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FRPRCS-9 Sydney, Australia

Monday 13 Wednesday 15 July 2009

EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF FRP WRAPPED HOLLOW RC COLUMNS


Yuliarti KUSUMAWARDANINGSIH 1
1

M.N.S. HADI 1

School of Civil, Mining and Environmental Engineering, University of Wollongong, Australia

Keywords: composites, ductility, external reinforcement, FRP jackets, hollow columns, reinforced concrete, stress-strain.

1 INTRODUCTION
An increase in the demand of constructing high rise concrete structures has led people to use high strength concrete in lieu of normal strength concrete, to get stronger concrete structures and to minimise the size and weight of concrete members in the structure. Fibre Reinforced Polymers (FRP) is a popular material to be used as external confinement of concrete members for both strengthening and retrofitting purposes. By applying FRP material in concrete members, no significant increase in weight of structure will occur, while FRP material significantly enhances the concrete structures performance especially in terms of strength and ductility [1]. Furthermore, increase of ductility in concrete structures allows the structure to display failure signs and warns inhabitants that the structure could fail in turn to save lives. Due to the huge potential market of FRP applications, researchers have investigated the compressive strength and stress-strain behaviour of FRP confined composite members [2-5]. However, research conducted so far has mainly concentrated on solid columns and circular columns with a circular hole. This paper develops basic knowledge of FRP confinement on hollow circular and square high strength reinforced concrete (RC) columns with different shapes of hole under axial concentric loading, so that the different behaviour can be identified. In particular, this paper shows the effect of the same net cross section areas on both square and circular hollow reinforced concrete columns under concentric loading.

2 EXPERIMENTAL STUDY
2.1 Cross Section By considering the possibility of making column specimens that have the desired similar cross section areas based on the availability of PVC formwork in the market, and after being calculated; then a net cross section of 29,252 mm2 was chosen to make all column specimens (except for Column CCC and CCF that are very difficult to be made for having the same net cross section area due to the diameter limitation of PVC formwork that are available in the market). Next, in square columns, to achieve better efficiency and to eliminate regions with ineffectively confined concrete, the four corners of square columns are rounded by a corner radius of 20 mm [6]. 2.2 Column Experimental In order to investigate the stress-strain behaviour of FRP wrapped hollow high strength RC columns on circular and rectangular column section having different shape of hole; an experimental investigation was carried out in the University of Wollongong. The Denison 500 tonne Compressive Testing Machine having maximum loading capacity of 5000 kN was used to give concentric loading to the columns and to identify the stress of the columns. All columns were loaded under an increasing concentric load applied under displacement control, using displacement rate 0.3 mm/minute and adjusted to 0.5 and 0.7 mm/minute once the load change was insignificant. Strain gauges having a length of 5 mm were attached on the outside of both the longitudinal and lateral bars, in the middle of columns (463 mm from the top of columns), to investigate the strain of columns. Concrete (provided by a local supplier) having an average 28-days cylinder concrete compressive strength of 71.80 MPa, deformed and plain steel bars having tensile strengths of 669 and 476 MPa, respectively; were used to make a total of 12 RC column specimens having a length of 925 mm, consisted of six circular and six square columns. From each configuration, a total of six columns were left unwrapped as control specimens, while the others were externally wrapped with two layers of 1

FRPRCS-9 Sydney, Australia

Monday 13 Wednesday 15 July 2009

CFRP (Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymers). The CFRP strips were specified having a width of 75 mm, and the CFRP strips wrapped the columns at 10oC angle to the horizontal; bonded with a combination of epoxy and hardener with a mix ratio of 5:1. The summary of column specimens is shown in Table 1. Table 1 Column specimen summary.

2.3 Discussion of test results The typical stress-strain curves of column specimens are shown in Figs. 1 and 2. According to Fig. 1, generally, columns wrapped by CFRP can achieve higher stress carrying capacity compare to columns without wrapped by CFRP. It is clear from Fig. 1 that circular columns can have better performance in stress carrying capacity compared to square columns. CFRP external confinement is more effective for circular columns rather than for square columns, because the confining pressure in circular columns is uniformly distributed and the columns concrete is effectively confined [7]. Figs. 1, 2(a) and 2(b) show that in columns without CFRP wrapping; when the stresses increase, the columns axial strains will also increase. However, once columns reach their maximum stress capacity, then the columns will experience significant decreases in their stress carrying capacity. The columns axial strains still expand until they reach their ultimate strain capacity and then failed. According to Figs. 1(a) and 2(b), it is very interesting that compared to circular columns without CFRP wrapping, columns wrapped with CFRP have more capability to experience larger axial strain (demonstrating an increased ductility) before they finally reach their maximum stress capacity and experience significant vertical decreases in their stress carrying capacity. Similarly, Figs. 1(b) and 2(d) illustrate that compared to square columns without CFRP wrapping, square columns wrapped with CFRP tend to have more capability to receive repeated large loadings and stresses (demonstrating an increased ductility) before they finally reach their maximum stress capacity and experience a significant vertical decrease in stress carrying capacity. The highest maximum stress carrying capacity in circular columns without CFRP wrapping (see Figs. 1(a) and 2(a)) is reached by Column CCC (solid circular column) namely 76 MPa, followed by Column CCCH (circular column with circular hole) namely 68.07 MPa, and Column CCSH (circular column with square hole) namely 61.15 MPa. Similarly, Column CCC also has the largest axial strain of 0.005286 (after its maximum stress is reached), followed by Column CCCH (0.005209), and Column CCSH (0.004783). The highest maximum stress carrying capacity in circular columns wrapped by CFRP (see Figs. 1(a) and 2(b)) is reached by Column CCF (solid circular column wrapped by CFRP) namely 114.66 MPa, followed by Column CCCHF (circular column with circular hole wrapped by CFRP) namely 91.19 MPa, and Column CCSHF (circular column with square hole wrapped by CFRP) namely 91.13 kN. Similarly, Column CCF can also experience the largest axial strain (0.005526) after its maximum stress is reached, followed by Column CCCHF (0.010334), and Column CCSHF (0.007696). In square columns without CFRP wrapping (see Figs 1(b) and 2(c)), Column CSC (solid square column) has the highest maximum stress of 75.07 MPa, followed by Column SCSH (square column with square hole) namely 73.86 MPa, and Column SCCH (square column with circular hole) namely 70.54 MPa.

FRPRCS-9 Sydney, Australia

Monday 13 Wednesday 15 July 2009

(a)

(b)

Fig. 1 Combined stress axial strain of all: (a) circular columns, (b) square columns.

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

Fig. 2 Stress axial strain of: (a) circular columns without wrapped by CFRP, (b) circular columns wrapped by CFRP, (c) square columns without wrapped by CFRP, (c) square columns wrapped by CFRP.

FRPRCS-9 Sydney, Australia

Monday 13 Wednesday 15 July 2009

In terms of axial strain capacity, Column SCSH experienced the largest axial strain (0.005861) after its maximum stress is reached, followed by Column CSC (0.005637), and Column SCCH (0.005491). For CFRP wrapped square columns (see Figs 1(b) and 2(d)), Column SCF (solid square column wrapped with CFRP) had the highest maximum stress (87.24 MPa), followed by Column SCCHF (square column with circular hole wrapped by CFRP) of 78.43 MPa, and Column SCSHF (square column with square hole wrapped by CFRP) of 72.34 MPa. In terms of axial strain capacity, after its maximum load was reached Column SCCHF experienced the largest axial strain (0.007147), followed by Column SCF (0.006175), and Column SCSHF (0.005816).The ductility of columns tested in this study increased by the application of CFRP external confinement. In CFRP wrapped circular columns, circular column with a circular hole had the largest increase of ductility (with a relative ductility of 1.78), compared to solid circular column (1.51) and the circular column which has a square hole (1.22). In square columns wrapped with CFRP, the solid square column had the largest increase of ductility (1.95), followed by the square column with a circular hole (1.65), and the square column with a square hole (1.16). The presence of the two layers of CFRP external confinement is the most beneficial for enhancing the ductility of columns. The comparison between the theoretical and experimental results in this study allows their accuracy to be determined, with an average difference less than 15%. However, further research of FRP external confinement on hollow columns is highly recommended to provide more accurate theoretical modelling procedures for design purposes to achieve efficient and safer designs.

3 CONCLUSIONS
The following conclusions are drawn from the results of the experimental investigation of CFRP wrapped hollow RC columns: CFRP external confinement in both solid and hollow columns allows columns to receive larger loadings and demonstrate an increased ductility and axial strain, thus achieving much higher maximum stress capacity. Under concentric loading, external confinement of RC columns with CFRP can significantly improve the columns performance, by delaying rupture of the concrete and reinforcement. Ductility of columns increase along with the application of two layers external confinement of CFRP.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The experiment of this study was conducted in the Highbay Lab. of the University of Wollongong. The authors acknowledge the contribution of Mr. Joel Cahill, Di Zhou, and Robert Rowlan.

REFERENCES
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