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RITMO E O FENMENO DE REDUO DAS VOGAIS EM INGLS RHYTHM AND VOWEL REDUCTION Ricardo Schtz

ltima atualizao: 25 de setembro de 2005 RITMO RHYTHM The rhythm of speech is one of the distincti e fe!t"res of ! #!n$"!$e% It is !c&"ired in chi#dhood !nd h!rd for !n !d"#t to ch!n$e% Accordin$ to rhythm' #!n$"!$es !re c#!ssified in syllable-ti e! !nd st"essti e!% (!p!nese is pro)!)#y the most perfect e*!mp#e of ! sy##!)#e+timed #!n$"!$e' )"t ,rench !nd -r!.i#i!n /ort"$"ese !re !#so sy##!)#e+timed 0hi#e R"ssi!n !nd En$#ish !re m!r1ed#y stress+ timed #!n$"!$es% In sy##!)#e+timin$' rhythm of speech is )!sed on the sy##!)#e' t!1in$ e!ch sy##!)#e ! simi#!r !mo"nt of time to )e prono"nced% Therefore' the !mo"nt of time to s!y ! $i en sentence depends on the n"m)er of sy##!)#es' !nd contr!ctions r!re#y occ"r% This is one of the fe!t"res of -r!.i#i!n /ort"$"ese' 0here e!ch sy##!)#e is distincti e#y !nd c#e!r#y prono"nced' timin$ the f#o0 of the #!n$"!$e% 2ee )e#o0 the $r!phic represent!tion of ! sy##!)#e+timed #!n$"!$e #i1e /ort"$"ese in the e*!mp#e3 O ritmo d! f!#! 4 "m! d!s princip!is c!r!cter5stic!s de "m! #5n$"!' sendo !d&"irido n! inf6nci! e dif5ci# de m"d!r em id!de !d"#t!% 7"!nto !o ritmo' #5n$"!s s8o c#!ssific!d!s em syllable-timed e stress-timed% O 9!pon:s 4 "m dos m!is perfeitos e*emp#os de #5n$"! do tipo syllable-timed' m!s o fr!nc:s e o port"$":s do -r!si# t!m)4m est8o inc#"5dos nest! c!te$ori!' en&"!nto &"e o r"sso e o in$#:s s8o do tipo stress-timed% Em #5n$"!s tipo syllable-timed' ! s5#!)! 4 ! "nid!de &"e imprime o ritmo d! f!#! e c!d! s5#!)! 4 pron"nci!d! n"m! fr!;8o de tempo de d"r!;8o seme#h!nte% /ort!nto' o tempo necess<rio p!r! pron"nci!r "m! fr!se depende diret!mente do n=mero de s5#!)!s' sendo r!r! ! ocorr:nci! de contr!;>es% Est! 4 "m! d!s c!r!cter5stic!s do port"$":s do -r!si#' onde c!d! s5#!)! 4 pron"nci!d! c#!r! e distint!mente' determin!ndo o f#"*o de sons% Ve9! n! im!$em !)!i*o "m! represent!;8o $r<fic! do f#"*o r5tmico de "m! #5n$"! syllable-timed como port"$":s' "s!ndo como e*emp#o ! fr!se3

Eu gosto de beber cerveja.

C#ic1 here to #isten to the sentence !)o e !s prono"nced )y ! n!ti e spe!1er% C#ic1 here to #isten to the sentence !)o e !s prono"nced )y !n En$#ish n!ti e spe!1er' 0ith the 0ron$ timin$%

In stress+timed #!n$"!$es #i1e En$#ish rhythm is )!sed on stressed sy##!)#es of cert!in 0ords th!t occ"r !t !pp!rent#y irre$"#!r inter !#s 0hen 0e #oo1 !t the 0ritten sentence% The ro0s of in+ )et0een "nstressed sy##!)#es tend to )e compressed !nd some sy##!)#es c!n !#most dis!ppe!r% This me!ns th!t the

Em #5n$"!s tipo stress-timed' como o in$#:s' o ritmo d! f!#! 4 m!rc!do por s5#!)!s t?nic!s de determin!d!s p!#! r!s' &"e ocorrem em inter !#os !p!rentemente irre$"#!res &"!ndo o#h!+se p!r! ! fr!se escrit!% Os se$mentos de s5#!)!s !t?nic!s intermedi<ri!s tendem ! fic!r comprimidos e !$#"tin!dos' !#$"m!s s5#!)!s &"!se

!mo"nt of time it t!1es to s!y ! sentence in En$#ish depends on the n"m)er of sy##!)#es th!t recei e the prim!ry sentence stress !nd not on the tot!# n"m)er of sy##!)#es% The 0ords th!t c!rry the stressed sy##!)#es responsi)#e for sentence rhythm !re "s"!##y content 0ords #i1e no"ns' m!in er)s' !d9ecti es !nd !d er)s@ 0hi#e f"nction 0ords #i1e prepositions' !rtic#es' determiners' prono"ns' !nd !"*i#i!ry er)s Ain !ffirm!ti e !nd interro$!ti e sentencesB !re norm!##y "nstressed !nd often contr!cted% A"*i#i!ry er)s in ne$!ti e sentences 0i## !#so )e stressed% The difference )et0een ! stressed !nd !n "nstressed sy##!)#e is )i$$er in stress+timed #!n$"!$es%

des!p!recendo% Dess! form!' o tempo &"e se #e ! p!r! pron"nci!r "m! fr!se em in$#:s depende do n=mero de s5#!)!s &"e rece)em tonicid!de e n8o do n=mero tot!# de s5#!)!s% As p!#! r!s &"e c!rre$!m !s s5#!)!s t?nic!s m!is fortes' !s &"!is ir8o m!rc!r o ritmo d! fr!se' s8o norm!#mente p!#! r!s de m!ior conte=do sem6ntico' como s")st!nti os' er)os princip!is' !d9eti os e !d 4r)ios' en&"!nto &"e p!#! r!s f"ncion!is como preposi;>es' !rti$os e pronomes' )em como er)os !"*i#i!res Aem fr!ses !firm!ti !s e interro$!ti !sB' r!r!mente rece)em tonicid!de e fre&Centemente s8o contr!5d!s% Ver)os !"*i#i!res em fr!ses ne$!ti !s t!m)4m rece)em tonicid!de forte% Em #5n$"!s tipo stress-timed ! diferen;! entre "m! s5#!)! t?nic! e "m! !t?nic! 4 m!is !cent"!d! do &"e em #5n$"!s tipo syllable-timed%

In this e*!mp#e' the D or E+sy##!)#e se$ment / Approximately / t!1es !#most the s!me time to )e prono"nced !s the F+sy##!)#e se$ment / old /. 2ee )e#o0 the $r!phic represent!tion of ! stress+timed #!n$"!$e #i1e En$#ish3

N! represent!;8o $r<fic! !cim!' o se$mento de D o" E s5#!)!s / Approximately / #e ! &"!se o mesmo tempo p!r! ser pron"nci!do &"e o se$mento de F s5#!)! / old /. Ve9! n! im!$em !)!i*o "m! represent!;8o $r<fic! do f#"*o r5tmico de "m! #5n$"! stress-timed como in$#:s3

C#ic1 here to #isten to the sentence !)o e !s prono"nced )y ! n!ti e spe!1er% C#ic1 here to #isten to the sentence !)o e !s prono"nced )y ! -r!.i#i!n spe!1er' 0ith the 0ron$ timin$%

Accordin$ to D!"er3
In order to !chie e ! $ood rhythm in En$#ish' yo" need to slow down, stretch out, and very clearly pronounce one-syllable content words !nd the stressed sy##!)#es of #on$er 0ords% And yo" m"st reduce unstressed function words !nd other "nstressed sy##!)#es% AGEB

De !cordo com D!"er3


/!r! se !#c!n;!r "m )om ritmo n! pron=nci! do in$#:s' 4 necess<rio reduzir a velocidade, esticar e pronunciar claramente palavras monossilbicas de conte do sem!ntico e !s s5#!)!s t?nic!s de p!#! r!s m!is #on$!s% E' so)ret"do' 4 necess<rio reduzir as palavras funcionais at"nicas e o"tr!s s5#!)!s !t?nic!s% AGE' minh! tr!d";8oB

A common error m!de )y non+n!ti e spe!1ers of En$#ish is prono"ncin$ one+

Um erro com"m o)ser !do em f!#!ntes de in$#:s n8o n!ti os 4 ! pron=nci!

sy##!)#e content 0ords too &"ic1#y' 0itho"t the necess!ry stress% -"t !n e en more common error m!de )y non+ n!ti e spe!1ers 0hose mother ton$"e is sy##!)#e+timed is not red"cin$ f"nction 0ords !nd other "nstressed sy##!)#es eno"$h% With re$!rds to this pro)#em' D!"er !dds3
As ! res"#t' the #istener 0i## h! e diffic"#ty percei in$ 0hich sy##!)#es !re stressed !nd 0hich !re "nstressed% 2ince stress is the m!in c"e to 0ord )o"nd!ries in spo1en #!n$"!$e Ae&"i !#ent to sp!ces in 0ritten #!n$"!$eB' the #istener 0i## therefore h! e pro)#ems fi$"rin$ o"t 0here 0ords )e$in !nd end% It is e*treme#y import!nt to m!1e ! c#e!r difference )et0een stressed !nd "nstressed sy##!)#es 0hen yo" !re spe!1in$ En$#ish% AGEB

dem!si!d!mente r<pid! d!s p!#! r!s monossi#<)ic!s de conte=do' n8o !p#ic!ndo+ #hes ! necess<ri! :nf!se% M!s "m erro !ind! m!is com"m o)ser !do em !prendi.es de in$#:s c"9! #5n$"! m!tern! 4 syllable-timed Acomo o port"$":s do -r!si#B' 4 ! red";8o ins"ficiente de p!#! r!s f"ncion!is e dem!is s5#!)!s !t?nic!s% Com re#!;8o ! este pro)#em!' D!"er !crescent!3
Como conse&C:nci!' o o" inte ter< dific"#d!de em perce)er &"!is s5#!)!s s8o t?nic!s e &"!is !t?nic!s% Um! e. &"e o ritmo 4 ! princip!# indic!;8o d!s di is>es entre !s p!#! r!s n! #5n$"! f!#!d! Ae&"i !#ente !os esp!;os n! escrit!B' o o" inte ter< dific"#d!de em c!pt!r o in5cio e o fim d!s p!#! r!s% H port!nto de e*trem! import6nci! m!nter "m! c#!r! diferen;! entre s5#!)!s t?nic!s e !t?nic!s &"!ndo se f!#! in$#:s% AGE' minh! tr!d";8oB

VO#EL REDU$TION As ! res"#t of this compression of "nstressed sy##!)#es in En$#ish' ery often o0e#s in these sy##!)#es )ecome 0e!1 !nd !re red"ced to the ne"tr!# oc!#ic so"nd I I Ahere represented )y //B% This ne"tr!# o0e# phoneme 1no0n !s schwa is prod"ced )y the i)r!tion of the oc!# cords !#one' 0ith the ton$"e in ! ne"tr!# position !nd re&"irin$ ! minim!# !mo"nt of !rtic"#!tory effort% The sch0! #!r$e#y ch!r!cteri.es the so"nd of En$#ish% E*!mp#es3 circuit ['srkt] photo#rapher [f'tagrfr] neutralization [nuwtrl'zeyshn] This #oss of identity of o0e#s in En$#ish represents ! sh!rp contr!st !$!inst -r!.i#i!n /ort"$"ese 0here !## the o0e#s' stressed or "nstressed' h! e ! c#e!r identity% It !#so !$$r! !tes the spe##in$+ pron"nci!tion irre$"#!rity of En$#ish% 2ee 2pe##in$ Interference !nd 2pe##in$+to+ 2o"nd R"#es% -ec!"se of the fre&"ent occ"rrence of this ne"tr!#i.!tion' the En$#ish o0e# I I )ecomes the phoneme th!t occ"rs the most in the #!n$"!$e% In f!ct' !ny sin$#e+ #etter o0e# $r!pheme !nd se er!# t0o+ #etter o0e# $r!phemes c!n represent the En$#ish phoneme I I' !s demonstr!ted in the t!)#e )e#o03

REDUO DE VOGAIS Como conse&C:nci! dess! !$#"tin!;8o de s5#!)!s !t?nic!s no in$#:s' ! o$!# dess!s s5#!)!s fre&Centemente sofre "m! Jred";8oJ em dire;8o !o som ne"tro I I A!&"i represent!do por //B% Denomin!do J*e <J' este fonem! o$!# 4 prod".ido pe#! simp#es i)r!;8o d!s cord!s oc!is' perm!necendo os dem!is Kr$8os !rtic"#!dores A)oc! e #5n$"!B em tot!# repo"so% H "m! o$!# c"9o som 4 seme#h!nte !o som do $emido' por4m n8o n!s!#% O *e < imprime "m! c!r!cter5stic! m!rc!nte n! #5n$"! in$#es!% E*3 circuit ['srkt] - circuito photo#rapher [f'tagrfr] - fot$#rafo neutralization [nuwtrl'zeyshn] neutraliza%&o /or "m #!do' est! perd! de identid!de d!s o$!is no in$#:s contr!st! prof"nd!mente com o port"$":s )r!si#eiro' em &"e tod!s !s o$!is' t?nic!s o" n8o' t:m "m! c#!r! identid!de% /or o"tro #!do' o fen?meno !$r! ! so)remodo ! irre$"#!rid!de entre orto$r!fi! e pron=nci! do in$#:s% Ve9! Corre#!;8o Orto$r!fi! * /ron=nci! e Re$r!s de Interpret!;8o d! Orto$r!fi!% De ido L !#t! fre&C:nci! com &"e esse fen?meno de red";8o ocorre' o som o$!# I I do in$#:s tem "m $r!" de ocorr:nci! e*trem!mente !#to' podendo ser represent!do n! orto$r!fi! por pr!tic!mente &"!#&"er #etr! o" com)in!;8o

O-2%3 The En$#ish ne"tr!# o0e# phoneme Jsch0!J' tr!dition!##y represented )y the ch!r!cter I I' is here represented )y II )ec!"se of htm# editin$ #imit!tions%

de #etr!s' conforme demonstr!do n! t!)e#! !)!i*o%

O-2%3 O fonem! o$!# ne"tro do in$#:s conhecido por J*e <J' tr!dicion!#mente represent!do pe#o s5m)o#o I I' 4 !&"i represent!do por II' de ido Ls #imit!;>es d! #in$"!$em htm#% MRA,EMA ! e i o " !i !" e! ei eo e" i! ie io oi oo o" "e "o y ORTOMRA,IA !)o"t !n$e# penci# #emon circ"s i##!in ep!"#et ser$e!nt so erei$nty pi$eon !m!te"r p!r#i!ment p!tient f!shion tortoise )#ood d!n$ero"s #!c&"er #i&"or m!rtyr /RONNNCIA

['bawt] ['eyndzhl] ['pensl] ['lemn] ['srks] ['vIln] ['eplet] ['sardzhnt] ['savrntiy] ['pIdzhn] [''mtr] ['parlmnt] ['peyshnt] ['f'shn] ['tords] ['bld] ['deyndzhrs] ['l'(!r] ['lI(!r] ['mardr]

FAA AQUI UM TESTE PARA AVALIAR O QUE VOC SABE A RESPEITO DE PRONNCIA STUDY PORTUGUESE IN BRAZIL REFEREN$ES A%e"y' /eter !nd 2"s!n Ehr#ich% Te!chin$ Americ!n /ron"nci!tion% O*ford' FOOE% Da&e"' Rebe((a M) Acc"r!te En$#ish3 ! Comp#ete Co"rse in /ron"nci!tion% ,/rentice H!## Re$ents' FOOP% M(A"t*&"' Tom% The O*ford Comp!nion to the En$#ish L!n$"!$e% O*ford' FOOQ%

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Como fazer uma citao desta pgina: Schtz, Ricardo. "Ritmo e o Fenmeno de Reduo das Vogais em Ingls." nglis! "ade in #razil $!ttp:%%&&&.s'.com.(r%s')reduc.!tml*. +nline. ,eptem(er -./ -00.. +(ser1e 2ue ao citar te3tos encontrados na Internet/ 4 necessrio colocar a data/ de1ido 5s fre26entes altera7es 2ue os mesmos podem sofrer.

Estes materiais so colaborao de S&K ES!" #osso $atroci#ador No deixe de citar a fonte. Diga no ao plgio.