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Table of Contents

I. Introduction 1.1 Foreword 1.2 Reasons to Build a Space Settlement 1.3 The Name Selene II. Financing 2.1 How Important Financing Is 2.2 Source of Possible Financing 2.3 Development Plan III. Position in Space 3.1 Best Position in Space 3.2 Choosing the Position 3.3 Advantages and Disadvantages IV. Mining the Space 4.1 Mining the Moon 4.2 Mining the NEO V. Space Travel and Construction 5.1 Propulsion Systems 5.2 Expansibility Principle 5.3 Structure and Aspect of the Space Settlement

5.4 Artificial Gravity 5.5 Shielding VI. Human Needs and Factors 6.1 Food 6.2 Water 6.3 Atmosphere, Weather and Climate 6.4 Lighting and Day/ Night Cycle VII. Resource Management 7.1 Solar Power and Nuclear Power 7.2 Recycling 7.3 Energy VIII. Social System 8.1 Government 8.2 Education 8.3 Religion 8.4 Population Selection IX. Urban Infrastructure 9.1 Leisure Places 9.2 Medical System 9.3 Restaurants and Hotels

9.4 Parks 9.5 Transportation 9.6 Shopping Centers 9.7 Storage 9.8 Houses X. Technology and Science 10.1 Technology 10.2 Internal and External Communication 10.3 Industry XI. Future and Costs 11.1 Costs 11.2 Next Space Settlements 11.3 Public Opinion 11.4 Epilogue Appendix A1. How Do We Arrive to the Moons Orbit? A2. First Cosmic Velocity A3. Duration of the Journey to LLO Bibliography

I. Introduction It is difficult to say what is impossible, for the dream of yesterday is the hope of today and reality of tomorrow. Robert Goddard 1.1 Foreword As we all know, considering how often we hear about solar flares, global warming, pollution and various other disasters which all impede the expansion of the human race (and bearing in mind that the Earths population is constantly growing) it is essential to find a new alternative, a new way to extend our reaches and of course build a new future for our descendants. Taking into account the remarkable moments that have changed the history of space travel, such as the first rocket launched into space or the very first moon landing, we are even more determined to try to make a start, a start toward something new, something that the entire human race could benefit from. Exactly for these reasons and also due to our huge passion for research in space, we are very determined to tackle the ample domain of space colonization. This colonization of the space would be put into perspective by building, step by step, a Space Settlement. Just as physicists and writers of the 19th, 20th and 21st centuries, such as Konstantin Tsiolkowsky (Beyond the Planet Earth 1900) or Gerard K. O'Neill (The High Frontier: Human Colonies in Space - 1977) and others have exhibited dreams and ideas about space colonization, we, the people who share the same dreams, would like to continue with our project, as part of the plans and ideas of these pioneers of space colonization.

We would like to take this opportunity to thank all the persons who have contributed in the different aspects of this project. They have all made it possible for us to commence, develop and complete this complex task. We would like to acknowledge and commend them for their effort, cooperation, ideas and collaboration that have worked towards the success of this project. First of all, the work would not have been possible without the contribution and involvement of our coordinating teacher Ioana Stoica who has deeply inspired and motivated us in order to participate at this project. Also, we thank the National High School of Computer Science Tudor Vianu, because this high school has taught us day by day (and continues to do so) precious life lessons and values. We strongly affirm that we could not be any happier to be a part of it. We are deeply grateful to NASA and NSS for organizing this contest, which made us not only enlarge our knowledge as far as space and technology is concerned, but also our team-work, cooperation and creativity. We would like to acknowledge the contribution of our classmates, who unceasingly motivated us in trying to exceed our limits in order to do a better project and our family and friends, who always gave us the needed support.

1.2 Reasons to Build a Space Settlement The future cannot be predicted, but futures can be invented. Dennis Gabor, 1963

As previously stated, the idea of space colonization is a research topic that has preoccupied people since the ancient times. Nowadays, building a space settlement is something necessary, useful and at the same time unique and innovative. Relevant to this case would also be the rebuttal of a famous physicist, professor at a world-renowned university, who said: I don`t believe that humanity will survive the next 1,000 years unless it will move to another planet- Stephen Hawking. Given his statement, which brings forward the idea that the Earth is constantly at threat from major pressing issues such as global warming, nuclear conflict, genetically modified viruses or other possible disasters, we have decided to get involved and support the idea of space colonization by building a space settlement. In our project well try to make this construction possible, and simultaneously ensuring that the welfare of our settlers is up to standard.

1.3 The Name Selene Considering the fact that most of the materials needed for building the space settlement, such as regolith, silicon, oxygen, hydrogen and even water, will be extracted from the Moon, we decided to name our project Selene. In the Greek mythology Selenes parents are the titan Hyperion, the sun-god, and Theia, sister of Helios. Selene is known to be the titan goddess of the Moon. She is portrayed like a young woman with a very pale face, traveling in a silver chariot drawn by two horses. She is often depicted riding a horse or a bull.

Even though a number of other Gods were also associated with the Moon, the only one who was represented by the ancient Greeks as the Moon incarnation was Selene. So, in order to introduce you in the space atmosphere, we decided to name our space settlement Selene.

Selene, the titan goddess of the Moon Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Luna_statue.jpg

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II. Financing All things are possible until they are proved impossible and even the impossible may only be so, as of now. Pearl S. Buck

2.1 How Important Financing Is Money is clearly one of the essential means for sustaining a project, because funds can provide a full arsenal of resources for its development. Thus, without the benefit of financial support (to ensure the gathering of the necessary resources), the development of a space project might not be possible. These possible resources may include labor or material resources. We decided to include the economic factors in the development of our project because the development represents an essential part of all the required resources. Taking into consideration that our project will be quite substantial, we will need a fairly large amount of financial resources that we will use to pay for the labor and materials required.

2.2 Source of Possible Financing While searching for the best sources of funding for our project we found that possible funding sources could be: the government, the business community and society as a whole. Considering the fact that the first funds obtained for space projects were provided by the government, we also decided to use this source in order to fund our project successfully. At the same time, internal governmental representatives and other external sources of money procurement are those who contribute to the development of space projects.

We have to put all this into perspective and relate it to the actual situation on Earth. The population is growing, but at the same time the economical and physical resources are slowly being depleted. But it is unlikely that the governments will fund

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such a big project by investing billions of dollars in it, instead of investing in infrastructure or improving other sectors of their economies. Also, it is to be noted that this is definitely a more ambitious and complex project than Apollo 11 or ISS.

However, we think that this is the future and even if the future costs a lot of money, this project is capable of giving in return even larger amounts of assets than the consumed ones.

We tried to develop a business strategy which would offer the best arguments so that the above mentioned would invest the optimum amount of money into our project. In the beginning, we have not made any calculations regarding the money which should be invested. We tried to get an idea regarding what total this project would come to by looking into a particular case: Apollo 11 in 1969 cost $335 million (equal $1.75 billion nowadays) and transported only two people in space. We have to transport more than just two people into space and obviously the costs will rise, but we benefit a lot from todays technology such as the U.S. Space Launch System (SLS) which was designed to provide the capability of human exploration in the 21st century. The SLS can be easily used for cargo missions because the SLS will be safe, affordable, and sustainable, to continue America's journey of discovery from the unique vantage point of space.1 First of all, we have to evaluate what human hazards involve. These hazards consist of objects placed in orbit which encounter pieces of orbital debris (which are parts of satellites which failed their missions). Hazardous elements like nuclear waste and biological samples can also be encountered.

Next, we should address the problem of asteroid hazards. Dangers manifested by asteroids may consist in their deviation due to different spatial phenomena. This

http://www.nasa.gov/exploration/systems/sls/index.html

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deviation can lead to devastating damage, as an object that weighs about a ton would cause enormous casualties.

The last hazard that we are going to present is the comet hazard. The danger represented by comet hazards consists in the fact that they are almost impossible to detect, considering that their consistence makes them natural rocket thrusters.

One of the easier methods (because the main operation does not require any kind of process) which may be able to help us is bringing big amounts of Iron to Earth. The modus operandi would be aiming pieces that float into space, fragments of metallic asteroids, to a previously selected spot and simply gathering the objects which fall on the ground.

Space Debris around Earth We included this fragment into our project because we find it important in order to make a short presentation about some dangerous and unforeseeable facts which may occur. As known, since the process of sending missions in space started, nobody has taken care of the remains of satellites or of the thousands of small parts which can represent a danger for all kind of space missions. Space debris can also be regarded as a considerable source of materials (for example, we can design a kind of vehicle which will be able to collect debris). Another advantage, despite being a source of materials, is represented by its capacity of clearing the space around Earth, making it safer for the following space missions. Various energy demands should be taken into account for designing a space settlement. In order of the demanded power, the energy consumers are: industry, population, transportation systems, other activities and agriculture.

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Taking into account that the worlds resources of natural oil and gases are running out and, as we previously mentioned, there is a big number of people, it results that the demand for energy is increasing every day. The renewable energy has a small share from the world power generation. The sun is able to offer energy for a short period of time, the wind does not blow every day and geothermal energy cannot be found in every region of Earth. Considering what we mentioned earlier, we are going to devise a back-up plan which will consist in providing to Earth solar power energy and light elements (such as helium-3), which will fulfill the Earths demand of energy. In order to satisfy Earths high demand of energy we have thought of providing two solutions.

Orbital Solar Power Satellites

We intend to create a space settlement which is going to provide energy to Earth. Atmospheric absorption, clouds or nights are factors which do not affect sunlight at all in space. This way, seven times more power (both in space and along Earth) will be generated. Using a microwave beam, the power ramp can be sent to a central solar power satellite in orbit. The lack of carbon emissions or nuclear risks and the running time of 100% represent the benefits provided by the orbital solar energy. While it may be an efficient solution, there are also some disadvantages such as the size of the collector on the ground is governed by the transmission wavelength and the distance to the orbital station2. The use of shorter wavelengths or lower orbits can somehow counter this. In order to be convenient for Earth, the entire system must also be convenient as cost.

http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Space_Transport_and_Engineering_Methods/Resource_Uses

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Nuclear Power

In order to obtain a stable and strong energy source, we have decided to choose the nuclear option (nuclear fission and nuclear fusion). Although this seems to be the best choice for us and for what we need, we cannot forget that a lot of disasters (such as Chernobyl, Fukushima or the Three Mile Island) happened and will happen because of the fission reactors. It is obvious that we cannot afford some kind of nuclear disaster, but at the same time the nuclear option must be taken into consideration because of the large amount of energy which can be obtained from it. That is why we made a short presentation of how nuclear fusion and nuclear fission work.

It is important to know that nuclear fission is used by the nuclear reactors to produce power. The way in which you obtain energy in nuclear fission consists in splitting one atom into two atoms. In the nuclear reactors from Earth, big amounts of energy are obtained from the splitting of atoms of uranium (U-235, U-233), plutonium-239 and thorium-232. Apart from these, radiations and radioactive wastes are also obtained. These wastes cause serious damage to the environment because they last for a long period of time.

On the other hand, in nuclear fusion, the way in which you can obtain energy is to join two atoms into one (it seems to be exactly the reaction which generates hydrogen bombs and also the sun).The first argument for using this method is that it does not produce radiations and radioactive wastes. Another good argument would be that the elements used in nuclear fusion are easier to be found. So this method will be much better than nuclear fission.

The best elements which are used in a nuclear fusion are Helium-3 in reaction with Deuterium and Boron-11 in reaction with proton. Using Helium-3 produces more energy and we intend to focus on the extraction and burning of the regolith from the

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Moon. By extracting regolith and burning it at 400 C we can collect H and He. After collecting Helium-3 in special tubes, which will be transported to Earth, we can continue burning the regolith in order to extract other materials for later use.

Tourism

Tourism may be one of the most important sources of making money for colonizing the space. There are a lot of wealthy people on Earth who are going to pay millions of dollars just to see their planet from orbit or just to go to the Moon or even to Selene.

It is known that some billionaires paid between 20 and 40 millions of dollars for a stay of a couple days on ISS. Also, recent interviews show that a lot of Hollywood stars are willing to have a holiday in space. This is a great business idea and a great resource of money.

First of all, we need to explain our plan and some facts about space tourism, in order to choose the type of spacecraft and the type of launch system that we are going to use.

We are going to analyze what kind of spacecraft and launch system would be the best for our business.

For a spacecraft we can use Orion built by Lockheed Martin for NASA, which was used for ISS astronauts transportation, or Soyuz, which was built for a lunar mission, or even Dragon from SpaceX.

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The best choice for the launch system would be Atlas V, a rocket in two steps which can carry a payload of over 20 tones. The first step is powered by RD-180 motors, using kerosene and oxygen as fuel, and the second step is powered by two RL10 motors which are using the burning of hydrogen and oxygen.

The decision is to use a complex tourism plan on the Moon and another tourism plan on Selene.

In the first phase a lunar module will be launched using a Falcon 9 rocket and a propulsion module launched by Atlas V. These two lunar modules will couple on Earths Orbit and will start their travel to the Moon where the lunar module will wait for the tourists arrival. The tourists will be placed in a Dragon spacecraft which will be launched using a Falcon rocket and which will be coupled with a propulsion module launched by another Atlas V. When the Dragon spacecraft will arrive on the Moons orbit it will couple with the lunar module and transfer the tourists. Then, the tourists will descend on the Moon. After a while the Dragon mission will take them back to Earth.

We chose the Dragon spacecraft from SpaceX because it can be reused.

Dragon spacecraft, SpaceX Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dragon_%28spacecraft%29

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Today, the first phase would cost circa 6.4 billion of dollars, but it is presumed that in the future it will cost less, somewhere near 0.5 billion of dollars.

The lunar module will have the capacity of two tourists and one astronaut. It will be equipped with air tanks and pills for food.

We have not chosen a price for a ticket yet, but it can be estimated somewhere about 0.75 billion of dollars. The price may seem high, but this project also needs profit for further development. To see more about how we arrive on the Moons orbit, check Appendix (A1) .

Short Presentation of the Lunar Base This lunar base was conceived mainly in order to extract the needed resources for the construction of the space settlement from the regolith (the land of the Moon), but also for the facilitation of the space tourism. For the astronauts teams that are going to supervise the activity of the tourists and of some of the factories previously built on the Moon, we have to find a place with natural protection. A good example would be the lava tubes, a safe place for humans which is close to the craters (one of the places where the mining process will be performed). The electricity needed for the operation of this lunar base will be produced by photovoltaic cells. These cells will be placed on the entire surface of the base. Information like videos and messages will be transmitted to Selene or to Earth through radars placed in the north of the base. The access to the radars consists in specially designed roads.

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There will be some storage rooms where the extracted materials from the Moon will be deposited. For emergency cases, in the storage rooms will be placed several air tubes.

Storage room from the Lunar Base

2.3 Development Plan

The future development plan is one of the important parts of any project. In our case, the plan helps us to follow our initial ideas about developing the space settlement.

One of the most important parts for developing a space settlement is finding a source of financing. We presented some methods of getting funds. After we get funds we can move forward to buying or constructing the ships, rockets and robots. Obviously, this means that we have to hire specialists in robotics, aeronautics, medicine, physics and mining.

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Our plan consists of going in a place in the space where we can obtain most of the materials required for building the space settlement. We intend to do so because bringing all the materials from Earth would cost too much and also it would take a lot of time.

Taking into consideration the ideas from above, a very good location would be the Moon, which would certainly help us a lot.

If we can bring mining robots on the Moon and start building factories and then send materials to the location of Selene (defined in Chapter 3), we can say that we have finished the most difficult part.

Also, a very important part of the development of our project is the construction of the interior of the first space settlement. Selene will have an initial capacity of 200 humans, but in the future we are planning on extending it at a capacity of 2000 humans and then to an even bigger number of 10000 humans (the process is explained in Chapter 5).

After designing the first space settlement, we also thought of the idea of building another one and colonizing the space and maybe other planets. In order to realize this we will implement what we have learned from creating the first space settlement and to apply the knowledge for the second, third and so on (there is also a chapter for this).

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III. Position in Space In order to progress, it is not enough to act, we must know in which direction to act. Gustavo Le Bon 3.1 Best Position in Space Choosing the best position in space is one of the major decisions which must be taken. Considering that our plan involves space colonization and making profit, we are going to analyze the Earths orbit: Low Earth Orbit and Geostationary Earth Orbit, Lunar Orbit and Lagrange Points (proposed in almost all the books referring to space colonization). We invite you to be part of our journey in which we are going to discover the best positions using classical mechanics, Newtons Law, Keplers Law and mathematics.

3.2 Choosing the Position First of all, we are going to analyze Low Earth Orbit (LEO). The distance from the sea level to LEO is d = 400 km.

For a circular orbit, the settlement should have a velocity equal with For more details about v0 check Appendix (A2). We consider:

G = 6.67384 10-11 m3 kg-1 s-2 (Gravitational constant) M = 5.97219 1024 kg (Mass of the object; in this case, Earths mass) R = 6,371 km (Earths radius)

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Knowing all these constants the velocity becomes:

Because the speed is an angular one, the energy received from the Sun cannot be used efficiently. Another effect would be shorter days and nights, effect which will obviously affect the health and activities of humans. But we have to consider the fact that this velocity is too big and at the same time too dangerous (including the big number of satellites and space debris which are placed in LEO) for a space settlement. If something wrong happens to Selene, it can become a great danger for Earth. Another disadvantage is that it requires a big amount of energy for keeping it on the orbit. Other disadvantage may consist in the fact that up to now there has been no kind of space exploration or mining which could sustain our plan.

Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO) has the same disadvantages as LEO. Even if the GEOs distance from the sea level is 35,786 km, this is not enough for supporting our financial plan of space exploration and mining. So, we have to analyze the next point, which is the Lunar Orbit. We are going to analyze the Low Lunar Orbit (LLO), whose distance from the Moon to its orbit is R = 100 km.

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To be sure that LLO is the best orbit for our space settlement, we are going to calculate R using Kepler's Third Law: The square of the orbital period of a planet is directly proportional to the cube of the semi-major axis of its orbit. We are going to use Newtons Law of Motion and Gravitation to get Keplers Law. Because the Moon has a circular orbit, we can use the centrifugal force and make it equal to the gravitational force: (1)

If we divide the first equation by m, we get: (2)

Multiplying the second equation by

(1)

Considering

(angular velocity), the result is:

(1)

But

, where T is the orbital period of the Moon, equal to 27.321 days.

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Inserting this result in the fourth equation, we obtain a form of Keplers Third Law:

M = 7.34767309 1022 kilograms (Moons mass) T = 27.321 days (Orbital period of the Moon) G = 6.67384 10-11 m3 kg-1 s-2 (Gravitational constant)

It results that:

Next, we have to calculate the velocity to maintain our space settlement on the Moons circular orbit.

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In order to obtain the velocity, we use again We consider:

G = 6.67384 10-11 m3 kg-1 s-2 (Gravitational constant) M = 7.34767309 1022 kilograms (Moons mass) d = 1,738 km (Moons radius)

We get:

Taking into consideration the arguments above, we think that this is the perfect place for the beginning of the development of Selene. We are going to build here the first version of our space settlement. The construction of the space settlement will be explained in Chapter 5. Once the first version of Selene is complete, we will have to move to a new location, in order to expand our settlement. To see the duration of the journey to Low Lunar Orbit check Appendix (A3).

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We are going to choose one of the five Lagrange Points.

Joseph-Louis Lagrange (1736-1813), a French mathematician, discovered five points around the Earth and the Moon where the gravitational forces acting on an object are almost the same. That means that the netto forces acting on the object are equal to 0 and the object, with a negligible mass compared to Earths and the Moons, is able to remain in the same position.

The Lagrange points Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Lagrange_points2.svg

If we draw a straight line, we obtain the first three points which are going to be analyzed. This means. .

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L1 would be the best solution taking into account the small distance between this point, the Moon and Earth. However, there is also a disadvantage: the fact that, while this point is a very good choice based on its property of being near the Moon, the Gravitational attraction of the Moon can act on the object placed in point L1, and even the smallest modification of the position of the object can be dangerous.

For L2 we have the same situation as for L1, which means that it is very likely for a space settlement to be attracted by the Moon.

So, choosing the nearest ones to the Moon would be too dangerous. Considering the fact that later we will have to move the settlement at a new location, we are able to give another argument of why we would not choose the positions close to the Moon.

L3 represents the other end of the straight line, and is located in the Sun-Earth system, which is not very close to Earth, so we cannot choose this point.

It looks like we have to analyze L4 and L5 which form, each one of them, an equilateral triangle with the Moon and Earth and are situated in perfect symmetry to the axis Moon-Earth.

We are going to demonstrate that the triangle Moon-Earth-L4 is equilateral.

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A = The center of Earth B = The center of the Moon D = The center of the Moons orbit

We noted the distance between A and B with d.

m = Moons mass e = Earths mass

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The next step of our demonstration is to place our space settlement in L4 (point C).

We placed the space settlement in point C to be in equilibrium, which means that it will keep the same distance to Earth and to the Moon. We assume that all the three bodies have the same orbital period noted with T. Because Selene, our space settlement, is motionless, it will have a centrifugal force generated by the Moon and Earth. The radius of the Moons rotation is R = CD. The velocity of the Moons rotation is v and the one of the settlement is and the space settlements radius is

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In this case, the distance is equal to the length of the circular orbit, which is for the space settlement and for the Moon.

From

v T and

m e

vm T

it results:

and Equaling the equations we obtain: (1)

The Moons centrifugal force is equal to the attraction generated by Earth.

Dividing by

: v ( ) ):

(2)

Dividing by

and multiplying by (

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Now we extract the square root and obtain:

(3)

)=

Equaling (1) and (3) we get:

(4)

Next step in our demonstration is the equality between the centrifugal force of our space settlement and the attraction of the Moon and Earth.

s = Mass of the space settlement Fe = Attraction force acting from Earth to our space settlement Fm = Force acting from the Moon

and

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Because we must use the components of the forces from the line CD we obtain:

cos

cos

Dividing by s:

(5)

cos

cos

Squaring the 4th equation and multiplying by R we get:

(6)

Equaling the 5th and the 6th equation the result is:

cos

cos

We divide the previous equation by Ge:

cos

cos

When we started our demonstration we noted the last equation we get:


(7)

m e

x,

and by inserting it in

cos

cos

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We also know that:

sin

sin

Dividing both equations by Gs:

sin

sin

Rewriting the last equation in another form:

Inserting this equation in the 7th equation:

cos

cos

Doing some calculations:

(8)

Knowing the law of sines:

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We apply it in the triangle BCD, where DB = x and CD = R:

Inserting this result in the 8th equation and simplifying by sin : sin sin

sin sin Applying the same law of sines in triangle ABC, where AC = b and AB = d:

sin sin Equaling the last equation above with the last equation from the previous paragraph:

Taking all these into account and changing the position between m and e, we conclude that d = c, so the triangle ABC is an equilateral one. In conclusion, the position in which we can place Selene, the first space settlement, is the Lagrange L4 or L5. We chose to place Selene in L5. Other positions in space will be discussed in the 11th chapter, where we are going to develop idea of building more space settlements.

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3.3 Advantages and Disadvantages Until now, we have chosen two positions for Selene, our space settlement. Next, we are going to present the advantages and the disadvantages for each of them. We decided to start with the lunar orbit. This first place represents a start ramp, taking into account that we are constructing Selene with materials found and mined on the Moon. A small distance and a low escape velocity (2.4 km/ s) represent two of the biggest advantages. This advantage will consist in the fact that our space settlement would be built faster than if it were built at a bigger distance (for example, L5). Also, placing Selene on the lunar orbit is the first phase of our project. The second phase is moving it to L5. Moved to L5, Selene can easily start its life as a real space settlement, which will be able to colonize the space. L5 has lots of advantages: Material supply even if we move from the lunar orbit, we are depending on the Moons resources, which will still have an important role. By mining the Moon, asteroids and comets, it is possible to upgrade our space settlement at the second phase. Stability we have demonstrated that an object placed in L 5 or L4 remains in the same position. However, the Sun was not involved in our demonstration. Fortunately, its attraction is not dangerous and it can be corrected by using motors to maintain Selene in equilibrium. Energy a settlement placed in an area where the solar power has maximum efficiency produces a lot of energy. However, this also represents a disadvantage which can be minimized by using the best material, such as RXF1, an anti-solar wind shield or other kind of radiations which may come from the Sun.

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Taking all these into consideration, we are going to use the Lunar Orbit for the first phase and in the next phase we will move to L5.

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IV. Mining the Space At the source of all knowledge, we find curiosity! It is an essential condition for progress. Alexandra David-Neel 4.1 Mining the Moon The Moon is the first source of materials for building Selene. We chose it for its properties and the relative small distance toward Earth, the second source of materials. Mining the Moon will not be easy, but we are sure we can do it. We consider that humanity has accumulated a very big knowledge in the last century as far as astronomy, astrophysics, aeronautics and technology are concerned. The current knowledge we have in technology would make the returning of humans easier and less expensive than it was in 1969 when the first man landed on the Moons surface. However, our plan consists in sending robots to the Moon for mining, robots which will be controlled from Earth. This is an important decision which can affect or not the mining process. Sending humans to the Moon would be too dangerous, taking into account the big number of radiations that hit it and also the fact that the Moon does not have a magnetic field to protect itself. Because of this, a lot of mutations of DNA may result. Another disadvantage of sending humans on the Moon would be the fuel required for sending them back on Earth, fuel that will obviously occupy a big part of the capacity of the spaceships. Considering all the above, we can conclude that humans cannot be sent on the Moon, so we have to send robots. One of the most important advantages of the robots would be that, once they are sent on the Moon, they do not have to return to Earth. Another advantage is that they can be operated continuously by telecommunication directly from Earth. That may sound crazy, but it is possible, because the delay between the Moon and the Earth is
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represented by only three seconds. And if for some operations the delay is regarded as a disadvantage, robots can also be programmed directly from the Earth.

Radar placed on the Lunar Base (receives commands from Earth)

Another advantage of using robots would be the big quantity of payload that they can carry to the base. We should not forget that the more they carry, the stronger they should be. Also, robots can operate in dangerous areas where human beings cannot. Last but not least, robots need only energy to function instead of humans who need air, water and food. These human needs would be too difficult to afford during a mining process, and that is why robots would definitely do a better job. Taking into account all the arguments above, we decided that humans would be employed to work only on Earth.

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So How Does It All Start? We have to think about the robots appearance, what functions they should have and how they will explore the Moon. First of all, we start by explaining their technical specifications. Robots will be equipped with cameras, drills, robotic arms with tactile feedback, and wheels for locomotion. They will be also equipped with spectrometers for on-site mineral analyses. We should not forget the solar panels placed on the upper side of the robots, which will convert the energy sent from the Sun to electricity, the fuel of the robots. Another fact is that the robots sent to the Moon for mining must be adapted at temperatures between -173 and +127 . For this, materials like Ultra High Temperature Ceramics (UHTC),

developed by NASA, and a strength polymer like M5 Fiber will be used in the robots construction. Also, we have to consider the Moons gravitation which is of Earths

gravitation. That means that normal mining will not work so well on the Moon, but, it is known that every project and experiment has a start, so engineers will have to improve Earths mining techniques and adapt them to the Moons environment. When robots arrive on the Moon for the first time, they will have batteries which will ensure their energy for two weeks. Their energy will be composed by the energy provided by the batteries plus the solar energy which will be stored. Using this technique, it results that the robots will have energy for four weeks. Why? Because the Moons day is approximately 29 days, and robots will be sent on the Moon during the day, and not during the night, which has the same duration as the Moons day. In this time the robots have to build the lunar base. We found out that a good location would be represented by the lava tubes which ensure the protection against solar wind. After that, the next operation will be represented by finding the site where they will extract regolith. After extracting the regolith, they will carry it to the base. There, after doing some chemical reactions, other robots can start extracting from it different materials and produce in factories solar panels and components for the next robots. The

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regolith properties and the factories that should be built will be discussed later in this chapter. On Earth, there should be more bases where specially trained operators will control the robots. We thought that it would be a good idea to steam videos in real time to the World Wide Web presenting the activity which will take place on the Moon. In order to broadcast images to Earth, we thought that it would be very useful to position AERcam-Sprint at the sites and at the lunar base for better and multiple angles of view.

AERcam-Sprint Source: http://er.jsc.nasa.gov/seh/AERCAM/aercam.htm

In order to obtain the perfect robots which are going to build the base and factories, a number of 20-30 prototype robots from each category like drilling robots, exploring robots or transporting robots should be sent to the Moon. These prototype robots are mandatory because we cannot predict how the first robots will adapt to the Moons conditions. This has never been done before, so we have to understand each system of the robots and then build more complex robots.

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Our idea is to organize an international contest about robots. At this contest teams from all countries of the world can participate, but our main purpose is to invite students from the most well-known Universities all over the world, who are studying robotic engineering. This way, we can prepare the new generation of engineers who will have the knowledge and experience to build robots for colonizing the space. Also, we can use the concepts for creating robots of the best teams. What Kind of Robots Should We Have? The most important categories of robots which should be projected and sent on the Moon are: 1. Robots for excavations 2. Robots for carrying 3. Robots for building All the robots will be equipped with solar panels and will be controlled from Earth.

Excavation robot prototype

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Carrying robot prototype

Building robot prototype

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The first spaceships sent to the Moon will be equipped with robots like the ones presented earlier, but also with a chemical reactor and a chemical manufactory which will manufacture methane and oxygen. Lunar Materials and Factories As far as lunar materials and factories are concerned, it is important to start with a brief introduction referring to the minerals that are going to be mined. It is known that pure iron and aluminum, two of the most important materials, cannot be dug out directly from the regolith. Aluminum (noted with Al) can be found on the Moon in a mineral called anorthite (CaAl2Si2O8). Anorthite is a mineral which contains 20% aluminum and can be compared with the Bauxite ore used for extracting aluminum on Earth. Aluminum is an important resource and has a lot of utilizations. It can be used for electrical conductors, because it is known that the Moon does not provide considerable cooper minerals. Also, from aluminum we can build reflecting mirrors. It will be also used during the construction of the parts of the buildings from Selene (doors, windows, household items). Atomized aluminum burned with oxygen produces fuel which can be used for spaceships and rockets. For robots and for the rocket construction there can also be used aluminum, taking into consideration its high resistance, malleability and the relatively low weight (compared to the weight of the iron or copper, for example). Using it for electrical conductors may be useful for communication on Selene. The reflecting mirrors are part of solar ovens and can be used for melting metals and for the Termite Reaction. However, there is a disadvantage which should be considered. According to the temperature, aluminum changes its size (dilatation and contraction). Because of this, we cannot use it for building large structures. In this case, we are forced to use other materials, such as iron (steel) for this kind of structures.

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Calcium (noted with Ca) is also an abundant element on the Moon and can be extracted with Aluminum from the anorthite. It cannot be used for construction, but it can be used for ceramics. Also, calcium can be used as an electric conductor, taking into consideration the fact that it can be easily modeled, pressed and then transformed in wires, but only on the Moon where it does not encounter oxygen particles. Its capacity of conducting the electricity is twice and a half bigger than aluminums and coppers. However, calcium is not a very strong material and that is why it is not recommended to be used in constructions. Silicon (noted with Si) is the second most common element which can be found on the Moon (after oxygen). Silicon can be very useful for the development of the settlement, considering its characteristics which allow silicon to be used for the obtaining of solar power cells and different types of glass. From Si the primary oxide which is obtained is silica (SiO2). From silica combined with sodium results the glass used for mirrors on Earth and also, combined with boron, results high quality glass, usually used for heating and cooling devices. Titanium (noted with Ti) is a light and strength element which can be easily found on the Moon. The Apollo missions found it in Ilmenite ores, FeTiO 3. In this ore, TiO2 is found in a big concentration of about 55% of the ore. TiO 2 may be used for obtaining white papers and plastics. We can use Titanium for shielding, for different means of transport and for constructions. Moreover, it can be used as a substituent for the silica in order to obtain photo electrochemical cells. It can be extracted using Ilmenite Reduction. Iron (noted with Fe) is one of the most abundant elements on the Moon. It can be found and extracted from Ilmenite. From Iron alloyed with Carbon we can produce Steel. Steel and Iron are definitely used for Selenes construction, for robots construction and for different buildings.

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The thermite reaction is a very important one. It is a reversible process, like most reactions, and gives off large amounts of heat: Al2O3 + 2Fe + energy 2Al + Fe2O3

This reaction both gives and takes heat so I can be used for both purposes. Also, because of the reversibility of the reaction, we can always control the amounts of pure iron and pure aluminum that we have. Another way to obtain iron is from ilmenite, a mineral the moon is rich in. Iron can be extracted from ilmenite by hydrogen reduction. FeTiO3 + H2 Fe + TiO2 + H2O

The obtained water can be then electrolyzed into oxygen and hydrogen. The obtained hydrogen can be used to repeat the reaction and the oxygen can be used as an emergency atmosphere regulator. The titanium can then be extracted using a relatively simple procedure. TiO2 + 2Cl2 + 2C TiCl4 + 4Na TiCl4 + 2CO Ti + 4NaCl

The resulting sodium clohride can be used in food and the CO will quickly trnsform into CO2 which can be converted to oxygen with photosynthesis. Titanium is a very strong material and can be use din construction infrastructures. Silicon can also be extracted from the moon in the form of SiO 2. Silicon can be used an an abrasive, can be polymerized in order to patch up holes and can be used to make glass.

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4.2 Mining the NEO First of all we have to introduce the NEO abbreviation. It stands for Near Earth Objects. NEO refers mainly to the asteroids and comets which are found in our Solar System. Because we can only mine the Moon crust which is not very rich in metal, we had to find a solution. So we thought of using the raw materials which can easily be extracted from asteroids. Asteroids can be found in a big number near Earth (approximately 200 000 of asteroids with a diameter larger than 100 meters). For the first settlement, Selene, we will use only the asteroids which are near Earth, but for the next space settlements, we will obviously make use of the plenty of asteroids which can be found in Space (for example, the belt of asteroids between Mars and Jupiter). Mining the asteroids has many advantages: various resources can easily be obtained and extracted, the costs of manufacturing and transportation are low, almost equal to zero and this process can never be risky. There are lots of types of asteroids and each of them can be used for obtaining different raw materials or resources. The main categories of asteroids which held our attention are: 1. Carbonaceous Chondrite Asteroids These asteroids represent only a small part of the total number of meteorites. They are rich in water, hydrogen, oxygen, sulfides, and other volatile organic chemicals. They are divided into several groups, each type having a different structure. The most notable are: a. CI group: named after Ivuna meteorite. These asteroids consist of 22% water, the rest being amino acids, as well as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

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b. CV group: this group has taken its name from Vigarano. Such chondrites present low metamorphism and minerals such as pyroxene and olivine can provide a wide range of compositions, showing that they have formed into various conditions in a solar nebula.

c. CM group: named after Mighei, they are known to contain large quantities of organic compounds, such as purine and pyrimidine nucleobases and also amino acids.

d. CR group : this type of chondrites present a uniquely large variety of minerals, containing up to 60 different substances, some of which have not been found anywhere else in nature. e. CH group: H chondrites, coming from high metal , contain up to 40% metal, which makes them the richest of the chondrite groups. They are structurally related to the CR and CB groups.

f. CB group: this group takes its name from its most representative member: Bencubbin. They contain over 50% of nickel-iron metal, being chemically related with CR chondrites.

Carbonaceous Chondrites are extremely important, representing a considerable source of fuel. One average meteorite, only 75 meters in diameter, could supply the fuel necessary for over 135 space missions.

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2. LL Chondrite Asteroids These kinds of asteroids are maybe the most important as far as the metal extraction is concerned. Even the name, which is an abbreviation which stands for low iron, low metal points to the fact they contain more than 22% iron, but only a small percentage of pure metal (1-3%). That is why they are not very attracted by magnets. The LL Chondrite asteroids are rich in Platinum group metals (PGM). There have been discovered over 2.500 near-Earth asteroids which are over 500 meters in diameter. Studies have shown that a PGM rich asteroid which is about 500 meters in diameter contains more platinum than it has been mined ever since the beginning of humanity. As previously mentioned, the extraction and transportation of near Earth asteroidal material has important benefits. Because the asteroids have too big sizes, we would not bring a whole asteroid to Earths orbit for the extraction, but we will scoop up only the material that is needed. Then it will be refined and the material obtained after this process will be sent to the space settlement. Obviously, the size of the payload is way smaller than the size of the asteroids and that is why the energy required by the transportation is very small, almost null. This represents a major advantage for which we are mining the asteroids- while making savings in the costs of transportation, we obtain a lot more material. Moreover, obtaining materials from asteroids does not involve any risk of crashes during transportations and huge rockets are not required, due to the fact that the asteroid s gravity can be neglected. Briefly, the process of obtaining useful material from asteroids consists of solar oven casting, sintering (or some other forming) and industrial means of manufacturing. So-obtained materials can be used in constructions (example: alloys of Ni, Co and Fe). The contained dirt and slag can be used as shields against space radiation.

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Ceramic objects like sinks, pipes or even walls and structures can also be obtained by melting this dirt and slag in solar ovens at very high temperatures. The dirt also contains oxygen, which should be considered for further use. Another advantage is the obtaining of a very cheap and in big quantities fuel from asteroidal material. The most commonly used fuel on this kind of interspatial expeditions is hydrogen which is burnt with oxygen inside the rockets. This fuel is obtained by splitting water apart in order to make pure hydrogen and pure oxygen, which then make vapors which lead to the propulsion of the rocket. An alternative to this fuel is the hydrocarbon fuel, taking into consideration the fact that carbon is also a commonly encountered element in the composition of asteroids. Also, we are considering the extraction of precious metals (like platinum, iridium or cobalt) from the asteroids. They can be extracted with an easy technique called Carbonyl process, which separates iron, nickel, cobalt and the other metals in a very nice way.

Which Are the Conditions to Mine an Asteroid? The size of an asteroid changes from one to another, ranging from small ones to some which can resemble with rugby stadiums for instance and they contain large quantities of material up to 30 million tons. The gravity is not a downside like some people liked to believe due to the fact that is almost 0, practically inexistent compared to the Moon, so the only thing we are concerned about is how to deal with mining and the operations implied. We can distinguish three cases here: 1. A lot of attempts were tried in order to find out which was the best solution to exploit an asteroid. One solution is to attach equipment which uses solar power on the asteroid with the condition to face the sun. However, this method is not always applicable. For instance you can only use it when the size of the asteroid

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is not very big and you can prevent it easily from spinning. Another disadvantage is that the process implies a lot of money being spent on fuel. 2. The second method is better because it does not imply fuel and it is cheaper. It uses the so-called yoyo-like gadget. One problem which can occur can be the length of the string, because it is strongly related to the size and the mass of the asteroid we are working on. But we must remember that the velocity is ignored, not influencing the process. If this method is chosen, the mathematical calculus must be precise and accurate before actually proceeding. 3. The third method is to let things go normal, not to stop the spin of the asteroid, but only when you have to deal with big asteroids or small ones when the budget is limited.

Required Equipment and How to Actually Process the Mining Materials; Challenges Implied by Space Mining In order to be able to get in possession of the endless resources from the asteroid, we need to know perfectly what to do right from the beginning. The equipment plays a vital role in this process. An advantageous aspect is that you can reuse the equipment on more asteroids. The people accredited in this field want to replace the humans with robots, as long as it is possible. But if they want to send humans in space to facilitate the process, the first step they do is to send the equipment before and after they arrive at their destination, so that everything is prepared for the people to finally go. The most challenging fact about space mining is bringing the concept from science fiction to reality and, in order to do so, the infrastructure plays a vital role. First of all, all the development methods must be tested within a long period ago. The human being will definitely be replaced by the robot which will make almost all the jobs. That is why we must create a machine which is able to convert for instance the floating piles of

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rock into raw material. Another challenge is to find out how to use local raw materials to develop a propulsion system. Providing the equipment required by this process is way easier than we firstly imagined. The only thing we should be concerned about is how to actually process the material which is a complex activity, because it implies chemical phenomena and mechanical grinders.

Spacecraft to Analyze the Asteroids Knowing how to build if not the best spacecraft at least a very good one plays a vital role. The increasing necessity to exploit an asteroid raised a lot of questions and problems. We must be able to make the best choice in order to be fully efficient and the choice of the optimal target is extremely important. On the other hand, we must take into consideration the fact that in the past few years, the costs implied by the construction of such devices were opposite to the performance which was growing day by day. However, we must find out a method which simplifies our calculations and maximizes our potentials and chances to succeed by making something which is capable of ensuring a mass production. The design must be complex but equally simple. For instance, the system must not be big or weighty. But on the other hand, how to do this without the risk of missing something compulsory for our mission? The answer is simple: we eliminate the parts which are not important by adding extra characteristics to other systems to multiply their usage. Also, the communication system is not negligible, due to the fact that if the operation is conducted by humans they must keep in touch with the people monitoring the activity. Only like this they can call for help if something does not work properly or as intended, you can never know what can go wrong during your expedition and an

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antenna can occupy a significant surface which we want to avoid in order to effectively use our limited space. These having been said we can distinguish the following two cases: 1. Sending the data to be analyzed on Earth 2. Analyzing on the spot and sending only the report to Earth We can easily see that the first method is not viable because building a spacecraft implies a huge budget and the fuel is expensive. Also, it is slow and not efficient to make two runs while the second one will have the same achievements and will consume half of the fuel. We must also make a decision on what purpose the spacecraft will serve. For instance, we have to decide if it analyzes small asteroids which have a big velocity or big ones where the velocity is almost inexistent. These are facts which can simplify or complicate the task. If the result of the analysis is positive, that means the asteroid is viable: the shape, composition and dimensions are all perfect and we can finally commence the mining. The capacity of a robot must be as big as possible, so, after consuming an asteroid, the robot is able to move to a next asteroid. If we do not have the possibility to choose the second case, we can at least send a stationary spacecraft which will come back on Earth after gathering data from more asteroids. Then, the spacecraft will present the final results and the decision for mining. Like this, even in this case, we will have a mission success.

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V. Space Travel and Construction You have to know the limits of the possible. Not so that you can stop yourself, but so that you can attempt the impossible under the most favorable conditions. Romain Gary 5.1 Propulsion Systems For Selenes propulsion system, the jet propulsion will be used, the kind of propulsion which is also found at rocket motors. What Do We Need Propulsion for? First of all, we need it to adjust and maintain the position and the orbit of Selene in L5. Our demonstration from Chapter 3 contains in its rationality just the Moons and the Earths gravitational attraction, but it does not include the Suns gravitational attraction, which may disturb Selenes stable position. So for keeping the Space Settlement in a stable orbit, it is mandatory to implement a propulsion system. Another reason would be the changing of position from Low Lunar Orbit to L 5. More precisely, Selene needs a propulsion system for: interplanetary travel orbit control altitude control

What Kind of Propulsion Systems Should be Used? By the type of energy source, there can be implemented three propulsion systems: 1) Chemical propulsion uses chemical reactions combined with heat to generate gasses at a high temperature and at very high pressure. These gasses are ejected and produce a thrust force;
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2) Electric propulsion uses electricity for ejecting the matter in order to produce a thrust force; 3) Nuclear propulsion uses nuclear reactors which accelerate heated gasses and then eject the gasses in order to produce a thrust force; The basic equation for Force of Thrust is:

[ ]
is the propellant exhaust velocity)

( is the mass flow rate of propellant and

The basic equation was rewritten by Tiolkovsky and obtained the Basic Rocket Equation:

The propulsion performance factors can be determined using the thrusterspecific Impulse:

Because it is too difficult and too expensive to obtain big amounts of fuel for chemical propulsion and the nuclear propulsion also looks very instable, Selene is going to have a propulsion system based on electricity.
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5.2 Expansibility Principle It is obvious that sending 10000 people from the first time on Selene would not be achievable. It is impossible to send such a big amount of people and expect everything to be fine. Our team suggests starting with an amount of only 200 people when Selene is built on the Low Lunar Orbit. When the settlement will be moved to L5 we intend to grow the population from 200 to 2000 people. Being at L5, the population should grow in two-three decades from 2000 people to 10000 people. But How Does this Growth Happen? First of all, we have to affirm that the size of Selene will change in time. Firstly, we want to start with a small space settlement, at which we extend the core and add new modules. This process will be better understood in the next section. Changing the sizes takes time and work, but this is the only way in which Selene can grow and support a big number of people. So, the growth of the population will happen by expanding the space capacity. This way, new settlers will be able to come from Earth or even be born on Selene. 5.3 Structure and Aspect of the Space Settlement Our colony will be organized and divided into six small towns; each of them is the living space for 1650 colonists. Every town is represented as a component, which is added to the main torus. All the buildings have the same design in all the towns in order to avoid conflicts between settlers, when they choose in which one to live. There are four types of houses which will be built of fire resistant materials. According to the space which is provided by a house, they can be divided in: houses only for a settler, for two settlers (with possibility of adding another component in case
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that there is a baby), for a family and residential houses. For each settler, a space of 40 m2 will be assigned. But even with this similarity among the six towns, there is a remarkable difference between them. This difference consists in the kind of activities which will be held in each town. The first town, called the town of science, will have libraries and the center of the educational system. Here settlers from other towns can come and attend courses or just relax while reading a book. The majority of the settlers who live here are from the engineering or academic fields. The second town, called the town of relaxation, will have hotels, spa centers, parks and theaters. In this town settlers will be able to relax after a hard day, have a walk, practice a sport or laugh when they watch a comedy played at the theater. The third town, called the town of administration, will have all the government buildings. Also, this town can be considered the center of political and administrative activities. In this town, you are allowed to live only if you work in the administrative offices. Usually, normal settlers will not have why to come here or maybe just if they commit a crime, but there are little chances for this to happen. The fourth town is called the town of health. Here, the medical system is going to be the main activity. Settlers with different diseases can come here and get a treatment in order to become healthy again. Also, the majority of the settlers who are living here will be doctors or engineers. The fifth town is called the town of industry. By the name of this town, Selenes industry is going to be the main activity in it. It is obviously that a big part of the settlers who live in this town will be engineers. The sixth town is called the town of parties and shopping. Students and usually young people will live here, but every settler who wants to have fun at a party or to

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celebrate an event in their life can do it in this town. Also, it is the ideal place for shopping: clothes, decorating objects and jewels can be bought from the built-here mall. More precisely, the structure of the settlement consists of: a main torus six modules in hexagonal shape a dock sphere

The main torus has an important role for transportation and for construction. First of all, a high-speed maglev train will be placed inside this torus. This non-contact and electric powered train has a method of propulsion that utilizes magnetic

levitation to propel the vehicle with magnets. This mean of transport will represent the main one on Selene. Secondly, the main torus will act as a core: the six modules will be attached to the torus in order to obtain the space settlement. The dock sphere will have four docks for spaceships. It will be connected to the rest of the settlement by cylinder bridges, which will help the visitors and settlers to be transported from the docks to the third town. Here, they will be registered and identified. Next, they will be transported to their hotels from the second town. In the dock sphere there will also be a special room, for accommodation. At first, there will not be any atmospheric pressure, but an intelligent system will adjust it until the pressure from the room becomes equal to the pressure of Selene and of the bridges.

The cylinder bridges will help the main torus spin in order to obtain the artificial gravity required by the towns. In the center of the docking sphere we intend to construct a powerful machine based on bearings which rotates the main torus and divides the dock sphere into two parts: the top and the bottom one. As far as transportation is concerned, the departure of the settlers will be made from the center of the docking sphere.

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Also, a 0G (zero gravity) room will be placed in the docking sphere for entertainment.

For the day/night cycle Selene is equipped with big mirrors placed above at a distance of 350 m and at a 45 angle.

As stated before, the modules attached to the main torus have a hexagonal shape. The length of each of the six sides of a hexagon is 550 m. This means that the surface of a hexagon is:

The total surface is:

The projected area is:

The height of each module is 50 m so the total volume is:

Structural mass at 1/2 atmosphere = 313. 6 kt

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The following table represents the estimated distribution of the space on the space settlement.

Surface Use of space (m/ person)

Number of levels

Projected area (m/ person) 27

Estimated height (m) 3

Volume (m3) 324

Residential areas Commercial areas Offices Hospitals and clinics Schools Churches Recreation and entertainment Public open space Industry Transportation Communication equipment Water treatment Electrical distribution

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4. 3

2. 3

17.2

1. 5 0. 6

3 3

0. 5 0. 6

4 5

6 3

1. 5 1. 5 6

3 1 1

0. 5 1. 5 6

4 10 3

6 15 18

20

20

50

1000

44 3 0. 5

2 1 1

22 3 0. 5

7 6 4

42 18 2

4 0. 1

1 1

4 0. 1

4 4

16 0. 4

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Miscellaneous Farm Storage Totals

2. 9 24 40 262

3 1 2 -

1 24 20 133

3.8 5 10 -

11.2 120 400 2107

Construction The First Phase (2045 2050)

The first phase of creating the space settlement consists of building the main torus. This first phase will take part at the Low Lunar Orbit. Ships and robots will start building the main torus using materials extracted from the Moons surface. After that , two hundred settlers can be sent from Earth to Selene and contribute to the process of building the inside of the settlement. Also, the dock sphere has to be constructed in the same time with the main torus.

The cylinder bridges will be built in order to connect the dock sphere to the main torus. We do not have to forget about the machinery which rotates the torus.

We assume a period of five years for constructing this phase.

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The settlement after the first phase

The Second Phase (2050 2057)

The second phase of the construction consists of building two towns and moving the settlement to L5. During the second phase, we intend to grow the population to 2000 settlers.

In this time, the industry and diplomatic sector will be developed. Houses, shops and the transportation system have to be constructed in order to offer a good life quality for the settlers. To achieve more resistance, we intend to add strong iron tubes between the two towns at the top and bottom side.

For the construction of the second phase, we assume a period of seven years.

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The settlement after the second phase

The Third Phase (2057 2067)

In this phase, we suppose that Selene will be extended at its full capacity of 10,000 settlers. Between the second and the third phase, other four hexagonal modules will be added to the main torus.

Also, all the towns will be developed in order to provide a high living standard. Different types of buildings will be constructed. During the building process, robots and humans will work together for a faster productivity. In this time all the sensors needed for protection, air purification, hole detection and water recycling will be mounted. In order to ensure the safety of the settlement, sensors for fire detection and water flooding will be spread on its entire surface.

The infrastructure of the medical system, educational system, industry and food production system will be highly improved in order to satisfy 10, 000 settlers. We suppose that the third phase will take approximately 10 years.
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The settlement after the third phase

5.4 Artificial gravity 5.4.1 Why Do We Need Gravity? Medical studies revealed that longer exposure in an atmosphere free space could lead to osteoporosis and very low resistance to any bone impact. In addition to that, given the fact that the body draws calcium from the bones to correct electrolyte imbalances, it is clear that several weeks and months spent at zero g will lead to a new balance in cellular fluid. Like this, the electrolyte balance may not be achieved. Moreover, hormonal imbalances also persist. In other phases of missions, more symptoms were noticed: suppression of the excretion of steroid hormones, reduced production of norepinephrine, indications of hypoglycemia and corresponding increase of the primary hormones.

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Also, when returning from zero g to Earth may appear medical problems, such as increased heart rate, changes in muscle reflexes or leukocytosis. Although physiological changes were reversible, it is unknown whether this will be possible after a prolonged weightlessness. Vascular changes or changes such as decreased immunity and fetal developmental differences may become irreversible. Given the current knowledge on the effects of weightlessness, it seems appropriate that a certain level of gravity should act on humans for most of the time. Lower levels than one g cannot be considered because there is a lot of unknown information about the consequences of long-term exposure to levels of gravity between zero g and one g.

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The centrifugal force will play the role of gravity:

Thus,

and

For the each hexagon we have:

We intend to obtain:

Which leads to:

= 1.059 rpm

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The angular velocity of the settlement will be 0.1109 radians/ second and the structure will do one full rotation in almost 56.62 seconds. Now, we know our angular velocity. By deciding the acceleration at the points situated at the intersection of the surface of the sphere with a plane perpendicular to the axis of rotation and which goes through its center, it will be easier for us to find out the radius of the sphere.

= 406 m
Rotation can be an easy way of achieving gravity. One thing we may easily miss when talking about this is that, during the rotation, the axis of rotation must be perpendicular to the axis of maximum angular inertia. Factors from space, such as small objects hitting the construction, large objects passing by and interacting with the settlement may cause the change of the axis of rotation. Therefore, the settlement will wobble and become partly unstable for a shorter or longer period of time, according to the deviation of axis. This problem can be solved by using an intelligent weight distribution system. Sensors will be placed in key parts of the settlement, at the surface of the construction, allowing us to create a map of weight distribution. Data will be collected in real time on a computer and, when any event that may cause the change of the rotation axis of the settlement, the computer will notice this.

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For corrections, there will be a system of cables and weights attached to the main torus, one weight for every 15 degrees of rotation. By adjusting the cable lengths, the mass center will change, thus allowing the settlement to revert its position of stability. Calculations will be done in real time, 24 hours a day, in order to ensure complete stability.

5.5 Shielding 5.5.1 Cosmic Radiations Similar to the inhabitants of Earth, the settlers of Selene and the rest of the creatures are subjects to radiation. Protection against exposure to radiation is achieved by minimizing the exposure time and the distance from the source, as well as by using protective equipment. Radiation consists in electromagnetic waves of high energy (radiation x, gamma rays) or particles (alpha, beta, neutrons). Ionizing radiation damages the tissues in different ways, depending on the amount of radiation and the amount and extension of exposure. Ionizing radiations affect messenger RNA, DNA and the production of free radicals in other reagents. Big amounts of ionizing radiation may cause death, while low doses affect cell proliferation. Genetic effects consist of malignant transformation or hereditary genetic defects. Children are more susceptible to radiation, because they have a high rate of cell proliferation and an increased number of subsequent cell divisions. Radioactive elements can reach water, food and building materials, while animals can also be contaminated. Therefore, when there is an increase of the amount of cosmic radiation, drugs and chemicals (sulfhydryl compounds) may be administered to animals and, if given in time, they will increase the survival rate of animals. However, these drugs cannot be used on humans.
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Considering the powerful effects of neutron radiation on the human body and the living environment that we created on Selene, it is imperative to build a protective shield for shielding it against contamination coming from the cosmic rays. Based on the U.S. Federal Government standards for the terrestrial environment, we need a shield which can bring the radiation level to a value lower than 0.5 rem/ year. It can be estimated that the amount of sunlight that our space settlement receives from the Sun is equal to approximately 2 kW/ m2 per day. This represents almost three times the amount of sunlight received on Earth (747 W/m2 per day). Taking into consideration the total surface of the settlement (4.7 x 106 m2) and the amount of sunlight (2 kW/ m2/ day), it results a total of 940 x 107 W. The value which is normal and should not be blocked by the shield is 351 x 107 W. Regarding this calculations, it is obvious that a big amount of energy (589 * 107 W) has to be blocked.

5.5.2 Choosing the Shield For creating a good shield, we had to choose between a passive shield and one generated by a magnetic field. In our case, a passive shield can be very helpful because it absorbs the radiation rays. But for constructing it, a big amount of regolith or other protective materials should be used. So we switched our attention to generating a magnetic field. Earth has a magnetic field and has been using it for millions of years. While Selene tries to have most of the qualities that Earth has, creating a magnetic field in order to shield the space settlement seems to be the best way of doing it.

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Since the total energy that must be rejected is 589 * 10 7 w, and the energy of a magnetic field per unit volume is
.

, for the total volume of Selene it results

This way,

= 0.003238 Tesla.

B = Magnetic flux density V = 14.1 108 m3 (Volume of Selene) = 4 107 N A2 (Magnetic permeability of space) U = 589 * 107 W Using the magnetic flux density we can easily calculate the Lorentz Force:

A is the total surface of Selene and L is the total Length. Inserting them in the last equality, the intensity of current is and it is equal to 305 x 103 A.

Taking into account the results obtained, we get the shielding method: we will generate a magnetic field of certain intensity (305 x 103 A).

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VI. Human Needs and Factors To deal with individual human needs at the everyday level can be noble sometimes. Jimmy Carter 6.1 Food 6.1.1 Nutrition Nutrition plays a vital role in our daily shift due to the fact that our body needs constant fuel which is the food and as regular as possible and when really needed and maintenance mustnt be neglected because sports exercise or mental attitude for instance aid us in the process of achieving a health potential. A perfect nutrition can have the following consequences: 1. Improves all your performances ranging from sports to mental activity 2. Gives us the power to continue our activities, preventing us from tiredness and stress, but not in all the cases 3. Boosts all the abilities to remain focused, concentrated and calm when dealing with difficult projects, situations etc. 4. Reinforces our immunity system A way to achieve all of the above mentioned is to eat less sodium and sugar and commence taking into consideration fruits and vegetables which are considerably much better and easier to obtain. A disregard to the importance of the diet can lead to many diseases that can be followed in the worst case by death. For example, hypertension, obesity, diabetes or heart diseases may occur. The most encountered factor which leads to premature death is the physical and diet inactivity, immediately followed by the tobacco. The most common words we use when we talk about food are carbohydrates, proteins and fats. These are the three subdivisions of the macronutrients which represent the most valuable fuel for our organism.
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Carbohydrates have one main purpose: supplying energy. They are the easiest to transform from the complex molecules found in the ingested food into simple molecules of glucose , which can be afterwards directly oxidized.

Carbohydrates are an important source of energy for our central nervous system, as well as for our muscles and other organs which need an important quantity of energy to do their job. However, a diet rich in carbohydrates, but poor in proteins and fats, is not good because sugars are useful only in combination with other substances, such as water, fats, proteins, minerals etc. Fats are the ones who store the most energy of all nutritive substances. They are very important in bodys temperature management system, energy storage, a s well as in protecting the internal organs. They also influence the basic metabolism, by starting chemical reactions that help growth control, reproduction, and the immune function.

Proteins are very important for our body, being involved in almost all body functions and they are mostly found in the muscular tissue.

Vitamins are organic substances which sustain our organism to grow and function normally. For example, the B vitamins can be found in nuts, oatmeal and milk. C vitamin is representative for blackberries, cranberries, raspberries or cauliflower. It is estimated that people need about 60 mg/day. K vitamin prevents internal bleedings and it can be found in yolk, yoghurt or soybean oil.

Minerals help our organism to synthesize vitamins. For example, the human body needs calcium from milk, cheese and cauliflower, phosphorus from fish, chicken and eggs or magnesium from bananas, seeds, almonds or nuts.

The modern man usually needs food not only in order to survive. Recent studies have shown that feeding can also represent a psychological, need so we need good quality and different types of food.

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Carbohydrates play the most important role and are taken in the biggest amount because calories should come from it. Taking low quantities can cause many problems like cancer or constipation. But on the other hand, if we have a diet high in fiber, we dramatically reduce our chances of getting a heart disease or obesity. The most advantageous aspects are the following:

Can be easily converted into energy by the organism It is used as a source of energy by our cells They are vital for our brain, muscles and nervous system to work as intended They aid in the process of eliminating wastes They are found in the biggest amounts in fruits, milk and yogurt

Proteins also have a very important role for the human body. They can be found in milk, legumes, nuts, fish etc. and they are involved in a variety of functions. They provide energy when the carbohydrates are exhausted. As far as fats are concerned, people may affirm that they are controversial. If we talk about saturated and trans fat we speak about an increase for heart disease, but on the other hand unsaturated fat diminishes that chances and provides taste, stability to the food and gives us the essential energy.

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6.1.2 Nutritive Value of Food

We have developed a healthy menu for our settlers. We estimated the numbers for a man/woman between 20-45 years old, high 1, 65-1, 80, about 70 kg with normal physical activity.

Food

Quantity

Energy value (kcal)

Proteins

Fats

Carbohydrates

Vitamins

Bread Chicken thighs Mushrooms Chocolate ice cream Strawberries Bananas Raspberry jam Lemon Orange Grapes Onion Sweet potatoes Carrot

100g 100g 100g 100g

245 158 15 236

5,4 16,8 2,1 3,6

1,3 10,2 0,5 15,0

57,0 0,0 0,5 22,3

B B3 B A, B6

100g 100g 100g 100g 100g 100g 100g 100g 100g

28 95 275 36 44 69 30 61 31

0,7 1,0 0,6 0,8 0,9 0,5 1,4 2,0 0,8

0,4 0,3 0,0 0,3 0,2 0,2 0,4 0,0 0,3

7,2 23,5 71,2 9,5 11,3 17,6 6,9 13,3 6,6

C A, B6 C, B2 C C C B6 A, C A

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Salad Eggs Carp Soy Cheese Milk Butter Tomatoes

100g 100g 100g 100g 100g 100ml 100g 100g

12 168 102 381 209 61 659 19

1,2 9,9 16,0 2,0 30,0 3,3 1,1 0,8

0,3 14,2 3,7 0,1 9,0 3,2 73,5 0,3

1,3 0,6 2,0 1,0 0,6 4,8 1,1 3,5

E Biotin B3, B6 A, B1, B2 A B12 A, E A, B

6.1.3 Space Farms

As we said previously, we need a space farm in order to sustain a healthy lifestyle. We have calculated how much space we need for each crop. Considering that our settlement will have between 3000-4000 houses, we have assumed that there will be at least two people living in a house.

Examples Vegetables Tomatoes Potatoes Wheat Carrots

g/person/day 100 200 100 50

kg/year(8000 people) 36.500 73.000 309.000 152.000

Space needed(mp) 73.000 36.500 103.000 1.013

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Onion Mushrooms Salad Fruit Lemons Oranges Bananas Apples Strawberries Raspberries Total area

10 10 50 20 20 15 20 50 50

2.950 28.000 15.200 58.400 58.400 43.200 58.400 15.200 15.200 241311 mp

1.450 2.800 15.200 468 468 864 468 3.040 3.040

For the food supplies, we will be providing both vegetables and meat to the inhabitants of Selene. The crops will mostly consist of carrots, potatoes and in general plants that are rich in carbohydrates. Because fats generate more than double the quantity of energy provided by other organic substances, we decided that the diet for the on-board humans will consist of one part vegetables (high in carbohydrates and proteins) and two parts meat (high in fats and proteins).

You may notice that the most used nutrients in these meals are proteins and fats. While fats are much more effective than carbohydrates in producing energy to sustain the human body, proteins are useful in a completely other way: they are the main component of cellular structures.

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6.1.4 In Vitro Meat In vitro meat is also known as cultured meat. Being a quite new food concept, it is a controversial subject, having pros and cons with reactions from both sides. It is a product that has not been implemented yet, but has a lot of benefits to be revealed over time. Its scope is to make a mass production of meat by avoiding sacrificing animals by killing them. Strengths and Weaknesses First of all, the in vitro meat is quite expensive and not very affordable, in opposition with the traditional meat we eat day by day. However, it is expected to be cheaper when the technology improves. Additionally, it is not developed naturally, fact which dissatisfied the people. On the other hand, we avoid the well-known cruelty and the time spent to feed and take care of that animals. Also, we must not neglect the fact that transporting meat from Earth to Selene is impractical because a lot of problems can emerge ranging from refrigeration to cooking it. Because we want to be able to put at our population disposal as much fresh meat as we can, in vitro meat is one of the best solutions which can cover the demand for meat. So, we must weight carefully the downsides in order to know to overcome them and outperform its rivalry with the traditional meat. We carefully analyzed if the in vitro meat is the best solution in order to supply Selenes meat demand. Our conclusion was that it is definitely better to use it at large scales, due to the fact that we will not need any more to carry animals from Earth to Selene. And like this, we minimize the costs implied. But of course, people will be allowed to keep house animals for fun, that meaning for other purposes rather than for meat. For instance, dogs, cats or parrots can be great pets.

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Moreover, this is not the only reason. We have a much considerable downside like the fact that we cannot keep a precise evidence of the animals. They will create an ecosystem which is likely to become uncontrollable and like this, other problems may emerge. For example, predators will certainly appear sooner or later. Predators will start killing other animals and species will disappear or will become insignificant, leading to an unavoidable multiplication of the bad species.

6.1.5 Agriculture

Unfortunately, plants cannot be grown like animal tissue under laboratory conditions. It is necessary to find a way of quickly growing crops without using too much time, space and time. Bringing soil from Earth and then maintaining it over time proved to be very expensive. One of the best alternatives is growing them in water or air in systems called hydroponics and aeroponics. These two may represent a valuable alternative to traditional methods, allowing us to grow plants of a better quality than the ones grown on soil. This method is also easier, because all the labor is no longer needed and the time required is considerably shorter.

Hydroponics consists in having the plants put with their roots in a tank of water. To be able to offer the minerals and other substances found in soil, we will treat the water with nitrogen, oxygen, so that they are always available for the plants.

There are multiple kinds of systems, as described below.

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System

Components

Operating mode

Advantages

Disadvantages

Platform used to Water / Deep water Water tanks hold the plants at the desired level

The plants are held half submerged in water

Suitable for hydrophilic plants Not all the plants can Nothing else develop well in such conditions

Constant oxygen Oxygen pump supply is assured by the oxygen pump

needed (i.e. growth medium)

At the bottom of Nutrient Film Technique (N.F.T.) Water tanks The tips of the roots stay in a Oxygen and nutrient pump solution which flows through a tube at the end of the tray Better space management (allows to be built almost vertically) Platform placed oblique where plants will be put the tray, there will be a constant flow of water No growing medium necessary Plants cannot resist for a long period of time if the water flow is interrupted

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Growing tray Ebb and flow Water tank

Water comes from the tank into the tray through a tube at We can use any desired growing medium The growing tray has to contain growing medium

Air and nutrient pump

regular time intervals, after which it flows

Timer

back into the tank

A platform that keeps the plants Aeroponic Water tank hanging

Plants are kept hanging in the air No growing A pump will pulverize a mix of nutritive medium required Plants dry out quickly in case of pump failure

Air and nutrient pump

substances at regular intervals on the roots

Does not need much room

Requires grown roots

In our opinion, the optimal way to grow plants in space is by using a mix of both hydroponics and aeroponics. At first, the young plants will be put into water to grow for a small period of time (1 month) in order to develop a full root. Afterwards, they will be moved to the aeroponics department, where plants will stay suspended in the air and

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sprayed from time to time with water rich in nutritive substances. When the crop is ready, specially designed robots will harvest them. All the Products brought by the robots will undergo a brief inspection to make sure everything respects the quality standards. After this process ends, the plants will be shipped to consuming.

6.2 Water As we all know, there are a few factors which are absolutely necessary for living anywhere on Earth, but certainly not only on Earth. Water, one of the most important human resources of life, is obviously included among these factors. Consequently, water is also an indispensable resource of life on our settlement. Considering a population of 10,000 people, it is obvious that we will need large amounts of water. The main problem that we faced was obtaining these large amounts of water. At first sight it seemed to be a very difficult problem, but we found a solution for it. In 1994 the U.S. Department of Defense sponsored the Clementine mission to the Moon. One of the most important discoveries from the Clementine mission was evidence of possible resources of water-ice at the lunar poles. Later, in the 1998, the Lunar Prospector satellite was launched and placed in a 100-kilometer orbit around the Moon. Initial data from Prospector indicated that from 10 to 300 million tons of water-ice were found in the polar regions of the Moon, with a greater amount of water in the North Polar Region than in the South, a fact that confirmed the Clementine theory. Moreover, more recent data indicate the presence of 1 to 10 billion tons of water in the Polar Regions. As we previously said, the Clementine and Lunar Prospector missions both found evidence for hydrogen at the polar regions of the Moon. Of course water can be obtained by combining hydrogen and oxygen, but it will be much easier to recover water in the form of ice, as it is present in the North and South Polar Regions.

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As water-ice is available at the lunar poles, the establishment of permanent human settlements will certainly be possible. Now that we have mentioned permanent human settlements, we have finally arrived at our main purpose, which is to provide to our population of 10,000 people the necessary amount of water. As on Earth, people will need water for almost all their activities. More precisely, they will need water for ecological life support systems and for agricultural programs. Human needs Food preparation Drink Hand/ face wash Shower Washing dishes Toilet Total Required amount of water/ day 3 kg 2 kg 4 kg 21 kg 13 kg 5 kg 48 kg

Considering the large amounts of water that we need on the settlement and, moreover, the impossibility of supplying such large amounts of water every day, we decided to consider 70 kg of water per person per day. As previously mentioned, the colony will have 10,000 people. This means that the necessary amount of water for all of them is 700,000 kg (700 m3). It is important to mention that this amount of water is only for human needs, without including the big amount of water that we need for irrigation.

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On the other hand, we can find water in three states which are well-known: liquid (the seas: approximately 96% of Earths water), solid as ice (2% from the glaciers in the North and South Pole) and gas (water vapors). The water vapors found in the air cannot be seen, but they are not negligible. They do have to be taken into consideration, because due to this vapors the air has the desired humidity. In order to set a good humidity, we will have specially designed air conditioners. We also need an industry that can assure us that we drink good water for our organism. For instance, water may require purification. This consists of the removal of substances that are not dissolved and the microbes that can harm us. One of the most popular methods is to filter the water. Furthermore, another factor can occur: some people need larger quantities of water in order to avoid dehydration, ranging from 1 to 7 liters per day depending on some factors like: stress, temperature, activity, humidity, weather etc. Nobody can predict the right quantity of water needed by a human, but it said that 2 liters per day is the minimum for a proper hydration.

6.2.1 Water Management


Water has a vast range of use and is an indispensable factor for our daily routine. Unfortunately, it is limited and we need to constantly save and replenish it. We may also be forced to produce it, which would take a considerable amount of time. The water demands have to be planned a lot in advance in order to avoid unexpected problems like running out of water. So, it is a certainty that we need big amounts of water on Selene to be cautious that everything will work as intended. What specialists discovered is that humans can live a limited period of time without food, but not without water. Water also stimulates our mental activity, physical condition and level of fatigue.

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Considering all the facts presented until now, the following table shows the needed quantities of water per day: Category Quantity (cubic meters)

1.000 People (calculated for the total number of people of an expanded settlement)

Plants

200

Industry

200

Additional water for safety purposes

1.000

Total per day

2.400

One of the most important fields in which water is indispensable is agriculture. There, it is mainly used for irrigations. However, significant amounts of water (almost 3000 liters per day) are needed in order to provide a man a healthy diet. In addition to that, water is obviously used at washing, due to the fact that many chemical substances can dissolve in it. And it is also used for our body hygiene which is indispensable. Water can also be required in transport, but only for economical purposes, while in chemical area it can have the role of a solvent, reactant, solute or catalyst.

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6.2.2 Water Storage We reached the conclusion that the best way to store the water is by using our so called tanks, medium dimensioned machines that have a huge capacity. These machines are connected to all the pipes that make the connection between the houses, institutions, buildings etc. In order to maintain the same quantity of water in the machines and not to throw the waste water, we will permanently replace the already used water with the waste one which will be efficiently purified.

Inputs Water put in food Used for food preparation For drinking For oral hygiene Hands and face wash Shower Dish wash Total:

kg/person/day 1 0.7

2 0.2 1.5 6 5 16.4

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6.2.3 Water Purification Water purification is a vital process which produces water for specific purposes, but mostly for human consumption. It can also serve for other purposes (for instance chemical or medical applications). This process consists of three different and very important steps: Physical treatment Chemical treatment Biological treatment

6.2.3.1 Physical Purification One of the most important physical processes is filtration. This process is used in separating the solids from fluids (such as liquids or gases). Ii is known that filtration is demanded by chemistry. We must find a solvent that has the quality of dissolving one component while the other one remains intact. a) Nanofiltration

Also known as membrane filtration, this process has a vital role in disinfection and the removal of undesired substances such as ions or other larger and significant particles from the water. As a final result, we get clearer water which contains fewer impurities and is ready to go through the next processes.

The advantage of this method and the reason why it is a prime one is that during the process of retaining the ions we do not add extra ones and the required temperature fulfills our desires.

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b) Reverse Osmosis

The process is useful in the actual process of seawater purification. In this case, the filter has the quality of removing metal ions and salts. This implies applying pressure in order to reverse the flow of water in a contaminated solution. It does not resemble with the nanofiltration due to the fact that it is not an independent process: during it, other factors also occur. For instance, a diffusive mechanism makes it depend on other factors.

However, it has the huge advantage and quality of removing chemicals (which, in the case of filtration, is a downside).

We can distinguish three objects through which water has to be passed in order to become drinkable:

A carbon filter which aids at keeping the chemicals and the chlorine The reverse osmosis filter Ultra violet lamp

c) Distillation

After all the processes are fully completed, the water must be safe for drinking and ready to be put at the peoples disposal without having any more pathogen agents.

Despite the previous purification processes, we still want to take an extra measure for the safety of our population. So, we will also use the distillation. Therefore, we will obtain a 99.9% pure water. After this, the water will finally be ready for consumption.

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6.2.3.3 Biological Purification We have two main types of biological purification: a) Aerobic Treatment This treatment is usually useful in places where we cannot find public sewers, for instance, but can be used in a limited group of residences. It consists of four phases which are: The pre-treatment stage: useless substances and solids are totally removed from the wastewater The aeration stage The settling stage The disinfecting stage (which is optional) Its main advantage is that the costs are negligible, being a cheap process. However, it implies a lot of oxygen, which represents a major disadvantage.

b) Anaerobic Treatment This is the process where we can convert organic matter into biogas in the absence of oxygen with the aid of microorganisms. It is composed of the thermophilic digestion and the mesophilic digestion. Its weaknesses are that it implies a larger sum of money than the aerobic treatment and consequently it is a slower process. Moreover, its results are not as satisfactory too. Another drawback is that, after this treatment, we must still use the aerobic treatment due to the fact that the water will not be clean enough. Based on our research, we decided to use both of them, according to the oxygen quantity that is at our disposal.

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6.3 Atmosphere, Weather and Climate 6.3.1 Atmosphere Atmosphere is an essential part for the life of an inhabitant. We will be trying to replicate the atmosphere and its functionalities from Earth because life on Earth is the most precise system humanity is yet to discover. The composition of Earths atmosphere is roughly 78.09% nitrogen, 20.95% oxygen and 0.04% carbon dioxide. Other gases are also present in small percentages, but those gases are mainly irrelevant for human life and should not be taken into account. They can, however, be transported from Earth if there is any need of them. They are Argon, Helium, Neon, Hydrogen and Methane. If we could develop a healthy and life-based atmosphere recycling system, Selene would need just one transport of artificial air either from Terra or from the Moon. This can be achieved in several ways: Method 1: There has been evidence of successful experiments that recreated a small, self-sustaining ecosystem within an enclosed space. This leads to a less mainstream method: have a room that contains an animal-less environment. The room should be permanently closed, except for when it is used to recycle the atmosphere for the inhabitants. By exchanging air between the ecosystem and the living area we do not damage the plants that produce air, but quite the opposite: the CO 2 produced by the humans and then transferred in the enclosed room will help the plants develop faster. Of course, we cannot just have plain oxygen and nitrogen in our atmosphere and hope it is enough. Firstly, we need some nitrogen-fixating organisms. These mostly consist of either symbiotic or extremely adaptive bacteria, so the nitrogen cycle should be the least of our worries. The third thing we need besides plants and bacteria are fungi: these can help decompose the remains of dead plants and consume the unnecessary nutrients that are toxic for plants.
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If the ecosystem is fully enclosed, and it should be, the water cycle will only need a one-time head start (introducing water in the ecosystem) because the plants and fungi should be able to create a small-scale water cycling system (rain, clouds). Because of these factors, humidity should not be a concern, at least for the enclosed ecosystem. Method 2: Green spaces. The easiest and possibly most efficient method is to create green spaces, small patches of plants, throughout the living area. We made a quick calculation to determine what volume of leaves is needed for each individual human. Let us say every chloroplast uses about 50% of its space as effective reaction space. Each surface cell (for a leaf) consists of roughly 70% chloroplasts (volume). Taking these two into account and the fact that a cell is averagely 50 cubic micrometers, we can say that each cell converts 17.5 cubic micrometers of carbon dioxide into oxygen. Each leaf contains about 699170 cells that are actively converting carbon dioxide into oxygen. That means 120042986 cubic micrometers per unit of time or 0.0001 cubic centimeters per unit of time. The average human breathes 15 times a minute. We can safely say that 50% of the exhaled volume is CO 2. Humans usually exhale about 3570 cubic centimeters of gas, of which 1785 cubic centimeters are CO2. So the amount of leaves per person depends on the following formula:

Other factors include humidity and light. Photosynthesis works at full efficiency between 50000 lux and 120000 lux. For an efficient simulation of a day-night circle, light should be reduced below these levels during late hours and should vary between them during the day as follows: 50000 lux at the beginning of the morning, the light level rises gradually until it reaches 120000 at noon and then starts decreasing to simulate the night.

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We all know that human body exchanges gases with the environment. Those exchanges are made under the terms of a certain atmospheric pressure. But what if the air pressure changes? Well, everything will be the same except for the number of molecules which will increase if the pressure is higher, or it will come down if it becomes lower. This can cause tachycardia and wretched headaches, chest pains or heart palpitations for hypertensive people.

We have to consider the fact that the human body is made of liquids like blood and tissues like bone tissue. All of them suffer changes only if we talk about high atmospheric pressure. But among the liquids and the tissues, our lungs contain gas. Boyle-Mariotte law says that the volume and the pressure of a gas are inversely proportional if the temperature does not change.

Additional pressure growth can cause pulmonary lesions. Oxygen can be toxic if it is under pressure and can harm our central nervous system. On Earth the atmospheric pressure is measured at the sea level and at 0C and it reaches the value 760 mmHg.

Humidity

Why is humidity so important? For example, we cannot have photosynthesis without this factor. On Earth the relative humidity is 50+/-10 percent. On our planet the humidity is influenced by the dew-point. The same thing will be also used on Selene. The water that will be stored on boils will be boiled gradually. Through some special filters, the vapors will be taken, condensed and spread where necessary.

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Improving the Atmosphere In addition to our ordinary, earth-like atmosphere composition, we believe that we can improve the energy and general life quality of the inhabitants of the settlement by delivering them vitamins in the form of nano-spheres incorporated in the atmosphere. By themselves, the vitamins would fall to the ground way too fast to be inhaled by the citizens. We can, however, deliver them using a unique method: graphene spheres. Graphene is a form of carbon, besides graphite and diamond. It is essentially a oneatom thick graphite layer. Because of this, it is extremely light. The spheres will be voided and containing one single molecule of a certain vitamin. The sphere itself will be large enough so that the combined weight of the sphere and the vitamin is exactly equal to the weight of a volume of air equal to the volume of the said components. Because every individual vitamin has a different molecular weight, the grapheme sphere for each vitamin will have a different volume. This volume can be easily calculated, knowing just the mass of regular air, the space between carbon atoms in graphene and the molecular mass of the vitamin in question. For a demonstrative purpose, we will calculate the necessary volume for a graphene sphere to hold a molecule of vitamin A. The distance between two carbon atoms in graphene is about 0.142 nanometers. Using this number, we can determine the number and weight of carbon items required for a sphere with the volume V. The formulas we will be using are the area of a sphere: and the volume of a sphere: . Knowing the , where

distance between two carbon atoms on the surface, we can say that

n represents the number of carbon atoms. Combining those three we can obtain an equation that represents the volume in relation to n

(1)

Knowing n, we can calculate the mass of those carbon atoms:

where m is the mass of the graphene sphere. We said that this particular sphere would
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be made specifically for vitamin A, which has the molecular formula of C 20H30O and has a molecular mass of 286. That means that a single molecule weights about 1660.5 nanograms. Adding this to the mass of the sphere itself, we can say that the mass of the whole contraption is (2) And of course, the last missing piece here is the mass of a volume V of air. The mass of the air is 28.9. So (3) In conclusion, in order for our sphere to float easily through the atmosphere, the following equation must be equalized:

Of course, the calculus was made taking into account the molecular weight of vitamin A, but it can be easily generalized for any kind of substance. Using this kind of technique to deliver various stimulants opens a whole new horizon from an atmosphere point of view: any kind of substance that is liquid, solid or gaseous can be contained in a graphene sphere and can be delivered to our inhabitants without any additional effort from their side. Unfortunately, the technology necessary to process vitamins and graphene at this size is not yet accessible to humans. It is, however, not far away as this requires just a refining of the already existing technology.

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6.3.2 Weather and Climate The climate on Selene should be pleasant and mild, with a temperature that facilitates both physical and mental work, but also relaxation. We thought of a temperature that mimics a single season: spring. Just because our yearly cycle has only one season does not mean that the temperature will not change. The human body is adapted to at least a slight temperature change over a year. It is obvious that if we do not change the temperature during the year, the human body might not remain entirely healthy. So, the average temperature on our settlement should be around 25 degrees Celsius, with the seasonal variation between 20 and 30 degrees. A day and night cycle is mandatory because of the green areas that we use to produce oxygen. Plants use what is called transpiration at night: they eliminate excess water stored during the day and then properly store the energy accumulated during photosynthesis. Also, not having a day-night cycle would be bad for the newcomers too: their body needs some time to adapt to the new sleeping schedule and without nighttime, the body would be confused. The humidity can be easily maintained by spraying water against a membrane with very tiny pores, thus spreading the said water into the air. Having plants on the residential area, a water cycle will tend to form. Water, being lighter than air, will try to rise to the ceiling of the settlement where it should form clouds. Naturally, this cannot be allowed as rain would be unpleasant for the community and the plants can be watered by artificial means. These mini-clouds are about 2-3 meters tall.

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Thus, about 2-3 meters below the ceiling, a special membrane should be placed. The membrane needs to contain NaCl, a compound that absorbs water and can be easily synthesized. Upon absorption of a cloud, the salt can be used for other means (food, building, fueling robots) and a new batch of salt needs to be placed below the ceiling.

6.4 Lighting and Day/ Night Cycle On Earth, light is an important factor which has a big role and influence in everyones life. In order to create the best conditions for the settlers, we have to find a way to reproduce it or simply find a way to use the solar rays. Radiation can permanently damage the settlers eyes. Lens, optic nerve and retina can be irreversibly affected by particles. Other organs can also get damaged, especially if there is a predisposition in their functionality. So, we decided to have a special window, with protection against the powerful and harmful rays, which may cause blindness. This window will not only provide protection, but will also permit exactly the desired quantity of solar rays to reach Selene. This way, a programmed system will open and close a membrane, placed in front of the windows to produce the day/ night cycle. The panels will open and close every 24 hours, in order not to affect the settlers biorhythm. Also, for offering a beautiful view, we thought of placing LCD panels which will display clouds and beautiful images of the Sun during the day and dazzling stars and the Moon during the night.

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VII. Resource Management "We are not willing to accept the boundaries of the atmosphere as borders of the human existence anymore." Hermann Oberth 7.1 Solar Power and Nuclear Power As we all know, energy is very important in today's world. Energy generates electricity which powers our computers, our televisions and our mobile phones, but also cars, buses, planes, trains- just to mention a few of the things that need electricity in order to function. Given that all life support systems require electricity to run, its production and storage is extremely important.

In Space, however, we only have two sources of energy that can be converted into electricity so as to sustain the settlement. These sources are solar energy and nuclear energy. In order to get the best results, the space settlement would require an innovative system of producing electricity, storing it, and even making use of the space power sources.

Solar Power On a space settlement with no atmosphere, unlike Earth, solar panels are way more effective, and are able to capture up to seven times more sunlight than on our planet, because the atmosphere blocks part of the solar rays. Another reason would be the one that a surface on Earth would only be illuminated for a certain part of the day, while an orbiting settlement can benefit from this all the time. Solar rays are to be captured using Gallium Arsenide solar cells. These, unlike ordinary silicone cells, have a higher efficiency, about 25% of the solar

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power being transformed into electricity. Although these elements can be found in a limited quantity, each panel will contain a layer only 1 micron thick, very small, but yet sufficient, lowering the production costs. The photovoltaic arrays will have triple-junction solar cells produced with Gallium Arsenide, germanium and indium gallium phosphide layers which can operate with even more concentrated light. Excess energy will be well stored, in case there is a system failure, for emergency situations, or for moments when the demand is higher than the production.

Nuclear power Using energy produced by nuclear means may not seem the best idea, but, in fact, using polywell reactor is completely safe and has an immense potential, offering high amounts of energy for a low cost. The polywell is a type of fusion reactor that uses magnetic confinement, in order to trap electrons inside its hollow center. It consists of positively charged electromagnet coils arranged into a polyhedron, called the MaGrid, charged positively to more than 50,000 volts. Each coil creates a magnetic field of 2 Tesla. Positive boron and hydrogen ion beams are shot and are afterwards accelerated by the cloud of electrons in the center. Then, the protons and the boron nuclei collide, resulting high energy alpha particles (helium nuclei) which carry large amounts of energy.

Example of MaGrid

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Due to its power output proportional to

, the

optimal radius for the MaGrid is about 1.5 meters. A smaller radius would mean not enough power to charge the MaGrid and power the coils, while a radius much bigger than 1.5 meters would result in a power output exceeding the strength of any known material, destroying everything.

Example of polywell

Space Energy on Earth As time passes, Earths natural resources are getting fewer and fewer. The exhaustible energy sources are being used at a growing rate. However, not enough money is spent on developing solutions for using the renewable sources at their maximum potential and the power demand is higher and higher. We will soon run out of coal, natural gases, and oil. Therefore, one such settlement should be able to help. Sending energy to Earth would greatly help the situation. In order to do so, we will place two satellites on the geosynchronous orbit, diametrally opposed, so that the process can take place any time. From Selene, energy will travel in shape of a laser beam to reach the two satellites equipped with photovoltaic

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panels. These will transform light into energy, then send it through microwaves to the receivers on Earth. Both technologies have their own drawbacks and advantages, but we considered this the optimal choice, despite the fact that a two-step transmission would have a lower efficiency. We use light from the settlement to the first satellite because light can travel the big distance between them in a short amount of time, and then use microwaves to send energy to Earth because they are safer. Laser beams of this concentration can be hazardous: they can kill through localized spot heating and even at lower power levels it can blind people and animals. On the other hand, though, microwaves could interfere with existing radio communication, such as Wi-Fi or phones. Energy Storage Having a constant supply of electrical energy is not enough. We need to be able to store as much energy as we can, without sacrificing too much room. The solution for this is using nanoscale supercapacitors, a very effective, yet new type of capacitor. The nanostructures of such storage device are basically tiny holes created on a thin film only a few nanometers thick. They

work just like conventional capacitors, storing electrical charge in an insulating material situated between two metal plates. We can find up to one million tiny capacitors in just one square centimeter.

Multi-layered nanocapacitor representation

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It all starts from a thin sheet of aluminum, which is anodized so that lots of tiny pores form across its surface result, each one having a size at the order of 50 nanometers. The next step consists of applying two layers of titanium nitride, separated by an insulation layer which will be deposited into the formed pores. Then, the pores are going to be covered by another layer of aluminum. The two exterior layers will act as contacts. In order to create a capacitor big enough to store energy for the entire settlement, we will assemble multiple areas like this so as to form a surface with billions of nanopores. When comparing capacitors with traditional lithium-ion batteries, we can notice that each one has its own advantages and disadvantages. Batteries store large amounts of energy, their negative side being their difficulty with high power and the long time required for recharge. The capacitors, on the other hand, can be charged and discharged at a very fast rate and have a power density about 100 times greater than batteries. Electrostatic nanocapacitors increase the energy storage density up to 100 times, without losing anything of their high power. To make a comparison, modern lithium-ion is about 160 Wh/ kg. If the nanocapacitors reach the expected increase, they could even reach 3000 Wh/ kg, which would cause a massive progress in energy storage technology. 3

Heat Dissipation and Protection Constant nuclear fusion reactions will lead to obtaining a large quantity of heat resulted from the collision of the particles at high speed. The chambers where polywells will be stored will reach dangerously high temperatures unless we take measures regarding this problem.
3

http://www.gizmag.com/nanoscale-supercapacitor/11297/

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The main energy chamber will have multiple protection systems, each reactor being separately monitored, so that it maintains its parameters such as temperature, magnetic field value and energy at normal values. If any of the reactors misbehaves, it will immediately be shut down, in order to avoid uncontrolled collisions between particles, which could be extremely dangerous. To deal with the problem, we will place three thermal conductive panels on the rooms walls, big enough to support enough heat transfer per unit of time in order to maintain the room at proper operating temperatures. For best results, two of the panels will be made of monocrystalline synthetic diamond which contains 99, 9% 12C isotope and of silver. However, there are some important facts which need to be taken into consideration:

Diamond will burn at temperatures over 700 Celsius. This means the temperature must never get to this point. If, by any means, this happens, we will pull the thermal insulating covers on them, suspend the polywell activity for the required amount of time and use only the aluminum panel instead.

Considering that outside the temperature is about 3 Kelvin, we must consider the case when not all the reactors will work at full capacity. This would mean that, in the unit of time, we lose more heat than we receive. In order to solve this problem, we could either use only two of the panels, or even partially cover them with the thermal insulating layer, to reduce the cooling capacities.

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7.2 Recycling In a remote place, with not many primary resources available all the time, recycling is the key to survive. We cannot afford to waste materials, but we need to transform everything into reusable and simple substances, which could be afterwards used as primary materials. Even though we will try to use as many biodegradable materials as possible, we cannot use only such kind of materials. One simple example is plastic, a nonbiodegradable material which is highly used in many categories of products. Because we wanted to be effective, we decided it is the best to collect all the waste from the entire settlement into a single location. There, they will be sorted into categories: plastic, metal, paper, and glass. Each one will go through different processes.

7.2.1 Metal Recycling Metal will probably be the most important kind of material to be recycled, being found in large quantities. The two main sources of metal dedicated to recycling will be the settlement junk and the items gathered by the Ianuaria collecting module (part of the space junk collecting mission). All the metal pieces will first go into a sorting chamber. There, they will undergo a scanning process, after which robotic arms will put them together into categories, according to chemical elements found in their structure and their properties. This would allow us to perform an efficient process of recycling while making optimizations for each type of material. The next step will be graining the metal parts into tiny pieces, and then sending them to the melting oven. After melting and cooling to normal temperatures, the resulting pieces will be transferred to the industrial facility, where they will suffer further processing.

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7.2.2 Paper recycling Collected paper will be mixed with water and chemicals in order to break it down. Then it will be heated, in order to dismantle it further into simpler parts. The resulting cellulose strands will be strained through screens to remove any foreign materials which could be found in the mixture. To make the process simpler, all the printers will use special, hydrophobic ink, thus making an easier process of recycling. Paper fibers will be sunk into water, then air will be blown, and the bubbles containing the particulates will come to surface. Repeating the process a few times is an easy way of obtaining deinked paper pulp. The main problem of water recycling is that it can only be done a finite number of times, as paper fibers get shorter each time. This means that a constant supply of cellulose fibers would be required, but it is not something to worry too much about, because electronic devices will replace paper almost entirely.

7.2.3 Glass Recycling Glass will be cleaned of any particles of dirt or any other foreign materials, then crushed into small pieces, followed by melting in furnaces at high temperatures. After this, it can be poured into molds and reshaped into new objects. The melted glass can be mixed with sand for additional properties.

7.2.4 Plastic recycling Plastic will go through thermal depolymerization process. Under high temperature and pressure conditions, long chains of carbon will decompose into simpler ones. By using the hydrous pyrolisis, complex organic materials, such as plastic, biomass or even ordinary things like leaves, food, paper and synthetic fabrics can be transformed into crude oil. After further processing, this crude oil can be transformed into plastic, paints or other chemical substances.

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7.3 Energy 7.3.1 How Much Energy Do We Produce? Selene will have its full surface covered with solar panels, except the place where the windows will be placed. Considering that a square meter produces approximately 2 kW/ day, it results: Energy = 2 * (surface - windows surface) (kW/ day) During a rotation just a half of the space settlement will be facing the sun rays directly, so we have to divide the energy produced by 2. Energy = (surface - windows surface) (kW/ day) The windows surface is approximately Energy = Surface = Energy = 3 133 000 kW/ day of the entire surface, so it results:

surface (kW/ day)

7.3 2 How Much Energy Do We Need? Based on the structure of the space settlements components, we made an estimative calculation of the daily needed amount of energy. For each hexagon module..165 000 kW Total for 6 hexagon modules .990 000 kW Docks10 000 kW Other activities. 500 000 kW Total.. 1 500 000 kW Altogether, just from the solar panels we obtain a big amount of spare energy: 1 633 000 kW/ day. All the spare energy will be transferred to Earth, in order to obtain a great profit.
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VIII. Social System We all do better when we work together. Our differences do matter, but our common humanity matters more. Bill Clinton

8.1 Government As on Earth, a range of rules will also be established on Selene, because having no rules will surely lead to chaos. Political, administrative, internal and external rules will be elaborated in order to maintain a correct and peaceful life on the settlement.

The government will consist of politicians from different countries from Earth, which have a strong and independent economy: ambassadors from the USA, China, Russia, France, Japan, United Kingdom, Germany etc. They will have to ensure the best life on the settlement that is possible.

The center of the politics will be a specially-designed and futuristic HQ (headquarters), the place where data regarding each settler will be recorded and monitored. This will help the government in having evidence of Selenes inhabitants and in being able to provide a quick and effective situation in case of illegality etc. However, only a very few people will have access to this data, being strictly confidential, so that the settlers will have a very strong privacy.

Specially-trained people will be constantly working in the HQ, in order to prevent and solve any functional problem which may arise. These people will have very strict working conditions, in order to take the right decisions and do their job properly.

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Also, the HQ will have specially-designed rooms for the communication with Earth. Communication machines will constantly assure the link between Earth and Selene, because it is obvious that the two will strongly be in touch. Also, normal people will have access to these machines which will provide them with the opportunity to talk to their relatives or friends from Earth, to find out news from there or simply see how life is going on.

8.2 Education Considering the fact that education and culture are two essential elements that contribute to the formation of personality and human character, our space settlement provides our young inhabitants the possibility to study any domain they want, in good conditions of study and of course professional help coming from some well-prepared teachers. Similar to people living on Earth, our space settlers will have, starting with the second phase of our space settlement construction, a very well-developed educational system. As we all know, education is an essential and beneficial factor in terms of developing the qualities of human beings. In order to fit into an educational system, first of all you must be able to fit into a team. On our space settlement this team will be formed by people coming from all over the world. This way, the young inhabitants living on Selene will be able to exchange information, experiences and traditions; they will also be able to enjoy the opportunities given by the chance to discover very different people to them. At the same time, fitting into an educational system is easier when people who are part of it enjoy good conditions and receive an appropriate treatment, which make them feel as good as possible. The educational system that our team decided to adopt is represented by a system which has all the qualities that we previously mentioned.
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In order to ensure an easy access to kindergartens, schools and universities for all our young inhabitants, we decided to place these institutions side by side, in the center of our space community. Outside, in the middle of these institutions there will be a common courtyard, where all our young students will be able to take part in a lot of science conferences and they will receive assistance in any area to which they want to turn their future careers. Depending on the age and skill level, our space settlement provides to our inhabitants: a kindergarten, a primary school, a middle school, a high school and a college. All the educational institutions will provide the latest technologies, in order to ensure a good and up-to-date learning. Interactive tables, smart boards, computers, tablets and projectors will facilitate the learning activity.

Plasma interactive display

Extendable table

Seating places (chairs required)

Two seater interactive table

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Kindergarten This accommodates children with ages between 3 and 6. They will be divided into the following groups: those of 3-4 years in a group and the others, of 5-6 years, in another group (each group will consist in 15 children, who will be in the care of two special teachers). Each group will have a separate classroom. And each classroom will be equipped with desks and chairs for the children. Children will have all kind of toys to feel as well as possible during their stay in the kindergarten. Toilets will be located separately from the classroom and the children will be accompanied to the toilet by a person who will take care of their hygiene. Kindergarten program Children will be able to come to the kindergarten every day starting with 8:00 and, depending on the schedule of their parents, they will be able to stay until 12:00 or 16:00 (the program is available from Monday to Friday). Here children can enjoy educational activities such as: learning foreign languages, dancing, sports, music and painting.

Primary school Starting from age 7 up to age 11, children can go to the primary school. Here they will be divided according to age (the 7-year class, the 8-year class, the 9-year class, and the 10-year class) into four classes, each class with up to 25 students. Classrooms will be separated one from the other and restrooms will be located at the end of each corridor. The primary school will also be equipped with a mini cafeteria, where during the large break (large break- 30 minutes, the other breaks- 7 minutes) students can eat.

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Each class of 25 students will be prepared by a teacher who will teach English and Mathematics. Other fields such as music, art, geography or physical education will be taught to students by teachers specialized in their fields. The primary school students will benefit from a workshop, a festivity hall and a gym with professional equipment, which will be, of course, inside the school. The primary school program starts at 8:00 and ends at 12:00 (the program is available from Monday to Friday).

Middle School In addition to the primary school subjects, the secondary school pupils will also study the following mandatory subjects: Physics, Chemistry and Biology. The middle school program starts at 13:00 and ends at 16:00 (the program is available from Monday to Friday).

High school After the end of the middle school, students will be able to move to the next stage, which is represented by the high school. We have often heard that the high school is the most important part of the whole educational process, because teenagers reach the period of maturation, growth, transformation into adults. During high school, a lot of pupils start creating their own ideas about life and about what they think that will be better for them in the future. Teenagers decide to focus on the domain that they consider appropriate and also the domain where they feel and think they are the best. That is the main reason why, during high school, the education system on Selene provides our students the possibility to choose from a

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variety of subjects only those subjects that they consider to be appropriate for them, in order to obtain the knowledge they need to have for their further careers. The high school subjects are English, Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Geography, French, Spanish, Chinese, Psychology, Sport, Art and Music. But there will also be a set of compulsory subjects for each student, a set composed of English, Mathematics and Biology. Each subject will be taught by a teacher specialized in his own field and each class will last one hour. Between classes there will be breaks of 10 minutes, except for the lunch break which will be 30 minutes long. The high school program will begin at 8:00 and will end depending on everyone's schedule, according to the number of hours chosen for the day (the program is available from Monday to Friday).

University In the university, the students will be able to get any kind of information from a library containing all the up-to-date book editions. The students will have the opportunity of purchasing interactive courses of some of the most renowned teachers from the most prestigious universities in the world. For a better understanding of the course, students will have the possibility to take part in workshops and laboratories organized for areas such as: medicine, electronics and any kind of industry. The university and the university library will be available for students starting with 8:00 until 19:00, from Monday to Friday.

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8.3 Religion Science without religion is lame, religion without science is blind.(Albert Einstein) In order to make the inhabitants of Selene feel completely at their ease, we considered that a space of silence is also necessary, a place where people can meditate and be able to put in order their ideas, being guided by those whom they consider their spiritual leaders. With the purpose of offering our settlers the possibility to pray and to meditate, we have decided to build several places of worship, ecumenical spaces where people of all religions can be close to the divinity they believe in.

8.4 Population selection Only a small number of Earths population will be selected to populate the colony. Unfortunately, there will be many candidates, so that potential candidates will have to go through a large number of complex tests regarding multiple domains. Like this, only the ones that best fit our requirements will be selected. This will obviously reduce ordinary problems such as theft, pickpocketing and robberies. And this tests will also guarantee that each and every person is both physically, as well as mentally healthy. We can, therefore, draw a list of basic requirements: 1. No criminal record: nobody desires people who are known to have committed violent acts, as they can behave unexpectedly in various situations and may represent a problem for the society.

2. University diploma: each person must have graduated a college recognized at international level, which ensures their intellectual competence.

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3. Physically healthy: a complete set of tests will be done to every possible inhabitant to create their medical record, which will contain data such as blood type, known diseases and health problems. People who suffer from diseases which may disrupt their reaction when moving to a completely new environment will not be taken into consideration.

4. Mentally healthy: we would not like our settlement to be populated with people with social problems, which would mean being uncommunicative or having problems working in teams. Thereby, the subjects will undergo multiple psychological tests to make sure nobody represents a social danger.

5. No smoking or drug addiction: it is known how dangerous smoking is. It gradually destroys ones lungs and may harm those around as well. Smokers will not find cigarettes in the settlement and that may lead to unexpected reactions from the body. Drug addicts will not be accepted either.

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IX. Urban infrastructure Cities have the capability of providing something for everybody, only because, and only when, they are created by everybody. Jane Jacobs 9.1 Leisure Places Relaxation is one of the most important factors that improve the happiness of humans and in fact a necessity in everybodys life. Because we want to have happy inhabitants who continue their normal life on Selene, different sorts of relaxation places will be built with the purpose of offering fun and pleasant moments.

9.1.1 Gyms Having gyms on a Space Settlement may help the settlers in maintaining fit. Sport is important in every persons life and we would like the inhabitants to apply Mens sana in corpore sano (a healthy mind in a healthy body) and turn it into a lifestyle. There will be places where the settlers will be able to play tennis, football, basketball, volleyball, as well as many other sports. Also, practitioners of aikido or taekwondo will have a place where they will be able to train and practice in peace. It is known that if we practice sports we can help generating neurons and in the same time prevent diseases such as Parkinson and Alzheimer.

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9.1.2 Clubs Every hotel will have a small club, where settlers will be able to party and dance. Also, near the mall there will be a club, where 14- to 18-year-old settlers may stay until 12 oclock or until morning if they are older than 18. They will have the opportunity to listen to music, dance, meet new people and socialize.

9.1.3 Spa Resort Nothing is more pleasant that a relaxation massage and a bath in thermal water, a sauna session or other treatments for the body. Each hotel will have a spa resort, opened not only for the settlers, but also for the guests.

9.1.4 Library Joseph Addison once said: Reading is to the mind what exercise is to the body. We know that a lot of our settlers, being people of culture, will certainly want to relax in a peaceful place and in the same time learn new things. On Selene there will be a big library at the University Center, where everybody can come and read different books on tablets connected to a comprehensive database full of books. People who would like to take certain books at home can copy them on their own tablets. Because there is no need to return the books or pay a membership subscription, the readers are just required not to make noise or disturb other people from the library, who are also willing to relax and become smarter.

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9.1.5 0g Room We believe that all the people in the world have dreamt at least once that they were flying. Maybe they do not remember, but every boy wanted to be Superman and every girl wanted to be a Powerpuff girl. And the settlers from Selene will really be able to do it! In the dock sphere there will be a special room in which the gravity tends to be equal to zero. But before completely developing the concept, studies on how the human body reacts to the weightlessness effect will also be developed. Of course it has been proved that humans cannot live all the time without gravity because our body is not capable of supporting 0 G. The lack of gravity can cause hypoglycemia or hypertension. Even the accommodation to 1 G has turned out to be difficult for astronauts. We consider this an interesting and in the same time very useful experience in the study of astronauts body reactions and equipment behavior.

9.1.6 Hologram Concerts Arena Because most of the people affirm that music is a very important part of their lives, we decided to create a futuristic arena for hologram concerts. The arena will have a capacity of 1000 visitors. Holography is the technique which creates three-dimensional images using lasers, different light intensities, suitable illumination and optical phenomena laws. Every night, realistic holograms of very well-known singers and composers will delight the settlers with their artworks. Whether you like classical music or you are a rock fan, you will be able to buy tickets to your music idols exclusive concert.

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9.2 Medical System

The medical system on Selene will be represented by a central hospital that monitors the activity of eight performing medical centers, which serve about 1000 patients and are available 24 hours of 24 every day.

In order to make sure that our inhabitants will experience the best clinical conditions, the medical system on our space settlement will be required to provide permanent assistance, diagnosis and treatment of all diseases, on specialties. If it is necessary, a treatment at home will be available. At the same time, any kind of change that can occur on human organism because of the different conditions of life will certainly be monitored. Without no doubt, there will be differences (here we are talking about environmental conditions) that will always affect systems and appliances with which the human body works. Considering previous medical experience, it will be also insisted on disease prevention. All diagnoses will be closely monitored to prevent epidemics and endemic.

In order to maintain the health of our inhabitants, the quality of the water will be supervised daily and hygiene measures will be taken periodically. Moreover, all the common diseases and all the diseases of unknown cause will be reported.

9.2.1 Medical Activity

Medical activity will be based on using complex equipment for medical investigations, with the purpose of getting the correct diagnosis. Like this, it will be possible to obtain morphological and functional information in physiological and pathological situations (microscopy, electro physiological techniques, spectral

techniques, techniques based on the use of radioactive isotopes, ultrasound, nuclear resonance magnetic). Using a performant equipment, medical personnel will be reduced

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to ten doctors with different specialties. The doctors will have acces to databases, computerized records of all the settlers who live on Selene .

The performant equipment and also the computerization of medical activity and organization will facilitate the access of every citizen to health services.

9.2.2 Disease Prevention

The prevention of diseases will be made through epidemiological surveillance. Data will be collected, processed, analyzed and interpreted to initiate measures for prevention and control.

The purpose is: To track health problems; To verify the assumptions; To effectively prevent and control diseases which manifest themselves in the community;

So, the intended characteristics of the surveillance system will be: simple, sensitive, flexible, acceptable and desirable.

9.2.3 Detection of Disease

The epidemiological surveillance will lead to an early detection of the disease. We will start from the assumption that diseases do not occur randomly and they can be resolved quickly using different methods like: Vaccination Isolation Treatment

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9.2.4 Treatments Depending on the patients health condition, treatments will be made right to the patient's home, in a medical center or in the central hospital, in case there is a severe cases.

9.2.5 Medical Research

Space is something totally different from anything we have ever tried on Earth, so we have to be prepared for unexpected situations. But we cannot know all those things just like that. We have to study our new environment to see if it fits our needs. Maybe new diseases will encounter and our settlers must be ready to maintain their health condition. In order to make this possible, Selene will have doctors who will permanently study our behavior and the way this environment affects our body.

We also have to consider the psychological factors which may harm our people. No matter how hard we try to test the volunteers, their reaction to living in Space cannot be completely predicted. Even if we have rules which will not be broken regarding the admission terms, our settlers may develop several psychological problems. Those will be studied, classified and written in special statistics, in order to be able to provide a proper treatment for each one.

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9.3 Restaurants and Hotels 9.3.1 Hotels Selene will not only be a living place, but it will also be a holiday destination, available for people who desire to spend an unforgettable vacation in space, lodged in the luxurious and modern hotels offered by the settlement.

Because the number of visitors is not expected to be a very large one, we consider that two hotels, built in the northern and the southern part of the settlement, will be enough for Selene.

The hotels will have the best conditions in order to make the visitors enjoy themselves. Not only settlers, but also people from Earth who are willing to experience life in Space will have the opportunity to stay here.

Hotels will have an undulating design, with irregular ovals defining each floor. An electric band-route from the first floor to the last one, the 40th, and four high-speed glass elevators will guarantee the access from a floor to another and will provide a seamless experience for the guests of the hotel. The hotels will be made of a special glass which is opaque from outside to inside, but people who are inside will be able to clearly see the outside. So, either you are in your room or in the lobby or in an elevator, you will have a wide perspective over the entire settlement. At the lobby level, a shiny glass curtain will enclose an open-air luxury restaurant, which will allow gusts to eat while admiring the exuberant gardens of the settlement. The hotels will also provide conference rooms, lounge areas, electronic shops, enormous swimming pools, gym, spa and lots of cafs. In order to cover the costs of running this kind of hotels, the accommodation will be quite expensive. If you want to experiment life in this hotels, you will have to pay

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1500$ for a single room per night or 2500 $ for double room per night. Depending on the facilities, prices can be higher, reaching up to 4500 $ per night.

Selenia Hotel

9.3.2 Restaurants These days, people often eat in a restaurant, rather than at home. According to a survey about tipping and dining conducted by www.surveymonkey.com, 28% eat out more than once a week. People choose to eat in a restaurant because it is faster and more comfortable, but also a great way to meet up with friends, exchange ideas and opinions or even have business meetings. Based on the statistic above, it can be affirmed that having restaurants on the settlement is a necessity. So, we decided to build three foreign-culture based restaurants, each offering a large variety of different courses. An Oriental restaurant, a European restaurant and an American restaurant will offer the settlers a unique and

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innovative dining experience through not only the delicious and freshly-cooked courses, but also through the futuristic concept of ordering. The restaurants from Selene will make use of e-tables, an ordering interactive system which places the control of the dining experience right in the customers hands. There will be no paper menus, only tables with an interactive display and a mouse track pad. The interactive tables will work just as computer screens. Illustrated food and drinks menus will be projected onto the table surfaces from above. The main advantage of this type of restaurants is that the clients are able to choose and order their drinks and courses from the track pad, without having to wait for a waiter or a waitress. When the customers will be waiting for their order to arrive, they will be able to watch the chef cooking on a live cam. And if they will have to wait a bit longer, they can play some games, personalize the cloth of their table, read a book or the newspaper or discover the neighborhood by taking a virtual tour. And when they finish, they can ask for the bill on the table and they can even order a taxi. Restaurants based on the e-table concept provide a lot of advantages to the restaurant owners, like reduced staff costs, a considerable increase in customer spending and a more efficient way to deal with customers. So, by serving good food, offering great customer service, and creating a unique experience for the diners, the restaurants will definitely be a huge success and will attract customers not only from the

settlement, from Earth.

but also

Interactive table Source: Inamo restaurant

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Oriental Restaurant Menu

Barbecued Pork Tenderloin, Barbecued Ribs, Parchment Chicken, Spicy Starters: Chicken Wings, Fried Fresh Squid, Fried Prawns, Fried Oyster, Kappa (cucumber rolls), Kampyo (dried gourd rolls), Shiitake (mushroom rolls), Vegetarian Rolls, Egg Rolls, Sea Food Traditional Plate;

Soups:

Beef Soup, Rice Soup, Seaweed Soup, Egg Flower Soup, Sweet and Sour Soup, Chicken Won Ton, Beef Won Ton, Shrimp Won Ton, Noodle Soup, Chicken Udon;

Main Dish:

Sushi, Sesame chicken, Chicken Teriyaki, Beef Teriyaki, Fried Trout, Eel Steak (served with rice), Shrimp Tempura (shrimps with fresh vegetables), Beef Donburi, Chicken Donburi, Sushi Donburi, Vegetable Tempura;

Side Orders:

Sea Weed Salad, Cabbage Salad, Cucumber Salad, Avocado Salad, Salmon Salad, Shrimp Salad, Rice with Vegetables, Rice with Japanese Traditional Spices; Golden Dragon (banana tort with caramel and chocolate sauce), Kingdom

Desserts:

of Taste (brandy basket filled with vanilla mousse, blueberries, avocado and papaya spheres), Ruby Pagoda (cake with cranberries jam, chocolate, ice-cream and strawberry meringue);

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European Restaurant Menu

Starters:

Mushroom saute with wine and vegetables, Crispy Chicken Wings, Prosciutto with Rucola, Garlic Bread with Mozarella, Spinack Rolls, Sandwiches;

Soups:

Vegetable Soup, Lentil Soup, Spinach Soup, Tomato Soup, Bean Soup, Chicken Noodle, Meatball Soup, Beef Sour Soup, Tripe Beef Soup;

Spaghetii Bolognese, Lasagna, Spaghetti with Fish, Chicken Risotto, Main Dish: Pancetta, Chicken Breasts with Fried Potatoes, Tomato Sauce and Garlic, Pork Escalope with Vegetables, Pizza (different sorts), Duck Breast with Orange Sauce, Salmon Escalope with Mustard Sauce, Asparagus topped with Buttersauce, Fish Fillet with Spices, Gulash, Pierogi;

Side Orders: Vegetable Salad, Fried Potatoes, Boiled Potatoes, Puree, Mushroom Salad, Tomato Salad, Spinach;

Desserts:

Apple Pie, Cheese Pie, Cookies, Cheesecake, Chocolate Cake, Strudels, Crepes, clair, Baba aux Rhum;

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American Restaurant Menu

Hot Chicken Wings with Cheese, Mozarella Sticks, Onion Rings, Starters: Nachos with Spicy Sauce, Cheesy Fries with Bacon, Mushrooms with Cheese Sauce, Chicken Wrap, Steak Wrap;

Hamburger, Cheeseburger, Bacon Burger, Chicken Burger, Fish Sandwiches: Burger, California Burger, Grilled Ham and Cheese Burger, Fish and Chips, Fried Chicken with Onion;

Chicken Tortilla, Beef Tortilla, Beef Ribs with Salsa Sauce, Chicken Main Dish: Ribs with Cheese Sauce, Breast Strips with Garlic Sauce, Beef and Chicken Barbecue, Spicy Grilled Beef;

Taco Salad, Caesar Salad, Dinner Salad, Grilled Chicken Salad, Side Orders: Steak Salad, Fried Potatoes, Mashed Potatoes, Chips, Onion Rings, Fried Mushrooms;

Desserts:

Brownies, Chocolate Sundae, Vanilla Sundae, Chocolate-chip Muffins, Assorted Ice-cream with Fruit Loops, Chocolate Donuts;

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9.4 Parks Public parks and recreation places offer an enormous value to the settlers and to the settlement. First of all, public parks provide people with the opportunity of being physically active. Taking into consideration that nowadays, peoples life is dominated by technology, it is very important to offer them a possibility to do sports, walk or just relax in a park, in order to stay healthy, fight obesity and prevent chronic illnesses. Then, all the plants and trees from the park will provide a significant part of the oxygen needed as to ensure life on the settlement. For example, according to Canada's national environmental agency, on average, one tree produces nearly 260 pounds of oxygen each year4, this meaning that two mature trees can provide enough oxygen for a family of four. Because another reason for having parks is the desire for beauty, we will have the parks decorated with over 300 exotic and tropical climate species of decorative plants and flowers. However, beside the aesthetic factor, flowers are regarded as raw material for medicine production like pennyroyal, pot marigold or in the cosmetic industry. Parks will also have an educational role: each species of plants will have interactive panels showing information about its provenience, characteristics and benefits.

http://forestry.about.com/od/treephysiology/a/treeh2o.htm

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Interactive panel

Selenia Park

All the parks from the settlement will be designed in order to obtain a futuristic mixture of nature, technology, environmental management and creativity from which will benefit settlers of all ages.

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We made a table regarding the seeds which will be brought from Earth: Plant Orchids Roses Tulips Magnolia Gladioli Lilies Syringa Bushes Total area : Occupied area 1. 5 ha 1. 5 ha 1. 0 ha 1. 0 ha 1. 0 ha 1. 0 ha 1. 0 ha 3. 0 ha 11 ha Number of seeds 30,000 30,000 20,000 20,000 20,000 20,000 20,000 30,000

On Selene will be surface of 500 m which will be occupied by herbs which will be used to cure mild diseases. Plant Aloe Peppermint Pot marigold Camomile Sage Occupied area 100 m 100 m 125 m 125 m 50 m Number of seeds 110 110 130 130 60

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9.5 Transportation If we drive down the costs of transportation in space, we can do great things . Elon Musk When we talk about transport, we sometimes seem to overlook the most important aspects we should care about. It can be divided into two words: infrastructure and vehicles. A perfect administration of the transportation is essential; it must be as high achiever as possible and also costless. We want to remove the private transport or to make it tend to zero. Instead, we will promote the public one, in order to avoid unexpected accidents or traffic jams on our settlement. We want to include trains based on magnetic levitation due to the fact that nowadays, they are the most popular among people and also the most used in the daily routine. The trains will have a huge capacity ranging from 5000 to 10.000 people, depending on the network they are going to use. We do not want to have luxurious means of transport. Instead, we are searching for efficiency. In the following paragraph we will present the studies made in the past few months, studies which have aided us to find out which are the best transportation solutions and why. Also, the costs implied and detailed schemes will be displayed.

9.5.1 Transportation from Earth to Selene We can distinguish two purposes: 1. A spaceship which has the purpose of sending materials, objects, food etc. It will be multifunctional but with limited attributes. When the resources available on Selene are almost exhausted, this spaceship will provide the resources demanded by the settlers on Selene. The most advantageous fact is that it will not host people on it because it will be driven by a computer.

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2. The second spaceship must transport people from Earth and will have a fixed schedule which will not be influenced by anything. The prices for a round trip vary from 200,000$ to 400,000$, depending on your demands (people can choose to have an allinclusive or not all-inclusive trip). The journey will last approximately ten hours, so everybody can enjoy the facilities provided by the spaceship.

9.5.2 Public Transport Selenes Fast Transportation System, known as SFTS, will consist of a huge network based on one of the most innovative ideas appeared not long time ago, called maglev and also known as magnetic levitation. The fact that Selene is not big enough to allow building highways for cars was the main reason for our choice of minimizing the private transport. We intend to create a card called Selene Pass, which will be valid on the three lines: Central, Picanor and Politern. The pass gives unlimited use of public transport from 8:30 a.m. on weekdays to the last tube at around 02.00 a.m. and allows you to travel by train, railway and bus. These cards can be purchased right from the center of Selene. If the buyers experience any difficulties specially-trained staff will be ready to help them. This kind of trains will bring a dramatic improvement when they are implemented because they have a lot more qualities than the classic trains, such qualities ranging from the speed, which exceeds the one of the wheeled train to the acceleration and deceleration, which cannot be affected by weather conditions. Consequently, they will be expensive. But on the other hand, that mean of transport does not imply that huge maintenance costs imposed by the wheeled train.

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Considering the fact that our settlement has a limited area, we will also build some shuttles, from small to large ones. The shuttles will be driven by computers, simplifying humans life and increasing the time assigned to focusing on mor e important activities available on Selene. A Maglev shuttle will be able to host up to fifty people. The trains will travel with regularity, but during night time, their frequency will vary and decrease to 8 minutes (from 4, during the day). The stations will be spread all over the settlement and all the lines will be linked as to make our service a premium one. The only major differences which will appear at the large shuttles will be their dimension, luxury and facilities.

Selenes Maglev shuttle

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We thought that by introducing cars on Selene would cause traffic jams or even accidents. By trying to avoid this, we developed a new vehicle named Selene -way, which is going to be used for private transport. It can carry only one person and its powered by an electric motor. Thanks to this you can reach speeds up to 40 kilometers per hour. Also, the long life batteries offer autonomy of 100 kilometers. A button which will expand a holographic display will be placed on the handle bar. The display will show map directions and information about Selene-way, like current speed or distance travelled.

Handle bar

Button for holographic display

Electric motor

Selene-way

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The only cars that are going to be brought on Selene are the emergency ones. Of course, they are going to be propelled by electric energy. Paramedics, firefighters and policemen will have their own specially adapted vehicle. We will also encourage the settlers to travel by bike, given the fact that Selene will offer a large variety of eco-friendly and very fast bicycles. With little effort and Selene bikes, people will reduce the energy consumption, will be able to travel rapidly from a place to another and will obviously stay fit.

Selene bike

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9.6 Shopping Centers Nowadays, it is obvious that shopping is unavoidable. Either to provide supplies or to have fun, people spends between 40-45 minutes/ day on shopping, according to an American survey conducted by the Bureau of Labor Statistics in 2011. That is why a very important part of the development of the urban infrastructure consists in the building of shopping centers. We have to consider the fact that the retail industry is at a turning point, as consumers become more demanding and retailers are challenged to deliver to shoppers expectations while simultaneously reducing costs in order to remain profitable. So, we found an innovative solution for the settlement: we have decided to create a shopping center based on an adaptable computer-based technology which makes use of the Cloud storage. We intend to build two shopping centers, The Sky-Store I and The Sky-Store II, located in the north and in the south of the residential area, each of them having a surface of circa 20,000 m2. Based on multiple work-stations, servers and multiple computers at the back of the stores, these futuristic shopping centers will be based on the latest technologies. First of all, most of the items sold here will be created with 3D printers. The 3D printers are about to revolutionize the shopping industry, as they become more affordable and the materials they use become more versatile. The commercial centers will make use of emerging applications and devices like smart media carts, mobile devices and interactive billboards which will create a more personalized, informed and satisfying shopping experience. Networked intelligent devices based on the Cloud architecture will enable retailers to deliver content and information targeted to individual consumers.

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Smart media carts

Commerce and advertising will be based on interactive billboards that project images onto a glass, smart kiosks and self-service point-of-sale pads. For example, all the supermarkets will be virtual: they will consist of wall-sized billboards showing pictures of common items like groceries, dairy products, meat, sweets etc. All that people will have to do is to scan the Quick Response (QR) codes of each item using their smartphones, tablets or other data-connected devices. And so the desired products will be delivered to their houses within the same day.

Interactive billboards and mobile shopping app

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Also, instead of regular billboards and signs advertising what is on sale in the store, people will see signs customized to them, based on the information on their smartphones: the Cloud will automatically identify what they have browsed and will suggest products and promotions based on what the customer has previously searched or bought. And in order to pay, people will be once more able to make use of their devices: the payment system will use their cell phones as if they were their credit cards.

Furthermore, this technology enables the selling companies to automatically power down all the shopping devices during non-store hours and to power them up at the desired time. Like this, the shopping centers also deliver extra performance when the stores are busy and conserve power when the store traffic is light. Taking into account the above, we strongly believe that the shopping centers based on this technology ensure the future of retail because they provide customers a great quality and time-saving shopping experience, as well as a state of the art system for sellers to manage, maintain, track and operate at reduced costs.

Credit: print screen from http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=xo-kpZtgzAM

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The Sky-Store I

The Sky-Store II

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9.7 Storage Our method of conserving food, clothes and various other items that we want to keep intact over time consists of freezing. Freezing is the most effective method of preserving food and other several objects. Since food and, generally, items of any kind, deteriorate over time, we will need some special containers to keep them intact. As long as the items are packaged appropriately, they can be placed in containers, where they will be deposited for months. The most effective containers designed to support our idea are the freezer-safe locking containers for food, and freezer ziplock bags for clothes and objects. Despite having the storage methods, we will create a database system, including weekly backups. In this database, there will be kept records regarding the settlers activity, their medical and academic situation, their incomes, but also records about Selene, such as weekly atmospheric pressure, available water and food quantity and different parameters related to its position in space.

9.8 Houses Every house will be identified by a unique ID and password which will be stored in the Governments HQ database. The access in the houses will be possible due to the iris scanning technology. Each house will have iris scanner locks.

All the settlers will have an app installed on their smartphone which will help them connect to the house and control it. This way, closing or opening the doors and the windows, programming the heating system of the house or turning on or off the household items will be easily done, just by touching the screen.

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More humidity sensors will be mounted near the sink, washing machines, and pipes and, in the moment when the humidity grows over the normal level, the householder will be alerted on his smartphone. Also, the house will send data about the soil, luminosity and humidity of the plants which are inside. Also, it will be possible to turn on and off the light, the radio, the TV or the computer when the settler arrives home.

Exterior Design One of the key words which define Selene is futuristic design. Because all the settlement is based on future-inspired concepts, our houses will not make an exception. All the apartments, houses or buildings will be spacious, surrounded by large green spaces and will include many windows and transparent materials. These houses will have integrated solar panels and will be entirely technology-controlled.

Exterior design of a mansion

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Exterior design of a villa

Interior Design We all know that unfriendly rooms on the spaceships from the movies. But can you really live for a long period of time in a small box with steel walls and unpractical furniture? Apart from the hotels you can find on our space settlement, which have a futuristic design, we thought that the residential areas should be more like the ones on Earth. Our first objective was to make the boxes as spacy as possible and also decorate them with nature inspired wall models. This would help people accommodate better in their new homes. On Selene people will find either blocks of apartments, for smaller or impecunious families, or bigger private houses, each of them with a generous yard.

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All the furniture will be specially adapted to be used on a space settlement. Beds, tables and chairs will all be made of fire resistant PAL. Also, they will be fixed on the floor by a strong magnetic force to avoid possible dangers caused sudden movements of the ship.

Interior design of a living room

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House Plans It is important to say that every home will have an emergency room, designed in order to protect people in case there is a gravity system defection. Also, if an emergency occurs, the settlers will be helped in case by a warning system, which will give them the needed instructions. Apart from this, the houses will be spacious, designed after the peoples needs. Houses and rooms will have different sizes and positions, adapted to the settlers who will use it. Below, there are three plans of representative living places sizes: a two-person apartment, a three-person apartment and a family house.

Apartment one (for two people)

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Apartment two (for three people)

House with a single floor (for a family)

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X. Technology and Science Technology makes it possible for people to gain control over everything, except over technology. John Tudor 10.1 Technology Nowadays, technology is everywhere in our lives because it offers us easier and more effective solutions for our daily activities. Without technology, we could not communicate in real time from long distances, immediately find the needed information and make use of all the gadgets we now have. Selene will obviously have an entirely technology-based working system. Means of transport, shops, restaurants, schools, houses and parks, just to mention a few, will provide the settlers with the most innovative hi-tech gadgets.

10.1.1 Internet Access During the last decades, the Internet became a necessity for the majority of us. And this is not surprising at all, because Internet represents an effective mean of information, communication and time and money savings. However, only one out of three people on Earth have access to the Internet. This lack of technological uniformity leads to major cultural and informational differences between people (let us considerate the case of the people from African tribes, compared to the Europeans). Because we want to avoid creating major differences between the people, but also because all the facilities from Selene will be Internetbased, we have to ensure Internet access to everyone.

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Powerful Internet routers placed all over Selene will provide permanent highspeed Internet. All the buildings, houses and public places will be equipped with routers from the moment they will be built. Like this, no matter where you are on Selene, you do not need to connect each time you want to use to a Wi-Fi hotspot, the device you are using will connect automatically to the Internet. This means no additional costs for the settlers, no need to ask for passwords and a lot more flexibility.

10.1.2 Main Technologies Iris Scanners Considered to be the best biometric door-locking technology, iris scanning can seem futuristic at first, but in fact the system is based on a simple CCD digital camera. The camera takes a picture and then the computer analyzes the patterns in the iris and translates them into a code. This camera uses both visible and nearinfrared light to take a very clear and high-contrast picture of the iris of a person. With near-infrared light, a person's pupil appears to be very black, helping the computer to separate the pupil and iris. We decided to use iris scanners instead of traditional door lockers for the buildings, especially houses, from Selene because of the big variety of advantages that they offer.

Iris scanner

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Firstly, it is scientifically proved that peoples eyes are so unique, that the chance of mistaking one iris code for another is almost inexistent (1 in the 78th power). So, iris scanners are able to offer an incredible high-security for the settlement. Also, they provide a very fast way of accessing the house: this technology checks the identity and unlocks the door in less than two seconds. Moreover, the iris structure does not usually change in time, making it a safe identification technology. And in most of the cases, the eye structure remains the same even after eye surgery or even in case of blindness (with the condition that the blind person has irises). If people wear eyeglasses or contact lens, the system is still able to correctly analyze their eyes.

House with iris scanner lock

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Smart Gadgets For most of us, our smartphones have almost become a part of us. We cannot leave the house without the phone, just as we cannot leave without clothes. And taking into account that people have a gadget that they are carrying around with them everywhere, we decided to make this gadget as useful as possible.

Selene-de-Nizz smartphone

Free communication All the calls and texts to the settlers and even to Earth will be free of charge, because the smartphones will make use of the Wi-Fi technology. Like this, there is no need to pay extra money to telephone companies.

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Web access everywhere No matter where you are or what you are doing, you will be able to instantly have access to any information you want to find out. Just type the words on your smartphone and get the answer in less than a second, thanks to the high-speed Internet connection.

Music anytime The smartphone will have a worldwide and all-time music library, including all genders and artists. Just plug in your special headphones and click on Play!

Complete maps of the settlement Especially in the beginning, it will surely be difficult to get used to the areas, buildings and streets of the settlement. Do not worry; the smartphone gives you the best solution: an up-to-date GPS, always ready to be used.

House remote control As previously mentioned, the settlers will be able to control things from their houses directly from their smartphone. The windows, the TV, the heating system, the computer, the radio and many others will be operated from the devices.

Paying method People will be able to pay everything by using their smartphones. Every retailer will be obliged to accept payments with the smartphone.

Stocking devices Of course, every smartphone will offer access to the Cloud technology. So, settlers will be able to permanently save or access their files through Internet.

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For the wealthier settlers, we will provide alternatives to the smartphones. They will be able to use smart glasses, smart rings, smart bracelets or smart watches instead. This gadgets will have the same functions, but in another shape.

Tablets and E-Readers Just like on Earth, people will have the possibility to buy tablets and e-readers. Like this, they can read the news, access the Internet, play games and use the settlements electronic library. It is obvious that, using all this gadgets, Selene will have a very small paper demand.

Selene-de-Nizz tablet

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Renewable Technology Gadgets E.M. (Energy Mask) This mask is a device which converts your breathing into renewable electrical power. The idea behind the mask is that your breath is changed into energy that charges your small electronic devices, like phones, iPods or even tablets and ereaders. This mask contains little wind turbines that are able to convert your breath into renewable power. The mask cannot be worn during the day, because of its design. However, it can be worn during the night, while sleeping, having no harm to peoples health.

Solar powered MP3 player This is an easy concept of an MP3 player which converts the solar energy in order to play music without being charged. The gadgets will also be able to play music when the sun will not shine.

Solar battery recharger These devices will be able to obtain a quite big amount of energy which can be used to power up any kind of device, even the laptop. They work with a powerful voltaic system, which is generally also used in the photovoltaic panels concept. The biggest advantage of this gadget is its size: being very small, it can be easily transported anywhere on the settlement.

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3D Printer 3D printing (also called Additive manufacturing) is the process of creating threedimensional solid objects according to a digital model. This process is achieved by a 3D printer, controlled by a computer, which adds successive layers of material in order to obtain the desired shape.

This printing technology is used in many domains, like architecture, construction, design, engineering, medicine, dental industries, human tissue replacement, fashion, jewelry, education, even gastronomy and many others.

The main advantages of the 3D printer are that it produces exactly the desired items in real life, at low costs and at good quality. Considering the above, we decide to use 3D printers on Selene for the most of the demanded products. Like this, we will only have to obtain and pay the raw materials, because the manufacture will be done by the printer.

Smart Chama Clothes Looking at the immense variety of clothes which is now in stores, it is extremely difficult to always be dressed fashionable and appropriate for the time and place where you go. That is why we thought of offering a science fiction inspired clothes collection. As the name of the collection indicates (Chama is an acronym for chameleon), this clothes are able to change their color and pattern, according to your surroundings and wishes. These clothes are made of a futuristic electronic material which is composed of smaller components that make possible the changing of the pattern and color.

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To give a concrete example, if you buy a Chama T-shirt, you can wear it anywhere, at the gym, in a business meeting, at work, while shopping or even to a sophisticated party. If you are at home, the t-shirt turns into a cozy large one, it you wear it while doing sport, it will also regulate your body temperature and if you go to work, it will change into an imitation of a shirt with a tie. Moreover, these clothes are also able to make you look transparent. The nanoparticles are able to reproduce the surrounding and make you invisible! Another amazing function of these clothes will be the fact that they can be connected to a smartphone. The clothing item will be able to act as a smart device, showing on its material your phone log, your messages, your contacts or your pictures. It will have numerous functions. For example, while jogging, it will be able to display the number of burnt calories and the covered distance. The collection will offer a variety of different clothes, from T-shirts to blouses, trousers, skirts, dresses, jumpers, hats, leggings and shoes. It will be available both for men and for women, but the price will be quite expensive.

Robots According to the fast progress of the technology, robots became a very important part of human lives. Since the first robot was built, people perfected them unceasingly because they realized how useful robots can be. Briefly, robots are the best way to greatly increase the productivity and quality and to diminish the costs and the fatigue. Because we intend to equip the settlement with the latest technologies, we also designed robots for the daily activities, besides the robots for mining and constructing (See Chapter 4). All these robots have the same main purpose: to facilitate the life of the settlers.

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Domestic robots These robots will be autonomous robots, specially designed for household chores. They will make the perfect house maid which, however, does not ask for food or salary- only for electricity. However, they will work with a power saving system, in order to require recharging only once a week. Domestic robots will be able to do the cleaning, do the beds, clean the floors, wash your car, cut the grass, clean and maintain the swimming pool or even walk.

Babysitter robots A babysitter robot is a great solution for people who cannot take care of their children during the entire day. The robot will have a customizable friendly appearance and it will resemble to a young girl. The robot is capable of supervising the children, feeding them, reading them stories, playing with them or even talking to them. It will be able to identify the children by their names and ages. In addition to that, it will also have a projector in his eyes, so that it can beam advertising messages or show pictures that it has captured with the pre-installed camera. In case there is any problem, the robot will immediately call the parents in order to come home as soon as possible.

Repairing robots As their name shows, repairing robots will be designed to fix broken things, robots, machines, houses or ship components. We intend to have different types of robots, each specialized on a certain task. The main advantage of using robots for this jobs is that we do not risk peoples lives anymore, especially when working at big heights is concerned.

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Chef robots Everybody knows that cooking can become very stressful and tiring. That is why we also designed these kitchen robots, which will be able to cook in the fastest time possible the desired meal. They will know how to prepare the food, how to cook it and even how to clean the kitchen after finishing the cooking process.

Medical robots Because medicine deals with peoples lives, we cannot risk letting the robots cure the sick people all alone. There will obviously be doctors, but sometimes robots will be used to help them. For example, instead of hiring a nurse, a medical robot will be way more efficient and precise.

Security robots A security robot will have to superintend the settlers and the other robots. In case it spots an abnormal behavior, the robot will have to announce the Government and to immobilize the person/ robot until the authorities come. We think that robots are better in this job than humans. Humans are subjective and we do not want any exception from the law code, because Selene has to be a safe place, with no illegalities or weak points.

Other robots A lot many other robots will be developed, in order to ensure a safe, easier, better and productive life for our settlers. We want to give them the best conditions in order to study, to create, to discover and to help the humanity evolve.

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10.2 Internal and External Communication We can distinguish two types of communication on Selene: Internal communication External communication

10.2.1 Internal Communication The fastest method to transfer the information on Selene is the fiber optic cable which is known for its reliability and the vast range of uses. For instance, it is the best communication method which can be used at long distance telecommunication. Despite the fact that our settlement is not as big as a region from Earth, not even close, the fiber optic cable provides high-speed data connection between different parts of our settlement, which is definitely what we need. Additionally, the coating eliminates all the possibilities of destruction and efficiently protects the fiber from all types of damage like the environmental hazards. On the other hand, we must be careful to protect it from water contamination which can be disastrous. Fortunately, this can be easily avoided. One aspect that should also concern us is whether the cables can be used underwater or not. They should have a very good strength the cables in order to avoid boats, fishing gear or other animals that may confound them with food. Even if the cables initial strength is very high, after some time they will start to degrade i f we put too much pressure on them. But we have companies that provide us with everything we need in order to protect the optical fiber in all operating conditions, no matter how hard they are to overcome. When it comes to the capacity, the numbers definitely outclass the other methods. For instance, this fiber is able to transfer up to 1024 terabytes over a distance

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of 50 kilometers. So, by using fiber optics, Selene maximizes its communication potential and data transfer. Moreover, fiber optics will cover only the most important parts of the settlement, the rest having wireless network which is cheaper and easier to be controlled. We will encounter this communication method in places like: restaurants, parks, zoos, hotels and malls which do not require high speed (but some of them will also make use of the wireless technologies). The signal will be provided by some towers which will be placed in different parts of the settlement, where needed. Due to the fact that our local phone network covers only Selene, we will not be able to make calls on Earth using the phone network. So, we will only use specially designed computer software. As previously mentioned, the mobile phones which are going to be used on Selene will be almost the same as the ones which are used on Earth. By doing this, people will find them more familiar and will accommodate easier on the settlement.

10.2.2 External Communication The external communication implies laser communication. This method is able to transmit data from Selene to Earth at speeds ranging from 10 up to 100 times faster than radio communication. It is also cost-effective, consumes less energy and is able to endure high data rates. We will have satellites placed at strategic points which will have to ensure us that everything works properly and that the data transfer is not interrupted by unexpected problems.

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It is important to mention that laser communication will not be used only for data transfer from and to Earth, but also from and to other planets or space settlements. Used either for research, or simply for communication, this communication method will link all the future lived parts of the universe.

10.3 Industry Along the history of the human race, all nations had to create their own industries in order to expand and reduce the imports. If we want Selene to host a developed society, we have to analyze which industries would be the most suitable and profitable for the space environment. Because of the fact that it would be very expensive to import all the products from Earth, we have to focus on producing them by ourselves. This way, we will also be able to export products such as electrical energy, robots and software. The products manufactured and produced on Selene can easily be part of the following categories: Industry name Percentage of the entire industry 1 2 3 4 5 6 Energy Food Robotic and software development Tourism Water Scientific research 22% 13% 12% 10% 10% 7%

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7 8 9 10 11 12

Constructions and architecture Telecommunications Textiles and fashion Media and entertainment Health care Defense and weapons

5% 5% 4% 4% 4% 4%

1. Energy We considered that this part of the industry would be the most important for us. Nowadays, most of the human activities depend on energy. The large amount of energy produced by solar panels and nuclear reactors will be used to power Selene and its associated devices. The remaining energy will be transferred to Earth, in order to increase our profits and support our planet with green energy. 2. Food Regarding the food, besides the aliments which will be vended in markets, Selene will have different types of restaurants, from the well-known fast foods to the futuristic and expensive restaurants. 3. Robotic and Software Development In order to be sure that all the systems are going to work properly, we are going to hire the best technicians and engineers. Furthermore, Selene will make use of one of the most innovative equipment required for creating robots and new software. Due to the equipment and technology, we are going to export innovative and high-quality products to Earth.

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4. Tourism This industry branch is going to be one of the most important sources of income. We are expecting thousands of visitors every year, each of them paying around 500.000 $ for their unforgettable holiday.

5. Water As far as water is concerned, neither the transportation, nor the purification process will be easy and cheap. Because peoples lives depend on it, some of our best chemists are going to work and supervise the evolution of water supplies. 6. Scientific Research It is very important to constantly improve and bring new ideas to our settlement. In order to accomplish that, scientists are going to constantly work in their high tech laboratories. 7. Constructions and Architecture In the future, we are planning to create other space settlements around Selene. Constructors and architects from Selene will work at these future projects. Also, they are going to make all the infrastructure upgrades needed on the main settlement, Selene. The architects will be specially trained, in order to provide the best living conditions to the settlers. 8. Telecommunications Because we want to avoid general disorder, Selene will have an only telecommunications company, named Cosmo-Selene. The company will be completely independent and will provide and control the cabled, mobile and wireless networks. The costs for these services will be the same for the settlers and for the tourists.

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9. Textiles and Fashion All clothing factories will work at a high level of quality. By making this, clothes will be more resistant and we are obviously going to reduce the amount of textile materials used. The fashion designers from Selene will make sure that clothes will have a fresh look every year. Moreover, the settlers will ha ve access to Chama clothes, clothes which are able to change their design (see Chapter 10.1.2). 10. Media and Entertainment This industry will have to make sure that settlers are well-informed and know the latest news. The settlement will host several TV and radio news channels along with the old school newspapers (available on each Selene-de-Nizz tablet or E-Reader). Because we are in the 21st century, all the mass media publications will obviously be available on the Internet. Keeping the settlers in a good mood is very important for a healthy and satisfied community. There are going to be special TV shows, some of them broadcasted directly from Earth, movies and live shows. 11. Health Care We are going to have a well-developed medical industry in order to produce highquality medical equipment. Our space settlement will have hospitals dotted with medical staff and equipment capable of treating people in a very effective way. 12. Defense and Weapons Even if weapons are not the most desired things on the settlement because they could be dangerous is some cases, we have to produce them for training and for our own protection. The Selene Army is going to use specially adapted weapons, produced in our factory. If needed, weapons can be exported to Earth.

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XI. Future and Costs 11.1 Costs Even if a completely accurate prediction of the costs of building a space settlement is not possible, we tried to estimate the value. We analyzed all the required materials, considering their individual average prices and the needed quantities. After the calculation, it resulted that a total value of 295, 030, 000, 000 $ would be needed nowadays. However, it is believed that the construction will be way cheaper in the future. Item Research and development Lunar robots and needed technologies Engineers and financial advisors Space transportation Satellites and solar panels Aluminum, iron, titanium, plastic Electronic devices Total Number of Items Cost ($)

100 000 000 000

50

50 000 000 000

3500

10 000 000 000

100

30 000 000 000

500

5 000 000 000

600 tones

100 000 000 000

40 000 -

30 000 000 295 030 000 000

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11.2 Next Space Settlements In order to survive, we have to conquer the Universe. If not, we should remember that even the Sun will die one day. Even if Selene will have been built, we have to remember an old saying: One swallow doesnt make a summer. In order to conquer the Universe, more space settlements should be built. And as long as we have proved our capacity of building one, it is not impossible to build more. Returning to Chapter 3, where we analyzed the position of Selene on the Low Lunar Orbit and then at L5, in order to build new space settlements, we should focus on finding new space positions such as Mars' orbit, Jupiters orbit or other undiscovered planets orbits. While people will get used to the living conditions on Selene, scientists will search other possible settlement positions. If life will devolve as intended, there will be no problem in constructing other similar settlements. Following the same plan and development structure, more and more people will have the possibility of living in space. Despite the fact that this is a futuristic way of living, it will certainly become a necessity, due to the population extent. So, we consider that it is just a matter of time until numerous other space settlements will be developed.

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11.3 Public Opinion Before commencing to build a space settlement, we thought to analyze peoples opinion regarding some important aspects which will be meant to ensure the desired and qualitative living environment. Ranging from the idea of space settlement to other question that concern holidays, smartphones and robot-based medical system, people had to answer 12 multiple-choice questions. The survey was conducted on 30 people 15 to 18 years old. We chose this age category because we are mainly interested in finding out teenagers opinion about this subject, as they will be the ones who will have the chance to really live on the settlement. The first question did not raise a lot of problems for the majority. When asked how well they know the notion of space settlement, more than 50% ha d an affirmative response.

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Almost everybody believes that a space settlement is a good alternative for the future if we want another living place, apart from Earth, but they do not believe this will happen in the nearest future. Most of them motivate their choice by saying that it is a hard project which requires meticulous planning and high-achiever gadgets.

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Impressions were divided at how good the idea of living on a space settlement is: approximately 60% say that it is definitely a perfect living place and the others do not have a precise opinion at this moment.

As we expected, many people believe that life on Earth is better, no matter what facilities the settlement will have.

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Consequently, if they choose to live in space, they will do so only for a short period of time. We believe that this is normal, because people need a period of time to change their mentalities and get used to the idea of living in space.

And of course, one encountered desire is to keep in touch with family and friends from Earth. In order to do so, a very good internal and especially external communication system should be developed.

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When asked about their desire to spend the holidays on a space settlement, if they had money, the answer yes was the most popular, due to the fact that they consider it would be an unforgettable experience.

And as far as leisure activities are concerned, futuristic activities were extremely appreciated. But the majority of people answered that they would like to have a mixture between the old, traditional leisure activities and the new and modern ones.

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Because nowadays people are starting to realize how important nature is, everybody wants to have plenty of trees, grass and green surroundings in their living area.

Considering the fact that controlling doors or household items from smartphones will definitely be an evolution for the society, this idea attracted a lot of affirmative responses.

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The statistics helped us develop Selenes construction plan. We took into consideration all the answers we got at our questions and tried to satisfy peoples desires. Like this, Selene will not be appreciated only for its technology, but also for its facilities.

11.4 Epilogue Similar to the way The New World discovered by Christopher Columbus was colonized by the Europeans, the space settlements will gradually spread into the entire galaxy, assuring the continuation of the human life. We, the team, strongly believe in the development of this new civilization. However, it is obvious that only by following a precise plan, the society will be able to adapt to the space living conditions. We hope that this project, which was born from only an audacious idea, will have an influence in the development of space life. Who knows, perhaps in some years time, we will have the chance to meet our readers (or our readers children) on one of the space settlements. Reach for the stars!

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A.1 How Do We Arrive to the Moons Orbit? We have chosen a Hohmann type trajectory for taking the Dagon spacecraft on orbit around the Moon. Hohmann transfer orbit is an orbital maneuver using two engine impulses which move a spacecraft between two coplanar circular orbits. The spacecraft will be launched firstly on a circular orbit around Earth (low orbit). Then we will increase the spacecrafts speed by firing the spacecrafts engine, in order to send it on an elliptical orbit, tangent on the first orbit. The point of tangency will be the aphelion of the elliptical orbit because at that point the spacecrafts speed is minimal. When the ship reaches the destination (in the perihelion of the elliptical orbit), the orbital speed of the craft must be decreased in order to direct the ship on a circular orbit around the Moon, so the engine will be fired to decelerate it to the required velocity. The spacecraft will allow the Moons gravity to capture it. Speed can be changed by increasing thrust to make a ship go faster, or retroburning or aero-braking to slow it down.

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The Earths rotation speed is maximal at the Equator (approximately 1670 kph). That is why the kinetic energy of an object at the Equator is maximal. If a ship is launched from the equator it goes up into space, and it also moves around Earth at the same speed it was moving before launching, under the action of Earths gravitational force. The energy needed by a rocket launched from the Equator is minimal and that is why Dragon will be launched from the Equator. If an object travels in a straight line, its inertia will maintain the initial course and speed until a force interacts with it and stops it or changes its trajectory. The more mass an object has, the more force is needed for stopping it. That is why we have chosen to send our spacecraft on curved orbits (circular or elliptical).

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The Imponderability Point We will have to accelerate the spacecraft until it reaches the imponderability point, and then it will gravitate towards the Moon.

x = The distance between Earth and the imponderability point d = The distance between the Moon and Earth

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The first cosmic velocity is the lowest velocity with which a body must be launched parallel to the ground to describe a circular orbit with the same radius of Earth. The gravitational force is balanced by the centrifugal force produced by the revolution of satellites around a planet.

For h << R, we obtain:

The 1st cosmic velocity

h The altitude at which the spacecraft is orbiting

(low orbit around Earth)

The escape velocity is the minimum velocity required for a spacecraft or other object to escape from the gravitational pull of a planetary body.

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From the law of conservation energy:

The third cosmic velocity is the minimum velocity that has to be imparted to a body relative to the Earth's surface to drive it out of the solar system.

M0 = The mass of the Sun

vp = 30 km/s Rotation of Earth around its axis

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We must launch the spacecraft from the Equator because a point located on the Equator has the greatest velocity of all the points of the Earth, thus it has the greatest energy (because of the Earths shape).

R = The radius of Earth

Transfer Orbit We must transfer the spacecraft on an elliptical orbit.

a = Major semi-axis of the orbit

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Correction of Velocity We will make the transfer at the perigee point because this transfer is the most economical one.

RL = The Moons radius d = The distance between Earth and the Moon

The value with which we must increase the velocity of the

spacecraft in order to put it on the elliptical orbit

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It is important to notice that, in order to change the spacecrafts aim point on the Moon, we must fire the thrusters in a direction parallel to the direction we need to shift the aim point. If we want to increase the velocity of the spacecraft, we must throw the fuel in the opposite direction the spacecraft is moving and if we want to decrease the velocity of it, we must fire the burst in the same direction the spacecraft is moving.

Duration of the Journey

M = The mass of Earth m = The mass of the Dragon spacecraft

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Redirecting the Spacecraft We have to redirect the spacecraft in order to prevent it from being off course and from missing its impact point by circa 10 kilometers. In other words, the spacecraft may fall 10 kilometers short of the target crater. In this situation, we have only 8 hours to correct its trajectory.

Required correction: 10 km = 10,000 m Time for correction: 8 h = 28,800 s Velocity change Qv: 10 km / 8h = 0.35 m/s Total spacecraft weight: 7,275 lb = 32,360.81 N Total rocket thrust: 10 lbs of force = 44.5 N

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The Solution:
It has to be mentioned that in the outer space there is no friction. The increase or decrease in the spacecrafts velocity is caused by the fired thrusters. They will make the rocket continue to move along a new path and at a new velocity until they are acted upon by another force. To sum up, this correction in velocity is enough to get the spacecraft back on the course and ensure a succesful mission. This problem will be solved using the mathematical expression: Force (F) equals change in velocity (acceleration, a) times mass (m):

Velocity (v) equals acceleration (a) times time (t):

Also we will use that weight (w) equals mass (m) times gravity (g):

At this point we can calculate the mass of the spacecraft:

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The spacecrafts acceleration will be:

(1) Furthermore, we will use the velocity change mathematical expression:

(2) From the equations (1) and (2) we find that:

Now, we will make the numerical solve of the problem:

v = 0.35 m/s w = 32,360.8 N F = 44.5 N g = 9.8 m/s2

= 25.97 s
As a conclusion, we found out that the thrusters should be fired for 25.97 seconds in order to correct the course errors.

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A2. First Cosmic Velocity The first cosmic velocity is the lowest velocity with which a body must be launched parallel to the ground to describe a circular orbit with the same radius as Earth. The gravitational force is balanced by the centrifugal force produced by the revolution of satellites around a planet.

For h << R, we obtain:

The 1st cosmic velocity

h The altitude at which the spacecraft is orbiting (low orbit around

Earth)

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A3. Duration of the Journey to LLO We want to calculate the duration of the journey more accurately. By research, we found the formula for calculating how long it takes for a spacecraft to be transferred from the low Earths orbit to the low L unar orbit (we considered the Lunar trajectory circular and not elliptical to simplify the calculations). The duration of the journey is:

R = The distance from Earth to the Moon R1 = The radius of Earths low orbit

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Bibliography I. Introduction 1. http://www.nasa.gov/centers/goddard/about/history/dr_goddard.html 2. http://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/Future 3. http://er.jsc.nasa.gov/seh/quotes.html 4. http://ro.wikipedia.org/wiki/Selene 5. http://www.theoi.com/Titan/Selene.html 6. http://www.nss.org/settlement/ColoniesInSpace/index.html 7. http://settlement.arc.nasa.gov/Contest/ 8. http://settlement.arc.nasa.gov/ 9. http://www.nss.org/settlement/nasa/75SummerStudy/ II. Financing 1. http://www.nasa.gov/exploration/systems/sls/index.html 2. http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Space_Transport_and_Engineering_Methods/Energy 3. http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Space_Transport_and_Engineering_Methods/Econo mics 4. http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Space_Transport_and_Engineering_Methods/Existin g_Programs 5. http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Space_Transport_and_Engineering_Methods/Resour ce_Uses 6. http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/nucene/fission.html 7. http://science.howstuffworks.com/fusion-reactor.htm

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III. Position in Space 1. http://www.phy6.org/stargaze/Slagrng2.htm 2. http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Space_Transport_and_Engineering_Methods/Orbital _Mechanics


3. http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Space_Transport_and_Engineering_Methods/Physics

4. http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/mechanics/lagpt.html#c1 5. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kepler%27s_laws_of_planetary_motion 6. http://star-www.st-and.ac.uk/~spd3/Teaching/PHYS2220/phys2220_lecture2.pdf 7. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Low_Earth_orbit 8. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moon 9. http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/orbv.html 10. http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/planetary/factsheet/moonfact.html IV. Mining the Space 1. http://www.permanent.com/lunar-mining-the-moon.html 2. http://www.meteoris.de/class/LL-Group.html 3. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carbonaceous_chondrite 4. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/LL_chondrite 5. http://www.lunarpedia.org/index.php?title=In-Situ_Propellant_Production 6. http://www.lunarpedia.org/index.php?title=Category:Abundant_Elements 7. http://www.lunarpedia.org/index.php?title=In_Situ_Resource_Utilization

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8. The Moon: Resources, Future Development and Settlement 9. http://www.permanent.com/near-earth-asteroids-overview.html 10. http://www.permanent.com/asteroid-geologies.html 11. http://www.permanent.com/asteroid-mining.html 12. http://www.permanent.com/near-earth-asteroids.html V. Space Travel and Construction 1. http://fred.unis.no/AGF218/Handout_Erichsen_Propulsion.pdf 2. http://settlement.arc.nasa.gov/75SummerStudy/2appendA.html 3. http://settlement.arc.nasa.gov/75SummerStudy/2appendA.html 4. http://settlement.arc.nasa.gov/75SummerStudy/Chapt4.html#Shape 5. http://settlement.arc.nasa.gov/75SummerStudy/Chapt4.html#Shielding 6. http://www.nss.org/settlement/ColoniesInSpace/colonies_chap12.html 7. The Moon: Resources, Future Development and Settlement 8. The Merk Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy 18th Edition VI. Human Needs and Factors 1. http://settlement.arc.nasa.gov/75SummerStudy/Chapt3.html#Food 2. http://www.nss.org/settlement/ColoniesInSpace/index.html 3. www.wikipedia.org 4. http://www.nasa.gov/ 5. The Moon: Resources, Future Development and Settlement 6. http://www.nss.org/settlement/nasa/75SummerStudy/Chapt3.html#Atmosphere 7. http://www.nss.org/settlement/AIPconferences.html
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8. http://www.nss.org/settlement/journal/index.html 9. http://settlement.arc.nasa.gov/75SummerStudy/Design.html 10. http://www.kidspsych.org/index1.html 11. http://childdevelopmentinfo.com/child-psychology.shtml 12. http://www.brainyquote.com/ 13. http://www.hotels.com/cn1/hotels-in-europe/ 14. http://settlement.arc.nasa.gov/75SummerStudy/Chapt4.html#Shielding 15. http://settlement.arc.nasa.gov/75SummerStudy/4appendD.html 16. http://www.nss.org/settlement/nasa/spaceresvol4/toc.html 17. http://www.nss.org/settlement/nasa/CoEvolutionBook/index.html 18. http://recreation.eku.edu/importance-parks-and-recreation 19. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/089543569290010K 20. http://www.futurefood.org/in-vitro-meat/index_en.php 21. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/In_vitro_meat 22. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Water_purification 23. "Airmass Classification". Glossary of Meteorology. American Meteorological Society. Retrieved 2008-05-22. 24. Steger U, Achterberg W, Blok K, Bode H, Frenz W, Gather C, Hanekamp G, Imboden D, Jahnke M, Kost M, Kurz R, Nutzinger HG, Ziesemer T (2005). Sustainable development and innovation in the energy sector. Berlin: Springer. p. 32. ISBN 3-540-23103-X. "The average global rate of photosynthesis is 130 TW (1 TW = 1 terawatt = 1012 watt)." 25. Seki, K.; Elphic, R. C.; Hirahara, M.; Terasawa, T.; Mukai, T. (2001). "On Atmospheric Loss of Oxygen Ions from Earth Through Magnetospheric Processes". Science 291 (5510): 19391941. Bibcode:2001Sci...291.1939S. doi:10.1126/science.1058913. PMID 11239148. Retrieved 2007-03-07.

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VII. Resource Management 1. http://www.vtsnis.edu.rs/Predmeti/obnovljivi_disperzivni_izvori_napajanja/fizika_s olarne_energije.pdf 2. http://thefutureofthings.com/4079-nanocapacitors-offer-high-power-and-largestorage/ 3. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gallium_arsenide 4. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polywell VIII. Social System 1. http://www.kidspsych.org/index1.html 2. http://childdevelopmentinfo.com/child-psychology.shtml 3. http://www.brainyquote.com/ IX. Urban Infrastructure 1. http://io9.com/5900548/j10-futuristic-shopping-experiences 2. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/femail/article-2132276/Futuristic-shopping-Retailersattempt-lure-technology-obsessed-Gen-Y-customers-sci-fi-offerings.html 3. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maglev X. Technology and Science 1. http://www.nss.org/settlement/nasa/75SummerStudy/ 2. http://cubify.com/cube/ 3. http://www.3dprinter.net/ 4. www.wikipedia.org 5. http://www.apple.com/

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6. http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/do-the-right-thing/200911/helping-others
7. http://www.sparknotes.com/psychology/psych101/socialpsychology/section9.rhtml

8. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Optical_fiber_cable 9. http://esc.gsfc.nasa.gov/267/LCRD.html 10. http://itechfuture.com/ 11. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iris_recognition

Used applications: 3D Max Photoshop Home design (Apple Inc.)

Other: Theia (our last-year project)

Project realized by: Deniz Gunsahin Stefan Alexandru Iov Arthur Mihai Niculae Ana-Cosmina Popescu Calin Constantin Segarceanu Andrei Tache-Codreanu Maria Catalina Voicu

Tudor Vianu National High School of Computer Science Bucharest, Romania


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