believed it. . Yes, I received it yesterday.

Contrast:

Ivl - Ibl

For Ivl the airflow is directed between the upper teeth and the bottom lip. For Ib/, the airflow is stopped by the lips, and then released quickly. These sounds are usually pronounced as spelled. Can you differentiate between the sounds Iv/ and Ibl? Listen to these word pairs. You will hear one word again. Which is it? van_ ban
Answers: ban vest very

Repeat words and sentences to contrast Ivl with Ib/:


curve - curb veryberry Drive around the curve. I'm very thankful. He wore Park near the curb.

A berry is a tiny fruit.


Which is the best?

vest - best vet - bet vote - boat

a vest.

I took my pet to the vet. Register to vote.

A gambler likes to bet. They travel by boat.

5.28

Consonants

Words that end with -lfbecome plural by changing fto v and adding the suffix -es.

Irregular Plurals - /Ivz/

Practice the singular as well as the plural forms of words that end with If Repeat:

Ilfl

Ilvzl

/lfl

Ilvzl

self

selves shelves

himself

themselves yourselves

shelf -

yourself -

Practice Words with Sound If I


initial

If I

"\
fade fail fan fat fed

"\
fight firm fist fG)Jf1 food

"\
foot fowl/foul full fun phone

factor famous fancy favor fiction

familiar fantastic forever

final

If I

~ beef brief cough deaf

"\
laugh loaf off proof

"\
roof rough scarf surf

"\
tough safe turf wife

"\

belief relief enough

5.29

The

COMPREHENSIVE

American Accent Guide


Practice Words with Sound Ivl

initial

, ,
Ivl verse vest void vote leave live love move

valid vary/very victim visit vacuum value volume

vain/vane/vein van vault vow finallVI

, ,

, .,
alive arrive believe receive
BONUS EXERCISES

drive gave give have

prove rove shave shove

Practice contrasting the sounds Ivl and Ib/:


For each item, select the correct word from the two shown in parenthesis. Then say the sentence. Remember that both Iv! and Ib! are pronounced just as they are spelled. 1. A (ban, van) is bigger than a car. 2. 3. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Cold air came out of the (bent, vent). Did you ever (bet, vet) on a racehorse? That is not a (boat, vote), it is a big ship. He wore a (best, vest) under his jacket. What kind of (berry, very) is in that pie? The (curve, curb) is in the shape of an's', If you are sophisticated, you are (suave, swab).
boat, 6. vest, 7. berry, 8. curve, 9. suave

4. A (bow, vow) is a kind of promise.

Answers: 1. van, 2. vent, 3. bet, 4. vow,S.

Practice pronunciations of suffix -ed:


Talk about the places where you have lived or have visited. Focus on your use of: past tense verbs. For example: "J was born in __ moved to to "
in

' and lived there until I was _.

During that time, I visited __

. I

and have lived there since. In the past few years, I have traveled

5.30

Consonants
THE SIBILANT SOUNDS

TOP ROD UC E: Hold y~ur tongue tip behind your bottom teeth and place the tongue sides against the upper sides of your mouth. ,,~aise .,the front, o(the tongue toward the alveolar ridge to form a narrow passage. Direct the airflow forward continuously througrn the; passage.

Isl

voiceless

l zl - voiced

The sound 151 is similar to the hissing sound of a leaking tire .

The sound Izl is similar to the buzzing sound of a bee.

. -----------------------------------------------------------Lip Posture for

. 151
and

Izl/

~
Retract for high-front vowels, as in: see lease easy

,
s

Round for high-back vowels, as in: soon so whose/who

6.1

The COMPREHENSIVE American Accent Guide

Ifl - voiceless
she nation wish

131 - voiced
pleasure beige
In English this sound occurs onlY in the middle or at the ends of words.

Itfl

- voiceless

I d3 I - voiced
jam major edge

chew watching each

Lip Posture for

IfI, 131,Itfl, Id31

~
~'
Round the lips and project them outward slightly.

6.2

Consonants
THE SIBILANT SOUNDS
A sibilant is a sound that has a whistle-like quality. The sibilant speech sounds are pairs of sounds produced in the same way, except that one sound is voiceless and the other is voiced. The sibilants are:

151 say, so, ace Ifl


she, ship, ash chew, chip, each

Izl 131

zoo, zip, maze rouge, beige, pleasure age

Itfl

Id31 jaw,jam,

INITIAL SIBILANT SOUNDS

Can you hear the difference between different sibilant sounds? Listen to word pairs. You will hear one word again. Which is it?
sack Zach sea/see_ she_
Answers: sac she
junk

chunk_ share_

junk_ chair_

Zoe_ Joe ages_ Asia's_

Zoe Asia's

share

Contrast the various sibilant sounds. Repeat these word pairs:


sip zip chip chop zoo sign so cheap choke shine show Jeep

Sue/sue ship shop -

- joke

To practice contrasting listen again.


sane Jane

the sibilant sounds, repeat these words and sentences. Then

Not crazy, but sane. Her name is Jane.

Zach Jack seat sheet cheat

Zachary is called

Zach.

trl::>

Have you heard from Jack? I'll save you a seat. I signed the sheet. It's not fair to cheat.

chain How long is the chain? shack They live in a shack. sack Look in the sack.

6.3

The COMPREHENSIVE American Accent Guide


Practice contrasting initial sibilants in exchanges. Listen to A and B, and then repeat B.
A
B

It's below the mouth. . It's below the knee. . What kind of animal? What kind of vehicle? What's that game? Who's that? What's another word for select. What would you like to drink? Is it a difficult task? Is it a seaside? Here's a drink. .. How will you get there? Is it like this one? Is it embarrassing? I wasn't serious. .. I couldn't stop coughing. . Is it a tiny piece? Is that good stuff?

. .

The chin. The shin. A sheep. A Jeep.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

It's chess. It's Jess. Choose. Juice. Yes, it's a chore. Yes, it's a shore. I'll take a sip. I'll take a ship. Yes, it's the same. Yes, it's a shame. Were you joking? Were you choking? No it's a chunk. No, it's junk.

Listen carefully to these statements and answer the questions. You will hear models after each response. Jess was visiting, and we played chess.
Jess. Chess.

Who was visiting? What did they play?

While driving

the Jeep, she spotted

the sheep.
The Jeep. The sheep.

What was she driving? What did she spot?

Sue was late because

she had lost her shoe.


Sue. Her shoe.

Who was late? What had she lost?

He found

the chunk,

and mistook

it for junk.
The chunk. Junk.

What did he find? What did he mistake it for?

6.4

Consonants
stm"~tay
sm - smile
sk ~ sky sl - slav\! sp
w

spy

sn - snow

ISI BLENDS The consonant /s/ combines with certain other consonants to form s blends.

TOPRODUCE:As you are releasingthe airflow for /s/, form the adjoining consonant:
IstJ As you release /s/, place the tongue lip for It!. tiki As you release Is/, raise the tongue back for Ik/. 11$81, Ism! A\you releasl'l'/s/, close the lips for Ipl or for Im/ .. IslI,/snl As you release Isl, place the tongue tip for III or for In/.

Listen to words with s blends: school stop spend sleep

To produce an s blend, form the second consonant while releasing /s/. To say stand, for example, place your tongue tip in position for /t/ as you release /s/. Practice s blends. Repeat:
Istl Iskl Ispl Isml Is/I Isnl

Steve step stop

scan school sky

speak spend sport

small smell smile

slim slow slum

snap sneak snow

Refining the s Blend - Avoid adding a vowel sound before an s blend, as in "estay" for stay, or "esky" for sky. This can change meaning. Listen:
A B

What's another word for respect. What is water vapor? A facial expression Opposite of frown Repeat these responses:
A

. . . .

Esteem. Steam. A smile. Smile.

An institution of learning. Where did you go today? An opinion or position. .. Opposite of sit.. An aroma or scent. To sniff Part of a bicycle wheel. Past tense for speak. .. . . . . . .

A school. School. A stand. Stand. A smell. Smell. A spoke. Spoke.

6.5

The COMPREHENSIVE American Accent Guide


Avoid inserting a vowel in s blends. This can change meaning. Listen:

Where's the best location? Is that a pan? Who is James Bond? .. Is that a cake? Now repeat the responses:
A

That spot. That's a pot. That spy. That's a pie.

What do you find attractive? How far is that? How small is the micro chip? What is that building? What did you find in the garden? What is that sharp object?

That smile. That's a mile. That small. It's a mall. That snail. That's a nail.

\
FINAL SIBILANT SOUNDS

Contrast: Listen:

151 - Izl

hearse -

hers

hiss -

his

this - these

Which ending is longer, the voiceless or the voiced?

Can you hear the difference between the final sounds /s/ and Izl? Listen to word pairs. You will hear one word again. Which is it? lace
Answers:

lays_
lace Ms.

miss
race

Ms.

race

raise

Repeat these word pairs:


loose -lose loss -laws rice - rise this - these

6.6

Consonants
Practice final Isl and final Izl in exchanges. listen again.
A

After you hear A and B, repeat B. Then

It means location. . Broadway is famous for these. Opposite of conflict. . A kind of vegetable. . A contest. An increase in pay. . The damage They're made to protect us What made the drinks cold? What do you notice first? What are you looking for? What are you hoping for? Are they fleas? Are they true?

. .

Place. Plays. Peace. Peas. A race.

.
. . . . . . . . . . .

A raise.
The loss. The laws. The ice. The eyes. The price. The prize. No, they are lice. No, they are lies.

Frequently

Used Words Ending in Izl - The s spelling is voiced in these exchanges.

Listen:
A B

Is it? Was it? Guess whose?

. . .

It is. It was. Whose?

Listen to A and B, and then repeat B.


A B

Was, or wasn't it? Does it? Whose was that? Has he called? Was she here? Is it as old?

. . . . . .

It was. It does. It was his. He has. She was. As old as what?

6.7

The COMPREHENSIVE American Accent Guide


Contrast: Listen: crush - crutch lash - latch mash - match

III - ItII

Repeat these words: cash - catch wash - watch wish - which/witch

Practice the final /J/ and the final /tJ/ in exchanges. After you hear A and B, repeat B. Then listen again.
A B

What are you washing? What are you digging?

. .

A dish. A ditch. Mash them. Match them. Okay, I'll wash it. Okay, I'll watch it.

What should I do with the potatoes? What should I do with the socks? .... It's dirty. . Pleasetake care of this.

Contrast:

Itfl - Id31

Contrast the voiceless ending ItJI with the voiced ending Id3/. Listen: batch badge etch edge h age

After you hear A and B, repeat B. Then listen again.


A

What is a belt? What is a slight burn? I'm learning calligraphy I'm 29 years old. . That's a large wash load Is that a large button? . . . .

A cinch. A singe.

That's a good h. That's a good age. It's a big batch. It's a big badge.

J{

6.8

Consonants
Word meanings determined by voiceless or voiced endings:

Certain words can function either as nouns or as verbs. When spoken with a voiceless ending, the word is a noun. When spoken with a voiced ending, it is a verb.

Isl
noun

Izl
verb

Isl
noun

Izl
verb

abu~e - abu~e advice - advise close - close Noun Isl (voiceless) Mistreatment is abuse. .. That's a good excuse. .. ,. I need some ~ ....................... Do you have any ~ for that? I live ~ to work. .. . . ,. . .

excu~e - excu~e house - house u~e - u~e Verb- Izi (voiced) Po not abuse your privileges Excuse me. I~ you to wait. I \!ViII ~ this. Please ~ the door.

The following dialogues contain nouns (voiceless endings), and verbs (voiced endings). I asked for gdvice. .......... What kind of advice? On what to do with my life. .. What did they advise you? They advised me to think for myself. Is the store in the mall? .......... No, it's close to the mall. What time do they close? ... They close at six, and open at nine.

ladvaisl
ladvaisl /advaizl ladvaizdl

Iklousl /klouz/

Iklouzl

Contrast: 131 - Other Sibilant Sounds


Listen to words contrasting the sibilant sounds Izl and 13/:
bays beige

Now repeat:
use all usual enclose hers enclosures

Listen to words contrasting the sounds ISI and 13/:


masher measure pressure pleasure

6.9

The COMPREHENSIVE American Accent Guide


Repeat:
trash it treasure Russian Persian vicious vision

Listen to words contrasting

the sounds /d3/ and /3/:


Asia

aging

Repeat these words:


legion leisure virgin version message massage

Repeat these sentences. Then listen again.

The Persian rug is beige. Asia has many treasures.

They measured the garage. Does aging affect vision?

Grammatical Form (third person verb) (plural) (possessive) (contraction: noun + is) (contraction: noun + has)

Iz/ Voieett Vowel+z The plaintiff sues. There are.two,Stles, It's Sue's fault. Sue's home. SU~$ gon!.l home.

IZ/

Vof!ed
Consonant + z He bags groceries. Ineedtw0~, The bag's contents. The~full. The ~*beerpfilled. He~thed09 H6wmlfny~? The pefs owner. The pet's eating. The~eateri.

STOP CONSONANTS

+S

Suffix -s
Can you hear the suffix -s attached to consonants? Listen to words, once with a suffix and once without. You will hear one word again. Which is it?

caps_cap_
Answers: cap date bags

dates

date

bags_

bag_

6.10

Consonants
Contrast: Suffix

-s Voiceless

Suffix -S Voiced

The suffix -s is voiceless consonants. Listen:


backs bags

after voiceless

consonants,

and it is voiced after voiced

laps/lapse

labs

rates

raids

Note again that voiced endings are longer than voiceless endings.

To produce stop consonants + /s/, stop the airflow and then release it sharply for Is/. Listen:
ups aches its

Repeat words with voiceless endings:


tops talks tots

Now repeat words with voiced endings:


tubs tugs duds

Can you hear the difference between voiceless suffix -s and voiced suffix -s? Listen to word pairs. You will hear one word again. Which is it?

knacks
Answers:

nags_
nags robes

ropes _
fats

robes

fats

fads

Ips/-/bzl
Repeat these words to contrast the voiceless ending Ips/ with the voiced ending /bz/: To Produce: Stop the airflow for Ipl or Ibl, and then release it sharply for Isl

caps -

cabs labs

rips ropes -

ribs robes

laps/lapse

Repeat these sentences. Then listen again each time.


Perhaps they are cabs. They sell caps and robes.

tn:>

6.11

-----------------------------------

The COMPREHENSIVE American Accent Guide


Iks/-/gzl
Repeat these words to contrast the voiceless ending /ks/ with the voiced ending /gz/.

backs lacks/lax

bags - lags

bucks docks

bugs dogs

Iksl -/skl
Contrast the sound /ks/ with the sound /sk/. Can you hear the difference between words such as ax and ask? Listen to word pairs. You will hear one word again. Which is it?
ax ask
ax

bricks_
bricks mask

brisk

Mack's/Max

mask

Answers:

Repeat these word pairs: .


ax - ask Dick's - disc/disk Rick's tacks/tax risk - task

Repeat these sentences. Then listen again.


Ask at the desk. Is that Dick's compact disc? Rick's friend took a risk The task is to figure the tax.

En:>

Spelling X is pronounced voiceless as in extra, or voiced as in exactly. Spelling x as a voiceless sound. Listen:

Iksl

extra

except

extreme

Repeat these words:


lacks/lax tacks/tax whacks/wax index Phoenix Texas excess expand expense expire expose extend exciting excitement expensive

6.12

Consonants
Spelling x as a voiced sound. Listen:
/gz/

exist

existing

Note that x is a voiced sound at beginnings words:


exact exempt exactly example

of stressed

syllables.

Repeat these

exaggerate

exaggeration

Repeat sentences with both voiceless and voiced endings. Listen again to the model.

Phoenix is not in Texas. Is it tax exempt?

It's exactly what I expected. That is an excellent example.

Spelling cc is pronounced/ks/ in the following: accessory accent success

Its/-/dzl

T<rPROIUCl:: 'As/- Stopthe airflowat the alveolarridge,and then releaseit sharplyfor /s/. For IdzJ add voice.

Repeat these words to contrast endings /ts/ and /dz/:


beats/beets fats - fads beads kits mates kids - maids seats - seeds rights/rites/writes

rides

Repeat these words and sentences. Listen again to the model.

kits - kids

We need first aid kits. They're acting like kids. Should we bring our mates? Motels employ maids. We took the front seats. We planted the seeds.

mates - maids

seats - seeds

6.13

The COMPREHENSIVE American Accent Guide


Pronouncing Contracted Forms - Use the s blends to practice

contracted

forms.

After you hear A and B, repeat B.


A B

Which stall is empty? He's seven feet tall. Which character did you like? What kind of dessert is it? Which school? What's slang for "that's great"? What should we do with the boxes?.... What should we do with the rugs?

That stall. That's tall. That spy. That's pie. That school. That's cool. Let's stack them up. Let's tack them down.

SYNONYMS - Practice voiceless as well as voiced endings in synonyms. hear A and B, repeat B. Then listen again.
A B A B

After you

desires embraces

wants

hugs

permits retains

lets keeps

This time after you hear A, say B. Then listen to the model.
A B A B

baby seals dollars insects

cubs bucks bugs

Fathers helpers sacks

Dads aides bags

CONSONANT

CLUSTERS WITH /S/

Consonant clusters are groups of consonants. Listen to consonant clusters ending with /s/.

drafts

facts

waists/wastes

Note that these clusters actually sound like a double s. Listen again, casts. To practice consonant clusters with final /s/, break up words, and then put them together. Example: for feasts say "feas-ts," then "feasts." Listen:

Iftsl

Istsl

Iktsl

craf ts - crafts

lis ts - lists

fac ts - facts

6.14

Consonants
Repeat the following:
cas Is - costs tes Is - tests ac Is - acts

Practice consonant clusters in exchanges. After you hear A and B, repeat B. Then listen agam.
A B

How long is the play? Did you try? How much do I owe? What is the truth?

. . . .

It has three acts. tn> I made some attempts. Here are the costs. These are the facts.

suffixes -es, and-s are pronounced sibilant sounds.


(verb - third person singular) (plural noun)

Iz/ when added to

The supervisor bosses the crew. 1have two bosses.

Suffix

/ ez / (-es) I ezl . Listen:


George's Rich's/riches

The suffix -s attached to sibilants is pronounced


races crashes

Say words to contrast several sibilants + suffix -es. Repeat:


aces - h's - ages s's - etches - edges races - raises/razes - rages masses - mashes - matches

Repeat these words and sentences:


cashes - catches washes - watches h's - ages A bank cashes checks. He washes his car. . Handshake has two h's . . A cat catches mice. He watches TV. When were the dark ages?

Practice the suffix -es in exchanges. After you hear A and B, repeat B. Then listen again.
A B

Did you have a good weekend? . Is it a good place to work? How many languages do you speak?.. How was he punished? Why did you choose that?

Yes, we went to the races. They pay good wages. I speak two languages. He lost his privileges. It has many advantages.

6.15

The COMPREHENSIVE American Accent Guide


ANTONYMS - Practice the suffix -es in antonyms. Listen to the model after.
A B

After you hear A, say its opposite,

B.

disadvantages repairs pulls


SYNONYMS -

__ __ __

advantages damages pushes

shrinks starts throws

__

stretches finishes catches

Practice the suffix -es in synonyms. After you hear the first word, say its synonym. You will hear a model after.
A B
A

fragments sofas hugs


SYNONYMS -

__

pieces couches embraces

VOWS

__

hurries

promises rushes

Practice the different pronunciations of suffix -S in groups of synonyms that are third person singular verbs, as in "He lives there" or "She works there." Repeat:
checks prefers helps loves sleeps talks - inspects - favors - assists - adores - naps - speaks - examines - chooses - aids - dozes - treasures - discusses - investigates - selects

- picks

- supports - cherishes - communicates - snoozes

Suffix l etz! (-ize) - Practice using the suffix -ize on verbs, as you also focus on correct word stress. Repeat: critic - criticize
vandal - vandalize sterile - sterilize

emphasis - emphasize analysis - analyze

Practice the suffix -ize in exchanges. After you hear A and B, repeat B. Listen again.
A B

What is their specialty? Will you have a summary? He seems social.

They specialize in computers. Yes, I'll summarize it. He does like to socialize.

rro

Practice changing a noun to a verb by adding the suffix -ize. After you hear A, say B. Then listen to the model.
A B

real social modern scandal

realize socialize modernize scandalize

6.16

Consonants
Suffix !fan! (-tion, -sion, -cian) - Practice the suffix IIenl on nouns as you focus also on word stress. Repeat:
action caution mention addition ambition condition admission commission position permission physician technician

Practice the suffix IIenl in exchanges. After you hear A, and B, repeat B. Then listen again.
A B ~

I won a lottery. Congratulations! Why do you go to school? For an education. What does a yellow traffic signal mean? Proceed with caution. What you find in a dictionary. Definitions. The way a word is pronounced. Pronunciation. A specialist in technical work. . A technician. A person skilled in magic. A magician. A specialist in electricity. An electrician. A person engaged in politics A politician. Four basic math functions. Addition, subtraction, division,

and multiplication.

Suffix /fall (-cial, -tial) - Practice the suffix IIel1 in adjectives as you focus also on word stress. Repeat:
financial initial official artificial beneficial confidential

The B responses are paraphrases of the A statements. After you hear A and B, repeat B. Then listen again.
PARAPHRASING A B

It's a secret. It is not natural. The law has passed It's good for you It's the beginning It is economic

. . . . . .

It's confidential. It's artificial. It's official. It's beneficial. It's initial. It's financial.

Suffix Ifasl (-cious, -tious, -xious) - Practice the suffix IIezl on adjectives as you focus also on word stress. Repeat:

cautious luscious

ambitious nutritious

obnoxious suspicious

6.17

The COMPREHENSIVE American Accent Guide


PARAPHRASING - The B responses are paraphrases of the A statements. After you hear A and B, repeat B. Then listen again.
A B ~

They are bad tempered and cruel. They are very valuable. . It is roomy They taste very good. . She's polite and friendly

. . . . .

They are vicious. They're precious. It is spacious. They are delicious. She's gracious.

Suffix !3an! (-sian, -sion) -Practice the suffix !Jan! on nouns as you focus also on word stress. Repeat:

Asian fusion version

confusion explosion occasion

decision division precision

inclusion Caucasian Parisian

subdivision supervision television

PARAPHRASING - The B responses are paraphrases of the A statements. After you hear A and B, say B. Then listen again.
A B

Tell me your side of the story They are supervisors. .. The ruler is precise. .. It's a special event. He's a medical doctor. .. I have made up my mind. ..

. . . . . .

~ Tell me your version. They provide supervision. It measures with precision. It's a special occasion. He's a physician. I've made a decision.

Suffix /d38Z/ (-geous, -gious) focus on word stress. Repeat: gorgeous

- Practice the suffix /d3az/ on adjectives, as you also

courageous

religious

outrageous

PARAPHRASING -The B responses are paraphrases of the A statements. and B, repeat B. Then listen again.
A B

After you hear A

They are faithful. They are brave It is shocking! She is very beautiful.

. . . .

They are religious. They are courageous. It's outrageous! She is gorgeous.

6.18

Consonants
Suffix l estl (-est)
SUPERLATIVES

-Superlative superlatives. Repeat:


biggest fastest

means surpassing all others. Practice the suffix -est in these

highest longest

nicest strongest

noisiest sloppiest

- Practice the suffix -est in antonyms within phrases. After you hear A and B, repeat B. Then listen again. ANTONYMS
A B

The meanest person. . The quietest crowd. . The sloppiest room. .

. The nicest person. . The noisiest crowd. . The neatest room.

This time, you state the antonym. After you hear A, say its opposite, B. Listen to the model.
A B

The slowest train. . The shortest meeting. . The weakest coffee. . The lowest point. The smallest computer.

. . . . .

The fastest train. The longest meeting. The strongest coffee. The highest point. The biggest computer.

Suffix ltstl (-ist) - The suffix -ist on a noun indicates a title, or a person who practices or is skilled in something. Repeat these words:
artist dentist florist tourist optimist pessimist pharmacist perfectionist psychiatrist receptionist

Pronunciations

SIBILANTS + Suffix -ed


The suffix -ed is voiceless after voiceless sibilants, as in raced and searched; and it is voiced after voiced sibilants, as in raised and surged.

Isl Izl IJI ItJl Id3/

+ -ed + -ed + -ed + -ed + -ed

= = = = =

Istl Izdl IJtl

raced raised washed ItJtl patched Id3dl paged

Contrast: Voiceless Ending I-stl - Voiced Ending I-zdl

Istl -/zdl
Repeat these word pairs:
cost - caused faced - phased post - posed raced - raised/razed

6.19

The COMPREHENSIVE American Accent Guide


Practice words with voiceless endings and then words with voiced endings. Repeat:
Istl Izdl

guessed/guest leased/least missed/mist passed/past

harassed impressed insist

accused amazed confused

opposed refused supposed

After you hear A and B, repeat B:


A B

What's the best route? What about distance?

It depends on how fast you want to get there. Twenty-First Street is the shortest, and Forty-First Street is the longest.

Then Twenty-First must be the fastest ..... It has the most stops, and Twenty-First Street has the least. Okay, which has the best scenery?

Iftl
Practice the sound IJI with suffix -ed. Repeat:
hushed rushed wished famished finished nourished

-Practice the suffix -ed in synonyms. After you hear A and B, say B. Then listen again.
SYNONYMS
A B

hungry completed nurtured

. famished . finished . nourished

This time you state the synonym. After you hear A, say B.Then listen to the model.
A B

desired hurried silenced

wished rushed hushed

Itftl
Practice the sound ItJ/ with the suffix -ed. Repeat:
matched patched touched watched attached approached

6.20

Consonants
SYNONYMS A

Practice the suffix -ed in synonyms. After you hear A and Then listen again.
B

B,

say

B.

extended soaked

stretched drenched

tossed pitched went toward approached

This time you state the synonym. After you hear A, say B. Then listen to the model.
A B A B

handled exchanged

touched switched

paired fastened

matched attached

Id3dl Practice the sound /d3/ with the suffix -ed. Repeat:
damaged managed packaged privileged arranged alleged acknowledged encouraged

SYNONYMS -

Practice the suffix -ed in synonyms. Then listen again.


A B ~

After you hear

and

B,

repeat

B.

determined advantaged

judged privileged

motivated recognized

encouraged acknowledged

This time you state the synonym. After you hear A, say B. Then listen to the model.
A. B A B

controlled prepared

_ _

managed arranged

spoiled wrapped

_ _

damaged packaged

Linking: Sibilants with Other Sibilants

There is no break between sibilants adjoining each other between words. Listen: Isshe? Which~scene? Repeat: It hascharm. Which~store is it? They cashchecks, It's a huqestorm.
/IZfI/ /wrtjsin/

Lesschance. It'sjunk.

/lcstjeens/ /Itsd3t\nk/

6.21

The COMPREHENSIVE American Accent Guide


The final t and d are not pronounced between sibilants in adjoining words. Listen to examples: I switchedchannels. Repeat these phrases. Then listen again. The lateststory, frl::> The worststorm, The srnartestcholce. The biggest~stack.

The beststuff, The lonqeststep. The moststyllsh.

ANTONYMS

- Practice linking in antonyms opposite, B. Then listen to the model.

within phrases. After you hear A, say its

The first stop. .. The worst show. .. The least generous. . The smallest chance. . The least successful.

. . . . .

The laststop. The bestshow. The most generous. The biggestchance. The mostsuccessful.

Linking: Sibilants

+ Suffixed -ed - Vowels

Say the suffix -ed as though it begins the next word. Listen: passed, up losthim
/peestxp '
/lastrm/

missedout
caused jt

/mrstaut/ /kazdrt/

Repeat these examples. Then listen again. It's punchedout. frl::> They encouraqedhim.

Who erasedIt? I cashed It.

frl::>

Now practice linking in exchanges. After you hear A and B, repeat B.


A B

Istl

Where's the key? How did they feel? No, thank you. .. I missed the chance.

. . . .

I lostIt. They were embarrassedabout it. But I insiston it. You passedup an opportunity.

6.22

Consonants
Izdl There was a fire Were you for it? Did they accept? Did she leave early? Did you hurry? When did you finish? Was the apartment furnished. . Did you pull it? Where could it be? Who cleaned up after the party? Who watched the late show? Did you get there? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
What causedit? No, I opposedIt, They refused jt, Yes, she excusedherself, I rushedall I finishedit the way. yesterday.

Iftl

No, we furnished jt. No, I pushed jt. I've searchedand searched. Everyone pltched jn. We watched

l tft!

It.

Yes, we reachedIt. Yes, I arranqedeverythinq. No, they packaqedlt. I paqedhlm, It was damaqedalready.

Id3dl Did you make reservations? Did they sell rice in bulk? How did you find him? Who broke it? Conversational Exercise

Now practice the different sibilant sounds in the following exercise. Repeat: THE OCTOPUS The octopus has been a most fascinating and mysterious creature.! I have seen it as a mischievous and cute character in cartoons,! but as a scary sea monster in movies.!

. ~~

Actually, the octopus is a member of the mollusk family.! It has no skeleton and is a cousin to squids, clams, and snails.! The octopus is graceful and curious rather than aggressive.! It is rather shy, and it avoids humans.! Instead, it hunts at night for its favorite sea delicacy,! crabs, and other crustaceans such as lobsters,! oysters, shrimps, and clams.! The octopus has excellent eyesight and is clever.! To disguise itself, it changes its shape and its colorl to match surrounding sand and rocks.! It slips into narrow holes in wallsl and escapes danger by ejecting ink/ that creates a cloud-like smoke.! Next time I scuba dive,! I'd be ecstatic to see an octopus.! But what if I spot instead a big scary shark?!

6.23

The COMPREHENSIVE American Accent Guide


Silent Spellings of S -The spelling s is not pronounced in the following: ile Arkansas'

The spelling ch pronounced If! -The spelling ch is pronounced III in the

following:
chic niche quiche cQateau chagrin chalet champagne Charlotte chauffeur Chevy charade chiv~!rY Chicago chandelier chaperone

MI

ALPAIRS

FINAL SIBILANT SOUNDS

/51

- If I crash lash leash mash mesh

If I

- Itfl batch catch latch leech/leach ch

crass lass lease mass mess -

bash cash lash leash mus wis

BONUS EXERCISES

Review the vowel sounds - Practice sibilant sounds with different vowels as

you say the following words: Isl

/zl
zlp Zack

III

ItII
ch

Id31
Jeep gyp Jane

iiI /II t etl lrel 1111 101

seei> sip same sack sun sock sew/so/sow soot So sigh sound soy

o
chain champ shun shock chunk chalk choke
0

Jam
junk jock joke

loot
101 Iu! lat! l aul I:JII

Zoe

show shoo

Junfij

chtld chow choice

jive jowl joy

6.24

Consonants

6.25

The COMPREHENSIVE American Accent Guide


Practice words with the Suffix -s SYNONYNS - In each of the following word groups, all of the words, exception of one, are synonyms. Practice the suffix -s as you say the words in each group and state which word is not similar in meaning to the others.

1.

2.
3. 4.

5.
6. 7.

8.

checks - inspects - examines - takes - investigates prefers - favors - questions - chooses - picks - selects rejects - gets - obtains - acquires - gains hates - dislikes - detests - despises - requests denies - helps. - assists - aids supports , 0 loves - attempts - adores res - cherishes sleeps avors - naps oozes tal ks - disc-k!s omrmfmicat Correct: L
ates

CLASSIFICATIONS - Each item lists two animals that belong in one of the categories shown in the box below. Say the names of both animals and state their category. For example:

leopards - cheetahs Leopards and cheetahs are members of the cat family. -orLeopards and cheetahs are felines. 1. lizards - snakes 2. cheetahs - leopards 3. rabbits - squirrels
REJ;>TILF;S

4. coyotes - wolves 5. lions - tigers 6. rats - mice


FELINES CANINES

7. frogs - toads 8. alligators - crocodiles

RODENtS

lizard family

cat family

dogfamily

rat family

Practice the Suffix ttst] (- ist) Following are labels that can describe a person. Create sentences using any of the words that you know. Provide definitions if you can. For example: novelist pharmacist chemist dentist florist tourist optimist pessimist physicist scientist
A novelist is a person who writes novels. The pharmacist filled my prescription.

soloist specialist terrorist vocalist

biologist economist geologist perfection ist

cardiologist

6.26

Consonants
t you Wb() would saYl'hat? -lJllderA a~~quotes under-B. Match each quote in A witlfa pers B.T example: An artist would stry, "May 1paint your picture"?
A

t hearJi:oJ;U a person described ake a statement using both. For

nT

Ml

A pharmacist. 5. Do you like these roses? 2. It has to beperfect. A piEWist. Life is wonderful. ".,& bi!iW 7. You hq,ve no dawties. 3.7!1ere is your prescripT ton. An artIst. 4. ] play with the symphony. A perfectionist. 8. Let's visit the Eiffel Tower. 9. There is no hope.
1. May I paint your picture?
Answers:
A

An optimist. A florist. A tourist. A pessimist.

A dentist.
B

A 5. Do you like these roses?

1. May I paint your picture?

A florist. .An optimist. .A dentist. A tourist. A pessimist.

to be perfect. 3. H ur pre'<$;jptiQn. 4. 1 playin the symphony.


2. It

Life is
You ha A pianist.

derful. cavities.

8. Let's 'Visitthe Eiffel Tower. 9. There is no hope.

Practice the Consonant

Blends Iksl & Igzl

Following are sets of words that are Gither synonyms or antonyms. Say both words and state whether they are~ony:tus Oiantonm.::For e!~ple: "Inhale and exhale are opposites." "Test and exam are synonyms. " 1. 2. 3. 4. costly - expensive include - exclude "fall - sucseed inhale - exhale
Correct:
1. synonyms 2. antonyms 3. antonyms 4. antonyms 5. synonyms 6. synonyms 7. antonyms 8. synonyms
)$

- or- or -

"Inhale means the opposite of exhale. " "Test and exam have similar meanings. " 9. 10. 11. 12. reject - accept repair - fix simple - complex surplus - excess
9. antonym 10. synonyms 11. antonyms

5. precise - exact

p. cheap - inexpensive
minimugl - maximum 8. tired - exhausted

12. synonyms

Discuss what you know about, or what interest you may have, in any of the following topics. Focus on pronunciation of the sound 1kB1. comics physics psychics aerobics athletics ceraraies gymnastics mathematics politics academics

Practice the sounds Iks/ and /gzl as you complete the following 1. To relax, I ... 2. For exercise, I ... 3. The most ex 4. If s6'hething

sentences:

5. When I'm exhausted, .... 6. If I expect to be successful,. 7. Befor king a school exam, ... . You d experience in ~rder to ...

6.27

The COMPREHENSIVE American Accent Guide


Practice the Blend Iksl
Use the word except or exception - In each word group below all of the words, with exception of ope, share a olass ... fcatw;ewSay tile words a:ydthe):li~tate )Wbioh'Pl'le.~
oranges, limes, apples, lemons

All are citrus fruits; except for apples. All are citrus fruits with the exception of apples.
5f centirpeter$l$l1'lilesW.wlfters,kilometers

1. carrotssaoplee,

squas~, pq,tatoes

2. trucks, helicopters, jets, airplanes 3. freeways, sidewalks, streets, highways 4. lions, tigers, leopards, elephants
The Exception: 1. apples - (not vegetables) 2. trucks - (not air transportation) 3. sidewalk;r;: (not.~or.vehicle 4. elephan~ - (notil:! the citt fa

6. houses, condominiums,

garages,

apartments

7. months, days, meters, weeks 8. Japal), Korea, Turkey, Taiwan

5. miles (not a metric measurement)

6. ages -(not a-place to.live in) 7. ~(,!101fs,l/leasurJ? of ~) 8. urkey - (not a countr' in A$l~

Practice Sibilants 'I:: Suffix

teat (-etf)

Practice applying the suffix-edto sibilants. Each item below contains two seritence. Determine which sentence requires the suffix -ed. Then say both sentences correctly.
1. I always (dress up, dressed up) for weddings. 2. I had to (guess, guessed) the answer. .
. . .

I (dress up, dressed up) for the party yesterday.


I (guess, guessed) an answer to the test yesterday.

3. If I don't hurry, I will (miss, missed) the bus. ......." .


4. We had (finish, finished) on time .................... ,,, , . .

I didn't hurry, so I (mis~f missed) the bjls.


We did (finish, finished) on time.

5. I (rush, rushed) whenever I'm running late. ..


f

I (rush, rushed) because I was running late.


The car will look shiny after they (wash, washed) it.

6. The car looked shiny, because they (wash washed) it. Correctly Said:
I. I always ~ for weddings. 2. I had to gill:.S.S. the answers.

!:~;h~';f'

w~~

thelJus.

.. ... ".-

5. 1rnsh whenever I'm running late. 6. The car looked shiny, because they :l!l.iiShl:d it.

I dressed up for the party yesterday. I~ an answer on the test yesterday. I didp.'t hut.1Wi. So l~!!4e bus. WCf!~a~ on time. I mshl:d because I was running late. The car will look shiny after they ~ it.

Practice the Suffix-s


Make statements about life in the city. Include one or more of the words below in each sentence.
bright buses businesses cafes coffee shops lights crowds noise offices re~aurants rush hour 'f:hops sidewalks skyscrapers stores strangers sffeets . subways theaters traffic lights

6.28

Consonants
THE GLIDE SOUNDS
TO PRODUCE: Arch your tongue in the middle and place its sides against the upper sides of your mouth. Draw the tongue tip back or roll it backward without touching the alveolar ridge. Keep your lips neutral. MIRROR WORK - View your mouth in the mirror as you practice raising your tongue for the sound frIo Be careful not to touch the alveolar ridge .. y.Jithyour tongue tip, or you will produce the tapped t or the II/ sound instead. Avoid vibrating or tapping your tongue tip against the alveolar ridge. Practice rolling the tip backward without touching any part of the mouth. w To produce a clear English Ttl souna, focus on raising the tongue in front. Keep the back of your tongue down and the back of your mouth widely open. LipPosture: The lips are not involved in producing the /rl sound, but they are rounded when the neighboring

vowels require lip rounding, as in:

01;1'011',

rude, round.
If you can produce the vowel tart, use it to help you train the sound Irl as follows: Prolong the lerl sound. Then witi10ut moving your tongue, say a word that starts with Ir/. Remember to avoid touching the alveolar ridge.

II

ec-read
ar- red

et-rid

at-ride ar-rye ar-ray

This sound is influenced by its neighboring sounds. Therefore, it is produced in more than one way. With your tongue sides touching the sides of your mouth, raise and lower your tongue tip slowly for Irl as you repeat these words:
arrow era carry hero marry/Mary/merry vary/very

Practice by prolonging the Irl sound and then lowering the tongue tip slowly, without sliding it forward. This will keep the tip from touching the alveolar ridge. Repeat these words.
read/reed rim rent ran rain/reign right/rite/write rote/wrote root/route

7.1

The

COMPREHENSIVE

American Accent Guide

Irl BLENDS
Sound Irl combines with other consonants to form r blends, as in, brand, dress, or friend.
br - brand pr - pray kr - cry gr - grand fr -fry

dr - dry
tr - try

To produce these sounds, position your tongue for /rl as you begin forming the first consonant.

lpr, brl
Position your tongue for Irl as you join your lips for Ipl or Ib/. Repeat these words:
prompt print prayer praise brief bring brush broke

l tr, drl
To help you position your tongue for Itrl, produce the sound It I as ItSI. Repeat:
tree try true trade trust trauma

To help you position your tongue for Idrl, produce the sound Idl as Id3/. Repeat:
drain dream drove drive drama

lkr, grl
Position your tongue for Irl as you raise it in the back for Ikl or Ig/. Repeat:
creep crime crook crude crazy crooked grate/great grant green group grow grateful

Ifrl
Raise your tongue for Irl as you position the lower lip for IfI. Repeat:
free front friend frown fragile fragment

7.2

Consonants
Istrl
While releasing Isl, slide your tongue backward into Itrl. Repeat:
street stress strict strike stroke stranger

IOrl
While releasing 181, slide your tongue backward into Ir/. Avoid touching the alveolar ridge. Repeat:
three thrill threat threw/th roug h/th ru

IIrl
While releasing II!, draw your tongue backward for Ir/. Repeat:
shred shrimp shrink

Contrast:

Irl

Blends - VoicelessNoiced

Can you differentiate between r blends that begin voiceless and those that begin voiced? Listen to word pairs. You will hear one word again. Which is it?
crow Answers: grow_ grow pride pride _ dry bride try_ dry_

Practice

blends in the following words and sentences. Repeat:


crate - great crew - grew crow - grow train - drain try - dry It's in a crate. The ship has a crew. Is that bird a crow? Is that the last train? I'd like to try. . I'm feeling great. The tree grew and grew. How tall will that grow? It went down the drain. The clothes are dry.

7.3

The

COMPREHENSIVE

American Accent Guide

Respond to statements using the correct r blend. After you hear A, say B. Then listen to the model.
A B A B

A type of container .... Big or extensive. Breaking the law. Dirt. A type of black bird .... To increase in size. ... Another name for wrinkle. Oil or fat.

A crate. Great. Crime. Grime. A crow. To grow. Crease. Grease.

A construction lift. Rice or wheat. Opposite of false. Past tense for draw .... The stem of a tree. Intoxicated.

A crane. Grain. True. Drew. The trunk. Drunk.

There are some words in which the vowel before Irl is not pronounced. the following:

Repeat

asplrln
bevrage conference

coveraqe

desperate diffrent faverlte interest

prefrence separate sevral

restaurant

MIDDLE /r/ BLENDS The combinations of It! or Id/ + Irl are tapped, except when t begins a stressed syllable. Listen to examples:
party partake

lrt, rdl - Position your tongue for Irl, as you tap the alveolar ridge for ItI or Id/. Repeat:
order sorting ordeal sardine

Irdnl - The sound spelled rdn can be produced as in garden Igardenl or as in Igardn/. Repeat the following:
burden garden pardon

TOPRODUCE: Whileproducingthesound IdI,raisethetonguetoblocktheairflowand directitinsteadthroughthenasalpassage.

coordinate coordination ordinary

7.4

Consonants
lrtnl - In the following, glottal stop. Repeat:
carton certain

the spelling 't' is pronounced

as a

curtain

important

certainly

IrOI - Make 181 continuous. Repeat the following:


birth forthlfourth afterthought overthrow

Practice blending Irl with other consonants


Be at the corner in the morning.

in these sentences.
My birthday

Repeat:
is on the fourth. artist?

The carton is not important. What party does it pertain to?

I'll be in New York on Thursday. Are you a cartoon

Practice names of North American


Alberta Arizona Georgia Oregon

States and Provinces.


New New New West York Hampshire Brunswick Virginia

Repeat:
Missouri Nebraska Ontario Virginia

FINAL /r/ BLENDS Contrast:

Irtl - Irdl
contrast voiceless with

The suffix -ed is voiced after Irl, as in hard. The following voiced endings. Listen:
abort aboard chart

charred

Repeat these words and sentences:


Burt -- bird court -- cord heart -- hard hurt -- heard His name is Burt. The judge is in court. It's shaped like a heart. I didn't get hurt. It sounds like a bird. How long is the cord? I worked very hard. What have you heard?

Contrast:

Irsl - Irzl

Suffix -s is voiced after Irl, as in hers. Listen to the contrast between the voiceless and the voiced endings. /rs/
course

/rz/
cores

/rs/
pierce

/rz/
peers

7.5

The COMPREHENSIVE American Accent Guide


Repeat the following words and sentences:
fierce force - fears fours The storm was fierce. It's a funeral hearse. . . . . . . . . . . A coward has fears. Eight equals two fours. What belongs to her is hers. Frightens also means scares. This will heal the sores.

The wind blew with force. Rare also means scarce. The supplier is the source.

hearse - hers scarce - scares source - sores

Mod PRACTICE WORDS Irl Blends

actress breakfast" country credit crisis

drama drastic hungry transfer treatment

'\
impress prepare pretend regret subtract

celebrate sacrifice microwave acrobat

abroed
across agree attract degree

attractive impression improvement ingredient subtraction

BONUS EXERCISES Practice the Irl sound. What colors are the following items? 1. grass 2. gorillas 3. grapes State your responses in complete sentences. 7. watermelons 8. The American flag 9. The flag of my native country

4. radishes 5. oranges 6. polar bears

What colors you are wearing today?

~. &the .fol~9'Wiblg:ite ur quarts in a gallon. 1. centimeters - meter 2. hours - day 3. months- year 4. quarters - dollar

exatttple:

5. seconds - hour 6. years - century

State how the two words in each item are different and how they are alike. For example: composer - conductor a) A composer writes music, and a conductor leads an orchestra. b) A composer and a conductor both work with music. 1. helicopter - airplane 2. car - truck 3. rat - mouse 4. radio - tape player 5. leopard - tiger 6. guitar - violin 7. 8. 9. 10. rectangle - triangle orange - grapefruit cauliflower - broccoli flower - tree

7.6

Consonants
In each of the following groups~ one :item does !&otbelong. State which item does not belong and why. For example:
meter liter centimeter kilometer Liter does not belong. Meters, centimeters and kilometers measure length. A liter measures liquid. 6. 7. 8. 9. October November April September Monday Tuesday Saturday Wednesday horrible terrible wonderful dreadful tree flower rock grass

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Correct:

Madrid Rome Germany Paris motorcycle helicopter car truck orange grapefruit pear lemon radishes turnips corn carrots stairs elevator sidewalk escalator

1. Germany - (not a city) 2. helicopter . (not a ground vehicle) 3. pear (not a citrus fruit) 4. corn - (not a root vegetable) 5. sidewalk - (not for going up or down) 6. April- (not a fall or autumn month) 7. Saturday - ( not a week day) wonderful - (not a description of something bad) 9. rock- (not a type of plant)

a.

Complete each item below to make an analogy. Use complete sentences. For example:
fish - ocean I bird - __ 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. correct - right I incorrect- __ calendar- day I watch __ celery- vegetable I orangechair - furniture / shirt. 100% 25% I Dollar _ four - number I redAfish is to the ocean as a bird is to the sky. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. bracelet - wrist I ring - __ rocket - astronaut / airplane __ shark - fish I parrot __ mother - grandmother I father __ Canada - North America / Brazil - __ San Francisco - California I Miami

Missing Words:

1) wrong 2) hour, or minute 3) fruit 4) clothing 5) quarter 6) color 7) finger 8) pilot 9) bird 10) grandfather 11) South America 12) Florida

What are your favorites? State one item or more in each of the following categories. Use complete sentences and include the word favorite; For example:
flower 1. actor 2. actress 3. drink My favorite flower is a rose. 4. color 5. fruit 6. sport - or - A rose is my favorite flower. 10. singer 11. TV program 12. musical instrument

7. dessert 8. restaurant 9. ice cream flavor

What are your preferences? The following sets provide two choices. State which of the two you would prefer. Use complete sentences. For example:
cook - wash dishes

I lPould rather cook than tuasb dishes. or, I prefer cooking to llJoshittg dishes.
6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Read a newspaper. Read a magazine. Watch a video at home. - Go out to a movie. Travel by airplane. - Travel by train. Wear the color green. - Wear the color purple. Listen to piano music. - Listen to guitar music.

1. Dance. - Watch others dance. 2. Work indoors.' Work outdoors. 3. Be the driver. - Be a passenger. 4. Sing. - Listen to others sing. 5. Watch TV. - Listen to the radio.

7.7

The COMPREHENSIVE American Accent Guide

TO PRODUCE: The Basic 11/: With your tongue relaxed and flattened, place the upper surface of the tongue tip on the alveolar ridge. Lower ohe side of th gue to allow passage for the 'iElitflow, You must hold "the 11/ sound long enough, or you may produce a tapped t instead. Practice the feel of the /1/ sound by holding the tongue tip in place, as described above, and producing a long /1/ sound.

The /1/ sound is influenced by its neighboring sounds. Therefore, it is produced in more than one way.

THE CLEAR /1/ This sound occurs at the beginning of words as in let, or after short vowels, as in all. To help you strengthen your /1/ sound, hold the top surface of your tongue tip on the alveolar ridge. Repeat the following:
Initial /1/ Final/l/ Middle /1/

lead late lid light loud

all full ill tall tell

allow collect feeling Alabama Illinois

LONG VOWEL +

/1/

When final /1/ follows a long vowel, a schwa vowel is added before /1/. Listen:
lie!

lual rule

leral mail

real

Repeat these words:


l ie!

lual cool dual/duel tool

laral aisle/l'II/isle dial file

l eiel

l oie!

deal heal/heel real/reel

fail mail/male sail/sale

boil soil toil

7.8

Consonants
Repeat these sentences:
Did you say boil or broil? Does that tool need oil? Don't fail to mail it early. I stood in the aisle for a while. That sale is a real good deal. It feels real cool in the pool.

pi - play . bl - black

kl - clip

91 - glad

fl - flag

sl - slow

III BLENDS

TO PRODUCE: Position your tongue for I as you begin forming the first consonant. Avoid adding an extra vowel before I. This can change meaning. For exq.(TlRle, sound like - police ill sound like - below - will sound like - follow

Sound 11/ combines with other consonants to form I blends, as in play, black, or glad. To produce these blends, position your tongue for III as you begin forming the first consonant. 'pl', Ibll Position your tongue for 11/ as you close your lips for Ipl or fbl. Repeat:
Ipl/

please plan play plus

apply reply complete employ

completion employment complement supplement

Ibll

blame blank blend

blind block blew/blue

obligate obligated obligation

Ikl, 911

Position your tongue for /11 as you raise it in back for /kl or /g/. Repeat:
Ikll 191/

claim clean climb clip clock club

glass glaze glide gloom glove glow

7.9

The

COMPREHENSIVE
words:

American Accent Guide

IfII - Raise your tongue tip for IV as you position your lower lip for If!. Repeat these

flash flew/flu

flood flame

flow fly

1511 - While releasing Isl, slide your tongue tip into 11/. Repeat:
slang sleep slip slept slow sly slum sloppy

Contrast III Blends: Voiceless - Voiced

To contrast words that begin voiceless following:


class - glass clue - glue planned - bland plaque - black

with words that begin voiced, repeat the

The students are in class. I need a hint or clue. The meeting was well planned. I received a plaque. ..

Pour it in a glass. I need some tape or glue. The food was too bland. She is wearing black.

Practice IV blends in these sentences. Repeat and then listen again.


Is the sky clear or cloudy? I can see clearly through the clean looking glass. You are obligated to complete the class work. To QQ.Q.ly for employment, please fill out an application.

FINAL III
A Final Consonant

+ III

When final IV follows a consonant, move your tongue quickly from the consonant to 11/. Listen:
dl

pl

kl

metal

apple

nickel

Repeat these words:


middle settle total able simple double cycle bagel eagle hurtle fertile mortal

7.10

Consonants
SYNONYMS -

Practice final /V in synonyms. After you hear A and B, repeat B.


A B A B

alike . central

equal middle

chuckle modest

giggle humble

This time, after you hear A, say B. Then listen to the model.
A B A B

bet complete

gamble total

pair

couple double

twofold

THE BACK /1/ When another consonant immediately follows, /V is produced by raising the tongue in back. Listen:

/It/ built

/Id/

/Is/ false

billed/build

/Iz/ falls

Raise your tongue in back for /1/ in the following words. Repeat:
liz, Isl

Iitl

Iidl

felt guilt melt

filled gold mailed

pulls pulse impulse

Ilfl

Ilvl

Ilpl

Ilkl

Ilml

self shelf

solve involve

help gulp

bulk milk

calm film

/18/ - When /1/ is next to /8/, place the tongue tip between the top and bottom teeth for both sounds. Repeat these words:
filth health wealth filthy healthy wealthy

7.11

The COMPREHENSIVE American Accent Guide


Contrast: III - Irl Can you differentiate between these sounds? word again. Which is it? lace
Answers:

Listen to word pairs. You will hear one

race
race rate

late
look

rate

look

rook

Repeat these words and sentences: The person in front led. . led long The line is long. . I like it a lot. lot lush The garden is lush. . low It's high, not low. . lice There's an epidemic of lice . . . . . . red wrong rot rush row rice The stop sign is red. Is it right, or wrong? The fruit may rot. I was in a rush. Sit in the front row. I cooked a pot of rice.

Contrast:

III Blends -/rl Blends Listen to word pairs. You will hear one

Can you differentiate between these sounds? word again. Which is it? clash
Answers:

crash
crash class glad

class

crass

glad _

grad_

Remember that the tongue touches the alveolar ridge for /1/, but not for frl. Repeat these words: alive arrive climb crime flee free

Repeat these pairs: clock - crock cloud - crowd play - pray glass - grass

To contrast 11/ and Irl, state the following responses. After you hear A, say B. Then listen to the model.
A B A B

Opposite of dark. Opposite of left. Opposite of short. Opposite of right. A primary color. Another name for beer.

Light. Right. Long. Wrong. Blue. Brew.

It glows in the sunlight. It grows in the sunlight. A musical instrument. It grows in trees.

_ _

The glass. Thegrass Aftute. Fruit Play Pray

Children like to do this. _ Religious people do this. _

7.12

Consonants
A They're in the sky. Large groups of people. B
Clouds. Crowds.
A

Where did you walk? Where did you get wet?

Practice saying words that contain both careless cooler really alarm control release

11/ and Ir/. Repeat:


airplane airline railroad alligator elevator escalator

allergy calendar calorie

Now repeat names of American Delaware Florida Maryland California

states that contain both Colorado North Carolina

Irl and 11/.


South Carolina Rhode Island

Repeat word pairs with both celebrate celebration

11/ and Ir/.


library librarian Australia Australian

The Suffix -Iy


SYNONYMS - Practice the
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. barely - hardly -

suffix -ly in groups of adverb synonyms. Repeat each word.


- scarcely - repeatedly - completely fondly entirely

frequently totally lovingly mildly rapidly surely clearly

regularly -

- fully -

thoroughly - tenderly

warmly

affectionately

- gently -

- lightly -

- carefully -

- cautiously instantly immediately

quickly

promptly definitely certainly

swiftly

- certainly obviously

assuredly evidently

positively plainly - distinctly

Conversational Practice both

Exercise:

Irl and 11/ sounds in the following conversational exercise.

Red, yellow, and blue are the primary colors.\ This means that all other colors\ are made by a combination of any two of these.\ For example, blue and yellow make green,\ yellow and red make orange;\ and red and blue make violet.\ These six colors become the secondary colors\ - red, orange, yellow,\ green, blue, and violet.\ These are the colors of the spectrum,\ as seen when a beam of light\ is broken into its component parts\ by passing through a prism.

7.13

The COMPREHENSIVE American Accent Guide


Silent I - The spelling I is not pronounce caAf

c h ark

hajf pa~

tajk
couJ!d

s afve s h o ujd

s a lm o n
wouYd

MORE PRACTICE WORDS with SOUNDS

lr]

&

III
alligator elevator esoalator roller coaster

clear clerk floi girl learn real roll role wotll:l

broiler careful careles; cooler fertile folder laughter laundry layer,

planner player sl:!JUor teller traller

alarm

contgil
lWeca rele replace reply resolve earlier jewelry laborer library mpersorIlI

Australia electric Ii~rian severel)' sincerely leftovers translator

airline aiffil1ane

BONUS EXERCISES
PrC\,ctice the

suffil -Iy

Each .. group of words below consrsts ofa<tverbs that are syn s, with one exception. Say all the words in each group and then state which one is not similar in meaning to the others.
1. barely - hardly - totally 2. calmly - gentty - scaly 3. 4. 5. 6. ely - pt'eacefiiily

completely - partially - entirely - totally - fully - thoroughly lovingly - warmly - tenderly - fondly - carelessly - affectionately mildly - gently - ligh rapidly quickly - roughly - c{)refully - cautiously ptly .", ..sWift,l:", instltly .:m''i!ifowly lmmedtately
i!!l

7. surely - thoughtlessly - certainly - positively - definitely - assuredly 8. frequently - often - many times - rarely - regularly - repeatedly Answers: 1. totally 5. rouzhly

First, say each word and then say its antonym:


1. carelessly 2. loosely _ _ 3. sloppily 4. quietly _ _ 5. rapidly. 6. h pily --::--_ _ 7. unkindly 8. heavily _ _

Antonyms: 1. caretully2. fir 4. loudly -or- noisily

orselY-ir- tightly 3. neatly -or - care#ully 5 slowly 6. sadly 7. kindly -or- nicely 8. lightly

Complete each sentence with an adverb of your choice. You may use adverbs presented in the above exercises.
1. 2. 3. 4. She held the kitten _ I ate an apple _ He walked in the room I looked at them _ She answered the question They waited for an answer I crossed the street _ _ _

7.14

Consonants
Practice Irl
&

III in Sentences
air of words anJ.istate whether their meanings are similar

SYNONYMS I ANTONYMS - Say eae oJ;Qpposite. For pie:

te

tlar in meaning.

leave are oppqsile in meaning. 1. 2. 3. 4. careful- careless cry laugh ennra- whole neglect nurture 5. 6. 7. 8. permit- allow rapid- slow every - all hard - difficult 9. horrible terrible 10. late early 11. recall - remember 12 sharp dull 13. 14. 15. 16. short- tall trua- false friendly - unfriendly rarely - seldom

Relationship:

1. antonyms 2. antonyms 3. s

4.

9. synonyms 13. antonyms 10. antonyms 14. antonyms synonyms '15, antonyms alltQr),ytns16, synonym$

'ch lookslik,e dh? Mat within a sentence ..Jllor example:


#

itS partn~

B, Then state 'both items

computer monitor - TV screen


A

A computer monitor looks like a TV screen. A computer monitor and a TV screen look alike. A
6. 7. 8. 9. schwa tiger the letter w wolf

B
horse big dog upside down m. leopard upsideJown e. 5. grapefruit 9. big dog 10. horse

1. 2. 3. 4.

caterpillar crocodile computer monitor gorilla 'Orqpge 3. TV leopard

to.
s
4. ba d6n 8. hpside down m

Matching' woid:

II
wine/whine while wool work nowhere someone somewhere sidewalk

TOP ROD U C E: Start with your lips rounded


slightly, and your tongue high in back (as for owel IU/). Then slide your tongue into place for xtvoweL on your lips, you are tighteningl g your lips, You, will produce a und more like. I. Keep your lips relaxed as you round them.
(1'1. By

feel v

This sound occurs only at the beginning or in the middle of words.

Practice words and names of places containing the sound /w/. Repeat:
warranty wonderful Hawaii Norway Ottowa Washington Wisconsin Wyoming

7.15

The

COMPREHENSIVE

American Accent Guide

Ikw, twl To pronounce the sounds spelled "qu" or "tw," round your lips for'iw/, as you produce both sounds. Repeat these words:
Ikwl It wI

quick quit quiz quart

quality quantity

twelve twice twist twins

twenty

Repeat these pairs:


equal - equally quiet - quietly frequent - frequently quarter - quarterly acquaint - acquaintance require - requirement

Contrast: Ivl - Iwl Can you differentiate between these sounds? Listen to these word pairs. You will hear one word again. Which is it?
vent
Answers:

went
went vie

vie
west

why_

vest

west

Repeat these words:


veal - wheel/we'll veil - whale vary/very - wary vine - whine/wine

Repeat these words and sentences:


vent - went vest - west vialwhile vine - wine Air came from the vent. The suit has a vest. The medicine is in a vial. It grows on the vine. . Tell me where you went. . What direction is west? . Wait a little while. . That's a fine wine.

Where,~lultJ y:ou like to spend t~e winter? ...................... In Hawa(1, where -the weather is y,'arm. and. sunny,. dildoyou? I would like to go to Wyoming or Wisconsin, where it snows in the winter.

7.16

Consonants

n
yell your/you're million
Contrast: /j/-/d3/ Can you differentiate between these sounds? word again. Which is it? Listen to word pairs. You will hear one

jail_
Answers:

Yale_
Yale Jack juice

yak_

Jack

use_ juice_

7.17

The

COMPREHENSIVE

American Accent Guide

For the sound /j/, the tongue moves without touching the alveolar ridge or palate. For the sound /d3/, the tongue makes contact near the alveolar ridge. Repeat these words to contrast /j/ and /d3/.
yawn - yellow - yoke John - Jello - joke yet - you'll - years jet - jewel - jeers

Repeat these words and sentences:


jet - yet John - yawn Yale - jail yam - jam yes - Jess Has the

arrived w?

John started to yawn. Did you say Yale or lillJ.? Did you eat the yam with jam? Yes, his name is Jess.

ljul - The spelling "u" is pronounced /ju/ when stressed, as in:


cute human review

Repeat:
union unit unite unique funeral uniform universal university

Practice the sound /ju/ in verb-noun pairs. Repeat:

contribute distribute

- contribution - distribution

continue - continuation devalue - devaluation

execute - execution prosecute - prosecution

lje! - The spelling "u" is pronounced /ja/ in unstressed syllables. Listen:


fabulous muscular miraculous particular

Repeat the following adjective-verb-noun


circular circulate circulation

sets.
regular regulate regulation

7.18

Consonants

III
The Sound /h/ is a pure whisper. Listen:
he had

TO PRODUCE: Release the airflow with slight force to create a clear whispered sound at the larynx. As you do this, position your tongue, jaw, and lips for the vowel that follows !hI.
Do not shape the airflow in the mouth. Keep the roof of the mouth relaxed, and the back of the mouth opened widely. This sound occurs only at the beginning or in the middle of words.

hook

Use a pure whisper for /h/. Repeat:


heat hit hate hot how who heavy hectic hurry behavior however Ohio anyhow handicap holiday

Repeat the following sentences:


I'm ~ to be home.

How heavy was the traffic? The weather was hot and humid. Two halves make a whole. It is heavier than a feather but not as heavy as a house.

)fait
In the words,

J:{our
b~ spoken or not pronounced.

BONUS EXERCISE Each of the following sentences contains one word in which the spelling h is pronounced and one word in which spelling h is not pronounced. Practice the sentences. 1. Who is the heir to the fortune? 2. How many hours did it take? 3. He is an honest person. 4. Henry was very exhausted. 5. They were happy to be honored. 6. To inhibit is opposite of to exhibit.

7.19

The

COMPREHENSIVE

American Accent Guide

THE NASAL SOUNDS


Iml - me, aim Inl - no, any 101 - sing, anger

iii

l'Q PR:ODU65t Brtng your lips together to Wthevoicedatrl!9Yi and t.hen direct it rough the nasal passage.

iii
Contrast: Iml - Inl Can you differentiate between sounds 1m! and In! at the ends of words? Listen to word pairs. You will hear one word again. Which is it?
gum_
Answers:

TrytflTs techn'qye: Break words that end in tn! into two parts (For example, say: pan = pa - n,) 'REf:pell.t t11etwo parts separately, and, tnensay Jb~rn closer and clossrstogsther until you can say the complete ~btd,

gun_
gum sane Tim

same

sane

Tim

tin

Repeat the following words and sentences:


dumb - done same - sane seem - scene some - sun Tim - tin Is it smart, or dumb? Are they the same? Howald does it seem? . Please have some. His name is Tim. . "." .. ".". . . . . What have you done? Is it crazy, or sane? What a beautiful scene! As bright as the sun. Is that made of tin?

7.20

Consonants
Contrast: Voiced - Voiceless Endings The suffix oed and the suffix-s are voiced when added to ImJ or In/. Listen to the contrast between voiceless and voiced endings:
mptmd mps - mz ns - nz

nt - nd

cramped - crammed dumped - damned

bent - bend scent/sent - send

limps -limb

dance - Dan's

Contrast voiceless with voiced endings in these words and sentences. Repeat:
bent - bend The pipe is bent. The pipe will not bend. Explain what you meant. To fix is to mend. Perfume has a scent. Which one did you send? They filed a complaint. Have they ever complained? There are no steps, only ramps. Male sheep are called rams. The stock market has slumps. Some cities have slums. tramps - trams Hobos are also called tramps. Some ski resorts have trams. ~

meant - mend

scent - send

complaint

- complained

ramps - rams

slumps - slums

irectedthroughthenasal passage. ow is released over a side of the

Contrast:

III - Inl

Listen to the contrast between III and In! in these word pairs:
knife - life name -lame need - lead

Repeat these pairs:


knows/nose - lows look - nook nag -lag niece - lease no/know - low noose - 100se

7.21

The COMPREHENSIVE American Accent Guide


Repeat these sentences:
The noose is loose. Do you know how low? Lee hurt his knee. Look at the nook. You need to be in the lead. My niece signed a lease.

To avoid substituting n for I: If you tend to produce sound In! in place of If!, do the following exercise: BLock your nasal passage by closing nostrils together with your fingers. While you do t4is, practice saying words and sentences that contain the sound II! b notfhe sound In!, You will not feel al.LY vibration at your nose when you pJQduce the N sound correcfJ; e sentences: Let's go'1!tater. It 100ks*llke.aleaf. We lefflate last July.

iii
Listen to words that contain the sound /0/.
hang ring

TO PRODUCE: Raise the back of your tongue against the palate (as for the sound /g/). This blocks the airflow and direct it through the nasal passage. This sound occurs only in the middle or at the end of words in English.

sing

Contrast:

Inl-IIJI

Can you differentiate between these sounds? Listen to word pairs. You will hear one word again. Which is it?
ban
Answers:

bang _
bang thing win

thin

thing _

win_wing

Say these words and sentences:


ban - bang thin - thing win - wing To forbid is to ban. .. Tall and thin Can everyone. win? . . . It's a loud bang. What is that thing? The office is in that wjng.

7.22

Consonants
Contrast: Il)kl -11)1
Listen:
Il]kl 11]1 Il]kl 11]1 Il]kl 11]1

brink

bring

anchor

anger

ankle

angle

Repeat these words and sentences: bank - bang sink - sing think - thing wink - wing Did you go to the bank? When did the Titanic sink? What do you think? That is a flirting wink. . I heard a loud bang. Do you like to sing? That is a funny thing. Go to the west wing.

Contrast Suffix Endings


The suffix -s and the suffix -ed are voiceless when added to /rjk/; and they are voiced when added to /rj/. Listen:
Il]ksl Ine]

t nkt! banked

ltjd]

banks

bangs

- banged

Practice words with voiceless endings and then words with voiced endings. Repeat:
Inktt

lrjkt!

tndt

ltjd]

blinked linked

ranked thanked

banged hanged

longed belonged

Listen to words with the suffix -s:


Inks I Il]zl

winks

wings

Practice words with voiceless endings and then words with voiced endings. Repeat:

Il]ksl

Il]ksl

Il]zl

Il]zl

drinks ranks

thanks thinks

brings rings

songs things

Repeat the following

sentences: She thinks the rings are gold. She sings my favorite songs.

Who brings the drinks? Thanks for all those things.

7.23

The

COMPREHENSIVE

American Accent Guide


Suffix-ing The suffix -ing is used in: Present progressive verbs The story was boring me. The story was boring. Nouns Adjectives The boring story made me yawn.

The Suffix -ing Repeat these words with the suffix -ing.
asking morning awaiting exciting evening listening

Contrast: Endings InkI1)1(-nking) -II)II)I (-nging) Listen to the following pairs with the suffix -ing:
sinking - singing banking - banging winking - winging

Repeat these words:


/l}kII}/ /I}II}/ /I}II}/

banking blinking honking ranking

hanging longing ringing singing

belonging

Repeat these sentences:


They were singing as the boat was sinking. I was thanking I was thinking them for hanging the pictures. about doing that first thing in the morning.

Practice the sound 101

BONUS EXERCISE

SYNONYMS In the following word groups all of the words with the exception of one are similar in meaning. Say each word in a group and state which one is not similar to the others in meaning.
1. talking - speaking - trying - discussing - expressing 2. listening - griping - attending - hearing 3. understanding - learning - kidding - investigating 4. making - creating - producing - manufacturing - speaking 5. breaking - cracking - fixing - shattering - bursting 6. teasing - listening - kidding - fooling around - clowning around 7. creating - complaining - objecting - protesting 8. attempting - trying - striving - waiting - undertaking
Not similar: 1. ttying 2. griping 3. kidding 4. speaking 5. fixing 6.listening 7. creating 8. waiting

7.24

MORE

on
STRESS & INTONATION

We will now explore how stress and intonation convey a variety of feelings, emotions and attitudes. We will address common patterns as well as less usual patterns in order to increase your communication awareness and to improve your skills at communicating in English.

It is not possible in this program to address all of the different patterns of stress and intonation that are used in everyday situations. However, there are some general rules that you may find useful in understanding how stress and intonation convey underlying meaning.

INTONATION AND MEANING


Polite Tones

Politeness is typically expressed using higher pitch tones, as in:

Are you finding Is that everything

what you need? for you?

Words that express politeness can sound even more polite when spoken with an intonation pattern that has higher pitch tones. Listen to examples spoken with a normal intonation pattern, and then with higher pitch tones:

Normal Intonation

Higher Tones

Hello. Pardon me.

Hello. Pardon me.

The

COMPREHENSIVE

American Accent Guide

Practice contrasting

the two patterns. Repeat:

Excuse me. You're welcome. What time is it? Do me a favor. What's your name?................ Can I help you? Where are the restrooms? How much are those?

Excuse me. You're welcome. What time is it? Do me a favor. What's your name? Can I help you? Where are the restrooms? How much are those?

Mildly Rising Inflection

A pattern of mildly rising inflection conveys a sense of ease. This pattern generally has a pleasant tone and can convey an openness to continued communication, as in the following responses. Listen:

How was the weather? What did you think of it?

Pleasant. It's pretty good.

Practice mildly raised inflection. Upon hearing A and B, repeat B.

How is everything? How were the roads? When do you expect them? What did you do this weekend?.

Okay. Not bad. Anytime. Nothing special.

Certain short responses are often spoken with inflection that falls at the end and then rises again. For example:

J
I think so. I hope not. I want to.

8.2

More on Stress & Intonation


Sharply Rising Inflection

A question with a sharply rising inflection has a tone of surprise or disbelief. Listen to this dialogue:
There's a car with a parking ticket on the window.

)
Is it a red car? No, it's a blue one. Good, it's not mine!

The following contrasts a sharp rise in inflection with normal inflection. Listen:

Sharply Rising Inflection

Normally Rising Inflection

)
Is that true? Is that true?

Repeat the following:

)
Right now? Are you sure? Is it that time? Did you see that? Were you serious? Is that your dog? Is the deadline tomorrow? . Right now? Are you sure? Is it that time? Did you see that? Were you serious? Is that your dog? Is the deadline tomorrow?

Swinging pitch inflection

In English there is a pattern with swinging pitch that conveys disagreement, surprise, or sarcasm. Within the stressed syllable pitch rises, falls sharply, and then rises again; as in the following response:

V
PR It must have been quite a surprise. A sur IS E?! Everyone knew.

8.3


The
COMPREHENSIVE

American Accent Guide

Use a swinging pitch on the following responses. After you hear A and B, repeat B.

BV
ExCITing?! . . . . . NOW?! I thought it was dull. We just got here. EASy?! I thought it was difficult. ADequate?! FRIENDly?! A SACrifice?! It's much more than adequate. I thought they were unfriendly. I didn't mind at all.

That movie was exciting. Let's leave now. . Wasn't it easy? It's adequate, isn't it. They're friendly. .

Did you make a sacrifice?

Sharply Falling Inflection

A message with a sharply falling inflection has a tone of impatience, irritation, or urgency. Compare a sharply falling inflection with a normal falling inflection in the following responses. Listen:
Sharply Falling Inflection:

Would you like to be left alone?


Normally Falling Inflection:

YES.

Would you like me to join you?

YES.

Contrast a sharply falling inflection with a normal falling inflection. examples:


Sharply falling Normal

Repeat both

No! Of course! It's mine! I don't know! Who said that?! What's the matter?! What did you want?!

No.

Of course. It's mine. I don't know. Who said that? What's the matter? What did you want?

Record yourself as you practice English conversational speech. Focus on your intonation and think of how your attitude might be interpreted by others. Remember that sharp inflections generally convey heightened feelings or emotions. You want to avoid sounding impatient, for example, when you do not mean to.

8.4

More on Stress & Intonation


VARIATIONS AND EXCEPTIONS

Yes/No Question Form with a Falling inflection

A question that seeks a 'yes' or a 'no' response is usually spoken with a rising inflection. When spoken with a falling inflection, a yes or no type of question is often rhetorical, meaning that it has little communication value. It is usually more of a self-comment rather than a request for a response. This type of response, however, can serve to reinforce conversation. Listen to the following dialogue: Did you go anywhere this weekend?

Oh, did you.

I went fishing.

The fishing was great! Was it.

"

And what did you do?

Declarative

Form with Rising Inflection

A declarative form is at times spoken with a rising inflection. As such, it is often rhetorical and is an expression of surprise, instead of a real question. Listen: We've arrived . ..... We're here already? The scenery was great. .... I wouldn't know. I was sleeping. You were sleeping? It's lunch time. .... It's lunch time already? Yeah, where would you like to go eat?

.... You couldn't tell?

Wh-Questions

with Rising Inflection

Normally, a wh- question is spoken with a falling inflection. A wh-question spoken with a rising inflection, however, is used to request clarification. The person asking the question either does not remember the information or did not hear it clearly, as in the following dialogue: Did you meet Kim's friend? .......................... It's Dan.

Yes, what's his name? Oh, yes.

8.5

The

COMPREHENSIVE

American Accent Guide


to contrast a falling inflection with a rising inflection on a

Repeat the following wh-question:

Which one? Where is it? What did you say? Where is it you're going? How did you get there?

. . . . .

Which one? Where is it? What did you say? Where is it you're going? How did you get there?

Listen to A and B, and then repeat B:


A B

There will be a workshop.

When?

On the first. On the first of next month. A Hey, I like those sweaters.

When?

B Which one do you prefer?

I like the striped one. The red one, with stripes.

Which one?

Conversational

Exercise:

As you listen to the following dialogue, focus on the use of intonation and stress to convey underlying meaning. So ...what did you do this weekend? ...... Oh, nothing much, how about you? Well, I had a great time! ...... A great time?! How so? Well, I cleaned out the garage, mowed the lawn, cleaned up the house and got a haircut . ...... That doesn't sound like a great time to me. It doesn't? ...... No, it doesn't. Well, at least I don't have to worry about it next weekend. So ...what are you doing next weekend? ...... Next weekend I think I'll clean out the garage, mow the lawn, tidy up the house, and get my haircut.

8.6

More on Stress & Intonation


VARIATIONS IN STRESS
Stress on Descriptive Words

Primary stress is normally placed on the last content word of a phrase or a sentence. In everyday speech, however, adjectives or adverbs are often stressed for emphasis and are thereby given primary stress. Listen to sentences with the adjective stressed:
It's simple to learn. It's an excellent idea.

Practice stressing adjectives for emphasis.


A

After you hear A and B, repeat B:


B

I hearit's a beautifulplace. . Is that a good example?

. .

Yes, it's a gorgeous

place.

It's a perfect example.

Sometimes Listen:
A

the adverb is stressed

for emphasis,
B

as in the following

exchanges.

You must have been surprised It's amusing, isn't it?

I was so surprised! amusing!

. Yes, it's mighty

After you hear A and B, repeat B:


A B

I understand it's easy. .. I hear the exam was difficult. Are you disappointed? He's quite busy, isn't he. .. Is it a good restaurant?

. . . . .

It's super easy. It was extremely difficult! I'm terribly disappointed! Yes, He's very occupied. It is a great restaurant.

Sometimes more than one descriptive


It was very good.

word is stressed for emphasis. For example:


It was freezing cold!

Practice stressing more than one descriptive word. After you hear A and B, repeat B.
A B

How's the music? Was it difficult or easy? Do you think so? I hear it's possible. .. Did the time go fast? I thought it was complicated. . Did you like the movie?

. . . . . .

That's too loud! It was so easy. certain. impossible! It is absolutely It went so fast! Yes, it was way too complicated. It was very, very good.

. I am positively

8.7

The

COMPREHENSIVE

American Accent Guide

Degrees of Stress

Different degrees of stress are used for emphasis. A stressed syllable can be given greater stress by increasing its length, its loudness and/or by raising its pitch more. In the following, the responses are stated at different levels of stress. Listen:
stress for emphasis greater stress for emphasis

How was the ship? Was it a bad storm? How was the sunset? .

It was huge. It was terrible. It was awesome.

The ship was HUGE!

It was TERrible! It was AWEsome!

PARAPHRASES: Practice using two levels of stress, as you paraphrase. A has a corresponding paraphrase in B. Repeat both A and B:

Each item in

You're exactly right! It was exciting! That's costly! It's confusing! It was embarrassing! They're sociable! It's terrible! It's hard to believe! It's terrific!

. . . . . . . . .

You're preCISEly right! It was exHilarating! That's outRAgeously It's PUZZling! It was huMiliating! They're VEry friendly! It's HORrible! It's inCREDible! It's fanTAStic! expensive!

Conversational

Exercise

Focus on degrees of stress as you shadow the speaker in the following:

My friend I decided great

told me that

learning how to play golf was REAL easy. was that What's my friend so difficult

So, had a about to

to learn. What I REAlly learned for UNDERstatement.

talent

Playing golf sounds simple enough.

You swing a golf club at a little white ball. that?

Right? The fact is, golf is easily one of the HARDest sports out being so emBARrassingly bad at it!

be good at. Simply put, it's eXTREMEly difficult when you start

to learn - especially

8.8

More on Stress & Intonation

Stress with Lower Pitch

Stress for emphasis is sometimes made with a lower pitch inflection. While higher pitch generally has a more enthusiastic tone, lower pitch has a more calm or even a listless tone. Sometimes words are stressed in a tone that reflects their meaning. Listen
CIT It's ex ing.

HAP
I'm
py about it.

It was B

o
R

I'm T
I

R
ring. ed.

Practice stress with higher pitch or with lower pitch. After you hear A and B, repeat B.
A B

How was business today? ........

BUS

y.

VER

Y busy.

How was the train ride?

SL

ow.

VER

SI

ow.

QUITE

PENSE sus ful.

How was the movie?

It was

How was the movie?

It was SO

de PRESS ing.

Stress with low pitch can also express opposition or disagreement, responses. Listen:
TO

as in the following

The meeting's in November, isn't it?

.....

N 0,

it's in

Oc

ber.

I was pretty sure it was in November. ....

Oc

ber. Check the newsletter. TO

8.9

The

COMPREHENSIVE

American Accent Guide


STRESS FOR EMPHASIS

PRACTICING

Shifting primary stress in a phrase or sentence gives emphasis to words that express the main point in that phrase or sentence, and it affects its overall meaning. To see how shifting stress affects meaning, listen to a sentence spoken with normal stress, and then to that same sentence as it might be spoken in a different circumstance. I plan to finish tonight.
Possible Questions: Possible Responses: (normal Stress)

Who plans to finish tonight? Do you think you'll finish tonight? Do you plan to begin tonight? Do you plan to finish tomorrow?

. . . .

I plan to finish tonight.


I plan to finish tonight. I plan to finish tonight. I plan to finish toNIGHT.

Notice that shifting stress in the responses often communicates what the listener expects and what the speaker means.

a distinction between

Practice shifting stress in the following exchanges. After you hear A and B, repeat B.
A B

When do we leave? Does the plane leave at 9 a.m.? Does the train arrive at 9 a.m.? I think the train leaves at 8 a.m. . Does the train leave at 9 p.m.?
A

. . . . .

The train leaves at 9 a.m. (normal Stress) No, the train leaves at 9 a.m. The train leaves at 9 a.m. The train leaves at 9 a.m. The train leaves at 9 A.M.
B

What do you do for exercise? Does anyone here exercise? Do you jog often? Do you ever walk to work? Do you ever go on walks? Do you exercise every weekend?

. . . . . .

I walk for exercise every day. I walk for exercise every day. No, but I walk for exercise every day. No, but I walk for exercise every day. I walk for exercise every day. I walk for exercise every DAY.

CLARIFYING

AND EXPLAINING

In the following exchanges, the responses clarify and also explain. Listen: Do plumbers work on lights? .
No, plumbers do not work on lights. Plumbers work on pipes. Electricians work on lights.

Practice using stress to clarify and explain. Listen to A and B. Repeat each sentence in B.
A B

Is a computer a type of software?

.....

No, a computer is not a type of software. A computer is a type of hardware. Computer programs are software.

8.10

More on Stress & Intonation


Are Panda Bears from Australia? No, Panda bears are not from Australia. Pandas are from China. Koala Bears are from Australia.

Is Rhode Island the largest state in America? . No, Rhode Island is not the largest Rhode Island is the smallest state. Alaska is the largest state. state.

This time, you answer the questions by emphasizing the words that make your message clearer in meaning. Stop, if you need to, and mark the words that you will emphasize. Listen to items in A, then say the items in B. You will hear a model after each sentence in the responses.
A B

Is Mexico north of the United States? _

_ _

No, Mexico is not north of the United States. Mexico is south of the United States. Canada is north of the United States.
Correct: No, Mexico is not north of the United States. Mexico is south of the United States. Canada is north of the United States.

Does the moon rotate around the sun?

The moon does not rotate around the sun. The moon rotates around the earth. The earth rotates around the sun.
Correct: The moon does not rotate around the sun. The moon rotates around the earth. The earth rotates around the sun.

Now practice responses that have more than one word stressed for emphasis within a sentence. Listen:
Are all apples red? No, not all apples are red. Some are green and some are yellow. Both the bus and train arrive at noon.

Does the bus arrive at noon?

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The COMPREHENSIVE American Accent Guide


Repeat the responses. After you hear A and B, repeat B.
A B

Doesthe bus or the train arriveat noon? Neither the bus nor the train arrives at noon. The bus arrives at two and the train at four. Chicago and Washington are states in the East Coast.

Washington is a state in the Northwest. Chicago is a city in the Midwest.

Is New Year's Evethe first day of January?

No, it's the last day of December. New Year's Day is the first day of January.

This time, you answer the questions by emphasizing the words that make your message clearer. Stop, if you wish, and mark the emphasized words in each sentence. Then continue. After you hear A, you say B. Then listen to the model.
A B

Doesthe sun rise in the North and set in the South?

_No,

the sun rises in the East and sets in the West.

Botanyis the study of animals, and zoology is the study of plants. _ the study of animals.

No, botany is the study of plants, and zoology is


Correct: No, the sun rises in the East and sets in the West. No, botany is the study of plants, and zoology is the study of animals.

INTONATION AND PAUSES


Pauses add clarity to speech when they are used meaningfully. A slight pause between thought units allows the speaker to better organize his/her thoughts, and it also allows the listener time to reflect on what is being said. Listen. How do I stay fit? Let me see. First, I try to get out of bed as early in the morning as possible, within reason. Then I find the leash for the dog; because I find that having a workout partner can be very beneficial, if you know what I mean. Finally, I stretch just to make sure I don't pull anything. Now comes the actual exercise, usually jogging a couple of miles. My jogging partner, the dog, leads the way. And before long, the whole thing's history; which sounds so much better than prehistory. Anyway, that's my daily fitness routine, or rather, my almost daily fitness routine.

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MESSAGES THAT REQUIRE PAUSES

Addressing the Listener by Name When addressing a listener by name in a message, add a slight pause between the listener's name and the rest of the message. The name also has its own inflection pattern. Listen:

"\

./

I meant to call you,! Alan.

Now listen to a message with the name at the beginning:

Alan,! I meant to call you.

Listen to questions that directly address the listener:

.-/

./
When did you call,!Alan?

Did you call,! Alan?

Without a pause and a separate inflection, the name of the person addressed sound as if it is part of the message. For example: Did you call, Alan? Call your mother, Alan becomes becomes...... Did you call Alan? Call your mother Alan.

will

Practice saying messages that directly address the listener. Repeat:


Did you call me, Sam? It's your mother, Alicia. How can you tell, Paul? Are you okay, Robert? When did you visit, Tony? Your husband called, Sonia. I'm pleased to meet you, Nathan. I'm pleased to have met you, Trina. We are looking forward to seeing you, Rebecca. I have a message for you, Tom.

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The COMPREHENSIVE American Accent Guide


Responses beginning with yes or no When a message begins with yes or no, a slight pause sets the word apart from the rest of the message and also gives it more emphasis. Listen:
Yes,! thank you. No,! thank you.

Repeat the following:


Yes, I accept. Yes, that's what I meant. Yes, that is my coat. Yes, they are my neighbors.. No, I refuse. No, that is not what I meant. No, that is not my coat. No, they are not my neighbors.

Messages with Tag Forms A tag form is a message that immediately follows another message. The speaker makes a statement or asks a question and then follows immediately with another question or statement, as in the following examples:

)
It's appropriate,! don't you think?

)
What do you-think I am,! a genius?

The tag is set apart from the rest of the message with a distinct pause and a separate inflection. In the following exchanges,
A

both A and B have tag forms. Listen:


B

When do we start, tomorrow? Whose turn is it, yours?

It's next week, I'm sure. It's yours, I think.

Generally, a tag with a falling inflection seeks agreement, while a tag with a rising inflection assumes that the listener will agree. Listen to exchanges to contrast a tag that seeks agreement with one that assumes the listener will agree.

A tag fonn that is not actually a question is punctuated with a period, not a question mark.

)
A B

Seeking Agreement:

You're excited about it, aren't you? ..... A little bit.

Assuming Agreement:

You're excited about it, aren't you.

..... How can you tell?

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Following are tag forms as questions and then tag forms as statements. Repeat them:

Tag forms as questions

Tag forms as statements

)
What do you think, okay? What day is it, the tenth? When do we leave, tomorrow? This needs improvement, don't you agree? That was the last time, right? The store hasn't already closed, has it? You'll remember that, won't you. They seem happy, don't they. It's not a good idea, is it. That doesn't look right, does it. It's a nice day, isn't it. You won't do that again, will you.

Practice using tag forms as questions or as statements A and B, then repeat B.


A B

in the following exchanges.

Listen to

This is the right bus, isn't it? We want number 26. . I'm not sure. .

It doesn't seem like it, does it.

. .

No, we want 20, don't we? We'd better ask, don't you think? It's not that late, is it? It's only six, I think. Then what's the answer, yes?

It's too late to see a movie. . . What time is it? . That's right, it is only six .

....

,e"..

,.,. ... '...........

,......

e . -. '.

'......

' .

" ..

'...

Hello, is this Tom's Auto Repair?


t
t

:

:

Well, my cdrls "Pakinga strange s


....... $0 the car still runs, am

d of a "chugga, chu99~

fhlng.

r rIght?

i
t
t

Yeah, rom, it still runs, but not very well at all. ........ The "chugga, chugga" thing .... So if I brought my car down, could you take a look at it? Well, no, because here at Tom's Auto Repair, we focus on
I'

: :
;

rar.
-c

\\ \',

"clunkc, clunka" sounds. For "chugga, chugga" sounds, I recommend that you call my brother Ted, of Ted's Auto Repair. "Chugga, chugga" are his specialty. Thanks, I appreciate the help, goodbye.
~., _.' .,... .. 0 .

~.c

' __ _ ...........

t t t :
8.15

The COMPREHENSIVE American Accent Guide


PAUSES IN LONGER SENTENCES Compound Sentences

Conjunctions connect thought segments or clauses into sentences. A conjunction may occur at the beginning of a sentence or between clauses. A slight pause between the clauses and changed inflection, make the clauses in a sentence clearer. Listen to a sentence first without, and then with, a slight pause and a change in inflection:

CONJUNCTIONS: and, as, but, if, so, also, when, because, after, before, although, thus, however, whenever, whereas, nevertheless, etc.

Without separate inflection or pause

With a separate inflection and a pause

Let me know if you decide to go.

Let me know,! if you decide to go.


In written communication, indicates a slight pause. a comma

Listen to this dialogue:

If there's

a festival,

would you like to go?

...............

I would, but I'll have to check my schedule.

If you can go, I'll get the tickets. ............... I'll let you know soon, if I can go.

Say the following sets of sentences with the conjunction in the beginning and then in the middle. Repeat:

Conjunction at Beginning:

Conjunction in Middle:

Before you start, think about it. When you get there, please send a postcard. If we can't make it, we'll have to cancel. Whenever you have time, give me a call. As we arrived, I remembered something.

. Think about it before you start. Send a postcard when you get there. . We'll have to cancel if we can't make it. Give me a call whenever you have time. I remembered something as we arrived.

8.16

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Parenthetical Statements
A parenthetical statement is a thought segment within a sentence. It is set apart from the sentence by one or more pauses and by its own intonation pattern. It can occur in the middle, at the beginning, or at the end of a sentence. Listen to examples:

However,! that is not true.

That, however,! is not true.

That is not true,! however.

Practice using parenthetical statements in different parts of a sentence. In the following exchange, the response is stated in three ways. After you hear 'A and B, repeat each item in B.

Do you two know each other well?

In fact, we were just introduced. We were, in fact, just introduced. We were just introduced, in fact.

Repeat the following:

That is impossible, of course. That, of course, is impossible. Of course, that is impossible. As far as I'm concerned, that is justified. That, as far as I'm concerned, is justified. That is justified, as far as I'm concerned. They are moving in two weeks, in case you didn't know. They are moving, in case you didn't know, in two weeks. In case you didn't know, they are moving in two weeks. Unless you hear otherwise, the meeting will be on Monday. The meeting, unless you hear otherwise, will be on Monday. The meeting will be on Monday, unless you hear otherwise. Unless we change our minds, we will begin at two o'clock. We will begin, unless we change our minds, at two o'clock. We will begin at two o'clock, unless we change our minds.

8.17

The

COMPREHENSIVE

American Accent Guide


Exercise patterns as you shadow the speaker in the following

Conversational

Now practice new intonation conversational exercise:

You know, when you think about it, cats really are smarter than dogs. Dog owners consider cats as aloof, and often times, self-involved. refuse on their that They sleep all day; and, with rare exceptions, tricks. They run things, more or less, of cats to perform

terms. As a cat owner, I can confirm all of those However, it is the self-sufficiency

considerations.

makes them so appealing as pets. Cats only like you if

they know you, and if they think you deserve it. They will not ask you, as their owner, to do anything they would not want to do if the circumstances were reversed, and they owned you. They would never make you get up at four o'clock in the morning, just to let them out. They would never relieve themselves on your expensive Persian rug. Sure, dogs are cute. But cats, on the other hand, are smart. And as experience will tell you, being cute can only get you so for in this world.

STATING OPTIONS
When providing choices or alternatives, a slight pause between items and a change in inflection makes the message clearer. Two Options When two options are stated, the first is spoken with a rising inflection second with a falling inflection. Listen: and the

Do you like it,! or not?

What do you think; yes,!or no?

Practice using a slight pause and separate inflections


This one, or that one? Does it matter, or doesn't it? Is it the left side, or the right side? Which looks better, this or that?

in the following. Repeat:

Where should we meet, at your place or mine?

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How would you rather send it, by FAX or bye-mail? Do you like to go out for lunch, or order pizza? When will you be back, Monday or Tuesday? When would you like to schedule an appointment, morning or afternoon?

More than Two Options When choices include more than two options, each item, except the last one, is spoken with a slightly rising inflection. Listen:

Was it in the fall,! the winter,! or the spring?

Practice saying sentences that offer more than two choices. Repeat:
Will you take the bus, the train, or fly? Were you happy, disappointed, Is it today, tomorrow, or what? or the day after tomorrow?

Would you like coffee, juice, tea, or soda? Should we go out to dinner, to a movie, or both? We can fix dinner, order takeout, or eat out. Will you be here this week, next week, or the week after? Which would you prefer, cash, check, credit card, or money order?

STATING ITEMS OR SEQUENCES When stating a list of items or sequences of events, the items or events before the end are often spoken with an overall higher pitch. Listen:

We have a cat, a dog, and a bird. I washed the dishes, swept the floor, and vacuumed.

Repeat the following:


For entertainment, I like movies, concerts, Discover, my grandparents, and plays. and American Express.

They accept Visa, MasterCard, I will visit my parents,

my in-laws, and my cousin.

8.19

The COMPREHENSIVE American Accent Guide


Conversational Exercise:
Practice the new intonation patterns you just learned. Shadow the speaker in the following.
So there forty a little I was, standing there in the middle of the worst snowstorm in

years. Needless to say, I was really cold. tighter,

So, I buttoned

up my coat

and pulled the hood, lined with goose down, over my head. Man, was that snow coming down! a friend of mine, who drives a four-wheelshut

Then I put my hands into my pockets. Finally, much to my good fortune, drive truck,

happened by. He saw me, pulled over, and asked me if I needed obvious, and my mouth was frozen responding. When I got home, I made myself thinking out

a ride. Since the answer was rather anyway, I climbed in without some tea, and proceeded on a beach somewhere

to thaw out my toes. Then, I started enjoying something umbrellas in

about how nice it would be if, instead of thawing out, I was stretching in the Caribbean, other than tea, something with one of those little it, while watching an awesome sunset.

Items can be made more distinct by stating each, prior to the last one, with a rising inflection and adding a slight pause in between items. Listen:
../../../ They're going to Athens,! Istanbul,! ~ Cairo,! and Tel Aviv.

She opened the door,! walked in,! and sat down.

Repeat the following:


They sell videos, CD's, DVD's, magazines, and paperbacks. and physics. pool. pastimes. Palace,

The classes offered are algebra, trigonometry, They require an application, Reading, painting,

The hotel provides cable TV, a hot tub, and a swimming hiking, and mountain

a resume, and a letter of recommendation. biking are my favorite Gardens,

The price includes round trip airfare, sightseeing tours, and hotel accommodations. On a tour of London we visited Kensington and Windsor Castle. Buckingham

Indefinite Listings or Choices When listing items or providing options as unlimited possibilities, with a slightly rising inflection and with slight pauses. Listen:
Would you like black tea, herbal tea, latte, espresso ..... They have a pool, a spa, tennis courts .....

each item is said

8.20

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Descriptions, Directions, or Instructions The items in a description and in a set of instructions or directions sound clearer when spoken with separate inflections and with slight pauses in between. Repeat the following:
It's a two-story gray house with a large picture window, a tall elm tree in front, surrounded by a white fence. Complete the first page, fill in items 4, 5, and 6, and enter your signature and the date on the bottom line. To go there, get on Highway 15, take the Sixth South Exit, turn right, go two blocks, and you're there.

Conversational

Exercises - Putting it All Together of stress, rhythm, and intonation as you repeat the

Practice applying the patterns following paragraphs.

Be clear about the audience) A writer should know his readers, and then write so they can understand.! writing as simple as possible) Always make the Even complex ideas can often

be written simply.! The simpler one writes, the more likely the reader will understand.! Clear, simple writing is much easier to understand, and much easier to translate into local languages.! keep it simple. Remember,

Dolphins which are probably the most popular of sea animals, are said to be intelligent and friendly.! If you ever take an ocean voyage or cruise, you will likely get to see Dolphins swimming alongside the ship or just in front.! They will appear ~ to be racing playfully with the ship, as they dash and leap, cutting back and forth across the bowl. Dolphins are seen commonly in the warm waters of the Gulf Stream.! They travel in schools and accompany ships for long distances.! They grow to a length of sixto nine feet and are dark above, with yellowish and brown stripes on the sides, and a clear white belly.! They are not fish, but mammals.! They are closely related to the whales and porpoises.

8.21

The

COMPREHENSIVE

American Accent Guide


To some of us, the Mississippi is indeed a

book.! It is Tom Sawyer, Huckleberry Finn, and Jim floating on a raft,! pushing down stream, and feeling the soothing splash of cold water on bare feet.! It is an unforgiving sun beating down relentlessly on straw hats that shade rosy, mischievous cheeks, land it is the glowing, black skin of a runaway slave that shines like ebony.! In its ripples we sense freedom, adventure and a longing for discovery.

Now practice applying the patterns of stress and intonation, as well as pauses, as you shadow the speakers in the following paragraphs.

How to get big laughs at a party? First, you have to be naturally funny. Philosophically, you should also understand that you need to be in tune with your audience. That means knowing what they consider humorous and what they do not. For example, it would be wrong to make attorney jokes around members of an organization like the National Bar Association. to be sure use discretion. Discussing "Confessions Simply put, of a Vegetarian" at a

Beef Council convention ought to get you some laughs. But remember, you have to be clever about it. Use your head or you could, as they say, go over like a lead balloon. Getting lots of laughs? ~ Approach it as though it were very serious business.

O~
~

Grocery shopping, provided you know what you are doing, can be quick and easy. The first thing to remember, is that you need to find a time when there are fewer shoppers in the store, at least in the check-out lanes. To do this, I recommend you find a grocery store that is open 24 hours a day, seven days a week. Studies show that after 1 a.m., grocery traffic becomes noticeably less congested. So, just to be on the safe side, I suggest that you wait until You'll find that other than the 1:30 a.m. to begin your grocery shopping. virtually to yourself.

guy cleaning up with the mop and the night-checker, you'll have the store In this circumstance, you'll not only have the freedom of unencumbered shopping, but quicker checkout as well. Finally, I highly recommend choosing Friday night as your grocery shopping night, because you will have the distinct advantage of sleeping in on Saturday morning.

8.22

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BONUS EXERCISES

Practice Using Stress for Emphasis

In the folrowlng verbal '~xdllahges. each response in B contains a word that is stressed for emphasis. Which word is it?
1. Did you take photos? . &2. I don'Uhi~ you can fini~ on tin1e. .......,........... 3. Is the book blue or gray? . 4. Are you sure it's nex~week? ............................. 5. Who can (Jance? . 7. Did you attend the meeting? . 8. I want to thank yOu.......................... ,., A . 9. Is the concert this week? .
Correct:
1. Yes, I did take a few 2. But I ca\finish pn time. 3. It's blue and gray. 4. ~s, ram sure. 5. Sheeao. 6.l~U doIt, 7. No, were you there? 8. And I want to thank you. 9. No, it is next week.

Yes, I did take a few. But I can finish on time. It's blue and gray. Yes, I am sure. I will do it. No, were you there? And I want to thank you. No, it is next week.

Practice using stressfor emphasis as you state your opinions. Indicate whether you agree or disagree with each of the following statements. Use complete sen,tegces.
1. New York City is the most popular city in the world. 2. There-is too much vlolertce in movies. 3. Children are growing up too fast these days. 4. ~u(!lear weapons should be banned in every country.

5. Srnokipq of tobacco should not be allowed in public buildings. 8. Everybody should be able to Buya gun.
9. Recycling is ne~essary in order to preserve the world's natural resources.

Name three or more of each of the following:


1. Typeoffruit 2 .Desserts.
4. Musicians. 5. Places \XthSreyou would go on vacation. 6. Sports you enjoy as a participant or observer. you liK:'e.

3. Inrerests o~past'mes.

8.23

The

COMPREHENSIVE

American Accent Guide

Practice changing inflection and usfrtg sl,g~t pal{ses

Complete the following sentences. Begin each with a cortjunction such as: if, whenever before, after, because. For example:
...1get dressed ..

After! get dreased,Jieat bf4~akfast. - Or! Before T'get dressed, I eat lJreakfast.

1 2, 3 4 5

1 do my homework
1 brush my teelh

. .

6 .... 8. 9

I go to a party ....

7. ... I

gl a cors....

1$

1 came here ....


it rains I'm late . .

I go to the dentist I go on vacation .

10. ... I'm watching a boring movie ....

Describe each of the following. Apply changed inflection and slight pauses to add clarity to your speech.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. The house~ou Il\e in or woulcPlike to live

tit

The room or place you are in. The car you own or would like to own. A familiar city. A pet that belonqs to yotror to;~friend. A character in a movie or a play you saw recently. The flag of your native country.

Provide directions or instructions. Select from any of the following. Apply changes in inflection and add slight pauses between steps in a sequence in order to make your messages clearer.
1. Sending a letter. 2. Making coffee or tea. 3. Cooking your favorite dish. 4. Making a long distance phone call. 5. Finding a web site on the Internet. 6. ~-eGording a TV

Show wit~ c;" VO'R..

7. Taking a good photograph. 8. Sending a FAX message. 9. Sending an e-rpail message.

I.

8.24

Personalized with

Accent-Reduction A. Lujan,

Coaching

Beverly

MS - ccc/sip

Beverly A. Lujan, provides personalized, and speaking style of American English:

guided instruction

on the pronunciation

In person, By telephone, One-on-one instruction, With groups, In educational settings,

At the workplace.

Ms Lujan offers a ten-hour individualized A speech assessment

course of instruction the course.

for $800 that includes:

prior to beginning

Ten hours of personalized, Additional sessions,

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include:

Her expertise as author of The American Accent Guide, 2nd Edition. Having an experienced instructor who has taught English pronunciation for 18 years to people from around the world. Having a highly qualified instructor who specialized in accent reduction during her formal training in, both B.S. and M.S. from the University of Utah, in speech-language pathology. Having an instructor who thoroughly enjoys her work helping clients achieve their speech improvement goals for personal or professional reasons. Having individualized training that meets your personal needs, employment demands, and personal and professional goals. Having the best and most thorough tool on the market (The Guide) that facilitates easy and enjoyable practice between coaching sessions. The ability to make dramatic progress in a very short time, possibly achieving total accent elimination within the ten-week period. Ms. Lujan has a success rate over 95%, as rated by her clients.

Testimonials
Dear Beveriv, Thank. you for the exceiient yrogram you provided. over the phone . .Jtfter 1 fin isfiea few sessions, my staff at the clinic were so impressed. 6'1 my 'Engfish ana my patients never have to ask me: could. you repeat that again? Or what did. you say? Say that one more time y{ease. Ta{king over the phone now is much easier ana the most important for me now is: 1am no Congernervous about syeaking in grouys ana meetings. Thani: you so much, Zeyaoun Souiasrman. V.V.S.
1 came from India 9 years ago ..... 'Even though my 'Engfish {anguage skirrs were gooa, 1 [aced. challenqes communicating at work because of my accent. 1wanted. to be confident in communicating with executives from my company ana with ciient executives, ..... .Jtfter two sessions 1knew exactlv why 1had. to repeat what 1said, ana why yeoy{e had. aifficu{ty understanding certain words 1said. Working with :Ms. Lujan on interactive sessions heryea me make corrections quite quick{y. 1can now communicate a rot better ana speak witfi confidence . Dev :Muaafiar

1'1' of Techno{ogy
Teieperformance 'US.Jt

'Before imyroving my speech. skirrs with the hetp of 'Beverfy Lujan, 1was not abte to function well in my j06 as a manager in bani: operations which requires me to train bani: officers ana emplo-qees 1had' studied 'Engfish in Nigeria since etementarv schoot ana had. Iived. in the 'U.S.for 7 years .Jtfter on{y ten weeks of working with :Ms. Lujan ana yracticing with The .Jtmerican .Jtccent (juiae, people no Conger asked. me to repeat what 1said. :My accent has aefinite{y improved, ana yeoy{e actua{{y say they fike the way 1sound.
..1have great{y improved' my speech. ana am now abl to achieve my career qoals. 1also

have the oyy ortun it '1 to teach economics ana business management classes at a community co{{ege which would. not have happened. had. 1not improved. my speech. skirrs. Stanford .Jtaerig6ig6e Zions 'Bank

J-fong Xong 9 years ago, ana spoke Ching fish - 'Engfish with an injiuence of 60tfi Chinese ana 'British 'Engfish. 1also spoke fast thinking 1would. be more [Iuent, bu: 1 [ound. that this made my speech. more aifficu{t understand. . :My experience in training sessions with 'Bever{y was incredibiu pleasant Within ten weeks, she showed. me a{{ the basics of the standard. .Jtmerican accent inciudinq yroyer stress, intonation, rhythm, vocai patterns, ana yronunciation of a{{ the voweCs ana consonants. She aiso hetped. me be a criticai judqe of my speech. 1am now abie 'fine tune" my accent 6'1 detecting ana then fixing my mistakes. She is very yatient, very derailed; ana very thorough. 1 think it is important to have a professionai to give you [eedhack, provide you guiaefines, ana show you how to make corrections. 1aefinite{y recommend. Beverlu. Sherman Tse Oracle Developer, Charlotte, NC

1 came to the 'U.S. from

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