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The Immune System: Cellular Immunity 1.

Cytokines are small proteins that transfer information within the immune system. List the actions of cytokines given in this Topic: __________Control differentiation and proliferation of immune cells__________ _________ Promote inflammation__________ _________Trigger apoptosis ____________ _________Promote activation of immune cells ___________ _________ elp defend against viruses __________ !. "nterleukin#1$ a cytokine$ acts as a chemical alarm to alert the immune system to the presence of a pathogen. List the three actions given for interleukin#1 in this Topic: ___________Promotes activation of lymphocytes____________ ____________%timulates helper T cells to release interleukin___________ ____________&cts as a pyrogen at the hypothalamus ___________ '. "nterleukin#!$ released (y helper T cells$ causes proliferation of activated lymphocytes. This process is called ________clonal e)pansion___________. *. The two ma+or classes of lymphocytes that mediate cellular immunity are (ased on the presence of surface proteins called __C,____ proteins. The most common are those with the ___C,*___ markers. -. .elow are the two ma+or classes of cells with C, protein markers. List what the cells (ecome and what class of / C proteins they (ind. C,* cells: # most (ecome ____helper T____ cells (ut some (ecome ____regulatory T___ cells # (ind to ___class ""___ / C proteins C,0 cells: # all (ecome ___cytoto)ic____ cells # (ind to ____class "___ / C proteins 1. The "2 virus (inds to C,* surface proteins and destroys the ____helper T_____ cells.

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The ___/ C____ proteins are one ma+or class of self#antigens. Thus$ (efore an organ transplant$ the donor4s and the recipient4s ____/ C____ proteins are matched as closely as possi(le to decrease the chance of organ _______re+ection________.

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______Cytoto)ic T________ cells circulate through the (ody searching for infected or cancerous cells (y e)amining the antigenic determinant on ____class "____ / C proteins on the cell surface. 5ragments of ______endogenous_______$ degraded proteins are loaded unto these proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum. "f the antigenic peptide is a ______foreign_______ antigen$ the (ody cell will (e destroyed.

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7nlike class " / C proteins$ which can (e displayed on any nucleated cell$ class "" / C proteins are only displayed on select cells. 8ame the antigen#presenting cells that have class "" / C proteins: __________dendritic cells______________ __________macrophages______________ ___________. cells_____________ These cells communicate with C,* cells$ which will (ecome ______helper T______ cells. &ntigens presented on class "" cells are _____e)ogenous__________antigens.

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Class "" / C4s are produced in the __________rough :;_________ and pick up the e)ogenous antigens when they fuse with the ________phagosome___________.

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8ame two results of presenting the e)ogenous antigen on class "" / C proteins: C,* cells are converted to helper T cells when _____dendritic________ cells and _______macrophages__________ present the antigen. ____.____ cells and ______macrophages________ present antigens to helper T cells to re<uest further activation.

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,endritic cells are responsi(le for activating most T cells. Choose the correct answer for each of the following: They can capture antigens found __________________ =e)tracellularly$ intracellularly$ or (oth>. They can activate __________________ =C,*$ C,0$ or (oth C,* and C,0> cells. They can e)press __________________ =/ C "$ / C ""$ or (oth / C " and / C ""> proteins.

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:)ception: 8ormally$ when cells e)press endogenous foreign antigens on class " /C proteins on their cell mem(rane$ they are marked for destruction. This is not true for _______dendritic_________ cells. ?n these cells the presentation acts as an activation signal for ___C,0_______ cells.

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List the two steps necessary for T cell activation: ______T#cell receptors (ind to / C proteins (earing antigens_________ ______?ther co#stimulatory molecules (ind to the antigen#presenting cell_________

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?nce T cells are activated they undergo proliferation =called: __________clonal e)pansion_________ > and differentiation. ______"nterleuken !__________$ a type of cytokine$ is necessary for the proliferation.

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&ntigen#presenting cells will e)press co#stimulatory molecules when they have (een signaled (y the ____innate_______defense mechanisms that an infection is present. owever$ if there is no infection$ the

antigens on the / C protein are likely to (e ________self#antigens_________. Thus$ without co# stimulation$ the T cells (ecome inactivated$ a process called _______anergy_________. 13. There are two ways to induce a process of self#destruction in a cell$ which is called _________apoptosis________: Cytotoxic T cells look for the presence of / Cs with foreign antigens and release _____perforins_______ and ______gran@ymes_________ or they (ind to an _____apoptosis# inducing______ receptor =5as receptor> on the surface of the cell. Natural killer cells look for the a(sence of ______/ Cs_______ and are thus a(le to eliminate a(normal cells that cytoto)ic T cells cannot detect. 10. 16. elper T cells are critical for the activation of _____._____ cells and _____cytoto)ic_______ T cells. The helper T cell can help activate the C,0 cell to (ecome a _____cytoto)ic_______ T cell in two ways: "t stimulates the dendritic cells to e)press additional ________co#stimulatory________ molecules "t secretes ______cytokines_______ =including interleukin#!> to help activation

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T 1 cells secrete _____gamma______ interferons$ which increase the effectiveness of ____macrophages______ and ________cytoti)ic______ T cells. T ! cells secrete interleukins __*___ and __-___$ which promote activation of . cells.

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;egulatory T cells suppress the activity of other T cells (y direct _______cell#to#cell________ contact or (y releasing ______cytokines________. They are important in helping to prevent _______autoimmune_______ diseases.