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January 2008
GSM Technology
Training Course
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The content of this manual is provided for information only, is subject to change without
notice, and should not be construed as a commitment by Actix. Actix assumes no
responsibility or liability for any errors or inaccuracies that appear in this documentation.
Copyright Actix 2008. All rights reserved. All trademarks are hereby acknowledged.

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Contents
1 CONFIGURING CELL SITES ............................................................................. 5
1.1 IMPORTING NETWORK DATA ................................................................................. 5
1.1.1 Obtaining Site Data in Tabular Format ...................................................... 5
1.1.2 Guidelines for Formatting Tabular Data ..................................................... 7
1.1.3 Obtaining the File to be Populated With Formatted Data .............................. 7
1.1.4 Importing the Data ................................................................................. 8
1.2 UPDATING CELL SITE DATA ................................................................................ 14
1.2.1 Automatic Import of Cell Site Data ......................................................... 14
2 VIEWING GSM DATA IN ANALYZER ................................................................. 16
2.1 LOADING FILES .............................................................................................. 16
2.2 VIEWING SCANNER DATA IN ANALYZER .................................................................. 18
2.3 INDEPENDENT NODE DATA IN ANALYZER................................................................. 19
2.4 ADDING GSM PARAMETERS TO THE FAVORITES GROUP ............................................... 20
2.5 VIEWING GSM DATA ON MAPS ........................................................................... 21
2.5.1 Modifying Legend Ranges ...................................................................... 22
2.5.2 The Map Offset Tool .............................................................................. 23
2.5.3 Creating a Multi-Dimensional Map Stream ............................................... 24
2.5.4 Lines to Cells and Cell History ................................................................ 25
2.5.5 Displaying Data Values as Text on Maps .................................................. 26
2.6 VIEWING CELL SITE INFORMATION ....................................................................... 29
2.7 VIEWING DATA IN THE MESSAGE BROWSER ............................................................. 30
2.8 VIEWING DATA IN THE PROTOCOL STACK BROWSER ................................................... 31
2.9 VIEWING DATA ON STATE FORMS ......................................................................... 32
2.9.1 Using Preconfigured StateForms ............................................................. 32
2.9.2 Viewing Custom Forms with the StateForms Editor ................................... 36
2.9.3 Modifying an Existing StateForms File ..................................................... 36
2.9.4 Creating Your Own StateForms File ......................................................... 39
3 UPLINK DATA ANALYSIS .............................................................................. 41
3.1 EXPLORING CALL TRACE DATA ............................................................................ 41
3.2 SUPERSTREAMING CALL TRACE AND DRIVE TEST DATA ................................................ 41
4 ANALYZER QUERIES AND FILTERS .................................................................. 43
4.1 FILTER ANALYSIS ............................................................................................ 44
4.2 BINNED QUERY / CUSTOM ANALYSIS QUERY ............................................................ 46
4.2.1 ServingCellDistance in Miles .................................................................. 46
4.2.2 Dragging Handover Query ..................................................................... 47
4.3 CROSSTAB QUERY SORT BY SITE AND SECTOR ....................................................... 49
4.3.1 Display the Crosstab Query Results ........................................................ 51
4.3.2 Filter the Crosstab Query Results ........................................................... 52
4.4 EVENT QUERY - DROPPED CALL WINDOW ............................................................... 52
4.4.1 Displaying Event Queries ....................................................................... 56
4.5 STATISTIC ANALYSIS ....................................................................................... 56
5 REPORTING GSM NETWORK PERFORMANCE ...................................................... 57
5.1 APPLICATION PACKAGES .................................................................................... 57
5.1.1 Running Application Packs ..................................................................... 57
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5.1.2 DT Design Validation and Quick Analysis ................................................. 58
5.1.3 DT Handover Settings and Power Control ................................................ 59
5.2 RUNNING A PRE-DEFINED REPORT ........................................................................ 60
5.3 CREATING A CUSTOM REPORT ............................................................................. 61
5.3.1 Running Your Report with New Data ....................................................... 63
6 APPENDIX GSM EVENT DEFINITIONS ............................................................ 65
7 APPENDIX GPRS OPTIMIZATION PARAMETERS ................................................. 67
7.1 GPRS TEST DESIGN ........................................................................................ 67
7.1.1 Throughput analysis ............................................................................. 67
7.1.2 Latency and signaling analysis ............................................................... 67
7.1.3 Analysis of the effects of the RF environment on the GPRS network ............ 68
7.2 GPRS DATA ANALYSIS ..................................................................................... 68
8 APPENDIX STATEFORMS ATTRIBUTES ............................................................ 72
8.1 SHEET ATTRIBUTES ......................................................................................... 72
8.2 LABEL ATTRIBUTES .......................................................................................... 72
8.3 ATTRIBUTE VALUE ........................................................................................... 73
8.4 ARRAY ATTRIBUTE VALUE .................................................................................. 75
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1 Configuring Cell Sites
The Network Explorer feature allows you to import network element data into Analyzer,
creating a cell plan file called cellrefs.txt. It also lets you browse and edit this network
information once it has been loaded into Analyzer. The Automatic Import feature provides
an automated method of updating cell site information in Analyzer as changes are made to
the network.
This section describes how to import delimited data into Analyzer, and how to configure
the Automatic Import tool.
1.1 Importing Network Data
The important thing to remember about Analyzers network data import process is that the
process requires two files:
1. A delimited text file that contains unformatted data arranged in tabular form, with
one row for each individual sector in a network.
2. A blank file, containing only Analyzer header information, to be populated with
formatted data.
1.1.1 Obtaining Site Data in Tabular Format
In order to import cell site data from your own network, you will need to obtain a delimited
text file containing the data listed in the table below. To maximize the benefit Analyzer can
bring to GSM network analysis, the parameters listed in bold in the table on the following
page are REQUIRED for cell data to function with logged data in the main workspace. All
other parameters are optional.
The data may come from a network database or a planning tool configuration file. As long
as the data is in a tabular format with one row for each sector, Analyzer will be able to
import the data.
GSM Cell Site Parameters for Import:
Parameter Analyzer Group Analyzer Name Purpose
Site Name GSM_Site SiteName Text description of the Site
for display on map.
Site Number GSM_Site SiteID Numeric identifier for the site.
Latitude GSM_Site Latitude Locates site icons on map.
Longitude GSM_Site Longitude Locates site icons on map.
Sector Number GSM_Cell Sector_ID Sector-specific information
useful for display on maps
(can be alpha or numeric)
Azimuth GSM_Cell Azimuth Orients the sector icons on
the map.
Beamwidth GSM_Cell Beamwidth Governs the shape of the
sector wedge icon to reflect
the beamwidth of antenna
deployed at the site.
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Parameter Analyzer Group Analyzer Name Purpose
BCCH GSM_Cell BCCH Used for cell site identification
and to calculate lines to cells.
BSIC GSM_Cell BSIC Used for cell site identification
and to calculate lines to cells.
BSIC is the concatenation of
the NCC and BCC values for a
cell.
CI GSM_Cell CI Used for cell site identification
and to calculate lines to cells.
This field must be numeric!
Base Station
Power
GSM_Cell EIRP Base station power, for
informational purposes only.
MCC GSM_Cell MCC Mobile country code, for
informational purposes only.
MNC GSM_Cell MNC Mobile network code, for
informational purposes only.
LAC GSM_Cell LAC Location area code, for
informational purposes only.
BSC Name GSM_BSC BSCName BSC name, for use with A and
Abis link data
BSC ID GSM_BSC ID BSC identity, for use with A
and Abis link data
MSC Name GSM_MSC MSCName MSC name, for use with A and
Abis link data
MSC ID GSM_MSC ID MSC identity, for use with A
and Abis link data

The figure below is an example of a delimited GSM file that could be used to import a site
list into Analyzer. Though the columns can be in any order for import into Analyzer, the
figure shows all of the REQUIRED fields. Additionally, the Excel spreadsheet must be saved
as a TEXT file for import into Analyzer.
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1.1.2 Guidelines for Formatting Tabular Data
Although Analyzer does not require cell site data fields to be listed in a particular order,
following these guidelines will provide the best results:
1. The Site ID field must contain a unique value for each site location. Beware of non-
unique Site ID's - that is, entries that have multiple sets of lats/longs for the same Site ID.
Non-unique Site ID's will result in site markers appearing on the map without sector
wedges. Site Names need not be unique - they are used for labeling purposes only.
2. Position information must be accurate in order for Analyzer to display sites in the
correct location on the map. Longitudes that have a 'West' notation should be represented
as a negative decimal, as should latitudes with a 'South' notation. Sites will appear skewed
on the map if the latitude and longitude fields are transposed.
1.1.3 Obtaining the File to be Populated With Formatted Data
Before importing new cells into Analyzer, ensure that Analyzer is pointing to a valid cell
site database.
A valid cell site database is a text file in which the first line contains the text
below:
; #NetworkData datafile
Every Analyzer installation comes with a clean file called cellrefs.txt located in the
directory called:
C:\Program Files\Actix\Analyzer\Bin\Cellrefs
The file to be populated need not be named cellrefs.txt. We recommend
renaming this file with a meaningful name in order to prevent the file from being
overwritten during reinstallation.

To point the Analyzer to the file you wish to populate with the new cell site data, use the
File Location line in the Tools, Preferences dialog. See the section on Loading Cell Site Data
for more details.
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1.1.4 Importing the Data
Once you have obtained your cell site database in delimited format and pointed Analyzer to
a valid cellrefs file, you are ready to open the Network Explorer and import the site
information.
1. To access the Network Explorer, select Tools, Network Explorer.

The Network Explorer display consists of two panels. The left panel contains a tree view of
the network element data. The right panel shows details about relevant parameters for the
current selection. If you have pointed Analyzer to a cellrefs file containing only header
information, you will not see any cell site data at this time.
2. On the toolbar select Import, Import From New Template to open the Import
dialog.
3. Select the appropriate network data file and click Open to display the Import
Settings dialog.
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4. Give the Template a meaningful Template Name.
5. Check the appropriate Delimiter.
6. In most cases, the default information under the General Settings and Coordinate
Information headers will apply. Adjust these settings if necessary.
7. Click Next.
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8. Expand the GSM_Site data node. Click in the Column field next to the Site_Name
parameter. Select the parameter name from your site database that corresponds to the
Site_Name parameter. Repeat for each of the required fields in the GSM_Site data node,
based on the table below:

Field Mapping required for proper operation?
Site_Name Optional, but this field is frequently used for the site label.
SiteID Required, and this field must be unique for each site in the database.
Latitude Required
Longitude Required

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9. Expand the GSM_Cell data node. Click in the Column field next to the Sector_ID
parameter. Select the parameter name from your site database that corresponds to the
Sector_ID parameter. Repeat for each of the required fields in the GSM_Cell data node,
based on the table below:

Field Required for proper operation?
Sector_ID Required
Azimuth Required
Beamwidth Required
EIRP Optional
BCCH Required
MCC Optional
MNC Optional
LAC Optional
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Field Required for proper operation?
CI Required, and this field must be unique for each site in the
database.
BSIC Required
Face_Display Optional, but map this field to the integer sector ID field (i.e. 1, 2,
3) in order to color sectors on the map by face number (i.e. 1 =
red, 2 = blue, 3 = green).
Azimuth_Display Optional, but map this field to the integer azimuth field in order to
color sectors on the map by azimuth range.
Phase_Display Optional, but map this field to a custom integer field to color
sectors on the map by that field. An example of a custom field
would be the phase of the site where:
1 = On Air
2 = Under Construction
3 = Planned for Next Year

10. Click Finish when all the columns have been assigned. If the current workspace
contains existing site data, you will be asked whether you want to remove existing data
before importing new data. Select Yes to overwrite existing data. Select No to append to
existing data.
11. If any errors occur during the import, a pop-up message will indicate that an error
log has been created. The error log specifies the cause of each error encountered and can
be found in:
C:\Program Files\Actix\Analyzer\Bin\Cellrefs\ImportErrors.log
12. Inspect the cell data in the Network Explorer by expanding the
All_GSM_Site_Elements folder in the left-hand pane of the Network Explorer.
13. Double-click on any site name in the right hand pane. The Name, Location and ID
of the site will appear, as well as a folder containing GSM Cell Elements. Drill into the GSM
Cell Elements folder and examine the values corresponding to each sector.
14. To save the formatted site information, select the Save button.
15. Close the Network Explorer by clicking the X at the upper right hand corner.
16. After closing the Network Explorer, view a new map by selecting View, Display New
Map.
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17. If cell icons do not appear on the map, right click on the GSM_Cell layer in the map
legend at the left hand side of the map window. Select Zoom to Layer to zoom the map to
the appropriate location. Be sure to close the map with the X at the upper right hand
corner to save all changes to the map view.

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1.2 Updating Cell Site Data
There are two convenient ways to update cell plan information in Analyzer:
Minor cell plan changes (a few azimuths, BCCHs, etc.) can be modified directly
from the Network Explorer. Simply browse to find the site and sector of interest
and double click on a single parameter to activate the text. Be sure to save the
modifications before exiting the Network Explorer!
If the cellplan file is updated (multiple sites added, complete frequency retune),
use the Automatic Import feature to detect changes to an existing cell plan and
import the updated cell site file into Analyzer. Instructions for using the Automatic
Import feature follow.
1.2.1 Automatic Import of Cell Site Data
The Automatic Import feature detects changes to cell plan data and updates the configured
site data every time Analyzer is opened.

To use the Automatic Import feature
1. From the Analyzer main menu, select Tools, Preferences.
2. Expand the Automatic Import option under Cellrefs and select the Enable
Automatic Import option.
3. Select the Automatic Import Input File. This is the text file that contains your
delimited site data.
4. Select the Automatic Import Template. Once a template has been created, a new
Analyzer workspace must be started in order for that template to appear in this list. To
use a template created on another computer, copy the template of interest from the
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C:\Program Files\Actix\Analyzer\Bin\Cellrefs\Templates directory to the same directory on
your machine.
5. Click OK to exit the Change Preferences dialog. A message will appear that
Automatic Import has been enabled and that your currently loaded cellrefs will be
overwritten the next time Analyzer is restarted.
Once Automatic Import is configured, any changes to the Automatic Import Input File will
be detected, and will be changed accordingly in your Analyzer cell site file each time
Analyzer is opened.
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2 Viewing GSM Data in Analyzer
2.1 Loading Files
Now that you are more familiar with the Analyzer environment, we will move on to some
of the basic viewing options for drive test data.
1. Load the following drive test files by selecting File, Open Logfile or by clicking the
Open Logfile icon: . These files are located in the C:\Program
Files\Actix\Analyzer\DataFiles directory:
Nemo Drive Test 1.dt1
TEMS Investigation 1.log
2. Expand the file tree in the workspace and select the NemoGSM (0) stream from
the Nemo Drive Test 1 file.
3. Expand the layers under the NemoGSM (0) stream, then expand the GSM node
and examine each data group and parameter, as shown below.

Upon loading a GSM data file, note that several data groups are created for each device
contained in the file. To see these data groups, open any log file contained in the training
package.
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The following data groups are created under the GSM node:
Statistics Data Information about handover interval and duration
Serving Cell Parameters Information about the serving cell identity, serving
BCCH, and BSIC.
Target Cell Info Information about the target cell for a handoff including BCCH
and BSIC.
Dedicated Radio Link Once a call has been established, parameters that are
associated with the cell serving the call are contained here.
Device Info Information about the specifications of the mobile making the call.
Downlink Measurements Serving RxLev and RxQual measurements made by the
mobile, which are also broken out by ARFCN.
Neighbor Cell Info BCCH, BSIC, and RxLev for each neighbor. In addition, all
neighbor measurements are broken out by channel number.
Event Data Call events triggered by Layer 3 messaging or registered by the drive
test vendors equipment. If an event is not present in the tree, it did not occur in
the file.
GPRS Measurements Metrics associated with GPRS data calls, including
throughput, coding scheme, channel usage, TBF information and events can be
found here.
AMR Measurements Call setup and inband signaling measurements extracted
from AMR-enabled handsets are contained in this group.
Vendor Specific Measurements that are specific to the particular collection device
used. Specific events registered by the T+M vendors hardware not derived from
layer 3 messaging by Analyzer are included here.
The Data Testing node in a GPRS or EDGE handset stream provides data parameters that
are not specific to the air interface. Under the Data Testing node, the following groups may
be found:
Application Measurements Find instantaneous application layer throughput here.
This is the value that most closely approximates the end users experience.
Protocol Measurements This group contains throughput values for each layer in
the IP stack. This group contains statistics for the IP, PPP, TCP, ICMP and RLP2
layers.
IP (Internet Protocol) provides a connectionless addressing scheme of packets, or
datagrams, to be delivered in a packet-switched data network.
TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) establishes a virtual connection between a
source and a destination in a data network.
PPP (Point to Point Protocol) serves primarily to provide some security to
datagrams in the IP network.
ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol) supports error, control and informational
messages within the data network.
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Task Settings This group contains task identifiers including Task_Id, Task_Name
and Task_Key.
Task Summary This group contains application level parameters summarizing the
entire task.
Ping Statistics This group contains metrics for any ping session within the logfile.
Application Statistics This group contains the number of bytes transmitted by the
data application.
Connection This group contains details for data connections activated within the
logfile.
HTTP Statistics This group contains metrics for any HTTP session within the
logfile.
Right-click on several of the parameters under each group and note that they can be
displayed on tables, maps, charts, and in workbooks.
2.2 Viewing Scanner Data in Analyzer
Analyzer supports the GSM scanners including the TEMS scanner, Nemo Seegull, Comarco
baseline, and XK series scanner devices.
To better understand the Scanner data that is presented, open logfile Grayson CW
Scan.LOG and expand the stream Spectrum Tracker (0):

Note that under the Scanner data group, several groups
have been created to help you easily drill down into the
data.
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2.3 Independent Node Data in Analyzer
The Independent data node in Analyzer includes measurements that are technology and
T+M vendor independent. This includes GPS information, Site Data Node information and
Message Type information.
Information for the site data node parameters will be generated if a valid cellrefs file is
loaded in the Analyzer when a logfile is loaded. The site data node contains information
resulting from the integration of the cell plan information and drive test data. This
information can be displayed on maps, charts, tables, and workbooks like all regular drive
test parameters. The site data node information appears in the workspace similar to the
illustration below.

The Site Data Node contains the parameters listed below:
ServingCellDistance The distance between each point on the drive and the
current serving cellsite
ServingCellLat The latitude of the serving cellsite at each point along the drive
route
ServingCellLon The longitude of the serving cellsite at each point along the drive
route
ServingCellID/SectorID The alphanumeric identity from the cellrefs file of the
serving site name and sector name. This data can be viewed on a table
synchronized to a map to eliminate the need to look up channel/color code
information to determine the serving cell at each point on the drive
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NeighborCellDistance/Lat/Long/CellID/SectorID - The same information as above
for each neighbor position along the drive.
2.4 Adding GSM Parameters to the Favorites Group
You may find that having access to all of the parameters within the log file in the
Workspace is not necessary, and that it may make finding key parameters more difficult.
Analyzer allows you to identify the subset of parameters you need quick access to and
place them in the Favorites Group. This group can be viewed by clicking on the Favorites
tab in the workspace.
1. In the workspace, click to select the ServRxLevSub parameter from the Downlink
Measurements group, then right-click on it and choose Add to Favorites from the pop-up
menu.
2. Under Downlink Measurements, find ServRxQualSub and add it to Favorites.
3. Under Events, find CallDropped and HandoverOK and add them to Favorites.
4. Under Serving Cell Parameters, find ServBCCH and add it to Favorites.
5. In the Workspace, click on the Favorites tab . A tree view of the items you added
is displayed. You can easily move between All and Favorites as necessary.

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2.5 Viewing GSM Data on Maps
You can use Analyzer to create maps to display your data.
1. Display the serving cell signal level for the handset stream NemoGSM (0) on the
map from the file Nemo Drive Test 1. First, select Downlink Measurements, ServRxLevSub.
Then right-click and select Display on Map.
Note that the legend appears to the left of the map. The
count for each range is in parentheses to the right of the
range.

2. If you would like to display a second parameter, you have two options:
You can add the second parameter to the same map as the first by clicking on the
second parameter in the Workspace Browser and dragging it onto the original map.
You can display each parameter on a separate map by right-clicking on the second
parameter in the Workspace Browser and choosing Display on Map.
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2.5.1 Modifying Legend Ranges
1. Select the ServRxLevSub stream in the Map Legend window and right-click on it.
Choose the Modify ranges option to change the number of legend ranges and some of the
range boundaries.

2. Delete ranges you dont need by selecting them one at a time and pressing the
Remove button.
3. To edit an existing range to match your network thresholds, select and type in the
new maximum or minimum and click on the Update button to register the changes.
4. To add a new range, type the maximum and minimum in the spaces provided and
click on the Add button.
5. If at any time you want to back out of all of the changes you have made, click on
the Cancel button.
Note: The ranges set for the map are also used for grouping data for histograms in
workbooks and the histogram tab on tables. Changes made to the ranges on the map
legend will also be made to these other views.
6. Modify the colors of each range to match your network schema from within the
Modify Ranges dialog by selecting the range, clicking on the Selected button in the Set
Colors box, and picking a new color from the palette.
Note: These changes to the ranges are saved automatically. One file is created for each
parameter range. These files are located in C:\Program
Files\Actix\Analyzer\Bin\FormatGroups\UserSettings. This file can be copied and shared
with other members of your team.
7. To accept the changes you have made to the legend settings, click OK.
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8. After clicking OK, you will be presented with the Selected Legend box. To overwrite
the existing default legend range settings with your new settings, click OK.
9. To keep your default legend range settings as they are and add your new legend
settings as an alternate set of legend ranges, type in a name for the new set of ranges,
then click OK.
2.5.2 The Map Offset Tool
1. To add the RxQual from the handset to the current map, select Downlink
Measurements, ServRxQualSub. Drag the selected parameter onto the map. The RxQual is
drawn directly on top of the RxLev trail.
2. Click on the Layers button on the map to open the layers dialog.
3. Select the ServRxQualSub layer and click on the Offset button.
You can use the Offset box to enter an amount to move the RxQual in the x and y
directions.
If you prefer, you can use the Offset Tool instead of entering specific x and y offsets.
a. To use the Offset Tool to offset RxQual from RxLev, click on the Layers button to
get into the Layer Control Dialog.
b. Click on the Offset Tool button. Your cursor will change from an arrow to a +.
c. Click any where on the map. Your cursor will stay at + and will now have a dotted
line connecting it to the point you just clicked.
d. The dotted line indicated by how much the ServRxQualSub layer will be shifted.
Click on a second point to complete the offset.
4. You can return a layer to its original position by manually setting the x and y
offsets to zero or by clicking on the Reset button in the Map Offset Tool.

5. Turn layer visibility on and off by clicking the layers checkbox in the legend.
Visibility check box
RxQual stream
RxLev stream
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2.5.3 Creating a Multi-Dimensional Map Stream
You can create a two-dimensional map by dragging two parameters onto a map, then
dragging one on top of the other in the legend. This will replace the two data streams with
one composite stream. The color of the points in the resulting stream will be determined
by the value of the stream that was dragged and the size of the points is determined by
the value of the other stream.
1. Close the current map.
2. Display ServRxLevSub and ServRxQualSub on a map.
3. In the legend, drag the RxLev layer on top of the RxQual layer in the legend. The
points will be colored by RxLev with their size determined by RxQual.

4. A third dimension can be added to the plot. You can set the symbol type to denote
the value of the third parameter.
5. Drag the ServBCCH from the Serving Cell Parameters group onto the map.
6. In the legend, drag ServBCCH on top of the ServRxLev and ServRxQual multi-
dimensional stream. Note that the new plot shows color corresponding to RxLev, symbol
size based on RxQual and symbol type denoting serving BCCH. The legend information is
automatically updated when multi-dimensional plots are created.
7. Remove the multi-dimensional layer through the Layers dialog by selecting it and
clicking the Delete button.
Note: Separate legend ranges exist for each parameter for
the size, symbol, and color ranges. For example, you may
choose to display ServRSSISub divided into five ranges
when it is viewed by color, and only two ranges when
viewing it by size.
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2.5.4 Lines to Cells and Cell History
With a cell plan loaded, lines from each location on the drive route to their corresponding
serving cell and neighbor cells will be drawn. Set the map cursor in the Select mode and
click on any point on the drive route.

You can view the serving or neighbor cells for more than one point on the map by clicking
on the Area Select button on the map toolbar and choosing one of the options now
available on the toolbar, either Select Box, Select Radius, or Polygon Select.
In addition to viewing serving and neighbor cells for an individual point data point or a
subset of the data, a Cell History plot can be drawn. This plot shows the line to the serving
cell for each point on the drive route.
1. To create this type of plot, click on the Layers button on the map toolbar.
2. Select the Lines to Serving Cells layer
3. Click on the Lines button to access the dialog below:

4. Select the All datapoints option for the Lines draw mode.
Line to serving cell
Line to neighbor cell
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5. For the Technology, choose GSM from the drop-down list.
6. For the Color lines with, choose ServBCCH.
7. For Label lines with, choose None.

2.5.5 Displaying Data Values as Text on Maps
The values for one or more parameters can be displayed as text on the map. This can be
used to display the serving cell number value or serving site identity name adjacent to the
drive route. All the options are controlled through the Label Properties dialog accessed
from the Map Layers for the layer under observation.
1. Drag RxLevSub, RxQualSub, and BCCH onto the map.
2. Move BCCH below the RxLev and RxQual layers in the Map Layer dialog.
3. Move the RxLev layer between the RxQual and BCCH layers.
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4. With the BCCH layer selected, click on the Label button to see the dialog box
below:


The settings on this dialog are as follows:
Data
Data Field Select this option to display the parameter value next to the data point.
Formatted Field Select this option to display the parameter name and value next to the
data point.
Visibility
Show Controls whether or not the labels appear on the map.
Allow Overlapped Text Use this option to draw all labels, even if they overlap partially or
fully.
Hide adjacent duplicate text Controls whether each adjacent bin with the same data
value has a label displayed. Disable this feature for parameters like Serving Channel
Number or Site ID where the point of interest is where a change occurred.
Display within range Use this option for layers like maps or cell sites when you would like
to see the values when zoomed in close to the area but the labels clutter then viewing area
when zoomed farther out.
Styles
Label style This button opens the Text Style box. From this box you can modify the font
face, size, background color, and text effects for the label text.
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Position
Across the line Used with Lines to Cells layers, choose this option to have the labels
drawn in the direction of the line to cell.
Along the line Used with Lines to Cells layers, choose this option to have the labels
drawn horizontally, across the line to cell.
Vertical Draws label from left to right.
Horizontal Rotates the label 90 degrees.
Alignment Choose Left, Center, or Right.
Label X offset Set the vertical distance from the label to its data point.
Label Y offset Set the horizontal distance from the label to its data point.
5. For the ServBCCH layer, Data Field. For visibility, check Show and Allow
overlapped text. For the position, set Label X offset to -10 and Label Y offset to 5.
6. In the Layer Control dialog, select the RxLev. Select the Data Field option. For
visibility, check Show and Allow overlapped text. For the position, set Label X offset to 10
and Label Y offset to -15.
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2.6 Viewing Cell Site Information
A cells Azimuth, Beamwidth and Sector ID can be obtained by running the mouse over a
sector on the map. To obtain more detailed information on each site or sector:
1. Display site data of interest on the map.
2. From the main menu, select View, Display Cell Data.
3. From the main menu, select Window, Tile Horizontally or Window, Tile Vertically.
4. Click on a sector wedge or site dot on the map. Details about that sector or site
will appear in the Display Cell Data window.

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2.7 Viewing Data in the Message Browser
Analyzer provides the Message Browser to allow you to analyze all the messaging seen
from the phone. The browser also includes events derived from the Layer 3 messaging,
searching, and filtering operations on the data.
To open the browser right-click on the stream name NemoGSM (0) in the workspace and
choose Display Message Browser from the pop-up menu.


1. Click on an event in the Event Panel. Watch as the Messaging Window
synchronizes to display the messaging information corresponding to the event you
selected.
2. In the Search box, type drop, then click the Find Next button to find the
next occurrence of this text string in the file. Continue the search by clicking the Find Next
icon to find each subsequent occurrence of the string.
3. Select a section of text in the Message Browser and click on the Copy icon.
4. Open Word and click Edit, Paste to paste the text into the current document.
5. In Analyzer, click on the Properties button then on the Message Format tab, and
investigate the results of checking some of the options.
6. In the Properties dialog, click on the Message Format tab and modify the Font for
the Message Browser.
7. Investigate the use of bookmarks by selecting a subset of messages and marking
them with the Toggle button and then using the adjacent Next and Previous Toggle
buttons to step through them.
As with the maps and charts, the message browser synchs with other Analyzer data views.
To try this out, display a parameter, such as ServRxLev or ServRxQual, on a map or chart.
Click on a point on the map or chart, and watch as the message browser scrolls to
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highlight the messaging corresponding to that point in time. If you click to synch the
message browser with an event, it will point to the message whose receipt triggers that
event.
2.8 Viewing Data in the Protocol Stack Browser
The Protocol Stack Browser is a view that allows you to quickly browse through messages
by examining the header only. Once a message of interest is identified in the top pane of
the Protocol Stack Browser, the details of the message can be examined in the bottom
pane. The following Protocol Stack Browser views are available for GSM and GPRS drive
test data:
Layer 3 Message pane displays GSM Layer 3 messages and message direction
Layer 3 Signaling Message pane displays GSM Layer 3 messages only
All Message pane displays all GSM Layer 3 and handset-specific messages
GPRS Events Message pane displays messages signifying GPRS events
GPRS RLC / MAC Message pane displays GSM Layer 3, and GPRS RLC and MAC
messages

Open the Layer 3 Protocol Stack Browser view for the Nemo Drive Test 1 sample file:
1. Right-click on the NemoGSM (0) stream in the workspace and choose Protocol
Stack Browser Layer 3 from the pop-up menu.
2. Click on a message header from the series in the top portion of the Browser
Window and notice the complete message displayed in the bottom pane for the message
you selected.
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3. In the Search box, type CC Release, then click the Find Next button to find
the next occurrence of this text string in the file. Continue the search by clicking the Find
Next icon to find each subsequent occurrence of the string.
4. Select the All Rows button at the top of the Protocol Stack Browser to view all
messages including Layer 3 and handset-specific messages.
As with the maps and charts, the Protocol Stack Browser synchronizes with other data
views. To try this out, display a parameter, such as ServRxLevSub on a map. Click on a
point on the map and watch as the Protocol Stack Browser scrolls to highlight the message
in the top pane and display the complete message contents in the bottom pane.
2.9 Viewing Data on State Forms
Actix State Forms allow you to view multiple performance metrics simultaneously. Used in
conjunction with the replay tool, maps, tables, and charts, you can quickly ascertain the
values of several optimization parameters for problem identification.
2.9.1 Using Preconfigured StateForms
A number of preconfigured GSM StateForms enable the user to quickly identify and
troubleshoot important network events. The preconfigured forms available for GSM drive
test data are:
GSM Call Events
GSM Current Channel
GSM CW Scan
GSM Event Navigator
GSM Neighbor Chart
GSM RxLev Measurement Chart
GSM Scan Chart
GSM Serving + Neighbors


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The preconfigured forms available for GPRS drive test data are:
GPRS Data Session
GPRS Data Timeslots
GPRS Event Navigator
GPRS Throughput (DL)
GPRS Throughput (UL)


View the GSM Current Channel form for the Nemo Drive Test 1 sample file:
1. Right-click on the stream name NemoGSM(0) in the workspace and choose Display
Form GSM Current Channel. Forms can also be selected from the View Forms option
on the main menu.
2. In general, when selecting a form, make sure that the form that you have selected
applies to the type of data you want to analyze. For example, do not select the GSM CW
Scan chart for a logfile containing handset data.
3. If the Stream Selector is not visible, right-click on the form and select Stream
Selector. The Stream Selector drop-down will appear. Use the drop-down list to select the
stream you wish to view data for. If you are not seeing information in the forms, verify
that the right data stream is selected.
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4. Forms with measurement views like the GSM Current Channel form or the GSM
Call Events form may be best viewed when docked with the replay tool at the side of the
screen as seen in the figure below.

5. To dock a form on the left side of the workspace, bring up the form and click the
docking button (to the left of the minimize button). Click the gray horizontal line at the
top of the form, drag over the bottom section of the Workspace Browser, and release.
Once docked like in the view above, you can adjust the top and right-hand borders to allow
for more viewing space in the platform.
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6. Forms with chart views like the GSM Handoff Event Navigator or the GSM RxLev
Measurement Chart may be best viewed when docked at the bottom of the screen as
shown below.

7. To dock a form at the bottom of the workspace, bring up the form and use the
docking button (to the left of the minimize button) to dock it next the Workspace Browser.
Then, making sure that the right border of the form does not stretch past the midpoint of
the entire Analyzer viewing platform, drag the thin gray line of the form to the bottom
right side of the screen so that it is completely on the left half of the viewing platform.
Once docked like in the view above, you can adjust the top border to allow for more
viewing space in the platform.
Preconfigured forms can be edited to meet your individual analysis needs. The following
sections describe the modification of existing forms, and the creation of new forms from
scratch using the State Forms Editor.
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2.9.2 Viewing Custom Forms with the StateForms Editor
The StateForms Editor allows you to view custom forms, modify existing forms, and build
new forms from scratch. The components of the StateForms Editor window are shown in
the figure below.

1. From the Tools menu, select StateForms Editor.
Note: If the generic GSM handset form does not launch, right-click on the blank
StateForms box and select Open File. Browse to the C:\Program Files\Actix\Analyzer\State
Forms directory and open the file called gsm handset.axl.
2. Once loaded, make sure the appropriate stream is selected in the StateForms
stream selection box. In this case, with the Nemo Drive Test 1.dt1 file open, select the
NemoGSM(0) stream.
Note: If the stream selection box is not visible, right-click on the StateForms box and
select Stream Selector. The stream selection box will appear.
3. The selected stream must correspond to data currently displayed on another
Analyzer view (map, chart, table or message browser). In this case, display ServRxLevSub
on a table.
4. Select any point on a map, chart, or table and notice that the contents of the form
will update to reflect the state of the network at the point you selected.
2.9.3 Modifying an Existing StateForms File
You can use an existing StateForms file as it is, or you can make modifications to it.
Suppose the GSM handset file has almost everything you would like to see, but that you
are also interested in the timing advance. To modify the StateForms display:
1. If you do not already have the StateForms file displayed, click Tools StateForms
Editor. Click Open File and choose the gsm handset.axw file.
2. Click on the Toggle Design Mode button on the StateForms File Options
Toolbar.
Note: If the File Options Toolbar is not visible, right-click on the form area and choose
Show Stream Selector.
3. The StateForms window now shows the design view: The attribute window will be
displayed, showing all of the attributes that can be set for the selected object and the
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Design Mode toolbar will be displayed, showing all of the types of objects that can be
added to a form along the options for manipulating objects already on the form.

The buttons on the StateForms toolbar are, from left to right, Delete, Cut, Copy, Paste,
Toggle Design Mode, Select, Label, Attribute Value, Array Attribute Value, Line Chart, Scan
Chart, and Group Box.
Delete Removes an object from the form. Using the delete key on your keyboard will not
work.
Cut Removes an object from the form and puts it on the clipboard.
Copy Copies an object to the clipboard.
Paste Places a copy of the object on the clipboard on the upper-left corner of the form.
Toggle Design Mode To exit the design mode and return to the view mode, click the
Toggle Design Mode button.
Select To put the cursor into select mode to allow you to select an object on the form.
Label Click and drag a rectangle, then type your text into the Caption field in the
attribute window.
Attribute Value Click and drag a rectangle then choose an attribute from the list. The
attribute value can be displayed as a text value or on a scale bar. In addition to being able
to display parameter values, expression values can be shown.
Array Attribute Value Click and drag to define a table. In the attribute window, specify
the number of rows and columns your table will have. For the attribute corresponding to
this table, select a parameter that is collected as an array, such as Neighbor Cell Info
NborRxLev.
Time Chart Click and drag to define the chart area. One or more parameters can be
displayed on a line chart to see how the values vary across the drive.
Scan Chart Click and drag to define the chart area. This type of chart is used to display
information like signal levels from neighbor or scanner information in bar chart form.
Group Box Used to visually group attributes on your form that belong together, click and
drag to define a rectangle.
On the GSM handset form currently open, we will add timing advance and serving cell
distance, with serving cell distance displayed in miles instead of meters.
1. Click on the Toggle Design Mode button to open the StateForms file in design
mode if you are not in design mode already.
StateForm Design
Toolbar
Attribute Window
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2. Hold down the CTRL key and select the RxLev and RxQual meters, as well as the
labels for those meters. With these items selected, click the Delete button.
3. Add the Timing Advance label by clicking on the Label button. Click and drag the
rectangle where you would like the label to appear.
4. Select the label object, and modify the Caption in the Attribute Window to read
Timing Advance. If all of the text does not fit in the label, expand the label object by
dragging a corner handle.
5. For Auto Size Font, choose False.
6. To create the timing advance attribute, click the Attribute Value button and drag a
rectangle to the right of the timing advance label object.
7. Select the timing advance attribute object and click on the box next to the
Attribute field in the Attribute Window. Use the Attribute Picker to select GSM, Dedicated
Radio Link, ServTimingAdvanceActual.
8. For the Bar Color, choose the same color as the background of your form.
9. For Use Value to Color, choose 0) None.
10. For Font Auto Size, choose False.
11. To add the information about serving cell distance, create a label whose caption is
Serving Cell Distance. You can do this by creating a label from scratch or by copying and
pasting an existing label. Note that pasted objects always appear in the upper-left corner
of the form.
12. For the Bar Color, choose the same color as the background of your form.
13. For Use Value to Color, choose 0) None.
14. For Font Auto Size, choose False.
15. For the Expression, enter ServingCellDistance/1609.344.
16. For the Expr. Decimals, enter 2.
17. Click on the Save button to save the changes you have made.
18. Click on the Toggle Design Mode button to return to the View Mode. Notice that the
State Form now incorporates the changes that have been made.

New Timing Advance
and Serving Cell
Distance Parameters
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2.9.4 Creating Your Own StateForms File
Several sample StateForms are provided by Actix. You can also design your own forms
from scratch, or modify an existing form to better meet your needs. You can start a new
StateForms file or you can add a sheet to an existing file. We will create a new file for this
example. Our form will look like this:

1. If you do not have the StateForms window open, click Tools StateForms Editor.
2. To start a new StateForms file, click the New File button .
3. To begin adding objects to the StateForms sheet, click the Toggle Design Mode
button to open the sheet in Design Mode.
4. Add the RxLev label by clicking the Label button. Click and drag the rectangle.
5. Select the label object and make these modifications in Attribute Window:
Caption: RxLev
Autosize Font: False
Font Height: 10
6. Repeat Steps 3 and 4 for the RxQual label, setting the caption to RxQual.
7. To create the Attribute Bar for RxLev, click the Attribute Value button and drag a
rectangle to the right of the RxLev label object.
8. Select the RxLev Attribute Value object and make the following modifications in
Attribute Window:
Specify Min+Max: True
Bar Range Max: -50
Bar Range Min: -100
Bar Color: Use the pallet to pick blue
Show Min Text: True
Show Max Text: True
Use Value to Color: 3) Value Bar
Attribute: GSM, Downlink Measurements, ServRxLevSub
Font Auto Size: False
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Font Height: 10
Extent Right: True
Extent Bottom: True
9. For the RxQual attribute value, click the Attribute Bar button and drag a rectangle
to the right of the RxQual Attribute object.
10. Select the RxQual Attribute Bar object and make the following changes in the
Attribute Window:
Specify Min+Max: True
Bar Range Max: 7
Bar Range Min: 0
Bar Color: Use the pallet to pick purple
Show Min Text: True
Show Max Text: True
Use Value to Color: 3) Value Bar
Attribute: GSM, Downlink Measurements, ServRxQualSub
Font Auto Size: False
Font Height: 10
Extent Right: True
Extent Bottom: True
11. To add the Group Box object, click the Group Box button and click and drag a
rectangle around the other objects on the form.
12. Select the Group Box object and make the following modifications in the Attribute
Window:
Caption: Network Parameters
Text Color: Use the pallet to select dark blue
Font Auto Size: False
Font Height: 12
Font Use Default: False
Font Bold: True
13. Click the Save As button and save the StateForms file in the State Forms directory
and call it Training StateForms.axl.
14. Return to the View Mode by clicking the Toggle Design View button.
15. Test your new StateForms file by displaying a parameter from the NemoGSM(0)
stream on a map, selecting that stream in the StateForms window, then selecting a point
on the map.
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3 Uplink Data Analysis
Uplink data is as important as downlink data to the overall heath of a wireless network.
Because uplink data is collected at the base station, without the benefit of associated GPS
data, it is not possible to view uplink parameters such as Uplink RxLev and Uplink RxQual
on a map.
Analyzer supports GSM call trace data from most major base station equipment vendors.
Call trace data by itself may be displayed on an Analyzer table, chart, workbook, or
message browser. When merged with drive test data collected at the same time as the call
trace, GPS coordinates contained in the drive test file are associated to data points from
the call trace. This procedure allows the display of uplink data on a map, and allows the
engineer to obtain a picture of the uplink performance of the network.
In this section, you will look for uplink problems on the sample network using call trace
and drive test data.
3.1 Exploring Call Trace Data
Call trace data may be opened in Analyzer using the same method as opening drive test
files. Simply use the Open Logfile button and browse to find the files of interest.
1. Load the following call trace files into the Analyzer workspace. The logfiles can be
found in the C:\Program Files\Actix\Analyzer\DataFiles folder.
Ericsson MTR 1.txt
Ericsson MTR 2.txt
2. Expand the Ericsson MTR 1 data file and explore the contents. Display a parameter
on a table. Notice that the file includes downlink and uplink parameter values, but does not
contain location data for each parameter.
3. Display the parameter ULRxQualFull from the Uplink Measurements group on a
chart. Though it is easy to see when the areas of poor uplink RxQual occurred, there is no
way to know where in the network these areas are located.
3.2 Superstreaming Call Trace and Drive Test Data
Analyzer allows you to synchronize data from the different data sources it supports. The
functionality supports a collection method where drive test and switch data are collected
simultaneously on a cluster of cells of interest. It aligns the information in the files based
on a parameter that was collected by both the drive test and switch trace devices. This
allows you to plot uplink information on a map, or to plot the difference between uplink
and downlink parameters on a map. The process is called superstreaming.
In this example, a parameter common to the drive test and call trace files is specified in
order to merge on. Files may also be merged on time, as long as the base station and
drive test equipment times are synchronized.
1. Load the drive test and the switch data files from the CD into the Workspace:
Drive test: Nemo Drive Test 1.dt1
Call trace: Ericsson MTR 1.txt
2. Select Tools, Create Superstream.
3. Change the name of the superstream from the default of SuperStream001 to
Uplink and Downlink Data.
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4. In the SuperStreaming dialog, check the Nemo Drive Test 1 (drive test) and
Ericsson MTR 1 (switch file) streams.
5. Click the Settings button to display the Merge Method options.
6. Select Correlated Parameters as the merge method.
7. Highlight the Nemo Drive Test 1 stream. Use the attribute picker next to
Correlated Parameters to select GSM, Downlink Measurements, ServRxQualSub as the
correlating parameter for the Nemo file. The attribute picker is the button with the right-
arrow icon . Used throughout Analyzer, an attribute picker allows you to select the
Analyzer parameter of interest without the risk of mistyping the parameter name.
8. Highlight the Ericsson MTR 1 stream. Use the attribute picker to select GSM,
Downlink Measurements, ServRxQualSub as the correlating parameter for the Ericsson file.
9. Click OK to create the superstream.
Note: In the Superstreaming dialog box, the parameter
that you associate with a stream of one type (i.e. .DT1,
.TXT) will appear in the Attribute column for all streams of
that type. However, only streams with check marks will be
merged into the resulting superstream.
10. When Analyzer has finished creating the superstream, it will appear in the
Workspace: . You can perform analyses on the Superstream using
the standard Analyzer features.
11. Display ULRxQualSub from the Uplink Measurements group of the newly created
superstream on the map. Notice how easy it is to locate areas containing poor uplink
quality! These trouble spots are caused by the phones inability to communicate back to
the base station, and may be attributed to a mobile failing to increase its transmit power
when required or to excessive path loss between the phone and the base station.
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4 Analyzer Queries and Filters
You can create customized analyses within the Analyzer. You may want to highlight
potential problem areas, or test for common symptoms of bad radio link quality for the
purpose of speeding up the analysis of data. Your customized analysis, called a query, can
be saved in a Workspace and reused for future drive data. The queries can be created,
accessed, and edited in the Workspace through the Analysis Manager.
Queries are a means of searching and filtering data based on events and thresholds you
define. Queries operate on binned data and are written using Boolean expressions and
arithmetic operations containing data parameters from one or more data streams.
Analyzer supports six types of query and filter analyses:
Filter Analysis
Binned Query Analysis
Crosstab Query Analysis
Statistic Analysis
Histogram Analysis
Event Query Analysis
Analyzer includes the ability to use queries to assist in the detection, correction, and
presentation of network problems. You can save any or all of the analyses you create to
use later and share with coworkers. These analyses can be saved in individual files or into
a single file. In Analyzer, files of analyses have the AQF extension.
All custom analyses can be saved for future use through the Analysis Manager:
Select Tools, Analysis Manager
In the Analysis Manager, select the Existing Analysis tab
Select any queries to save and click the Export button
Browse to a folder that you wish to save your query in. Analyzers default
structure provides the C:\Program Files\Actix\Analyzer\Queries folder for an easy
place to store queries.
Name the *.aqf file Training_Class_Queries. All queries created during training
may be stored in the same file.
To import the queries into a new Analyzer session, go to the Existing Analysis tab
of the Analysis Manager and select the Import button. Open the saved *.aqf query
file.
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4.1 Filter Analysis
You can create a filter that highlights those points that have RxQual greater than or
equal to 4 to identify all the locations on the drive with poor quality of service.
A filter analysis tests data on a single criterion and passes the data if the criterion is met.
Follow the steps to create a new filter:
1. From the Nemo Drive Test 1 data stream, display ServRxQualSub on a map.
2. Right-click on the Nemo Drive Test 1 data stream and select Filter Create a New
Filter.
3. For the Filter Name, enter PoorRxQual.
4. For the expression, choose the ServRxQualSub from the attribute picker. Access
the attribute picker by selecting the right arrow icon .
5. For the operation, choose >=.
6. For the Threshold, enter 4.

7. Click OK to create the filter. Analyzer will automatically apply the filter to any
information already displayed in the workspace.
8. Confirm that the query was created by going to Tools, Analysis Manager and
clicking on the Existing Analyses tab. The filter should be under the Filters category.
9. Add the ServRxLev and ServBCCH parameters to the map. Note that the data for
all parameters, not just RxQual, is filtered. The points you see now are the values of RxLev
and BCCH when RxQual was greater than or equal to 4.
10. To remove a filter, select the stream in the workspace, right-click on it, and
uncheck the tick mark against the filter.
11. To edit a query once it is created, select Tools, Analysis Manager, and select the
Existing Analyses tab. Highlight the analysis you wish to edit and press the Edit button. All
query fields will be available for editing.
12. Save the query to a file called Training_Class_Queries.aqf. Select Tools, Analysis
Manager, and select the Existing Analyses tab. Highlight the analysis (or analyses) you
wish to save and press the Export button. Browse to a folder you wish to save your query
in and click Save. All of the selected queries will be saved to a single file with a *.aqf
extension.
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Note that the same filter will work on any GSM handset file that contains the
ServRxQualSub parameter.
Repeat the exercise above to create a filter for good signal strength. Assume that good
signal strength is indicated by ServRxLevSub greater than or equal to 90 dB.
The Filter dialog should look like this:

Investigate the AND and OR operators when using these two filters. What is indicated by
good signal strength and poor call quality? The following figure shows the BCCH parameter
from the Nemo Drive Test 1 handset stream with both the Poor RxQual and the Good
RxLev filters applied.

You can also use the filter function to determine which locations are being served by
distant cells. We will use a threshold of 6000 meters for this filter.
The parameter we are interested in for this analysis is Independent, Site Data Node,
ServingCellDistance. The Filter Wizard screen should look like this:
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You can apply this filter to the Nemo Drive Test 1 handset and display ServRxLevSub on a
map. There are only a few points served by distant sectors. You can zoom in on these
points, then use the Select cursor to show the lines to cells for each point. That map would
look like this:

Save all of the filters you have created to the Training_Class_Queries.aqf file.
4.2 Binned Query / Custom Analysis Query
The Binned Query allows you to define a new parameter based on existing
parameters, using functions and inequalities. The results of a binned query can be
displayed on a map, chart, table, or workbook.
4.2.1 ServingCellDistance in Miles
By default, Analyzer displays the serving cell distance in meters. A simple, yet very useful
example of a binned query is the conversion of the serving cell distance from meters to
miles.
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Create the ServingCellDistance in Miles query using the Analysis Manager:
1. Select Tools, Analysis Manager.
2. Select the Binned Query icon in the dialog and click on New.
3. For the Description, enter ServingCellDistance in Miles.

4. In the parameters box, find the serving cell distance under Independent, Site Data
Node, ServingCellDistance and double-click on it to add it to the expression.
5. At the end of the text in the Expression Builder, type in /1609.344.
6. Set the Format to Float. The easiest way to do this is to select the Format drop
down dialog and start typing Float in the window.
7. Click OK to create the query.
8. Click OK again to close the Analysis Manager.
9. The query will appear in the Queries group under every data stream in the
workspace. Under the handset stream, expand the Queries, Binned Queries group.
10. Right-click on the ServingCellDistance in Miles query and choose Display on Map to
display the query results on a map.
4.2.2 Dragging Handover Query
Occasionally in a GSM network, handovers do not occur as quickly as they should. This
condition occurs in locations where the strongest neighbor is seen at a level that at least 6-
8 dBm stronger than the server. When the neighbor is significantly stronger than the
server, the handover should have taken place, and the condition is known as a dragging
handover. This condition may be indicative of a sector that propagates outside of its
intended footprint, and can result in interference and poor perceived call quality when
frequency reuse plans get tight.
Create the Dragging Handovers ? query to detect locations that are suffering from the
dragging handoff condition. The query will detect locations where the strongest neighbor is
at least 8 dBm stronger than the server. Create this query using the Analysis Manager:
1. Select Tools, Analysis Manager.
2. Select the Binned Query icon in the dialog and click on New.
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3. For the Description, enter Dragging Handovers?.

We will create a custom parameter that identifies locations where the RxLev for any
neighbor is more than 8 dB greater than the RxLev of the serving sector.
The Expression is: (array_max(NborRxLev[])-8)>ServRxLevSub
1. In the Expression Builder, type (.
2. From the available functions, double-click on the array_max function. This function
will parse an array and select the largest value in it.
3. Click to select the <<attribute[]>> placeholder in the Expression Builder. In the
Parameters pane select GSM, Neighbor Cell Info,NborRxLev and double-click on it to add it
to the expression.
4. At the end of the text in the Expression Builder, type in -8)>.
5. In the attribute pane, go to GSM, Downlink Measurements, ServRxLevSub and
double-click to add it to the expression.
6. Set the Format to Boolean. The easiest way to do this is to select the Format drop
down dialog and start typing Boolean in the window.
7. Click OK to create the query.
8. Click OK again to close the Analysis Manager.
9. The query will appear in a new Queries group under every data stream in the
workspace. Under the Nemo Drive Test 1 handset stream, expand the Queries Binned
Queries group.
10. Right-click on the Dragging Handovers ? query and choose Display on Map to
display the query results on a map.
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Determining the locations of dragging handovers in the network may be interesting, but
this data is not useful unless you know which frequencies are causing the problem. Once
the problem BCCHs are identified, you can perform adjustments to the network to resolve
the problems.
A custom state form may be used in conjunction with the query results in order determine
the why handovers are dragging. Synchronize the GSM Neighbors state form with the map
to investigate some of the areas suffering from dragging handovers. Refer to the
StateForms section for instructions on using Analyzer StateForms.


4.3 Crosstab Query Sort by Site and Sector
The crosstab query is used to group data and display statistics for each group. The groups
can be sorted, and a query can contain several options for grouping data. This example will
have the Serving Site and Serving Sector as the grouping options, and the mean
ServRxLevSub, mean ServRxQualSub, and number of dropped calls as the statistics to
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display for each group. When the query is completed and the results are displayed on the
statistics explorer, it will look like this:


To create the crosstab query
1. Select Tools Analysis Manager.
2. Select the Crosstab Query icon and click on New.
3. Name the query Sort by Site and Sector.
4. Click on the New Dimension button. The query dimension allows you to group and
order your results using the attribute you select. Use the attribute chooser to select
Independent, Site Data Node, ServingCellID to add the serving site as the first dimension.
Use the attribute chooser again to select Independent Site Data Node
ServingSectorID to add the serving sector as the second dimension.
5. The query statistics are the results that you would like to include for each
dimension. The parameters that you choose will be displayed as the columns in the
statistics explorer. The statistics that we will include in this query are the mean
ServRxLevSub, the mean ServRxQualSub, and the number of dropped calls. All of these
statistics will be available for the complete drive, for each serving site and sector. Specific
parameters relating to each statistic are included in the table below.
6. Click on the New Statistic button to launch the Statistic Window.
7. Enter the Statistic name.
8. Use the attribute chooser to select the statistic of interest.
9. Select the method to use to calculate the statistic.
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10. Click OK when finished with the Statistic Window.

Statistic Name Expression Method of Calculation
Mean ServRxLevSub ServRxLevSub Mean
Mean ServRxQualSub ServRxQualSub Mean
# Dropped Calls EventCallDropped Count

11. Once completed, click OK in all other active dialogs to complete the query.
12. Be sure to save the Sort by Site and Sector crosstab query, in addition to the other
queries youve created, in your Training_Class_Queries.aqf file.

4.3.1 Display the Crosstab Query Results
Once created, the crosstab query results can be displayed in the Statistics Explorer by
right-clicking on the query in the workspace, and selecting Display in Statistics Explorer.
The Statistics Explorer will launch and the results can be viewed, sorted by serving channel
and color code. The queries can also be displayed in Excel workbooks.
Run the crosstab query on the Nemo Drive Test 1 handset stream.
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4.3.2 Filter the Crosstab Query Results
The Filter button on the Statistics Explorer may be used to quickly filter query results in
the Stats Explorer and in any other Analyzer view. In this case, it may be useful to view
data for only one serving site, such as Site 95.
1. View ServRxLevSub from the Nemo Drive Test 1 handset stream on a map.
Display the EventCallDropped event on the same map.
2. Tile the map and the Statistics Explorer vertically in the workspace by selecting
Window, Tile Vertically.
3. In the Statistics Explorer, select the row for Site 95.
4. With the row for Site 95 selected, press the Filter button in the Statistics Explorer.
Notice that only data points served by this site remain in the Statistics Explorer and on the
map.
5. To remove filtering, click the Filter button again. The filter will be unapplied from
both the map and the Statistics Explorer.
4.4 Event Query - Dropped Call Window
The Event Query allows you to extract key performance statistics for a user-defined time
or message window before or after a defined event like a handover failure or dropped call.
Viewing the window surrounding an event can provide insight into whether a pattern exists
among undesirable events, such as multiple handover failures or drops on the same cell,
or multiple drops due to low coverage.
We will create an Event Query to return statistics in a five-second window for each
dropped call in the file
1. Select Tools, Analysis Manager.
2. Select the Event Query icon in the dialog and click on New.
3. For the Trigger Selection, use the attribute picker to select GSM Event Data
EventCallDropped. The parameter will show up in the triggering window.
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4. For the Window Range, choose Time Based and set the window to 5,000
milliseconds before the event and 0 milliseconds after the event.
5. Click Next.
6. For the name of the query, enter Dropped Call Window.
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7. To define a statistic to be displayed in the event window, click on the New Statistic
button to launch the Statistic window.
8. For the name, enter Site ID.

9. Choose the Edit button below the line that reads Enter the expression that should
be calculated in your statistic:.
10. The Expression Builder will launch. Inside the top portion of the window, type
State(). This State() function is required to ensure that the last valid value of the
parameter persists.
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11. Click inside the parentheses of the State() function. In the Parameters area of the
Expression Builder, expand the Independent, Site Data Node tree. Double-click on the
ServingCellId parameter to insert it into the expression.
12. Click OK to exit the Expression Builder.

13. In the Statistic window, select the method to calculate the statistic. In this case,
select Last Value. Click OK when finished with the Statistic window.
14. Repeat steps 7 through 13 above to define the following statistics (choose an
appropriate name for each one). The statistics that do not require the use of the State()
function can be picked using the Attribute Chooser instead of the Expression Builder.
Expression Method to Calculate
State(ServingSectorID) Last Value
State(ServBCCH) Last Value
State(ServBSIC) Last Value
ServRXLev Mean
ServRxQual Mean
State(NborBCCH[0]) Last Value
NborRxLev[0] Mean

15. Once completed, click OK in all other active dialogs to complete the query.
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4.4.1 Displaying Event Queries
Once created, the event query can be displayed in the Statistics Explorer by right-clicking
on the query in the workspace, and selecting Display the Statistics Explorer. The Statistics
Explorer will launch and the results can be viewed, sorted by the time of the event (in
milliseconds). The queries can also be displayed in Excel workbooks.
Run the event query on the Nemo Drive Test 1.dt1 handset stream.
How many dropped calls occurred in this file?
What appears to be the primary reason for the dropped call(s)?

4.5 Statistic Analysis
The Statistic Analysis is used in conjunction with a binned query to generate statistics
for the results of the query. We will use it to generate statistics for the ServingCellDistance
in Miles binned query.
To Generate Statistics for a Binned Query
1. Select Tools, Analysis Manager.
2. Select the Statistic icon in the dialog and click on New.
3. Enter ServingCellDistance in Miles Stats in the Description field.
4. Use the drop down list to select ServingCellDistance in Miles.
5. Do not remove any data points. Click OK to create the analysis.
6. Find the new statistic analysis under the Queries node. Right-click on it and display
it on a table.
7. Click on the statistics tab of the table to view the statistics for the
ServingCellDistance in Miles query.

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5 Reporting GSM Network Performance
The reporting features in Analyzer allow you to create high-level management reports
based on your data. Two different mechanisms exist for creating for producing integrated,
polished reports that can be used to analyze high-level network statistics or communicate
test results in a professional format:
Application Packages are a technology-specific series of reports that are installed
automatically with every Analyzer installation. Application Packs are typically used
to obtain a high-level overview of call statistics. They can be used when a
professional, formatted output is required, but time constraints do not allow for the
creation of a custom template.
Reports are user-definable formatted outputs that make use of Analyzers
integration with Microsoft Excel. Reports may be included with an Analyzer
installation (such as the GSM Training Materials), but are not always included.
Reports, unlike Application Packs, allow for formatted outputs of multiple streams
of data. Use Reports when generating outputs for multiple streams of data and
when you want to design a custom formatted template from scratch.
This section describes the use of both reporting mechanisms, including running Application
Packs, running pre-defined Reports, and creating custom Reports.
5.1 Application Packages
Actix Analyzer v4.1 contains application packages specific to each mobile technology
supported by the software. The application packs are a series of reports, each focusing on
a particular aspect of mobile network optimization. The two packs currently available for
GSM users are:
DT Design Validation and Quick Analysis
DT Handover Settings and Power Control
5.1.1 Running Application Packs
Once a data file is loaded, the application packages can be accessed in one of two ways:
1. Through the Analysis menu on the main menu bar
2. By right-clicking on the stream name in the Workspace Browser
Note: The application packs require Analyzer to be pointing
to a valid cellrefs file in order to function properly.
Once you have selected one of the Application Packs from the menu, an Application Pack
window will appear. The window is divided into two panes. The top panel is referred to the
Cell Explorer, and it contains a summary of major call events and statistics for the selected
stream. Information in the cell explorer is organized by serving site and sector.
The bottom pane is called the Report window and contains a list of available reports
associated with the selected application pack. Once executed, the results of the reports
can be saved, printed, and shown in their raw form in Microsoft Excel.
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5.1.2 DT Design Validation and Quick Analysis
This application pack contains the following reports:
Call Details - A summary of the number of occurrences of various messages and
events
Design Validation - Classifies data points as having good or bad design according
to interference, quality, and dominance thresholds
Measurement Charts - Charts showing the distributions for RxLevSub, RxSubQual,
and TA
Neighbour Level Single Band - Percentage of samples where at least one
neighbor is stronger than the serving cell and all neighbors within 5 dBm from the
server for PDF and CDF in tables and graphs
Neighbour Level - Dual Band - Shows percentage of band usage, intra/interband
handover and neighbors with 5dBm of the server for PDF and CDF, as tables and
graphs
An example of the Call Details report output is shown below:
Report Window
Cell Explorer
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5.1.3 DT Handover Settings and Power Control
This application pack contains the following reports:
Handover Quality - Chart of quality measurements for the whole file, and for the
five seconds before and after each handover
Handover Level - Chart of the change in downlink received level due to handover,
measured in five second windows before and after each handover
Handover Interval - Chart showing the interval between handovers
Handover Classification - Percentage breakdown between good and poor design,
and breakdown poor design by class
Power Distribution Histogram of power, in dBm, by number of occurrences and
includes the mean dBm
Power Step Distribution Histogram of power step changes, in dB
Power Step Interval Histogram of the time interval, in seconds, between power
step changes
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The Handover Interval report is shown below:

5.2 Running a Pre-Defined Report
Since Application Packs are built into the Analyzer, they may not exactly meet your teams
reporting requirements. Additionally, App Packs can only be run on a single stream of
data. Analyzer Reports allow you to create custom reports using Microsoft Excel, and
those reports may include data from multiple streams. Reports from multiple
measurement sources allow you to compare data collected simultaneously or look at your
network before and after making a change.
In this section, you will populate a pre-defined Analyzer Report template that contains
multiple data streams. In the next section, you will create a custom report from scratch.
To run the pre-defined report
1. From the Analyzer main menu select Workbook, Open Workbook/Report.
2. Navigate to C:\Program Files\Actix\Analyzer\Reports and Open the report called
GSM Before and After Network Change.xls.
3. Analyzer prompts you to select a data stream to replace the before stream. Select
the handset stream from Nemo Drive Test 1.dt1 and click OK.
4. Analyzer then prompts you to select a second data stream. Select the handset
stream from Nemo Drive Test 2.dt1 and click OK.
5. Analyzer will generate the report and launch Excel. Expect for this to take a few
moments. When this is complete, click on the Report tab in the Excel workbook and
examine the formatted report.
The output of the report is shown on the following page.
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The Analyzer GSM Training Materials come with several pre-defined reports that can be run
according to the steps above. These reports are:
GSM Before and After Network Change Presents key call statistics for two
different data streams.
GSM Cluster Optimization Report Designed for use during integration of a new
site or cluster. Compares actual statistics against pre-defined metrics.
GSM RxLev and RxQual Report Presents key performance statistics for RxLev and
RxQual, including graphical representations.
5.3 Creating a Custom Report
Creating your own formatted report template is as easy as viewing the data you require on
a workbook, and then formatting the report page using Excel.
The objective of this section is to create a simple report, like the one shown below, to
display a histogram distribution and statistics for the RxQualSub parameter. Since RxQual
is the parameter that provides the best estimate of user-perceived voice quality, the value
of this parameter throughout a network is of great importance.
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To create this report
1. Ensure that the Nemo Drive Test 1 file is loaded into the Workspace.
2. Select the parameter ServRxQualSub from GSM, Downlink Measurements. Right-
click on it and choose Display on Workbook.
Excel will launch. The Workbook will contain three sheets, which can be accessed by
clicking on the corresponding tab at the bottom sheet window.
3. Click on any blank sheet in the workbook and rename the sheet Report.
4. Click on the Histogram Formatted Data tab. Click and drag to define a window
around the data set, including the column headers.
5. Select the chart icon from the top menu bar of Excel: .
6. The chart wizard will open:
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7. Select a simple column chart and follow the Wizard prompts and instructions.
8. Click the Finish button in the chart wizard and a basic chart will be created.
9. Cut and paste the new chart onto the Report sheet in the workbook or choose to
have the chart inserted as an object on the Report sheet.
10. To place the mean and standard deviation statistics in the table in your report,
type = in the cell you would like to hold the value on the Report sheet. Then switch to
the Statistic Formatted Data tab and select the cell containing the data you wish to add to
your report. Press Enter after selecting that cell to create the reference.
11. Add a title to the worksheet, position the histogram on the page, format a table
around the statistics and add any other desired formatting.
12. From the Excel main menu, select File, Save. Save the file in C:\Program
Files\Actix\Analyzer\Reports folder and name it RxQual_Histogram_and_Statistics_Report.
13. Close the Excel workbook.
5.3.1 Running Your Report with New Data
1. Ensure that the Nemo Drive Test 2 file is loaded into the Workspace.
2. Select Workbook, Open Workbook to open the
RxQual_Histogram_and_Statistics_Report saved previously to the C:\Program
Files\Actix\Analyzer\Reports directory.
3. A dialog will appear that prompts you to select a data stream(s):
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4. Select the Nemo Drive Test 2 handset stream and watch the formatted report
regenerate for the new data.
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6 Appendix GSM Event Definitions
Event Definition
Call Completed For GSM log files that contain air interface messaging, a Call
Completed event is triggered if the following criteria occur:
- Outgoing Call Setup OK or Incoming Call Setup OK
- Followed by RR: Channel Release with Cause=Normal
Call Dropped For GSM log files that contain air interface messaging, a Call
Dropped event is triggered if the following criteria occur:
- Outgoing Call Setup OK or Incoming Call Setup OK
- Not followed by RR: Channel Release with Cause = Normal
- Followed by a transition to idle mode
Handover OK Contains geographically referenced occurrences of all successful
handoff events.
For LCC GSM, it defines a successful handover and is obtained
from the RR Handover Complete message.
For Grayson GSM and compatible log files, a HandoffOK event is
triggered if the following occurs:
- Requirement: CC: Handover Command
- Not Followed By: A transition to idle mode
- Followed By: CC: Handover Complete
Handover Fail Contains geographically referenced occurrences for all handoff
failures.
For Grayson and compatible GSM log files, a handoff failure
event is triggered if the following sequence of messages occurs:
- First Requirement: CC: Handover Command
- Not Followed By: A transition to idle mode
- Followed By: CC: Handover Failure
Location Update OK Contains geographically referenced points where a location
update occurred successfully.
Location Update Fail Contains geographically referenced points where a location
update failed.
Assignment OK Contains geographically referenced points where a traffic
channel/slot was assigned.
Assignment Fail Contains geographically referenced points where a traffic
channel/slot assignment failed.
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Event Definition
Incoming Call OK An incoming call initiation event is triggered if the following
sequence of messages occurs:
- DL CC: Setup
- UL CC: Alerting
Incoming Call Setup
Fail
An incoming call setup failure is triggered if the following
sequence of messages occurs:
- CC: Setup
- Followed by CC: Call Confirmed
- Followed by a transition back to idle mode
Outgoing Call OK A successful mobile origination is triggered if the following
requirements are met:
- UL CC: Setup
- DL CC: Alerting
Outgoing Call Setup
Fail
An outgoing initiation failure is triggered if the following
sequence of messages occurs:
- CC: Setup
- Not followed by CC: Call Confirmed
- Followed by a transition back to idle mode

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7 Appendix GPRS Optimization Parameters
As GPRS network become more prevalent, GSM performance engineers will become
responsible for ensuring the integrity of these data networks. Although GPRS networks
share radio resources with GSM network, the analysis and optimization procedures for
these two types of networks are not the same.
GPRS network drive tests must be designed to capture the aspect of the network of
interest. When analyzing GPRS drive test data, the parameters of interest are different
than when analyzing GSM drive test data. This document provides some suggestions for
the design of GPRS drive test scenarios, and describes areas of interest when analyzing
this data with Actix Analyzer.
7.1 GPRS Test Design
Different tests may be designed for testing different aspects of GPRS network
performance:
7.1.1 Throughput analysis
The purpose of this test is to determine the GPRS data rate over the air interface
and for the end user application.
FTP uploads and downloads provide the maximum channel usage over a
continuous time period, providing a good picture of maximum throughput
attainable.
FTP test files should be large enough to provide a good test case, but small enough
to avoid being affected by uncontrollable variables. Ideal file sizes are 300 kb for
download testing and 100 kb per upload testing. Zipped files are ideal, as they
contain compressed data that will not be subject to very much extra compression
during transmission.
The FTP server ideally should be located within the GPRS network on the Gi
interface. Locating the server within the GPRS network eliminates internet-related
variables for testing purposes.
Stationary testing is preferable over mobile testing to reduce the effect of cell
updates on throughput. Ideally, the test should be conducted in an area of strong
radio coverage.
7.1.2 Latency and signaling analysis
The purpose of this test is to verify the GPRS message sequences, and the time
between key GPRS events. This type of test might be used to verify the operation
of new network equipment.
Ping is a good application for this type of analysis based on its relatively simple
command structure and concrete timing expectations. Typical ping delay over
GPRS is 750 ms.
An IP sniffer such as Ethereal may be used to view communication between the
client computer and the server at the IP level (as opposed to communication
between the mobile and the server seen from the GPRS handset).
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7.1.3 Analysis of the effects of the RF environment on the GPRS network
The purpose of this test is to determine how well the GPRS data network operates
in the existing GSM radio environment.
Stationary testing in areas of high potential usage is recommended to analyze
GPRS behavior with typical RF conditions.
Mobile testing on highways or commuter transit routes is recommended for testing
the effects of cell updates and mobility on the GPRS network. In a GPRS network,
cell updates are initiated by the mobile which breaks the connection with the
abandoned cell before reselecting a new cell. A cell update typically results in 3-5
seconds of down time before communication with the new cell is established.
7.2 GPRS Data Analysis
Once GPRS data has been collected, various parameters can be used to analyze the
performance of the network. Each parameter described here can be viewed using the
Actix Analyzer platform, provided the parameter has been collected by the collection
equipment.
Throughput GPRS logfiles contain throughput values collected within the GPRS
network and at the application level. RLC Throughput and Application Throughput
are the most commonly used for analysis of GPRS networks.
RLC Throughput (Radio Link Control) provides data rate for the logical link between
the mobile and the PCU and can be found in the GSM, GPRS Data, Vendor Specific
group. RLC throughput provides the best indication of data transfer over the air
interface.
LLC Throughput (Logical Link Control) provides the data rate between the mobile
and the SGSN and can be found in the GSM, GPRS Data, Vendor Specific group.
TCP Throughput provides the data rate on the logical link maintaining flow and
congestion control between the two communicating computers. TCP throughput
can be found in the Data Testing, Protocol Measurements group.
Application Throughput most closely approximates the end user experience and
can be found in the Data Testing Application Measurements group. Target
application throughput for GPRS is 11-13 kbps per timeslot for Coding Scheme 2
(CS 2).

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Timeslot Usage The more timeslots allocated to a GPRS data session, the higher
the resulting throughput. Timeslots may be allocated based on data rate
requested and network congestion. Check timeslot usage with the parameters in
the GSM, GPRS Data, GPRS RMAC, Dedicated Radio Link group.
Coding Scheme Usage GPRS relies on four different coding schemes to provide
an appropriate balance between error correction and maximum data rate. CS 1
provides substantial error correction, resulting in a lower maximum data rate. CS 4
provides virtually no error correction and the highest maximum data rate, but
should only be used in areas where RF conditions are excellent to avoid losing
packets. CS usage information can be found in the GSM, GPRS Data, GPRS RMAC,
Dedicated Radio Link group.
GPRS Radio Conditions The best indicators of GPRS radio conditions are
RLC_DL_BLER and RLC_UL_Retransmissions, both of which can be found in the
GSM, GPRS Data, Vendor Specific group. RLC_DL_BLER indicates the percentage of
corrupt blocks received that cannot be decoded by the mobile.
RLC_UL_Retransmissions indicates unacknowledged blocks sent by the mobile that
must be resent. High RCL_DL_BLER or RLC_UL_Retransmission values typically
result in lower throughput.

Cell Updates In GPRS networks, cell updates are controlled by the handset rather
than by the network. The handset measures and updates the serving cell based on
local radio conditions. Because the connection with the abandoned cell is broken
before the connection is resumed with the target cell, there is a 3-5 second break
in data transfer during a cell update. Use the ServCI parameter in the GSM,
Serving Cell Parameters group to determine whether multiple cell updates are
affecting GPRS throughput.
TFI and TBF Timeslots are shared between GPRS users. Each GPRS user is
granted a Temporary Flow Identity (TFI), Temporary Block Flow (TBF) on the
uplink and on the downlink. Each data transmission in a timeslot includes a TFI
indicating to which mobile the data corresponds. During a constant stream of data
(i.e. FTP download), the mobile will keep the same TFI. During sporadic transmit or
receive activity, the mobile will constantly release and be allocated new TFIs.
During sporadic activity, TFIs will be assigned in consecutive numerical order if no
Diminished
throughput
and high
BLER
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other users are on the cell. TFI numbers will jump if there are multiple users on
the cell. GPRS performance will suffer the more users share the same resources.

GPRS Signaling All GPRS signaling can be accessed via the Analyzer message
browser or Protocol Stack Browser. Knowledge of protocol signaling can help to
identify and pinpoint network-based problems. Protocol analyzer traces on the Gb
link may be used to see whether a problem is more widespread than just the test
mobile.
RLC-based Protocols provide communication between the mobile and the
PCU. The RLC layer ensures that the mobile has sufficient resources to
communicate on the radio link. RLC messages and procedures include
Channel Request, Immediate Assignment, Acks & Nacks, and presence
messaging.
LLC-based Protocols provide communication between the mobile and the
SGSN. LLC procedures include mobile attach messaging, PDP context
activation, and acknowledgement of the mobile on the network.
TCP Behavior TCP is in place to maintain a problem-free connection between two
computers via a system of sequence numbers and acknowledgements. The
sequence numbers and acknowledgements can be examined in an IP sniffer file
such as Ethereal. TCP behavior analysis is a good place to start if RF conditions and
RLC throughput looks good, but application throughput is poor. Some potential TCP
problems are:
Missing Packets - TCP behavior causes the receiver to acknowledge packets
with the number of the next expected packet. If the receiver misses a
packet it will acknowledge the number of the missing packet, even as other
packets are sent and received, until the missing packet is finally received.
Receive Buffer Size Window The receive buffer size window, or RWIN
setting, defines how many packets can be sent out by the sender without
receiving an acknowledgement from the receiver. If the RWIN setting is
Bursty TFI
during bursty
download
activity
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too small, the sender may hold data and reduce throughput while waiting
for earlier packets to be acknowledged.
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8 Appendix StateForms Attributes
There are six types of objects that can be placed on a StateForms sheet. In addition, the
sheet itself has attributes which can be set. Below is a list of the attributes associated with
the sheet and with the Label, Attribute Value, and Array Attribute Value objects.
8.1 Sheet Attributes
To access the sheet properties, click on any part of the sheet that is not occupied by an
object.

Attribute Function
Sheet Width Set the width of the StateForms sheet.
Sheet Height Set the height of the StateForms sheet.
Auto Scale When set to True the size of the objects on the sheet will scale up or
down to fill the sheet as the sheet window size is changed.
Background Set the background color of the sheet.
Grid Size Set the spacing for the design mode grid of dots.
Snap to Grid Set to True to automatically align the top left corner of the object
with the design grid.

8.2 Label Attributes

Attribute Function
Caption The text that will be displayed in the label.
Back Color Background color of the label.
Back Color Override Set to True to activate the background color you have selected.
Border Line Adds a border around the label.
Border Sunken Makes the label appear depressed.
Text Color Select a text color.
Font Auto Size Set to True to have the font size change to fill the label area or
set to False to set the font size yourself.
Font Height Select a font size.
Font Use Default Set to True to keep the font plain, set to False to Activate Bold
and Italic settings.
Font Name Select a font face.
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Attribute Function
Font Italic Make the text italicized.
Font Bold Make the text bold.
Left Distance from the left edge of the label to the left edge of the
form.
Top Distance from the top of the label to the top of the form.
Width Width of the label.
Height Height of the label.
Extent Right Set to True to make the contents of the label scale as the form
size is changed in View Mode.
Extent Bottom Set to True to make the contents of the label scale as the form
size is changed in View Mode.

8.3 Attribute Value

Attribute Function
Specify Min+Max Set to True to specify the minimum and maximum values when the
attribute value object is used as an attribute value bar
Bar Range Min Set the minimum value for the attribute value bar
Bar Range Max Set the maximum value for the attribute value bar
Bar Color Set the color that will fill the attribute bar as the parameter value
changes
Use Value Color None used when you want to displayed the attribute value as text
without a color behind it.
Text used to display the parameter value as text rather than a
level bar.
Background used to fill in the entire attribute value bar in with the
bar color.
Value Bar Use this setting to fill the attribute value bar in with the
bar color to indicate the level of the parameter value.
Show Value Text Set to True to display the parameter value as text
Show Min Text Set to True to display the text showing the minimum value of the
attribute level bar
Show Max Text Set to True to display the text showing the maximum value of the
attribute level bar
Show Minor Ticks Set to True to display the divisions you would like to divide the
attribute level bar into
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Attribute Function
Show Major Ticks Set to True to display the subdivisions you would like to divide the
attribute level bar into
Minor Tick Spacing Set the size of the divisions into which you would like to divide the
attribute level bar.
Major Tick Spacing Set the size of the subdivisions into which you would like to divide
the attribute level bar.
Attribute Use the Analyzer tree of parameters to select the attribute whose
value you would like to display.
Attr. Array Index For parameters that are arrays, enter the index of the array element
whose value you would like to display.
Attr. Value Hold Holds the last valid value of the parameter until a new valid value is
collected.
Expression To display an expression instead of a straight parameter value, type
the expression here as it would appear in the Binned Query
expression builder.
Expr Format Group Select the format group for the expression you are using
Normal
No Default
Append Units Use to display the units that correspond to the
expression when a format group for the expression has been set.
Convert Units
Expr. Fmt. Mode
Expr. Decimals Set the number of decimal places in the result of the expression.
Display Validity ----
Text Change Flag Set to True to highlights changes in the parameter value from the
preceding data point to the current data point by changing the color
used to display the parameter value.
Text Change Color Set the color used to indicate a change in the parameters value.
Color Legend ----
Color by Format
Group
Set to True to color the level bars using the color scheme
established in the map legend.
Color Value Expr. ----
Back Color Background color of the attribute value.
Back Color
Override
Set to True to activate the background color you have selected.
Border Line Adds a border around the attribute value.
Border Sunken Makes the attribute value appear depressed.
Text Color Select a text color.
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Attribute Function
Font Auto Size Set to True to have the font size change to fill the array value area
or set to False to set the font size yourself.
Font Height Select a font size.
Font Use Default Set to True to keep the font plain, set to False to Activate Bold
and Italic settings.
Font Name Select a font face.
Font Italic Make the text italicized.
Font Bold Make the text bold.
Left Distance from the left edge of the attribute value to the left edge of
the form.
Top Distance from the top of the attribute value to the top of the form.
Width Width of the attribute value.
Height Height of the attribute value.
Extent Bottom Set to True to make the contents of the attribute value scale as the
form size is changed in View Mode.
Extent Right Set to True to make the contents of the attribute value scale as the
form size is changed in View Mode.

8.4 Array Attribute Value

Attribute Function
Array Columns Number of columns in the array attribute value matrix.
Array Rows Number of rows in the array attribute value matrix.
Array Base Offset To begin displaying parameter values starting at a location in the
array other than its beginning, specify the index of the first array
element you would like to display.
Specify Min+Max Set to True to specify the minimum and maximum values when
the attribute value object is used as an attribute value bar.
Bar Range Min Set the minimum value for the attribute value bar.
Bar Range Max Set the maximum value for the attribute value bar.
Bar Color Set the color that will fill the attribute bar as the parameter value
changes.
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Attribute Function
Use Value Color None used when you want to displayed the attribute value as
text without a color behind it.
Text used to display the parameter value as text rather than a
level bar.
Background used to fill in the entire attribute value bar in with
the bar color.
Value Bar Use this setting to fill the attribute value bar in with
the bar color to indicate the level of the parameter value.
Show Value Text Set to True to display the parameter value as text.
Show Min Text Set to True to display the text showing the minimum value of the
attribute level bar.
Show Max Text Set to True to display the text showing the maximum value of
the attribute level bar.
Show Minor Ticks Set to True to display the divisions you would like to divide the
attribute level bar into.
Show Major Ticks Set to True to display the subdivisions you would like to use for
the attribute level bar.
Minor Tick Spacing Set the size of the divisions into which you would like to use for
the attribute level bar.
Major Tick Spacing Set the size of the subdivisions into which you would like to use
for the attribute level bar.
Attribute Use the Analyzer tree of parameters to select the attribute whose
value you would like to display.
Attr. Value Hold Holds the last valid value of the parameter until a new valid value
is collected.
Expression If you would like to display the value of an expression instead of a
simple parameter, enter the expression here as it would appear in
the expression builder.
Expr. Format Group If you are using an expression, select the format group for the
expression to be displayed..
Expr. Frmt. Mode Select the format group for the expression you are using.
Expr. Mode Normal
No Default
Append Units Use to display the units that correspond to the
expression when a format group for the expression has been set.
Convert Units
Expr. Decimal Set the number of decimal places in the result of the expression.
Display Validity ----
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Attribute Function
Text Change Flag Set to True to highlights changes in the parameter value from
the preceding data point to the current data point by changing the
color used to display the parameter value.
Text Change Color Set the color used to indicate a change in the parameters value.
Color Legend ----
Color by Format
Group
Set to True to color the level bars using the color scheme
established in the map legend.
Color Value Expr. ----
Back Color Background color of the array attribute value.
Back Color Override Set to True to activate the background color you have selected.
Border Line Adds a border around the array attribute value.
Border Sunken Makes the array attribute value appear depressed.
Text Color Select a text color.
Font Auto Size Set to True to have the font size change to fill the array attribute
value area or set to False to set the font size yourself.
Font Height Select a font size.
Font Use Default Set to True to keep the font plain, set to False to Activate Bold
and Italic settings.
Font Name Select a font face.
Font Italic Make the text italicized.
Font Bold Make the text bold.
Left Distance from the left edge of the array attribute value to the left
edge of the form.
Top Distance from the top of the array attribute value to the top of the
form.
Width Width of the array attribute value.
Height Height of the array attribute value.
Extent Bottom Set to True to make the contents of the array attribute value
scale as the form size is changed in View Mode.
Extent Right Set to True to make the contents of the array attribute value
scale as the form size is changed in View Mode.


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