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Chapter 1 - Introduction to organization

1.1 Introduction

FIG.1.1 MAIN VIEW

TABLE 1.1. INTRODUCTORY PROFILE Location Established Turn Over No. of employees 1.2 Visions Achieve un-paralleled excellence in value based manufacturing of automobile components to become one of the global players. 1.3 Missions Adhere to customer delivery schedules Continuously improve processes to achieve zero defect manufacturing. Motivate our associates to foster team spirit in achieving organizational goals. Strive to make our processes Eco friendly Ludhiana, Nasik, Roorkee and Haridwar 1985 INR 207 Crore (41 Million USD) 2500

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1.4 Future Plan Having treaded an obstacle-ridden path, we have now braced ourselves to face any adversity and take on any challenge. With a high capability for absorption of manufacturing technology, strong engineering infrastructure and a dedicated and devoted workforce, we are now at the cusp of major growth opportunity. Our new facilities have been commissioned at Roorkee and Haridwar to augment our capacities nearer to our customers. Quite like being at the edge of the cliff, from where all you can do is take flight. India is fast emerging as global sourcing hub for Auto Components and the Company is fully prepared to grab this opportunity. Our upgraded Manufacturing Systems, Quality Systems and Training Facilities add more power to our wings.

1.5 Group Companies

Bajajsons Limited is ably supported by its Group Companies that contribute to growth, technological advancement and key decisions. Some of these companies include: Saroopsons Industries Key products: Transmission Parts, Propeller Shafts and Components, Chassis Components, Axles Key customers: Telco, Ashok Leyland, State Transport Undertakings, Export and Replacement market. Ludhiana Motors Agencies Key products: Transmission, Chassis Parts and Fasteners Key customers: Replacement market. State transport corporation Bajaj Motors Limited Key products: Rocker Arms, Shifter Forks, Piston Pin, Crank Pin, Stem Steering, etc Key customers: Hero MotoCorp Limited, New Holland, Mahindra Renault, etc..

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Microtek Forging Key products: Forging for Stem Steering, Rocker Arm Valves, Shifter Forks, Hubs and Stub Axles. Key customers: Hero MotoCorp Limited, Yamaha, Exports to Renault, Electrolux, etc. Bajaj Motors Limited (Casting Division) Key products: Cam Shaft Castings, Fork Castings, Engine Mtg. Bracket Castings, FIP Bracket,Tractor Lift Link Body Castings, Body Casting Element Key customers: Hero MotoCorp Limited, Uniparts India, Bucher Hydraulics

1.6 Products Assemblies

Brake Rod

Cam Shaft Clutch Release

Cold Forging

Collar PTO Sleeve

Hot Forging

Machined Forging

Sheet Metal Components

Cam Rear Brake

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1.6.1 Machined Forgings The machined forgings are used in Chassis, Engines and Transmission of Two-Wheelers, Four Wheelers and Tractors. These involve various turning, boring, broaching operations. Some of the major components are as follows:-

Fig. 1.2 Bearing Sleeve

Fig. 1.3 Coller PTO Sleeve

Fig. 1.4 Differential Lock Sleeve

Fig. 1.5 Retainer Kick

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Fig. 1.6a Transmission Gates Fig.1.6b Transmission Gates

Fig.1.7 Nozzle Holder Body

1.6.2 Turned Components Bajajsons Limited have created a niche in the area of critical machined and heat-treated components. These components are used in Chassis, Brake Assemblies, Engines and Transmission of TwoWheelers, Four Wheelers and Tractor. The raw material of the components varies from low carbon, medium carbon, alloy steel to stainless steel and involve various machining operations like turning, grooving, milling, threading, spline rolling, internal boring, centreless grinding etc. These components further require different type of heat treatment and or surface treatment processes.

Fig. 1.8 Sleeve Rear Axle

Fig.1.9 Cam Brake

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Fig.1.10 Handwheel Axle

Fig.1.11 Welle Shaft

1.6.3 Sheet Metal Components The application of these components includes various assemblies used in engines, brakes etc of the two wheelers.The raw material for these components not only includes various grades of sheets but also wire rods.The various operations required include blanking, bending, piercing, deep drawing ,

MIG/TIG welding, spot welding & Projection welding etc.

Fig.1.12 Pedal Shaft

Fig.1.13 Plate Ratchet Guide

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1.6.4 Assemblies The major products in this category includes Gear Shifter Assemblies, Arm Shift Drum Stopper and Sector Gear. These assemblies are used in engines & transmission of two wheelers, tractors etc. The components used in these assemblies include a combination of turned components, rubber parts, washers and various other items. The company has developed a reliable vendor base for components, which are not manufactured in-house.

Fig.1.14 Coupling Shaft

Fig.1.15 Under Bracket

Fig.1.16 Under Bracket

Fig.1.17 Lever Complete Clutch

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1.7 Design & Development

Bajajsons Limited is committed to the most superior techniques and procedures in design and development. Its engineering department is equipped with modern CAD/CAM facilities, and is manned by experienced engineers who strive to meet demanding deadlines for new product development. At present, the company is using AutoCad, Pro-E and UniGraphics software. Its in-house tool room has all requisite machinery including CNC Turning, Vertical Machining, Milling, Jig Boring, Grinders etc making it possible to develop, maintain, and upgrade its equipment and tooling periodically. Its special Cell, designs and manufactures Special Purpose Machines lends the company a competitive edge in development of new products.

The company has also set up a modern tool room in Nasik for manufacture of Forging dies with facilities like EDM and CNC Machining Centers.

Fig.1.18 Well equipped Engineering Department with latest softwares for CAD/CAM

Unigraphics Pro-E

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1.8.1 Heat Treatment Facilities Sealed Quench Furnace. Gas Carburising Furnace. Induction Hardening. Rotary Furnace for small components. Liquid carbo nitriding furnace. Spherodize annealing for cold forged components Continuous hardening and tempering Continuous annealing for cold forged components

1.8.2 Surface Coating Facilities Automatic phosphating plant Bonderizing & Molycoating Plant Powder coating facility.

1.8.3 Forging Facilities Hot Presses capacity 250 tons with induction heaters. Cold presses capacity 250 tons Continous and Spherodizing Annealing Furnaces. Automatic Bonderizing and Molycoating Plant.

1.9 Production Department 1.9.1 Production Production can be defined as the transformation of raw materials by manufacturing methods into useful and valueable things needed by society.

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1.9.2 Types Of Production Production for Stock As the name implies, the finished parts are stocked and the customers are served from it. For this, a forecast of future demand is required and the part are produced by keeping the forecast in view. Production for Customer Order Under this system, the production planning and control stars only a confirmed customer order is received. However, such an approach will impractical. If no work were done prior to the receipt of an order, it will difficult to meet the due date of the customer. To overcome this problem, it is customary to stock a certain amount of raw material and in most cases, common parts are maintained in a finished or semi finished state. On Te Basis Of Quantity Of Parts To Be Manufactured Job Production This type of production deals with a great variety of products made in fairly small quantities, often one of a kind products. The same type and size of product either is made never again or repeated over indefinite period of fine e.g. hydroturbines , rolling mills and other heavy equipments, shipbuilding, manufacture of aeroplanes etc. Batch Production Batch production is characterized by the manufacture of parts and products in lots which are regularly repeated in a definite period of time e.g. machine tools pumps, compressors Mass Production In this kind of production, the parts are produced in large quantities either intermittently or continuously, but are not depend individual orders. In this type of production system is

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capital intensive, but unit cost of production is low . Example of this system are manufacturing of tractors,bicycle,nuts,bolts,washer etc. 1.9.3 Function of Production Department Production planning and control is the process of planning production in an industry in advance of actual production. It consist of following activities: Determine the practicability of a product design. Analyzing the product for best methods of production. Determining the economic lot size. Selecting the best equipment for any manufacturing process. Determining the best sequence of operations to manufacture each individual item, part or assembly. Designing or supervising the design of tool. Jigs, fixture or other devices to best assist the manufacturing equipment to function as planned. Estimating expenditure for equipment and tools amd help making cost estimates on new jobs. Setting starting and finishing dates for each important item, assembly and the finished product. Controlling the inventory of raw materials and in-process parts. Dispatching materials, tooling and equipment to the plat locations specified by the schedule. Keeping track of progress of production. Providing program evaluation review.

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1.9.4 Production Planning Production planning is the very basis of manufacturing. It takes a given product and organizes in advance the men, material, machines and money required for a predetermined output in a given period of time. Production planning starts with a product that can be manufactured and consists of following functions: Section of the process by which the product can be produced. A breakdown of parts and material. A decision to either produced or purchase. Planning the machines, equipments and tools etc. The development of machining operations or preparing detailed process operation sheets. The development of time standards or estimates. Determining the path that raw materials will take through the organization to produce the finished part (Routing). Make up production schedules.

1.9.4.1 Objective of Production Planning Operating the plant at a predetermined level of efficiency. Obtaining a prescribed level of profit. Utilizing available plant facilities. Reducing manufacturing cost through reach and development.

1.9.5 Production Control Production control function directs and control numerous instructions to all parts of the factory to produce the items desired and at the time specified. The finction of production control are performed with the help of the following:-

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Despatching:- This function involves materials, tool and equipment. Moving work to machines on operation-to-operation basis. Follow Up:- This function includes expediting materials , in process parts and assembly. 1.9.5.1 Objectives of Production Control The development of a more formal and systematic procedure or planning and controlling production, seek to accomplish the following aims: The prime purpose and objective of production control id to get out the desired products economically and on time. Minimizing the idleness of man and machine. Meeting promises to customers. Maximizing inventory turn over. Improving quality of the products.

1.9.5.2 Advantages of Production Control Maximum quality production at minimum cost through even distribution of work available equipment and personal. Added flexibility in equipment and personnel to meet unavoidable emergencies. Harmony and co-operation between departments. Achieve a high standardor reliability of delivery.

The achievement of the above results in the following advantages:To the investors and financers: Security of money Adequate return on investment

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To the Producer Company can earn more money and pay better wages to worker. Stable employment Job security to the workers Improved working conditions Increased satisfaction to the workers Increased productivity

To the customers Better values Delivery on time

To the Nation Economic and social stability Security and prosperity

1.10 Production Planning and Control Function Production Planning and Control (PPC) is a process that comprises the performance of some critical; functions on either side, viz., planning as well as control. 1.10.1 Production planning Production planning may be defined as the technique of foreseeing every step in a long series of separate operations, each step to be taken at the right time and in the right place and each operation to be performed in maximum efficiency. It helps entrepreneur to work out the quantity of material manpower, machine and money requires for producing predetermined level of output in given period of time.

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1.10.2 Routing Under this, the operations, their path and sequence are established. To perform these operations the proper class of machines and personnel required are also worked out. The main aim of routing is to determine the best and cheapest sequence of operations and to ensure that this sequence is strictly followed. In small enterprises, this job is usually done by entrepreneur himself in a rather adhoc manner. Routing procedure involves following different activities. (1) An analysis of the article to determine what to make and what to buy. (2) To determine the quality and type of material (3) Determining the manufacturing operations and their sequence. (4) A determination of lot sizes (5) Determination of scrap factors (6) An analysis of cost of the article (7) Organization of production control forms. 1.10.3 Scheduling It means working out of time that should be required to perform each operation and also the time necessary to perform the entire series as routed, making allowances for all factors concerned. It mainly concerns with time element and priorities of a job. 1.10.4 Loading The next step is the execution of the schedule plan as per the route chalked out it includes the assignment of the work to the operators at their machines or work places. So loading determines who will do the work as routing determines where and scheduling determines when it shall be done. Gantt Charts are most commonly used in small industries in order to determine the existing load and also to foresee how fast a job can be done. The usefulness of their technique lies in the fact that they compare what has been done and what ought to have been done.

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1.10.5 Dispatching Dispatching involves issue of production orders for starting the operations. Necessary authority and conformation is given for: 1. Movement of materials to different workstations. 2. Movement of tools and fixtures necessary for each operation. 3. Beginning of work on each operation 4. Recording of time and cost involved in each operation. 5. Movement of work from one operation to another according to route sheet. 6. Inspecting or supervision of work. Dispatching is an important step as it translates production plans into production Follow up.Every production programme involves determination of the progress of work, removing bottlenecks in the flow of work and ensuring that the productive operations are taking place in accordance with the plans. It spots delays or deviations from the production plans. It helps to reveal detects in routing and scheduling, misunderstanding of orders and instruction, under loading or overloading of work etc. All problems or deviations are investigated and remedial measurer are undertaken to ensure the completion of work by the planned date. 1.10.6 Inspection This is mainly to ensure the quality of goods. It can be required as effective agency of production control. 1.10.7 Corrective measures Corrective action may involve any of those activities of adjusting the route, rescheduling of work changing the workloads, repairs and maintenance of machinery or equipment, control over inventories of the cause of deviation is the poor performance of the employees. Certain personnel decisions like training, transfer, demotion etc. may have to be taken. Alternate methods may be suggested to handle peak loads.

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1.11 Machine Section Of Bajaj Sons Ltd. The mechanical sections of Bajajsons contain so many types of machine in which some are of following.. 1. Automatic Cutting Machines 2. Drill Machines Bench Drill Machine Side Drill Machine Radial Drill Machine Three Spindle Drill Machine 3. Small Lathe Machines 4. Welding Machines 5. Thread Rolling Machines 6. Grinding Machines Center Less Grinding Machine Bench Grinding Machine Belt Grinding Machine Cylinderical Grinding Machine Surface Grinding Machine 7. Power Presses Hydraulic Power Press Mechanical Power Press 8. Milling Machines Vertical Milling Machine Horizontal Milling Machine 9. Hydraulic Band Saw

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10. Copy Turning Machine 11. CNC Machines 12. VMC Machines 13. Helical Grooving Machines 14. Thread Rolling Machines 1.11.1 Detail Of Machines 1.11.1.1 CNC Lathe

Fig.1.19 CNC Lathe Computer Numerical controlled(CNC) lathes are rapidly replacing the older production lathes (multi spindle, etc) due to their ease of setting, operation, repeatability and accuracy. They are designed to use modern carbide tooling and fully use modern processes. The part maybe designed and the tool paths programmed by the CAD/CAM process or manually by the programmer, and the resulting file uploaded to the machine, and once set and trialled the machine will continue to turn out parts under the occasional supervision of an operate.

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1.11.1.2 Broaching Machine

Fig. 1.20 Broaching Machine Broaching is a maching process that uses a toothed tool,called a broach, to remove material. There are two main types of broaching : linear and rotary. In linear broaching, which is the more common process, the broach is run linearly against a surface of the work piece to affect the cut.. Linear broaches are used in a broaching machine which is also sometimes shortened to broach. In roatary broaching, the broach is rotated and pressed into the work piece to cut an axis symmetric shape. A rotary broach is used in a lathe or screw machine. In both processes the cut is performed in one pass of the broach, which makes it very efficient

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1.11.1.3 Centreless Grinding Machine

Fig. 1.21 Centreless Grinding Machine Centreless grinding is a method of material removal through grinding, similar to centered grinding except for the absence of spindle. It has high throughput, i.e. a number of parts can be maufactured in a short time. The workpiece is set up in the regulating wheels and the grinding wheel, and is supported by the work blade or work rest. The work rest is located between the wheels. The work is placed on the work rest, and the latter together with the regulating wheel is fed forward forcong the work against the grinding wheel. Axial movement of the work past the grinding wheel is accomplished by tilting the regulating wheel at a slight angle from horizontal. An angular adjustment of 0 to 8 or 10 degrees is provided in the machine for this purpose.

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1.12 Quality Management 1.12.1 Introduction In a competitive world, where each Company attempts to better others, true quality is a key differentiator and of utmost importance. In sync with todays demands, Bajajsons Limited has a well-defined quality system in place to ensure reliable product quality. It is well on its way to meet its ambitious target of achieving quality standards of international class, and is focused on building quality in process. To achieve this, company is working on various aspects. 1.12.2 Quality Policy Bajajsons Limited, commit itself to put best endeavor to achieve total customer satisfaction by: Producing Quality Goods.. Adhering To Delivery schedules. Continual improvement in processes and skill of our employees. 1.12.3 Quality Infrastructure True to its promise of delivering quality, Bajajsons Limited continuously upgrade infrastructure to ensure consistent product quality. Facilities are equipped with verification equipments like: Coordinate Measuring Machine Profile Projectors Surface Roughness Testers Roundness & Cylindricity Tester Plating Thickness Tester Spectrometer Micro Vickers Hardness Tester Microscope with Image Analyzer Bajajsons Limited, will strive to preserve a safe, clean & green environment, which fosters internal health and safety.

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1.13 5-S Methodology 1.13.1 Introduction 5S is the name of a workplace organization method that uses a list of five Japanese words: seiri, seiton, seiso, seiketsu, and shitsuke. Translated into English, they all start with the letter "S". The list describes how to organize a work space for efficiency and effectiveness by identifying and storing the items used, maintaining the area and items, and sustaining the new order. The decision-making process usually comes from a dialogue about standardization, which builds understanding among employees of how they should do the work. 1.13.2 5S Phases There are five primary 5S phases: sorting, set in order, systematic cleaning, standardizing, and sustaining. Sorting Eliminate all unnecessary tools, parts. Go through all tools, materials, and so forth in the plant and work area. Keep only essential items and eliminate what is not required, prioritizing things per requirements and keeping them in easily-accessible places. Everything else is stored or discarded. Straightening or Setting in Order to Flow Arranging the work, workers, equipment, parts, and instructions in such a way that the work flows free of waste through the value added tasks with a division of labour necessary to meet demand. This is by far the most misunderstood and incorrectly applied S and has been responsible for many lean transformations failing to produce the benefits expected. When applied correctly with flow established this step eliminates the majority of the nonvalue-added time and allows the rest of the zero defect philosophy to be enabled

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Systematic Cleaning (Shine)

Clean the workspace and all equipment, and keep it clean, tidy and organized. At the end of each shift, clean the work area and be sure everything is restored to its place. This step ensures that the workstation is ready for the next user and that order is sustained. Standardize Ensure uniform procedures and setups throughout the operation to promote interchangeability. Service (Sustain) Ensure disciplined adherence to rules and procedures to prevent backsliding. 1.14 TOOL ROOM 1.14.1 Introduction Tool room is heart of the factory. As heart cleans blood of the body and keeps in running condition, in the same passion the tool room manufactures and repairs the various parts of machines which are used in various sections of the factory. Most of the dies are made in advance so that the breakdown time is minimized. Various machines used are: Grinding Machine Milling Machine Drilling Machine Lathe Machine

In tool room dies and tools are prepared needed for the production of an auto part. Drawing details are given to the tool room by design department, according to which die is prepared by using various machines. Hence tool room is the backbone of the factory, if any fault occurs in preparation of die, the manufactured product gets defected and hence factory has to bear great loss.

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Every precaution is taken during manufacturing of a die. These dies are then checked thoroughly and then sent to production department for production. Grinding Machine Surface grinders are used to grind and make a surface smooth so that it can be machined properly and effectively. It consists of a bed and a grinding wheel. Surface to be grinded is fixed on the bed and grinding wheel is passed. This process is repeated until desired degree of finishing is attained. A grinding material consists of two materials, one is cutting material called abrasives and other is called binder used to bind abrasives together. Factory has 6 grinding machines. Milling machine Milling machine are used unwanted material from a job piece with help of cutter and holding

the job piece on flat surface called the bed. There are 13 milling machines present in factory. Milling process is different from surface grinding in a way that is grinding is a finishing process where as in milling material is removed to get required dimensions and no attention is paid to the finishing process. In this process a cutter is used for removing material at faster rate and there is a facility of jaws on bed to hold the job tightly on the bed. Drilling machine Drilling machine is used to make holes of different diameters as per the requirement. In a drill is attached to the motor which revolves the drill. The revolving drill can move in vertical direction. Job piece is fixed to the bed which can move in horizontal direction. After placing the job piece in appropriate position drill is moved in downward direction and holes are made in die as per requirement. Company has 12 Bench Drilling Machines (BDM). Lathe Machine Centre lathe machine can be found in any factory. It is used to remove material, threading, knurling, and step turning etc on circular job. It is mostly used if the job piece is cylindrical in shape. The job is fixed between two centers called head stock and tail stock. Job is held with the

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help of jaw at head stock which may be three chuck jaw or four chuck jaws. Speed of rotation of a job piece can be changed by using pulley arrangement. It is of great importance and helps in speedy work and less skilled labour is required for the operation.

Fig. 1.22 Grinding Machine

Fig.1.23 Milling Machine

Fig.1.24 Spline Rolling or Seration forming Machine

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Fig. 1.25 Jig and Fixture in Tool Room

1.15 STANDARD ROOM 1.15.1 Introduction To Gauges Gauges are those tools which are used to measure the dimensions of a workpiece. In short we said that the gauges are the inspection tools which are used to save the time. The gauges area already made according to the requirement. The gauge does not caontain any type of scale. Following are some commonly used Gauges:1. Snap gauge 2. Length gauge 3. Plain plug gauge 4. Depth plug gauge 5. Taper plug gauge 6. Thread plug gauge

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7. Air plug gauge 8. Air ring gauge 9. Air snap gauge 10. T-Type gauge 11. Bridge gauge 12. Thread ring gauge 1.15.2 Detail Of Gauges 1.15.2.1 Snap Gauge This type of gauge is used to measure the outer diameter of the workpiece. 1.15.2.2 Plane Plug Gauge This type of gauge is used to measure the internal diameter of the workpiece.

Fig.1.26 Snap gauge 1.15.2.3 Taper Plug Gauge

Fig.1.27 Plane plug gauge

This type of gauge is used to measure the contour or angle of a workpiece.

1.15.2.4 Thread Plug Gauge This type of gauge is used to measure the internal threads of the workpiece.

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Fig.1.28 Taper plug gauge 1.15.2.5 Thread Ring Gauge

Fig.1.29 Thread plug gauge

This type of gauge is used to measure the outer threads of the workpiece.

Fig.1.30 Thread ring gauge 1.15.2.6 Radius Gauge

Fig.1.31 Radius gauge

This type of gauge is used to measure the radius of the workpiece. These are of two types:1. External gauge 2. Internal gauge

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1.15.2 Introduction To Precision Instruments 1.15.2.1 Vernier Calliper

Fig.1.32 Vernier calliper The Vernier Calliper is a precision instrument that can be used to measure the internal and external distances extremely accurately. The example shown below is a manual caliper. Measurements are interpreted from the scale by the user. This is more difficult than using a digital vernier caliper which has an LCD digital display on which the reading appears. The manual version has both an imperial and metric scale. Operating principle The vernier scale is constructed so that it is spaced at a constant fraction of the fixed main scale. So for a decimal measuring device each mark on the vernier is spaced nine tenths of those on the main scale. If you put the two scales together with zero points aligned, the first mark on the vernier scale is one tenth short of the first main scale mark, the second two tenths short, and so on up to the ninth mark which is misaligned by nine tenths. Only when a full ten marks are counted is there alignment, because the tenth mark is ten tenthsa whole main scale unit short, and therefore aligns with the ninth mark on the main scale.

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Now if you move the vernier by a small amount, say, one tenth of its fixed main scale, the only pair of marks that come into alignment are the first pair, since these were the only ones originally misaligned by one tenth. If we move it two tenths, the second pair aligns, since these are the only ones originally misaligned by that amount. If we move it five tenths, the fifth pair aligns and so on. For any movement, only one pair of marks aligns and that pair shows the value between the marks on the fixed scale. 1.15.2.2 Screw Gauge

Fig.1.33 Screw gauge A micrometer sometimes known as a micrometer screw gauge is a device incorporating a calibrated screw used widely for precise measurement of small distances in mechanical engineering and machining as well as most mechanical trades, along with other metrological instruments such as dial, Vernier, and digital calipers. Operating principle Micrometers use the principle of a screw to amplify small distances (that are too small to measure directly) into large rotations of the screw that are big enough to read from a scale. The accuracy of a micrometer derives from the accuracy of the thread-forms that are at its heart. In some cases it is a differential screw. The basic operating principles of a micrometer are as follows:

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1. The amount of rotation of an accurately made screw can be directly and precisely correlated to a certain amount of axial movement (and vice versa), through the constant known as the screw's lead. A screw's lead is the distance it moves forward axially with one complete turn (360). (In most threads [that is, in all single-start threads], lead and pitch refer to essentially the same concept.) 2. With an appropriate lead and major diameter of the screw, a given amount of axial movement will be amplified in the resulting circumferential movement. 1.15.2.3 Height Gauge

Fig. 1.34 Height gauge A height gauge is a measuring device used either for determining the height of something, or for repetitious marking of items to be worked on. The former type of height gauge is often used in doctors surgeries to find the height of workpiece.

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CHAP 2 : DETAILED STUDY OF STEM STEERING ASSEMBLY


The various steps involved in the manufacture of stem steering assembly are given as following 2.1. FOR BRIDGE FORK BOTTOM

Fig.2.1: Forged part 2.1.1: 3-Hole Drilling: This was the first operation on the received forged part. In this, three drills simultaneously make a hole in the body of Bridge Fork Bottom on CNC machine.

Fig.2.2: After 3-Hole Drilling

Fig.2.3: 3-Hole Drilling machine

2.1.2: Boring and Facing: In this step, bores are made in the already drilled holes from previous step and facing is done around the holes on ATM. 2.1.3: Front Emblem Facing: In this, facing is done on the forged component at Emblem.

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Fig.2.4: Boring and Facing Machine

Fig.2.5: Part after Boring and Facing

2.1.4: Front Emblem drilling: Holes are drilled on Emblem with twin head drilling machine.

Fig.2.6: After Front Emblem Drilling

Fig.2.7: Bottom Head Drilling

2.1.5 Bottom Drilling:Two holes are drilled at bottom with help of automatic Drilling Machine. 2.1.6: Counter: Countering is done on the drilled hole on vertical drilling machine.

Fig.2.8: Countering

2.1.7: Chamfering: Chamfering is done on the drilled holes to make remove the sharpness of the round edge of the drilled and bored holes.

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2.2: FOR STEM


2.2.1: Flaring and Reducing: In this step, the cylinder pipe which would get turned into stem, is increased (flaring) and reduced (reducing) simultaneously on Hydraulic press.

Fig.2.9: Part in Hydraulic press

Fig.2.10: Before and after Flaring and Reducing

2.2.2: Turning: in this step, the stem undergone step turning in CNC machine. 2.2.3: Thread Rolling: In this step, threads were made on one end of the stem on thread rolling machine.

Fig.2.11: Thread rolling

Fig.2.12: Centre less Grinding

2.2.4: Centre less Grinding: After turning, the stem is sent to Centre less Grinding for further removal of material, proper sizing and finishing.

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2.3: ASSEMBLY:
2.3.1: Bridge Fork bottom and Stem Steering fitting: In this step, both the parts were assembled under pressure on Hydraulic press.

Fig.2.13: Bridge Fork bottom and Stem Steering fitting

Fig.2.14: MIG Welding

2.3.2: MIG Welding: MIG Welding is done at the bottom end of assembly to permanently assemble both the parts, 2.3.3: Slitting: Slitting was done at two ends simultaneously on a milling machine.

Fig.2.15: Slitting

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2.4: PHOSPHATING:

Phosphate coatings are a crystalline conversion coating that is formed on a ferrous metal substrate. Phosphate coatings are employed for the purpose of pre-treatment prior to painting, increasing
corrosion protection, and improving friction properties of sliding components. In other instances,

phosphate coatings are applied to threaded parts and top coated with oil (P&O) to add anti-galling and rust inhibiting characteristics.

The phosphating process relies on the basic pickling reaction that occurs on the metal substrate when the process solution comes in contact with the metal. Typically phosphate coatings used on steel parts but can also be used on aluminium.

Fig.2.16 Phosphating Process

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TYPE OF PHOSPHATING USED: ZINC PHOSPHATING In most operations where the corrosion resistance of finished work pieces must be especially high, conversion coatings are applied using zinc phosphate. This approach is widely used in the automotive industry and in certain sectors of the appliance and electronics industries. Similarly, zinc phosphating is often specified by the armed services, especially for equipment that may be exposed to severe environments. Moreover, many operations using electrocoating or powder coatings, particularly when a one-coat finish will be exposed to the weather, pretreat work pieces with zinc phosphate. STEPS INVOLVED IN PHOSPHATING AND POWDER COATING PROCESS: The following steps are involved in phosphating and powder coating process:

Fig.2.17 Process Flow Diagram of Phosphating & Powder Coating

1. LOADING: 100 components were taken from a trolley and hung on suspender manually. This suspender was then lifted by an PLC controlled overhead transmission machine part.

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Fig.2.18 Components loaded for Phosphating Process 2. PRE-DEGREASING: It was done to remove all types of oily material or grease from the surface of component. The components were dipped in the alkaline bath in a tank of capacity 2500 litres for some time. About 90% of the surface used to get cleaned by this method. 3. DEGREASING: Rest of surface was cleaned in this step and a completely clean surface from oil, grease and impurities was obtained after this step. 4. WATER RINSE 1: It was done to remove degreasing salt from surface of components. 5. WATER RINSE 2: It was done to remove the remaining degreasing salt from the surface of the components. 6. SURFACE ACTIVATION: The components were dipped in activating solution of Titanium Phosphate in which the bare metal surface had imparted to it improved characteristics whereby it was activated so that the normal or modified phosphate coating compositions would form a phosphate film or coating thereon with great rapidity(<1 min) 7. PHOSPHATING: It was the main step in the whole process. In this components were dipped

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in tank containing zinc phosphate solution. As soon as the work piece is subjected to the acidic solution, metal dissolves at anodic sites. In zinc formulations, accelerators

(nitrates,chlorates) oxidize the iron ions and use up the hydrogen at the metal surface. This lowers the acid content, or pH, at the cathodic sites to the point at which zinc phosphate naturally precipitates onto the steel surface. This process continues until all cathodic sites are coated. 8. WATER RINSE 1: It was done to remove the phosphating salt from the surface of the components. 9. WATER RINSE 2: It was done to remove the remaining phosphating salt from the surface of the components. 10. PASSIVATION: After water rinse, the components were moved to passivation tank. Passivation is "the removal of exogenous iron or iron compounds from the surface of stainless steel by means of a chemical dissolution, most typically by a treatment with an acid solution that will remove surface contamination, but will not significantly affect stainless steel itself. 11. DRYING: After the action of all kind of chemical, the components were then sent to a drying tank where it kept under high temperature to make the surface free from any kind of liquid. 12. UNLOADING: Then the components were unloaded from the phosphating member and are again hung on the racks and sent for powder coating. 13. MASKING: In masking, the parts of the components which did not require powder coating are masked with rubber caps. 14. POWDER COATING: In this step, components were powder coated manually with the help of a spray gun. Powder used was POLYESTER POWDER. 15. BAKING: In this step, powder coated components are baked in to a baking oven at a temperature of about 200C for about 20 minutes.

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16. INSPECTION AND UNLOADING: In this, inspection was done by applying the mark with nail. If it is OK then unlock the material otherwise repeat the cycle.

Fig.2.19 (a),(b) Single Component and rack of components after Phoshating and Powder Coating

17. QUALITY INSPECTION AND PACKING: It includes tests such as Visual Inspection, boiling water test, Xylene test, Impact test, coating thickness test with Micro Coating ThicknessTester. Certain threads and diameters are checked by gauges and then they are finally packed in proper packings and then supplied to the customers address.

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CHAPTER 3- PROJECT REVIEW STATISTICAL PROCESS CONTROL AND ITS APPLICATION IN IMPROVING PROCESS CAPABILITY INDEX
Statistical Process Control (SPC) is defined as the application of statistical methods to the measurement and analysis of variation in any process. A process is a unique combination of machines, tools, methods, materials and people to achieve the desired output of goods, software or services. SPC is essential for every organization which have gone for ISO 9001 or TS 16949 system certification. SPC is also defined as a method of monitoring, controlling and, ideally, improving a process through statistical analysis. It is based on the doctrine that what gets measured is what gets controlled.

3.1 Literature Review


SPC tools can be used by operators to monitor their part of production or service process for the purpose of making improvements. The use of statistical concepts in the field of quality emerged in the United States in the beginning of the nineteenth century. But its democratic use began only in the 1930s. W. Edwards Deming, who applied SPC methods in the US during the Second World War, was the one responsible for introducing this concept in Japan after the war ended. These methods were not used in France until the 1970s. The 1980s saw the SPC methods being used frequently, due to the pressure from large clients like automobile manufacturers and aircraft manufacturers. Companies who have been operating in the market for a while already have a quality control process in place. Statistics is more applicable to measuring and controlling variation from common cause (random) than from special causes. Control charts detects special causes of variation, measures and monitors common causes of variation, helps to know when to look for problems and adjust or when to keep hands off and when to make a fundamental change. For normally distributed statistics, the area bracketed by the control limits will on average contain 99.73% of all the plot points on the chart, as long as the process is and remains in statistical control. A false detection rate of at least 0.27% is therefore expected. Control charts are also known as Shewhart charts or process-behaviour charts.

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3.2 OBJECTIVES OF SPC 1. Determine if a process is in control: if a process is in control, we can know it will reliably do the same thing over and over again 2. Determine if a process width is within specification limits : SPC gives us some tools to use that let know us what the average results will be, and what the high and low variation from average will be. 3. Identify reasons for variation : Once a system is working reliably, we can look at the natural variation it produces, and decide what causes it. SPC can tell us if varia tion has special causes ( a part of the system is slipping away from specifications) or common causes ( the system itself must be changed to reduce variation) 3.3 ADVANTAGES OF SPC 1. Process has stability, which makes it possible to predict its behavior at least in the near term. 2. Process has an identity in terms of a given set of conditions which are necessary for predicting future behaiour. 3. It indicates the workers that when data falls within specified limits, adjustments should not be made. 4. It provides trends for long term reduction in variability. 5. It provides clear evidence that the process has the conditions which, if maintained, will result in acceptable products. 6. A special virtue of the control chart is that by watching the trend of the plotted points, it is possible to predict an out-of-control condition. 7. Improvement in the bottom line by controlling the product quality, improving productivity 8. It reduces waste, scrap and emission 9. It improves customer services

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3.4 Physical Significance of Control Charts: A statistical control chart is a graphical comparison of actual performance data vis --vis computed statistical control limits drawn as limit lines on the chart. It contains quality characterstic, measured or computed from a sample, against time, sample sub-group points in a chronological order, mean, control limits and warning limits. When the process is in control, all the sample points will fall within UCL and LCL. Additional warning lines at 2 sigma are added to caution the operator when the process shows tendency of going out of control. As long as points lie within the control limits, the process is presumed to be in control, thus no action is necessary. Any point falling outside is interpreted as evidence that the process is out of control and corrective action is called for.

3.5 Steps in setting up control chart: 1.Choosing the charaterstic to be charted: Priority is given to those characterstics which are currently running with a high defective rate and are affecting customer needs and satisfaction. 2.Choosing type of control chart : There are various types of control charts such as average and range charts, average and standard deviation charts. Choice depends upon the nature and number of charactersticks to be superwised 3.Deciding centre line and basis of limits : Centre line may be the average of data or the desired average. Limits are usually set at 3 sigma 4.Rational sub-grouping : For process control, subgroups should be so chosen that units within a subgroup have the greatest chance of being alike and units between subgroups have the greatest chance of being different. 5.Providing a system for measurement and data collection : For a control chart to serve as day-to-day tool on the shopfloor, it must be simple and convenient to use. The instruments must give prompt and reliable reading.

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6.Draw and interpret the chart : Every control chart should have three lines one each for mean, upper control imit, lower control limit. Interpreting the chart will involve finding the causes of any identified sifnificant set of out of tune points followed by devising a method of correcting the problem

3.6 Assumptions used in control charts: It is independent : A value is not influenced by its past values and will also not affect future values It is normally distributed : It follows the normal probability distribution function.

Table 3.1: For Average ( X ) and Range (R) charts:


Type of data required Field of application Significant advantages Variable data ( measured values) Control of individual characterstics 1. Maximum use of available information 2. Better control on individual dimension Significant disadvantages 1. Measurement of individual pieces is difficult 2. Confusion between control limits and tolerance limits Sample size Usually 4 or 5

3.7 Parameters used in SPC: 1. Potential Process Capability ( Cp ) : It is the ratio of the spread between specification limits ( specification width ) to the spread of process values ( process width ). Steps of process capability calculation are : 1. Measure the variability of a process 2. Compare that variability with a proposed specification or product tolerance.

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Here, process width is defined as 6 standard deviations or, 6. Here is the estimated value. Smaller the value of the process spread, higher will be the Cp value. Thus, Cp is the measure of process spread. CP = (USL-LSL)/6 When CP = 1.00, approximately 0.27% (2700 ppm) products are likely to be outside specification limits and 99.73% are likely to fall within the specification limits. When CP = 1.33, approximately 0.0064% ( 64ppm) products are likely to be defective When CP = 1.67, approximately 0.00006% ( 0.6 ppm) will only be defective. When CP = 2, approximately 2 parts per billion will be defective. where CPU = (USL - ) / 3 CPL = ( - LSL) / 3 The most important fact to be kept into consideration is that process capability ignores the target of the process. Thus, it is a measure of the potential of a process to meet specifications. It doesnot say anything about its current state of operation, where a lot will depend on location of the mean. 2. CAPABILITY RATIO ( CR ): The inverse of CP , is called the capability ratio. It is used to describe the percentage specificationspread occupied or used by the process. CR = ( 1/ CP ) * 100% = 6 * 100% / (USL-LSL) 3. PROCESS CAPABILITY INDEX ( CPK ) It is important to know the value of process mean along with mean of the specifications limit. Process capability index measures the real capability after taking off-target penalty into account. In CPK , shift of process centre in comparison to USL and LSL is covered in the computation CPK = Min { CPU , CPL} where CPU = (USL - ) / 3 CPL = ( - LSL) / 3

Also, Cp = ( CPU + CPL) / 2

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CHAPTER 4- PROJECT WORK : CASE STUDY:


The product named SEAT PIPE was being processed by a CNC machine which was assembled at Bajajsons Ltd, Ludhiana. As the diameter of pipe in different samples after final finishing was found to be out of tolerance limits as asked by customer company, the process capability is found to be less than the standard value. This required the idea of SPC implementation and the techniques been practiced. Recommended component details as furnished: Specification: 14.05+.03mm (as per drawing) Upper specification limit (USL) : 14.08mm ; Lower specification limit ( LSL) : 14.05mm Table 4.1 : Subgroup Measurements-I

SUBGROUP NO. DATE 1 19-08-13 TIME 8:00 10:00 12:00 14:00 16:00 8:00 10:00 12:00 14:00 16:00 8:00 10:00 12:00 14:00 16:00 8:00 10:00 12:00 14:00 16:00

2 3 4 5
6 20-08-13

7 8 9 10
11 21-08-13

12 13 14 15
16 22-08-13

17 18 19 20 n=20

SUBGROUP MEASUREM ENTS X1 14.067 14.071 14.062 14.068 14.059 14.059 14.069 14.066 14.07 14.073 14.072 14.061 14.066 14.068 14.072 14.066 14.061 14.053 14.066 14.063

MEAN X2 14.056 14.058 14.061 14.072 14.068 14.059 14.068 14.068 14.064 14.072 14.067 14.073 14.062 14.069 14.069 14.063 14.063 14.048 14.062 14.069 X3 14.062 14.064 14.065 14.06 14.062 14.055 14.065 14.071 14.06 14.077 14.077 14.065 14.065 14.07 14.061 14.055 14.062 14.06 14.05 14.066 X4 14.062 14.067 14.062 14.06 14.056 14.064 14.064 14.072 14.072 14.082 14.074 14.065 14.072 14.063 14.059 14.066 14.066 14.058 14.059 14.064 X5 14.068 14.063 14.07 14.059 14.062 14.062 14.062 14.069 14.072 14.071 14.064 14.072 14.061 14.058 14.059 14.07 14.074 14.059 14.066 14.067

RANGE

Xi
14.063 14.0646 14.064 14.0638 14.0614 14.0598 14.0656 14.0692 14.0676 14.075 14.0708 14.0672 14.0652 14.0656 14.064 14.0632 14.0652 14.0556 14.0636 14.0658 xi =281.3002

Ri
0.012 0.013 0.009 0.013 0.012 0.009 0.007 0.006 0.012 0.011 0.013 0.012 0.011 0.012 0.013 0.015 0.013 0.012 0.007 0.006 Ri=0.218

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To analyse the process capability, the statistical quality control chart techniques can be implemented in the following way: Sample size (N) The arithmetic average of ranges Process standard deviation, ( R =Ri /n) ( = R /D2 ) =5 = 0.0109 = 0.00469 = 0.0021 = 14.0650 = 14.0713 = 14.0587 = 0.009 = 0.02304 =0 = 1.07 = 0.938 = 1.07 = 2.49 = 1.07

Standard deviation of sample mean, (x= / N ) Average Xi (process mean) Upper control limit, Lower control limit, ( X =Xi /n) ( UCLX = X + 3x ) ( LCLX = X - 3x )

Range (highest value lowest value ) Upper control limit for range chart, UCLR= D4. R Lower control limit for range chart, LCLR= D3. R Process capability, CP= (USL-LSL)/6 Capability ratio, CR = 1/ CP Upper process capability, CPU= (USL- X )/ 3 Lower process capability, CPL= ( X -LSL)/ 3 CPK = Minimum (CPU, CPL)

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14.08 14.075 14.07 14.065 14.06 14.055 14.05 14.045 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 average MEAN U.C.L. L.C.L.

Fig.4.1 Average ( X ) chart

0.025

0.02

0.015

RANGE MEAN

0.01

U.C.L. L.C.L.

0.005

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

Fig.4.2 Range ( R ) chart

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As we can observe from the X - chart, the thickness of component numbers 10 and 18 are out of the control limits, this means that process is not capable of producing the thicknesses within specification. It is concluded that the process is out of control and not capable to meet specific demand of tolerances. Now the root cause of this problem should be identified and solved. The Grinder was checked by a team of Engineers from Design and Production Department and after a complete check up, it was found that the tool feed arrangement of CNC machine in Z direction was getting a shock of high tendency whenever feed command for varying depth of cut was given in the machine program. It happened all mainly because of an extreme backlash in drives of its special purpose jig. After a close discussion, the team decided to provide a calibrated scale with the drives in such a way that whenever machine starts to follow the command to move fast in a direction, the drives should take a lead exactly with the calibrated values of the scale. After the calibrated scale provided to the tool drives, all the first three sample trials gave the dimensional values within specification limits (i.e. 14.05 + 0.3mm). The same procedure of SPC was repeated again to determine the process capability after the remedies were applied. The observation table is given as:

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Table 4.2 : Subgroup Measurements-II

SUBGROUP NO.

SUBGROUP MEASUREMET

DATE

TIME X1 X2 14.062 14.065 14.062 14.061 14.064 14.066 14.063 14.064 14.066 14.062 14.064 14.067 14.062 14.065 14.06 14.063 14.064 14.06 14.061 14.062 X3 14.061 14.062 14.061 14.06 14.061 14.063 14.062 14.062 14.064 14.061 14.064 14.066 14.063 14.064 14.059 14.062 14.061 14.062 14.061 14.064 X4 14.066 14.063 14.063 14.062 14.063 14.062 14.065 14.06 14.063 14.063 14.062 14.061 14.064 14.066 14.063 14.068 14.061 14.068 14.058 14.061 X5 14.062 14.061 14.062 14.061 14.066 14.064 14.06 14.061 14.062 14.063 14.062 14.062 14.064 14.061 14.064 14.061 14.062 14.063 14.062 14.062

MEAN

RANGE

Xi
14.0622 14.0634 14.0616 14.0606 14.0632 14.0646 14.0622 14.063 14.0626 14.0634 14.0626 14.0648 14.0622 14.0632 14.0624 14.0628 14.0614 14.063 14.0616 14.0622 xi=281.253

Ri
0.006 0.005 0.003 0.003 0.003 0.006 0.005 0.008 0.008 0.007 0.003 0.007 0.006 0.006 0.007 0.008 0.005 0.008 0.008 0.003 Ri=0.115

05-0813

2 3 4 5
6 06-0813

8:00 10:00 12:00 14:00 16:00 8:00 10:00 12:00 14:00 16:00 8:00 10:00 12:00 14:00 16:00 8:00 10:00 12:00 14:00 16:00

14.06 14.066 14.06 14.059 14.062 14.068 14.061 14.068 14.058 14.068 14.061 14.068 14.058 14.06 14.066 14.06 14.059 14.062 14.066 14.062

7 8 9 10
11 07-0813

12 13 14 15
16 08-0813

17 18 19 20 n=20

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To analyse the process capability, the statistical quality control chart techniques can be implemented in the following way: The arithmetic average of ranges Process standard deviation, ( R =Ri /n) ( = R /D2 ) = 0.00575 = 0.00247 = 0.0011 = 14.0625 = 14.0658 = 14.0592 = 0.005 = 0.01216 =0 = 2.024 = 0.49 = 2.36 = 1.69 = 1.69

Standard deviation of sample mean, (x= / N ) Average Xi (process mean) Upper control limit, Lower control limit, ( X =Xi /n) ( UCLX = X + 3x ) ( LCLX = X - 3x )

Range (highest value lowest value ) Upper control limit for range chart, UCLR= D4. R Lower control limit for range chart, LCLR= D3. R Process capability, CP= (USL-LSL)/6 Capability ratio, CR = 1/ CP Upper process capability, CPU= (USL- X )/ 3 Lower process capability, CPL= ( X -LSL)/ 3 CPK = Minimum (CPU, CPL)

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14.068 14.066 14.064 14.062 14.06 14.058 14.056 14.054 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 AVERAGE MEAN U.C.L. L.C.L.

Fig.4.3 Average ( X ) chart

0.014 0.012 0.01 0.008 0.006 0.004 0.002 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 RANGE MEAN U.C.L. L.C.L.

Fig.4.4 Range ( R ) chart

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Chapter 5- Results and Discussion


5.1 Result:
Based on the comparison of the values calculated out in each of the two cases, the result is summarized in the tabular form as shown below:

Result: Upper control limit Lower control limit Range Average range Process capability Capability ratio CPK

Table 5.1 : Result based on SPC Before Improvement 14.0713 14.587 0.009 0.0109 1.07 0.938 1.07

After Improvement 14.0625 14.0592 0.005 0.00575 2.024 0.49 1.69

5.2 Discussion: As clear from the table depicted above, it is made clear that the control limits and range is found to be more precise after the improvement step is done. Moreover, most importantly, the process capability is increased from 1.07 to 2.024 i.e. almost doubling the efficiency of the working process.this clearly indicates us that the expected rejection rate of the product is reduced magnificently from 0.27% to 0.002% or we can say from 2700 ppm (parts per million) to 2 ppb (parts per billion). Change in capability ratio from 0.938 to 49 shows us that the product specifications now occupies 49% of the tolerance limits instead of 93.8% as in the first case. Also, the process capability index is improved from 1.07 to 1.69 which shows us that the data changes are towards positive improvement in the process and this positive change is proved statistically by SPC.

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Chapter 6-Conclusion and future scope


6.1 Conclusion: The control limits obtained after the remedial actions taken for the grinder are within specification limits and the diameter produced in all the components of every sample lie under the control limits. The diameters of all the components are located very close to the process mean. All these results are positive by which we conclude that the process is under control. The process capability (Cp) increased to 2.024 which show that implementation of SPC technique is proved to be successful in improving the performance of grinding process thereby making it more capable of producing the products with right dimensions. Capability Ratio (CR) is reduced to 0.49 which means that the process spread now occupies 49 % of the given tolerance. The lower is the CR the more is capable the process. CPK is a better measure of process capability than Cp or CR since Cpk takes into account the actual process center compared to the target. Here, we got Cpk as 1.69 which is greater than previous value of 1.07. These all become possible with the implementation of SPC technique.

6.2 Future Scope: Likewise, the SPC tools can be implemented to solve so many real life problems of different machines and processes in future that may come up with meeting the demand of higher quality and productivity of different manufacturing processes. The methods developed in the first half of 19th century by Shewhart and others are still very useful in many current applications. Each and every organization which has gone for ISO:9001 or TS 16949 will keep to use SPC as its main working tool for maintaining the standard of quality of the products.

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References
1. Term papers (2011), Statistical Process Control spc management -1, business and market, 34 pages. 2. Roberta Russell & Bernard W. Taylor (2006), III John Wiley & Sons, Statistical Process Control, Operations Management - 5th Edition, Inc.Beni Asllani, University of Tennessee at Chattanooga. 3. SPC92b, file format: microsoft word statistical process control (spc) & statistical quality control (sqc) chemrat.com/chemhog2/spc_files/spc92b.doc 4. Rami Hikmat Fouad, Adnan Mukattash (2010), Statistical Process Control Tools: A Practical guide for Jordanian Industrial Organizations JJMIE, Volume 4, Number 6, ISSN 1995-6665 Pages 693 700. 5. Institute of Quality and Reliability, Control Chart Factors Tables of Constants for Control charts, Page 1 - 3. 6. M. Mahajan, (2011) Statistical Quality Control, Dhanpat Rai and Company, Chapter 6, pp. 172 195.

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