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Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery, Utilization, and Environmental Effects


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An Optimum Slope Angle for Solar Collector Systems in Kerman Using a New Model for Diffuse Solar Radiation
S. Jafari & E. Jahanshahi Javaran
a a b

Petroleum Engineering Department , School of Engineering, Shahid Bahonar University , Kerman , Iran
b

Mechanical Engineering Department , School of Engineering, Shahid Bahonar University , Kerman , Iran Published online: 19 Mar 2012.

To cite this article: S. Jafari & E. Jahanshahi Javaran (2012) An Optimum Slope Angle for Solar Collector Systems in Kerman Using a New Model for Diffuse Solar Radiation, Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery, Utilization, and Environmental Effects, 34:9, 799-809, DOI: 10.1080/15567031003645569 To link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15567031003645569

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Energy Sources, Part A, 34:799809, 2012 Copyright Taylor & Francis Group, LLC ISSN: 1556-7036 print/1556-7230 online DOI: 10.1080/15567031003645569

An Optimum Slope Angle for Solar Collector Systems in Kerman Using a New Model for Diffuse Solar Radiation
S. JAFARI1 and E. JAHANSHAHI JAVARAN2
1

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Petroleum Engineering Department, School of Engineering, Shahid Bahonar University, Kerman, Iran 2 Mechanical Engineering Department, School of Engineering, Shahid Bahonar University, Kerman, Iran
Abstract In the present article, the monthly average daily diffuse solar radiation on a horizontal surface is calculated rst, using 12 new hybrid models. A standard isotropic model is then used to estimate the global solar radiation on inclined surfaces. Finally, the monthly, seasonal, and yearly optimum slope angles to gain the maximum global solar radiation are suggested. The monthly optimum tilt angle varies from 0 (May, June, and July) to 60 (December). The seasonal optimum tilt angle is between 4 (spring) to 53 (autumn) and the optimum yearly slope angle is 29, which is close to the latitude of Kerman. Keywords diffuse solar radiation, global solar radiation, inclined surface, optimum, tilt angle

1. Introduction
In recent years, the energy crisis and environmental pollution turned out to be serious matters all over the world. Solar energy, which is friendly to the environment, free of charge, and renewable, is one of the most important sources of energy on an international energy scale. Solar systems need to be operated with the maximum possible performance. This can be achieved by proper design, construction, installation, and orientation. The orientation of the collector is described by its tilt angle. Generally, systems installed in the northern hemisphere are oriented due south and tilted at a certain angle. Many investigations have been carried out to determine, or at least estimate, the best tilt angle for such systems. Mujahid (1994) developed a computational algorithm for the calculation of the optimum tilt angle that would orient a non-tracking solar collection system in its best position for the maximum average daily, monthly, seasonal, or yearly intercepted radiation. The optimum tilt angles were obtained for latitudes ranging from 1050 N on a monthly, seasonal, and yearly basis. Qiu and Riffat (2003) presented a novel and general calculation method of optimum tilt angle of solar collectors by means of a clear-day solar radiation model. Their model included the optimum tilt angle as a yearly average, a half-yearly average for the summer
Address correspondence to Saeed Jafari, Petroleum Engineering Department, School of Engineering, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, No. 50, Malek Ashtar Avenue 27, Kerman 7617776151, Iran. E-mail: jafari@alumni.iut.ac.ir

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months, and a half-yearly average for the winter months. Only longitude, altitude, and nature of climate of any location were required as input parameters. Optimum tilt angles for 23 world cities were presented to illustrate the model. Saraf et al. (1988) developed a mathematical model for calculating the useful energy gained by a at plate collector under various operating conditions. The model was then used to determine the optimum tilt angles for a typical collector in Basrah on a daily basis, as well as on the basis of a specied period. Gunerhan and Hepbasli (2007) determined the optimum tilt angle of solar collectors for building applications. The optimum angle was calculated by searching values for which the total radiation on the collector surface was a maximum for a particular day or a specic period. An application of the model was tested using the experimental data measured for Izmir in Turkey. A method to determine the optimum slope angle and orientation of solar collectors for different periods of operation (1365 days) at any position in the Malaysian territory was described by Bari (2000). His method utilized both the direct and diffuse components of solar radiation. The ASHRAE standard atmosphere was used to calculate the direct component, whereas the isotropic diffuse model was used to calculate the diffuse component. The theoretical aspects of choosing a tilt angle for the solar at-plate collectors used in Egypt was examined by Elminir et al. (2006). They made recommendations on how the collected energy could be increased by varying the tilt angle. The rst objective in their investigation was to perform a statistical comparison of three specic anisotropic models to recommend one that was general and most accurate for estimating the solar radiation arriving on an inclined surface. Then, the anisotropic model that provided the most accurate estimation of the total solar radiation was used to determine the optimum collector slope based on the maximum solar energy availability. Ibrahim (1995) examined the theoretical aspects of choosing a tilt angle for the solar at-plate collectors used in Cyprus and made recommendations on how the collected energy could be increased by varying the tilt angle. He showed that very nearly optimal energy could be collected if the angle of tilt was varied seasonally, four times a year. Hartley et al. (1999) compared irradiation data, recorded on vertical surfaces facing north, south, east, and west and on a horizontal surface every 10 min during daylight hours from January to December 1992 in Valencia, Spain, with estimated solar irradiation from inclined-surface models. Their results show that Hays model most accurately reproduced the variation in irradiation on all vertical surfaces. Hays model was used to nd the hourly variation in the optimum tilt angle for a South-facing solar collector in Valencia, Spain, and also to calculate the yearly average of this angle. A mathematical model was used for estimating the total (global) solar radiation on a tilted surface, and to determine the optimum tilt angle and orientation (surface azimuth angle) for the solar collector in Brunei Darussalam on a daily basis, as well as for a specic period by Yakup and Malik (2001). The optimum angle was computed by searching values for which the total radiation on the collector surface is a maximum for a particular day or a specic period. An isotropic model was developed by Ulgen (2006) to calculate the monthly average daily total radiation on a south-facing surface. In that study, a mathematical model was used to estimate the total (global) solar radiation on a tilted surface and to determine the optimum tilt angle for a solar collector in Izmir, Turkey. Total solar radiation on the solar collector surface with an optimum tilt angle was computed for specic periods. It was found that the optimum tilt angle changes between 0 (June) and 61 (December) throughout the year.

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Iran lies in a sunny belt between 25 30 and 39 470 latitudes and is geographically well situated with respect to solar energy potential. As mentioned before, the orientation and tilt angle of a solar collector highly inuence its performance. Therefore, in the design, simulation, and operation of solar collectors, it is very essential to know the optimum tilt angle. In the present work, owing to the lack of meteorological data for diffuse solar radiation, 12 new hybrid models are developed to estimate diffuse solar radiation. The main objective of this study is to determine the optimum tilt angle for a solar collector system and the total solar radiation on a tilted surface in Kerman, Iran.

2. Solar Radiation Components


Most meteorological data include the global solar radiation on horizontal surfaces. Monthly average daily global solar radiation on tilted surfaces can be estimated by adding the direct beam .HB /, diffuse .HD /, and ground reected .HR / components of the radiation on a tilted surface. Thus, for a tilted surface, the intercepted insolation is given by: HT D HB C HD C HR : The daily direct radiation received on an inclined surface can be expressed as: HB D .H HD /Rb ; (2) (1)

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where H and HD are the monthly average daily total and diffuse solar radiation on a horizontal surface, and Rb is the ratio of the average daily direct radiation on a tilted surface to that on a horizontal surface. In the present work, HD is estimated using correlation models (see next section for more information). Rb is a function of the transmittance of the atmosphere, which depends upon the atmospheric cloudiness, water vapor, and particulate concentration. Liu and Jordan (1960) have suggested that Rb can be estimated to be the ratio of extraterrestrial radiation on the tilted surface to that on a horizontal surface for each month. For a surface with 0 azimuth angle, Rb is obtained from this equation: Rb D where
0 !s D min

cos.

0 0 / cos sin !s C . =180/!s sin. / sin ; 0 C . =180/! 0 sin sin cos cos sin !s s

(3)

cos 1 . tan tan / : cos 1 . tan. / tan /

(4)

In this relation, min means the minimum of the two items in the bracket. The daily ground reected radiation can be written as: HR D H 1
g

cos ; 2

(5)

where is the surface angle with horizon and g is the ground reectance. Due to lack of information on ground reectance, g is assumed to be 0.25. So the monthly average daily global solar radiation on an inclined surface can be rewritten as follows: HT D H 1 HD H Rb C Hd 1 C cos 2 CH 1
g

cos 2

(6)

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3. Estimation of the Horizontal Diffuse Solar Radiation


Diffuse solar radiation is a measure of the rate of incoming solar energy on a horizontal plane at the earths surface resulting from scattering of the Suns beam due to atmospheric constituents. There are models that express monthly average daily diffuse solar radiation; these models are categorized in three groups as follows: 1. diffuse solar radiation as a function of measured sunshine duration and measured total radiation; 2. diffuse solar radiation as a function of measured sunshine duration and extraterrestrial radiation; 3. diffuse solar radiation as a function of measured total radiation and extraterrestrial radiation.

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The rst model can be written in the following form: n HD D a0 H N


2

C b0

n N

C c0 ;

(7)

where n is the monthly average daily measured sunshine duration (h), and N is the monthly average daily maximum possible sunshine duration (h). Two set coefcients in Eq. (7) are given in Table 1. The second model can be written in the form: n HD D a1 H0 N
2

C b1

n N

C c1 :

(8)

Table 2 shows three set coefcients in Eq. (8). In Eq. (8), H0 is the monthly average daily extraterrestrial radiation on a horizontal surface and can be computed from the following equation: H0 D 24 G0n cos cos sin !s C 180 !s sin sin (9)

Table 1 The coefcients for model proposed based on the n D relation between H and N H Model Barbaro et al. (1981) Barbaro et al. (1981) a0 0.245 0 b0 0.820 0.527 c0 0.743 0.660

Table 2 The coefcients for model proposed based on the n D relation between H H0 and N Model Barbaro et al. (1981) Barbaro et al. (1981) Jain (1990) a1 0.1292 0 0 b1 0.013 0.1391 0.135 c1 0.221 0.263 0.293

Au: Please Provide Short Title and G0n D Gsc 1 C 0:033 cos 360nday 365 ;

803

(10)

where Gsc is the solar constant (D 1367 W/m2 ), is the latitude of the site, is the solar declination angle, !s is the mean sunshine hour angle for the month, and nday is the number of the day of the year starting from the 1st of January. The solar declination angle ( ), the mean sunshine hour angle for the month (!s ), and the maximum possible sunshine duration day lengths (N ) are calculated from Cooper (1969): D 23 45 sin 360 .284 C nday / ; 365 (11) (12) (13)

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!s D cos 1 . tan tan /; N D 2 !s : 15

The last model can be written in the following form: HD D a2 H H H0


4

C b2

H H0

C c2

H H0

C d2

H H0

C e2 :

(14)

Twelve set coefcients in Eq. (14) are given in Table 3. The average values of the estimation by all these models were used to calibrate the new correlation models. Twelve new hybrid models are developed by taking the linear, quadratic, and cubic forms of each of Eqs. (7), (8), and (14) as follows: HD n D a0 H N
3

C b0

n N

C c0

n N

C d0 :

(15)

Three set coefcients in Eq. (15) are given in Table 4. Table 3 The coefcients for model proposed based on the relation between Model Tasdemiroglu and Sever (1991) Tehran and Sari (2005) Elhadidy and Abdel-Nabi (1991) Erbs et al. (1982) Liu and Jordan (1960) Barbaro et al. (1981) Tehran and Sari (2005) Jain (1990) Tasdemiroglu and Sever (1991) Barbaro et al. (1981) Jain (1990) Kaygusuz and Ayhan (1999) a2 19.818 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 b2 37.807 0.402 33.115 1.769 3.108 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 c2 25.553 1.102 61.052 3.372 5.531 0.1471 0.568 1.741 0 0 0 0

HD H

and

H H0

d2 8.227 1.659 35.093 3.023 4.027 1.478 1.427 0 1.13 1.325 0.343 0.869

e2 1.693 1.027 5.759 1.317 1.39 1.089 0.989 1.039 1 1.049 0.193 0.789

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3

C b1

n N

C c1

n N

C d:

(16)

Table 5 shows three set coefcients in Eq. (16). HD D a2 H H H0


3

C b2

H H0

C c2

H H0

C d2 :

(17)

Table 6 shows three set coefcients in Eq. (17). HD D a3 H0 H H0


3

C b3

H H0

C c3

H H0

C d3 :

(18)

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Three set coefcients in Eq. (18) are given in Table 7. Only the values of R2 were used for comparison purposes of the 12 new hybrid models. According to the values of R2 , the best hybrid model is obtained from model (9). The values estimated from model (9) and the values of H , H0 , n, N are shown in Table 8.

Table 4 The coefcients for model proposed for Kerman based on the n D and N relation between H H Model 1 2 3 a0 0.252 0 0 b0 2.582 2.0408 0 c0 3.809 3.424 0.5039 d0 1.740 1.649 0.620 R2 0.944 0.944 0.886

Table 5 The coefcients for model proposed for Kerman based on the n D relation between H and N H0 Model 4 5 6 a1 1.395 0 0 b1 2.455 0.546 0 c1 1.147 0.987 0.207 d1 0.092 0.595 0.319 R2 0.961 0.961 0.935

Table 6 The coefcients for model proposed for Kerman based on the H D relation between H H and H0 Model 7 8 9 a2 0.208 0 0 b2 1.029 0.861 0 c2 0.431 0.476 0.945 d2 0.847 0.852 0.913 R2 0.991 0.993 0.994

Au: Please Provide Short Title Table 7 The coefcients for model proposed for Kerman based on the H D relation between H H0 and H0 Model 10 11 12 a3 390.91 0 0 b3 180.41 22.907 0 c3 29.386 5.657 2.333 d3 2.381 0.379 1.068 R2 0.989 0.988 0.972

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Table 8 Values of predicted extraterrestrial, global, and diffuse solar radiation; sunshine duration; and maximum possible sunshine duration for Kerman Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec H0 (MJ/m2 /day) 20.94 25.35 31.13 36.37 39.58 40.71 40.03 37.43 32.83 26.99 21.87 19.53 H (MJ/m2 /day) 12.52 15.83 18.38 23.00 26.83 28.54 28.10 25.90 23.58 19.32 15.20 13.19 HD (MJ/m2 /day) 4.36 5.11 6.53 7.26 7.31 7.16 7.02 6.71 5.52 4.57 3.90 3.63 n (h) 6.33 7.11 6.95 7.86 9.61 10.65 10.32 10.90 10.13 9.14 8.05 6.67 N (h) 10.29 10.94 11.81 12.75 13.53 13.92 13.74 13.06 12.16 11.22 10.45 10.08

4. Results and Discussion


In the present study, estimation of the monthly average daily total solar radiation on inclined surfaces at different slope angles has been carried out. Slope angle changes from 0 to 90 in steps of 1 and the total solar radiation for each slope has been obtained. Results of these are shown in Figures 14. Figure 1 shows that these results for January to March, as it can be seen in this gure the optimum beta (beta at which the global solar radiation is maximum) varies from 32 (March) to 56 (January). Figure 2 shows that optimum beta is between 0 (June and May) and 15 (April). Optimum beta varies from 0 (July) to 60 (December) in the last six months (Figures 3 and 4). Therefore, the optimum slope angle changes between 0 (May, June, and July) to 60 (December). The seasonal tilt angle is calculated by averaging the values of optimum tilt angles for each month. These values are 45, 4 , 12 , and 53 for winter, spring, summer, and autumn, respectively. Finally, the yearly tilt angle is 29 . Table 9 shows monthly, seasonal, and yearly optimums tilt angle and global solar radiation for each of these values. In Table 10, yearly global solar radiation and increasing percentage in respect to horizontal surface are shown.

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Figure 1. Predicted monthly average daily solar radiation availability of tilted surfaces for January to March.

Figure 2. Predicted monthly average daily solar radiation availability of tilted surfaces for April to June.

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Figure 3. Predicted monthly average daily solar radiation availability of tilted surfaces for July to September.

Figure 4. Predicted monthly average daily solar radiation availability of tilted surfaces for October to December.

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Table 9 Seasonal and yearly average tilt angle and monthly average daily solar radiation on a tilted south-facing surface in Kerman, Iran Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec opt.m/ 55.62 47.53 32.36 14.16 0.00 0.00 0.00 9.10 27.30 44.49 55.62 59.66 Hopt.m/ (MJ/m2 ) 19.48 21.31 20.67 23.52 26.83 28.54 28.10 26.11 25.83 25.33 24.09 22.89 opt.s/ 45.17 Hopt.s/ (MJ/m2 ) 19.20 21.29 20.26 23.29 26.73 28.22 27.31 26.07 25.13 25.11 24.07 22.76 opt.y/ 28.82 Hopt.y/ (MJ/m2 ) 17.65 30.35 20.63 23.05 24.55 24.97 25.01 25.04 25.83 24.46 21.77 19.99

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12.13

53.26

Table 10 Yearly global solar radiation and increasing percentage respect to horizontal surface Method Htotal (MJ/m2 ) Increasing percentage (%) opt.m/ 8,907 17 opt.s/ 8,808 16 opt.y/ 8,595 13 D0 7,624 0

5. Conclusions
The monthly average daily diffuse solar radiation was obtained using correlation procedures and these values were used and 12 new hybrid models were proposed. The best correlation between these models, according to R2 values, was used to estimate diffuse solar radiation in Kerman. The Liu and Jordan (1960) model was used to estimate global solar radiation on tilted surfaces. Surface slope changes from 0 to 90 in steps of 1 . The monthly optimum tilt angle varies from 0 (May, June, and July) to 60 (December). The seasonal optimum tilt angle is between 4 (spring) and 53 (autumn), and the optimum yearly slope angle is 29.

References
Barbaro, S., Cannata, G., Coppolino, S., Leone, C., and Sinagra, E. 1981. Diffuse solar radiation statistic for Italy. Solar Energy 26:429435. Bari, S. 2000. Optimum slope angle and orientation of solar collectors for different periods of possible utilization. Energy Convers. Manage. 41:855860. Cooper, P. I. 1969. The absorption of radiation in solar stills. Solar Energy 13:373381. Elhadidy, M. A., and Abdel-Nabi, D. Y. 1991. Diffuse fraction of daily global radiation at Dhahran, Saudi Arabia. Solar Energy 46:8995.

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Elminir, H. K., Ghitas, A. E., El-Hussainy, F., Hamid, R., Beheary, M. M., and Abdel-Moneim, K. M. 2006. Optimum solar at-plate collector slope: Case study for Helwan, Egypt. Energy Convers. Manage. 47:624637. Erbs, D. G., Klein, S. A., and Dufe, J. A. 1982. Estimation of the diffuse radiation fraction for hourly, daily and monthly average global radiation. Solar Energy 28:293302. Gunerhan, H., and Hepbasli, A. 2007. Determination of the optimum tilt angle of solar collectors for building applications. Build. & Environ. 42:779783. Hartley, L. E., Martinez-Lozano, J. A., Utrillas, M. P., Tena, F., and Pedros, R. 1999. Optimisation of the angle of inclination of a solar collector to maximise the incident solar radiation. Renew. Energy 17:291309. Ibrahim, D. 1995. Optimum tilt angle for solar collectors used in Cyprus. Renew. Energy 6:813819. Jain, P. C. 1990. Model for diffuse and global irradiation on horizontal surfaces. Solar Energy 45:301308. Kaygusuz, K., and Ayhan, T. 1999. Analysis of solar radiation data for Trabzon, Turkey. Energy Convers. Manage. 40:545556. Liu, B., and Jordan, R. C. 1960. The relationship and characteristics distribution of direct diffuse and total radiation. Solar Energy 4:119. Mujahid, A. 1994. Optimum tilt angle for solar collection systems. Int. J. Solar Energy 14:191202. Qiu, G., and Riffat, S. B. 2003. Optimum tilt angle of solar collectors and its impact on performance. Int. J. Ambient Energy 24:1320. Saraf, G. R., Faik, A., and Wahab, H. 1988. Optimum tilt angle for a at plate solar collector. Energy Convers. Manage. 28:185191. Tasdemiroglu, E., and Sever, R. 1991. Estimation of monthly average, daily horizontal diffuse radiation in Turkey. Energy 16:787790. Tehran, S., and Sari, A. 2005. Model selection for global and diffuse radiation over the Central Black Sea (CBS) region of Turkey. Energy Convers. Manage. 46:605613. Ulgen, K. 2006. Optimum tilt angle for solar collectors. Energy Sources, Part A: Recov., Utili. & Environ. Effects 28:11711180. Yakup, M. A. B. H. M., and Malik, A. Q. 2001. Optimum tilt angle and orientation for solar collector in Brunei Durassalam. Renew. Energy 24:223234.

Nomenclature
H0 H HB HD HR HT n N nday Rb
g

!s

monthly average daily extraterrestrial radiation on a horizontal surface monthly average daily total solar radiation on a horizontal surface direct beam radiation component diffuse radiation component ground reected radiation component intercepted insolation for a tilted surface monthly average daily measured sunshine duration monthly average daily maximum possible sunshine duration number of the day of year starting from rst January ratio of the average daily direct radiation on a tilted surface to that on a horizontal surface surface angle with horizon solar declination angle latitude of the site ground reectance mean sunshine hour angle for the month

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