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BBSE3006: Air Conditioning and Refrigeration II g g

http://www.hku.hk/bse/bbse3006/
Water-side Systems: System Design
Dr. Sam C M Hui
Department of Mechanical Engineering Department of Mechanical Engineering
The University of Hong Kong
E-mail: cmhui@hku hk E mail: cmhui@hku.hk
Jan 2008
Contents
Basic Concepts Basic Concepts
System Components
Heat Transfer Calculations
i i S i Piping System Design
Sizing Piping Sizing Piping
Chilled
water
system
Condensing
water system
(Source: Fundamentals of Water System Design)
Water systems in HVAC
Basic Concepts
Water system design needs evaluation of y g
Space loads
Occupancy patterns Occupancy patterns
Indoor environmental requirements
Space loads include Space loads include
Transmission, solar radiation, infiltration, ventilation air,
people lights power appliances people, lights, power, appliances
Effective system design must consider
F ll l d d l d di i Full-load and part-load conditions
Occupants comfort conditions
(Source: Fundamentals of Water System Design)
Source Load
(Source: Fundamentals of Water System Design)
Source Distribution Load
THREE-WAY
CONTROL VALVE
TWO-WAY
CONTROL VALVE
(Source: Fundamentals of Water System Design)
Source Distribution Part-Load
CONTROL VALVE CONTROL VALVE
Basic Concepts
Types of water system yp y
Closed system
Only one interface point with a compressible gas (air) or surface Only one interface point with a compressible gas (air) or surface
Open system
More than one interface with a compressible gas or surface e g More than one interface with a compressible gas or surface, e.g.
cooling towers
Closed system Closed system
Flow cannot be provided by static head differences
Pumps do not provide static lift
The entire piping system is always filled with water p p g y y
Distribution
Pump
(Source: Fundamentals of Water System Design)
Chilled water system (closed system)
(Source: Fundamentals of Water System Design)
Cooling tower (open system)
Basic Concepts
HVAC water systems can be classified by y y
Operating temperature
Flow generation Flow generation
Pressurization
Piping arrangement
Pumping arrangement
Piping materials
Chilled water: black & galvanized steel Chilled water: black & galvanized steel
Hot water: black steel, hard copper
Condenser water: black steel, galvanized ductile iron, PVC
Basic Concepts
Open water systems, e.g. using cooling tower p y , g g g
Closed water systems
Chill d (CHW) [4 13 C 825 kP ] Chilled water (CHW) system [4-13
o
C, 825 kPa]
Condenser water (CW) system
Dual temperature water system
Low temp. water (LTW) system [Max. 120
o
C, < 1100 kPa] p ( ) y [ , ]
Medium temp. water (MTW) system [120-125
o
C, < 1100
kPa] kPa]
High temp. water (HTW) system [> 175
o
C, > 2070 kPa]
O th h t t t Once-through system, e.g. sea water system
Multiple chiller variable flow chilled water system Multiple chiller variable flow chilled water system
(Source: ASHRAE HVAC Systems and Equipment Handbook 2004)
(Source: Fundamentals of Water System Design)
Direct return and reverse return
(Source: Fundamentals of Water System Design)
Chilled water system direct return with balancing valves
(Source: Fundamentals of Water System Design)
Dual-temperature, four-pipe water system
(Source: Fundamentals of Water System Design)
Condenser cooling tower system
System Components
Basic components of water (hydronic) system p ( y ) y
Source system (chiller or boiler)
Load system Load system
Pump system
Distribution system
Expansion chambers
Basic components of water (hydronic) system p ( y ) y
(Source: ASHRAE HVAC Systems and Equipment Handbook 2004)
System Components
Source
It is the point where heat is removed from a cooling system
or added in a heating system or added in a heating system
Source efficiency as a function of load
C d i Common source devices
Cooling source: electric chiller, absorption chiller, heat
pump evaporator, water-to-water heat exchanger
Heating source: hot water generator or boiler, steam-to- g g ,
water heat exchanger, water-to-water heat exchanger, solar
collector panels, heat pump condenser, heat recovery device
(Source: Fundamentals of Water System Design)
Variable flow chilled water system
System Components
Two main considerations in selecting a source device g
Design capacity
Part load capability Part-load capability
Turndown ratio = (min. capacity / design capacity) x
100%
Diversity factor = ratio of actual load / design load Diversity factor ratio of actual load / design load
Use of multiple chillers/boilers
To achieve better operation efficiency
Facilitate maintenance and standby backup
(Source: Fundamentals of Water System Design)
Multiple chiller example (2 chillers)
(Source: Fundamentals of Water System Design)
Multiple chiller example (3 chillers)
System Components
Design trade-offs g
Improved efficiency vs initial installation cost
System temperatures System temperatures
Must design temperatures and temperature ranges by
considering the performance and economies of the considering the performance and economies of the
components
For example, if conditioned space at 25 C, 50%RH has For example, if conditioned space at 25 C, 50% RH has
dewpoint temperature 13 C, then max return water
temperature should be near 13 C. Lowest practical
temperature for refrigeration, considering freezing and
economies, is about 4.5 C. Thus, chilled water systems are
set at 4 5 13 C set at 4.5-13 C.
(Source: Fundamentals of Water System Design)
System temperatures
System Components
Load systems are devices (terminal units) that convey y ( ) y
heat to the water for cooling or from the water for
heating of the space or process heating of the space or process
Most of them are water-to-air finned coil heat exchangers or
ater to ater heat e changers water-to-water heat exchangers
Cooling load devices, e.g.
Cooling coils in air-handling units (AHUs), fan coil units
Heating load devices e g Heating load devices, e.g.
Heating and preheat coil in AHUs
(Source: Fundamentals of Water System Design)
Single-zone central AHU (cooling and heating coils)
(Source: Fundamentals of Water System Design)
Fan coil unit
Heat Transfer Calculations
Sensible cooling or heating of air g g
q = Q
a

a
c
p
t
For standard air density = 1 2 kg/m
3
specific heat = 1 For standard air, density = 1.2 kg/m
3
, specific heat = 1
kJ/kg.K, thus, q = 1.2 Q
a
t
W il h h Water coil or heat exchanger
q = UA (LMTD)
LMTD = log mean temperature difference
= (t
max
- t
min
) / ln (t
max
/ t
min
) (
max min
) (
max min
)
Depends on surface area, overall heat transfer coefficient,
geometry of heat transfer surfaces, etc. geo et y o eat t a s e su aces, etc.
q = 1 2 Qa t q 1.2 Qa t
= 1.2 (2.5 m
3
/s) (55C 15C) = 120 kW
(Source: Fundamentals of Water System Design)
Sensible heating example
h il h f /
2
/ Assume the coil has a U of 850 W/m
2
.C/row.
The coil has four rows.
(Source: Fundamentals of Water System Design)
Coil LMTD example
(Source: Fundamentals of Water System Design)
Water and air temperatures across the coil
Heat Transfer Calculations
Coil LMTD example Coil LMTD example
First, determine LMTD:
LMTD = (t
max
- t
min
) / ln (t
max
/ t
min
)
t
max
= 60 15 = 45
t
min
= 70 55 = 15
Thus, LMTD = (45 15)/ ln (45/15) = 27.3 C
Using LMTD, find q:
q = UA (LMTD) = 850 x (1 2 m x 0 9 m)(27 3)(4 rows) q = UA (LMTD) = 850 x (1.2 m x 0.9 m)(27.3)(4 rows)
= 100,246 W = 100.25 kW
Heat Transfer Calculations
Latent cooling and dehumidification of air g
Both sensible and latent heat transfer
q = W h (kW) q
total
= W h (kW)
W = mass flow rate of cooled medium, kg/s
h = enthalpy difference of entering and leaving conditions of h = enthalpy difference of entering and leaving conditions of
cooled medium, kJ/kg
q = Q h or q = 1 2 Q h q
total
= Q
a

a
h, or q
total
= 1.2 Q
a
h
q = 1.2 Qa h
= 1.2 (2.5 m
3
/s) (54.5 32C) = 67.5 kW
(Source: Fundamentals of Water System Design)
Cooling/dehumidification coil example
( ) ( )
Heat Transfer Calculations
Heat transferred to or from water
q
w
= m c
p
t (kW)
Wh l fl t (L/ ) i d When volume flow rate (L/s) is used
q
w
= 0.001
w
c
p
Q
w
t
As
w
= 1000 kg/m3, c
p
= 4.19 kJ/kg.K,
Therefore, q
w
= 4.19 Q
w
t
For design or diagnosis of a system, we often assume
the load side is balanced with the source side the load side is balanced with the source side
Piping System Design
Piping system is a key component of the distribution system p g y y p y
Must consider 3 important steps:
Establish the piping design philosophy & objectives s b s e p p g des g p osop y & objec ves
Size the pipes
Calculate or determine the pressure drops p p
Relationship between pressure and head
p = g z , where p = pressure, Pa (N/m
2
), z = head, m p g z , where p pressure, Pa (N/m ), z head, m
Pressure drop
Using Bernoulli Equation Using Bernoulli Equation
[ g Z
1
+ V
1
2
/2g + p
1
] = [ g Z
2
+ V
2
2
/2g + p
2
] + p
(Source: Fundamentals of Water System Design)
Bernoullis Theorem
(Source: Fundamentals of Water System Design)
Bernoulli piping example
Piping System Design
Bernoulli piping example: p p g p
According to the Bernoulli Equation
[ g Z
1
+ V
1
2
/2g + p
1
] = [ g Z
2
+ V
2
2
/2g + p
2
] + p [ g Z
1
V
1
/2g p
1
] [ g Z
2
V
2
/2g p
2
] p
Thus, p = g(Z
1
- Z
2
) + /2g (V
1
2
- V
2
2
) + 10
3
(p
1
- p
2
)
Substitute values and make sure units are consistent Substitute values and make sure units are consistent
V
1
= V
2
Z
1
= 0
1
p = 998.97 x 9.81 (-30) + 0 + 10
3
(700 - 500) = 206,000 Pa = 206
kPa
A total loss of 206 kPa due to piping and fitting
friction and elevation head loss
For cold water, 1 m static head is about 9.8 kPa
Piping System Design
Direct return system y
Length of supply and return piping through
subcircuits is unequal subcircuits is unequal
May cause unbalanced flow & require careful
b l i balancing
Reverse return system y
Provide equal total lengths for all terminal circuits
More pipe length is needed More pipe length is needed
A combination of direct and reverse systems
(Source: Fundamentals of Water System Design)
Direct return piping
(Source: Fundamentals of Water System Design)
Direct return pressure drop diagram
(Source: Fundamentals of Water System Design)
Reverse return piping
(Source: Fundamentals of Water System Design)
Reverse return pressure drop diagram
(Source: Fundamentals of Water System Design)
Direct return riser and reverse zone piping
Piping System Design
Other considerations
Is the system to be constant flow?
Will the system have intermittent flow? Will the system have intermittent flow?
Is variable flow being considered?
Will the pump speeds be varied with the load?
How to put and design control valves?
How to use balancing valves?
Is thermal expansion of piping handled properly? Is thermal expansion of piping handled properly?
Sizing Piping
Principles
Based on friction loss per running meter of pipe
Fluid velocity as a limiting selection parameter
Darcy Weisbach Equation Darcy-Weisbach Equation
|
|
|

|
|
|

|
A
|
|
|

|
|
|

|
A
V L
f h
V L
f p or
2 2

|
|
.

\
|
.

\
= A
|
|
.

\
|
.

\
= A
g D
f h
D
f p
2
or
2
f = friction factor
L = pipe length, m
D i di t D = pipe diameter, m
V = fluid average velocity, m/s
= density of fluid, kg/m
3
y , g
g = gravitational constant, m/s
2
(Source: Fundamentals of Water System Design)
Experimental arrangement - determining head loss in pipe
Sizing Piping
General design criteria
Pipe friction loss = 400 to 500 Pa/m
For controlling velocity noise, velocity limit = 2.5 m/s
Need to know the fluid mechanics theories if accurate pipe
sizing or analysis is needed
R ld b (R ) D V / Reynolds number (Re) = D V /
Two different conditions:
Laminar flow (up to Re = 2000) Laminar flow (up to Re 2000)
Turbulent flow (Re > 2000)
In laminar flow range, the friction factor, f = 64 / Re
Pipe roughness factor (), relative roughness (/D)
Use of Moody Chart to show the relationship between friction
f t d R factors and Re
(Source: Fundamentals of Water System Design)
Reynolds number, friction flow and relative roughness
(Source: Fundamentals of Water System Design)
Moody chart - friction factors and Reynolds numbers
Sizing Piping
ASHRAE Fundamentals Handbook refers to
Colebrook Equation for determining the friction factor
in the turbulent flow range: in the turbulent flow range:
(
(

+ =
7 . 18
2 log 2 74 1
1 c
Hazen Williams Equation is also mentioned as an
(
(

+ =
f
D
f Re
2 log 2 74 . 1
Hazen-Williams Equation is also mentioned as an
alternative to Darcy-Weisbach Equation
8522 1 8522 . 1
63 2
6
10 3.35
g
(
(


= A
Q
p
63 . 2
g
(


A
C d
p
Sizing Piping
Darcy-Weisbach Equation, Colebrook Equation and y q , q
Hazen-Williams Equation are fundamental to
calculating pressure drop in chilled and hot water calculating pressure drop in chilled and hot water
piping
For practical design, charts and tables calculated from
these equations are developed for typical pipes (e.g. q p yp p p ( g
medium steel, copper and PVC pipes)
(Source: Fundamentals of Water System Design)
Pressure loss 20C water in medium steel pipe
(Source: ASHRAE Handbook Fundamentals 2005, Chp. 36)
Sizing Piping
Valve and fitting losses g
May be greater than pipe friction alone
| | | |
V V
2 2
|
|
.
|

\
|
= A
|
|
.
|

\
|
= A
g
V
K h
V
K p
L L
2
or
2
2 2

K
L
= loss coefficient (K factor) of pipe fittings
Geometry and size dependent
. \ . \
g
Geometry and size dependent
May be expressed as equivalent lengths of straight pipe
Valve coefficient (A ): Valve coefficient (A
v
):
Volume flow rate
/ p A Q
v
A =
(Source: Larock, Jeppson and Watters, 2000: Hydraulics of Pipeline Systems)
Sizing Piping
Practical design issues g
Select a pipe size for desired total flow rate and
available or allowable pressure drop e g available or allowable pressure drop, e.g.
Often assume 2.5 m / 100 m pipe length
V l it li it 1 2 / f i < 50 di Velocity limit 1.2 m/s for pipe < 50 mm dia., pressure
drop limit 400 Pa/m for pipe > 50 mm dia.
R l f th b f ti l d i Rule of thumb for practical design:
Assume design pipe length is 1.5 to 2.0 times actual to
t f fitti l ft i di t i l t d account for fitting losses; after pipe diameter is selected,
then evaluate the influence of each fitting
Oth id ti i & t h Other considerations: e.g. noise & water hammer