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ROCK BOLTING

Rock and Soils 2009 Don Cameron

CONTENT
Introduction to rock bolting

Rock Bolts, Rock Anchors

Tension bolt
mechanical bolt friction bolt

grouted bolt or cable

Shear bolt (dowel action)

Long or relatively short?

Benefits of a Bolt

Tensile force in bolt produces greater normal force & hence joint friction and anti-sliding force, Ta

TYPES 0F ROCKBOLTS
A. Mechanically Anchored Cone forced into expanding shell @ base by screwing nut to shank

Voids subsequently grouted


Moderately hard to hard rocks
slipping likely in VERY hard rock

Blast vibration may loosen anchor

Digunakan untuk lubang bukaan pada batuan terkekarkan Daerah yang berpotensi terjadinya runtuhan baji atau blok Mudah dan cepat dalam pemasangannya Dapat ditarik untuk memberi efek kuncian pada potensial baji yang tidak stabil

Terbagi menjadi
pengaplikasiaannya):

( berdasarkan

Ungrouted mechanicals anchored bolt pada daerah non korosi Untuk penggunaan jangka pendek dan menengah Grouted mechanicals anchored bolt Terdapat resiko korosi Penggunaan jangka panjang Grouted dilakukan setelah periode tarikan

Reference: Hoek, E., Ch 14 of Practical Rock Engineering, 2007

http://www.rocscience.com/hoek/pdf/14_Rockbolts_and_cables.pdf

TYPES 0F ROCKBOLTS
B. Friction Anchored Rock Bolts (heavily jointed rock) perlu wire mesh/shotcrete Split-set & Swellex

1. Swellex - collapsed tube, expanded in drillhole with water pressure


Pull-out resistance dependent on applied water pressure Expensive and temporary http://www.swellex.com/

TYPES 0F ROCKBOLTS
B. Friction Anchored Rock Bolts 2. Split-set - collapsed tube, expanded in drillhole with water pressure
borehole diameter crucial: must be slightly smaller than split-set
no tension

bolt lengths < 3 m


www.splitset.com/rock-bolts.html

TYPES 0F ROCKBOLTS
C. Grouted Rock Bolts Cement or resin cartridge placed in drillhole Reobar drilled through cartridges Top of the bolt not bonded to the grout (wrapped in PVC tape) Nut tensioned against anchored end Versatile, high corrosion resistance

Reference: Hoek, E., Ch 14 of Practical Rock Engineering, 2007

http://www.rocscience.com/hoek/pdf/14_Rockbolts_and_cables.pdf

TYPES 0F ROCKBOLTS
D. Grouted Cable Bolts Temporary support systems Untensioned fully grouted cables (used in the mining industry)
act as passive reinforcement the rock mass must be in a state of compression during installation dilation upon shearing tensions the anchor

Passive reinforcement
- non-tensioned

Tensile force develops as slide initiates: dilational joint only (rough, undulating)

Example of use of Cable Bolts


Windy Point Great Ocean Road instability of 200,000 tons of rock
Sandstones, interbedded mudstones, 27 dip seaward

Problems during installation; slide moving @ 2 cm per day Slide stopped after first 7 anchors installed 45 x 170 ton anchors, 18 to 43m long Estimated F of S = 1.07

Summary: Rock bolts


Rock bolts and cables can incorporate;
mechanical anchorage grout

Rock bolts and cables may be posttensioned (active) or rely on the rock mass to do the work (passive)