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Gramatica engleza

Scurt compendiu morfologic de gramatica engleza:

Articolul
* hotarat (the car - masina) * nehotarat - a boy - un baiat - a girl - o fata - an eskimo - un eschimos

Substantivul
* gen: masculin, feminin: (waiter, waitress - insa deobicei nediferentiat) * numar: singular, plural: (deobicei pluralul se formeaza cu s) * caz (declension) - nominativ: fata canta - the girl sings, o fata canta - a girl sings - genitiv: the girl's voice S ! the voice of the girl - vocea fetei - dativ: " tell the girl - "i spun fetei - acuzativ: " hear the girl - # aud pe fata

Adjectivul (descrie un substantiv)


* propriu-zis: green hills - dealuri verzi * pronominal - demonstrativ: this man - acest barbat, that man - acel barbat - interogativ$relativ: what book% - care carte%$what " think - ce cred eu - posesiv:my book - cartea mea - nehotarat(indefinit): some people - niste oameni, unii oameni * &radele de comparatie - ca si in romana, ad'ectivele propriu-zise in engleza au grade de comparatie - (omparatia de superioritate ) ) d'ective monosilabice si bisilabice terminate in y: smart - smarter smartest: destept - mai destept - cel mai destept d'ective lungi: intelligent - more intelligent - the most intelligent: destept - mai destept - cel mai destept

- (omparatia de inferioritate ) smart - less smart - the least smart: destept - mai putin destept - cel mai putin destept - (omparatia de egalitate ) as smart as - la fel de destept ca - Superlativul absolut ) very smart - foarte destept

Pronumele (inlocuieste un substantiv)


* personal - subiectiv(nominativ): you eat - tu mananci - obiectiv(dativ, acuzativ) ) dativ: tell me - spune -mi ) acuzativ: follow me - urmeaza -ma, urmeaza pe mine* come with me - vino cu mine * posesiv: it is mine - este al meu * demonstrativ: that is a koala bear - acela e un urs koala * interogativ$relativ: what is that - ce e acela, who are you% - cine esti%$the man who came - barbatul care a venit * indefinit: somebody called - a sunat cineva * refle+iv: " see myself in the mirror - Ma vad in oglinda,

umeralul
* cardinal: seven days - ! zile * ordinal: the seventh day - a saptea zi * fractionar: three sevenths of it is done - "#! e gata * colectiv: a dozen eggs - o duzina de oua * multiplicativ: " paid him back tenfold - --am platit inzecit * distributiv: they went in two at a time - au intrat cate doi * adverbial: " read it a hundred times - --am citit de o suta de ori$ * nehotarat: many people - multi oameni

%erbul

* persoana - " sing - .u cant* /e sing - 0oi cantam - 1ou sing - 2u canti* 3oi cantati - 1ou sing - 4e, She sings - .l, .a canta* 2hey sing - .i canta * numar: singular (" sing, 1ou sing, 4e sings), plural (/e sing, 1ou sing, 2hey sing) * diateza:(active voice, passive voice) - activa (actiunea e facuta de subiect): 4e scolds the child - .l cearta copilul - pasiva (actiunea e facuta asupra subiectului): 2he child is scolded - (opilul este certat * timp (tenses): - 5iateza activa ( ctive 3oice) ) 6resent 2ense: " scold - .u cert ) 6resent (ontinuous: " am scolding - .u cert acum (actiune in desfasurare) ) 6resent 6erfect: " have scolded ) 6resent 6erfect (ontinuous: " have been scolding ) 6ast 2ense: " scolded - m certat ) 6ast (ontinuous: " was scolding - .u certam (cand ceva s-a intamplat) ) 6ast 6erfect: " had scolded - .u certasem ) 6ast 6erfect (ontinuous: " had been scolding ) 7uture 2ense: " will scold - .u voi certa (cand se va intampla ceva) ) 7uture (ontinuous: " will be scolding - .u voi certa (cand se va intampla ceva) ) 7uture 6erfect: " will have scolded ) 7uture 6erfect (ontinuous: " will have been scolding - 5iateza pasiva (6assive 3oice) ) 6resent 2ense: " am scolded - .u sunt certat ) 6resent (ontinuous: " am being scolded - .u sunt certat acum (actiune in desfasurare) ) 6resent 6erfect: " have been scolded ) 6resent 6erfect (ontinuous: 0u se foloseste

) 6ast 2ense: " was scolded - m fost certat ) 6ast (ontinuous: " was being scolded - .u eram certat (cand ceva s-a intamplat) ) 6ast 6erfect: " had been scolded ) 6ast 6erfect (ontinuous: 0u se foloseste ) 7uture 2ense: " will be scolded - .u voi fi certat ) 7uture (ontinuous: nu se foloseste ) 7uture 6erfect: " will have been scolded - .u voi fi fost certat ) 7uture 6erfect (ontinuous: 0u se foloseste * mod (mood) - indicativ (timpurile de mai sus) - actiune reala - sub'onctiv - actiune ireala, dorita: ) " wish that this be over - "mi doresc ca aceasta sa se termine - stil oficial ) " wish that this were over - "mi doresc ca aceasta sa se termine ) " wish that this had been over - "mi doresc ca aceasta sa se fi terminat - conditional - actiune dorita si e+primata printr-o conditie: ) 1ou should call - Ar trebui sa dai telefon ) 1ou should have called - Ar fi trebuit sa dai telefon - imperativ - actiune poruncita: &o home8 - 5u-te acasa8

Adverbul (descrie un verb, un ad'ectiv sau un adverb)


* he is leaving now - el pleaca acum (descrie un verb) * the amazingly tall building - cladirea e&troardinar de inalta (descrie un ad'ectiv) * it looks very nice - arata foarte frumos (descrie un adverb) * (lasificarea adverbelor: - de timp: after - dupa, then - atunci - de mod: somehow - cumva, slowly - incet (a slow car moves slowly - o masina inceata se misca incet - de loc: above - deasupra, faraway - departe - de scop: conse9uently - in consecinta, so that - astfel incat

* prepozitia (leaga doi termeni care nu au aceeasi functie sintactica) -" am going to school - ma duc la scoala - the book is on the table - (artea e pe masa - out of town - afara din oras - smooth as silk - neted ca matasea * con'unctia (leaga doi termeni care au aceeasi functie sintactica) - or - sau* and - si - ":ll leave when " want to - 6lec cand vreau eu, * inter'ectia - /hat a pity8 - (e pacat8 - /ow8* /ell, well, well8
*

.+ista ; verbe modale: (can, may, must, ought, shall, will), .le sunt verbe speciale care nu

asculta de regulile obisnuite ale verbelor, .le insotesc cateodata un verb aflat la infinitiv, 3a dorim lectura placuta8