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SCHOOL OF HOUSING, BUILDING AND PLANNING

RAG 121 Environmental Science =2008/2009=


Coursework [Lighting Section]
PROJECT 2: MAKING A SUN-CLOCK OR SUN-DIAL, HORIZONTAL OR VERTICAL TYPE PROJECT LECTURER: AR. YEOH OON SOON GROUP NO. : 28 (VERTICAL SUNDIAL THAT FACES SOUTH) START DATE: ! SEPT 2""8

SU#MISSION DATE: $ OCT 2""8

CHAN YEN FEI KIU MEE SAN MOHAMAD SUFUAN #IN MAZLAN NOOR AMIRAH #INTI AHMAD DAUD SARAH HAZ'ANI #INTI MOHD SUHAIMI 'AN NUR LIYANA #INTI 'AN MOHD

GROUP MEM#ERS:

(%%!%2) (%%&2 ) (%%&$&) (%%&&!) (%%8 2) ( "("(!)

=INTRODUCTION=
A sundial is an accurate device, which tells time by the movement of the shadow a pointer casts upon a dial. The shadow moves as the sun changes position in the sky throughout the day, and the dial tracks this movement. It is also a measurement of time by the position of the sun. The most common designs, such as standard horizontal sundials, cast a shadow on a flat surface marked with different hours of the day. As the position of the sun changes, the time indicated by the shadow changes. However, sundials can be designed for any surface where a fixed ob ect casts a predictable shadow. A sundial indicates !reenwich "eridian Time #!"T$. The practice of daylight saving time shifts the official time away from solar time by an hour or in rare cases, by another amount. This correction is usually made by numbering the hour%lines with & sets of numbers. 'eninsular "alaysia was originally !"T ( ) hours, but the "alaysian government has moved the *ederal Time forward + hour to synchronize with ,abah - ,arawak. Thus, "alaysia is now administratively in Time .one !"T (/ hours - we have & sets of numbers on each of the hour lines. In this assignment, our group is re0uired to make a vertical sundial facing ,outh. A vertical sundial is a dial that is placed on a wall. It is therefore vertical to the ground. There are two types of vertical dials1 the direct vertical #these dials are upon surfaces that face a cardinal direction, which is to say they face true 2orth, ,outh, 3ast or 4est$ and the declining vertical dial #these dials do not face a true compass point$.

= ARTS O! T"E SUNDIA#=


Gnomon

GMT

Hour Line

Local Time Dial Plate

="o$ To Con%tr&ct a 'ertical S&n(ial=


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=MATERIAL USED=
A pencil, protractor, compass, mounting boards, pen knife, cutting map, ruler and glue.

=CALCULATION FOR THE HOUR LINE ANGLES=


The vertical sundial must be designed for the particular latitude #5$ where it is to be used. The style height #,H$ of gnomon is e0ual to the co%latitude or 678 minus the latitude. 9esides, we must know that the earth completes one rotation :;78 in its axis in &< hours. Hence + hour = +>8 =The hour line angles #?, H@A$ can be calculated as followsA X = arctan {cos * tan (h ! 4here h is the hour angle, in degrees, given byA h = (T"# $ %" * %&' And T&< is the time in &<%hour clock notation #hours after midnight$ in decimal hours.

=The formula for calculating the angles is


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(o) tan D = (o) tan t * (o) s+n , ,o, tan D = (tan t (s+n , 4hereA t = the time measured from noon in degrees and minutes of arc B =the latitude of the place where the dial is to be positioned. =4e know that the hour line angles for the am and pm hours are symmetrical about the noon hour line. =To get the data of angles of hour lines, we use the computational method. =The table below automatically performs these calculations for the data we want.

T+-. T"#(stan/ar/ t+-.

Ho0r an)(. 1h /.)r..s


)>7 ;77 <>7 :77 +>7 7 +>7 :77 <>7 ;77 )>7

Ho0r (+n. an)(. X2 /.)r..s D=ATAN(3


)<.6:>);+>6 >6.////&)+> <<./)+))&:; &6.//67)>;/ +<.6:;7+7+& 7 +<.6:;7+7+& &6.//67)>;/ <<./)+))&:; >6.////&)+> )<.6:>);+>6

7)77 7/77 7677 +777 ++77 +&77 +:77 +<77 +>77 +;77 +)77

=The sun travels +>C westwards in one hour, and thus travels +C westwards every four minutes. =@astly, the gnomon of the sundial is calculated. ,tyle height is calculated by using the formulae as belowA ,tyle height = co%latitude = 678% latitude 'enang is located at the latitude >C&7D2orth, Ealculation for gnomon used in 'enangA !nomon = Eo%@atitude = 67F G @atitude = 67F %>.<+F = /<.>6F
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=HetailsA ,tandard "eridian Hegrees = 67 @ocal "eridian Hegrees = 6).> @atitude - Hegrees = >.<+) Eo%latitude Hegrees = /<.>6

=Steps to Construct a Vertical Sundial=


=%st st.45
% A hemisphere is drawn and cut out from the yellow board. The numbers and the red strips used for the sundial are cut out.

="n/St.45
A base line with a centrally rising perpendicular gives the noon, ;am and ;pm lines. 9y using the angles that we had calculated before constructing the sundial and a protractor, the hour angles re0uired are plotted on to the yellow mounting board with each hour line approximately +> degree. The numbers and red strips was paste neatly on the dial plate. 4e have pasted & readings of time on the dial plate to show the actual !"T and local time. The time for 'enang should be + hour earlier than the local time as the time for 'enang should be !"T() and not !"T(/. It is because 'enang island is located at longitude +77 7+&I# +777+&I J+>= ;.;/ hours K)
hours$

The style angle must e0ual the latitude of the place where it will stand.

=6r/ St.45
The hemisphere that pasted with !"T, local time and also the hour angle strips was then pasted on a black mounting board.

=#th St.45
The gnomon is then attached to the dial face. The height of the style height#,H$ is e0uals to complement of the latitude of the dial location, which is /<.>6 degree.

=T+-. To M.as0r. Th. Sha/o7 O8 Gno-on5 /.77a.m, +7.77a.m, +&.77p.m, &.:7p.m, :.:7p.m and ;.:7p.m.

=#OCATION !OR #ACING T"E SUNDIA#=


The location that we had chosen is in between Hewan Ltama 'ela ar#HL'$ and 'adang Mawad L,". After measuring with the compass, we had decided to mount and test our sundial on a notice board facing directly ,outh in front of the HL' foyer. Nn the ++th Nctober &77/ when the day was very fine and sunny, we decided to test our sundial with the time on our watch and our sundial to see whether it is workable. Lnfortunately, for the first trial the gnomon of our sundial did not stand properly. After some discussions, we modified it to become more firmly attached to the sundial plate before the second trial. 4e ad usted the notice board accurately towards ,outh. After a few trials, we started taking photographs of the shadow casted by the gnomon on specific times.

Locat+on o8 o0r s0n/+a(9

SUNDIA L

DUP
SUNDIAL

n
BUS STOP

Padang Kawad

= "OTO E'IDENCES=

!"TA ).77 am
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/.77 am on ++th Nctober &77/

!"TA 6.77 am +7.77 am on ++th Nctober &77/

!"TA ++.77 am
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+&.77 pm on ++th Nctober &77/

!"TA +.:7 pm &.:7 pm on ++th Nctober &77/

!"TA &.:7 pm :.:7pm on ++th Nctober &77/


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The weather was not suitable as the sky was cloudy on ++ th - +:th NET and was raining on +&th NET &77/ at ;.:7 pm.

!"TA ;.:7 pm ;.:7 pm on ++th Nctober &77/


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=CONC#USION=
Although vertical sundials are rare in modern life, sundials on vertical south%facing walls are a traditional ancient convenience. In the olden days, people very much rely on sundials to determine the time of a day. They are easy to see from far distances and cheap yet it is an effective tool to measure time. 9ut now, the accuracy of watches and clocks is much better then sundials and sundials only serve as items for aesthetics purposes. ,undials can be used as a decorations for gardens. It indicates the !"T apart from the *ederal Time. Oertical sundials only keep time for the part of the year in which the sun illuminates the wall. This pro ect is carried out during ,eptember. At this time, both hemispheres P'enang is located in the 2orth hemisphereQ e0ually exposed to the sun #30uinoxesA "arch and ,eptember$. However, through this pro ect, we found out that the workability of sundial is very dependent on the weather. If the weather is bad for example cloudy and even rainy days, the workability of the sundial will be decreased. The accuracy of the sundial will be reduced. 2atural lighting also affects the design of the buildings. The layout of the designed building and faRade play an important role in controlling thermal comfort. Haylighting is important in bringing ust enough amount of light into a building for the occupants to carry out their daily activities. Too much daylight will cause the interior temperature to rise, hence making its occupants uncomfortable. ,uitable shading device should be designed to achieve maximum thermal comfort.

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