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Height of slave trade See also: Arab slave trade and Atlantic slave trade ArabSwahili slave traders

and their captives along the Ruvuma River (in today's Tan ania and !o ambi"ue# as witnessed by $avid %ivingstone& Slavery had long been practiced in Africa&'()*'(+* ,etween the -th and ).th centuries/ Arab slave trade (also 0nown as slavery in the 1ast# too0 23 million slaves from Africa via trans4Saharan and 5ndian 6cean routes& ,etween the 2(th and the 27th centuries ((.. years#/ the Atlantic slave trade too0 an estimated -2) million slaves to the 8ew 9orld&'(:*'((*'(;* !ore than 2 million 1uropeans were captured by ,arbary pirates and sold as slaves in 8orth Africa between the 2;th and 27th centuries&'(-* 5n 9est Africa/ the decline of the Atlantic slave trade in the 23).s caused dramatic economic shifts in local polities& The gradual decline of slave4trading/ prompted by a lac0 of demand for slaves in the 8ew 9orld/ increasing anti4slavery legislation in 1urope and America/ and the ,ritish Royal 8avy's increasing presence off the 9est African coast/ obliged African states to adopt new economies& ,etween 23.3 and 23;./ the ,ritish 9est Africa S"uadron sei ed appro<imately 2/;.. slave ships and freed 2(./... Africans who were aboard&'(3* A slave being inspected/ from =aptain =anot> or/ Twenty ?ears of an African Slaver& Action was also ta0en against African leaders who refused to agree to ,ritish treaties to outlaw the trade/ for e<ample against @the usurping Aing of %agos@/ deposed in 23(2& Anti4slavery treaties were signed with over (. African rulers&'(7* The largest powers of 9est Africa (the Asante =onfederacy/ the Aingdom of $ahomey/ and the 6yo 1mpire# adopted different ways of adapting to the shift& Asante and $ahomey concentrated on the development of @legitimate commerce@ in the form of palm oil/ cocoa/ timber and gold/ forming the bedroc0 of 9est Africa's modern e<port trade& The 6yo 1mpire/ unable to adapt/ collapsed into civil wars&';.* =olonialism and the @Scramble for Africa@ !ain article: =oloni ation of Africa Burther information: Scramble for Africa The !ahdist 9ar was a colonial war fought between the !ahdist Sudanese and the ,ritish forces Areas of Africa under the sovereignty or influence of the colonial powers in 272+/ along with modern borders& ,elgium Cermany Spain Brance Dnited Aingdom 5taly Eortugal independent 5n the late 27th century/ the 1uropean imperial powers engaged in a maFor territorial scramble and occupied most of the continent/ creating many colonial territories/ and leaving only two fully independent states: 1thiopia (0nown to 1uropeans as @Abyssinia@#/ and %iberia& 1gypt and Sudan were never formally incorporated into any 1uropean colonial empire> however/ after the ,ritish occupation of 233)/ 1gypt was effectively under ,ritish administration until 27))