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EHospital:HospitalInformationSystems

Hospital Information Systems

Hospital Information Systems Part 1


Punang Amaripuja p_amaripuja@yahoo.com

E-Hospital

Hospital Information Systems

Class Management

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EHospital:HospitalInformationSystems

Hospital Information Systems

Main Reference

Laudon,K.C.andLaudon,J.P., ManagementInformation Systems:ManagingtheDigital Fi 12thedition, Firm, diti P Prentice ti Hall, H ll 2011

Hospital Information Systems

Topics to Discuss
Hardware Software Networking Database Technology gyAcceptance p Model

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Hospital Information Systems

Data, Information, and Systems

Review:

Hospital Information Systems

Is it Data or Information?

(1/2)

US troops invaded the town to capture 5 Iraqi rebels. 15 15 Celsius The weather at 5 pm today in Melbourne is 15 Celsius US troops came into the town to capture 5 bearded Iraqi men.

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Hospital Information Systems

Is it Data or Information?
StockPrice
Company Stock Price

(2/2)

JSXStockPrice 25Nov.2013
Company Stock Price (Rp)

Telkom Unilever Indosat

2000 1000 1750

Telkom Unilever Indosat

2000 1000 1750

Hospital Information Systems

Definitions

(1/3)

Data : Streams of raw facts representing events occurring in organizations or the physical environment before they have been organized and arranged into a form that people can understand and use (Laudon, 2000). Information : Data that have been shaped into a form that is meaningful and useful to human beings (Laudon, 2000).

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Hospital Information Systems

Information
OrganizedandArranged Meaningful Useful

Hospital Information Systems

What is the main information needed by a cashier in a supermarket?

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Definitions

(2/3)

System : A set of interrelated components that work together to achieve some common purpose (Martin et. al., 1994). Information System : Interrelated components working together to collect, collect process, process store store, and disseminate information to support decision making, coordination, control, analysis and visualization in an organization (Laudon, 2000).

Hospital Information Systems

DataandInformation

Rawdatafromasupermarketcheckoutcountercanbeprocessedandorganizedtoproducemeaningful information,suchasthetotalunitsalesofdishdetergentorthetotalsalesrevenuefromdishdetergentfora specificstoreorsalesterritory.

PrenticeHall2011

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Functionsofan InformationSystem y
Aninformationsystemcontains informationaboutanorganization anditssurroundingenvironment. Threebasicactivitiesinput, processing,andoutputproducethe informationorganizationsneed. Feedbackisoutputreturnedto appropriatepeopleoractivitiesinthe organizationtoevaluateandrefine theinput.Environmentalactors,such ascustomers,suppliers,competitors, stockholders,andregulatory agencies,interactwiththe organizationanditsinformation systems.

PrenticeHall2011

Hospital Information Systems

IS From a Business Perspective

IS
The O Organization i ti

Environmental Challenges

IS

IS

IS

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EHospital:HospitalInformationSystems

Hospital Information Systems

ISs Role in an Organization


IS
The Organization

IS

IS

IS

Satisfying y gExternal Customers SatisfyingInternal Customers

Hospital Information Systems

Who are the external customers?


Patients Families of patients Pharmacies Suppliers Citi Citizens Regional government Ministry NGOs

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Hospital Information Systems

Who are the internal customers?


Doctors Nurses Paramedics Administrative staff Other divisions

Hospital Information Systems

Where do we stand?

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Hospital Information Systems

Types of Information Systems

Hospital Information Systems

Information and Levels of Management


Strategic Planning
Environment Brief - General

Management Control

Operational Control

Internal Detailed - Specific

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Hospital Information Systems

Types of Systems
STRATEGICLEVEL ESS:ExecutiveSupportSystems MANAGEMENTLEVEL MIS:ManagementInform.Syst. DSS:DecisionSupportSystems KNOWLEDGELEVEL KWS:K Knowledge l d Work W kS Systems OAS:OfficeAutomationSyst. OPERATIONALLEVEL TPS:TransactionProcSystems
ManagementInformation Systems

Top Mng. Mng

Hospital Information Systems

Information System Analogy

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Hospital Information Systems

IS Dashboard

Hospital Information Systems

Major Types of Systems in Organizations

Interrelationships among systems

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Hospital Information Systems

IT Infrastructure:
Hardware, Software, and Networking

Hospital Information Systems

Hardware Components
Communication Devices Secondary Storage
OptDisk FlashDisk

Central Processing Unit(CPU)

Buses

Primary Storage
HardDrive SolidStateDrive

InputDevices
Keyboard,Mouse, TouchScreen,Stylus

Output Devices
Printer,Display, Plotter,Audio

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Hospital Information Systems

ITInfrastructure

ITinfrastructure:
Setofphysicaldevicesandsoftwarerequiredto operateenterprise Setoffirmwideservicesincluding:
Computingplatformsprovidingcomputingservices Telecommunicationsservices Datamanagementservices Applicationsoftwareservices Physicalfacilitiesmanagementservices ITmanagement,education,andotherservices

Serviceplatform perspective
Moreaccurateviewofvalueofinvestments

Hospital Information Systems

ITInfrastructure

EvolutionofITinfrastructure
Generalpurposemainframeandminicomputerera:1959 topresent
1958:IBMfirstmainframesintroduced 1965:lessexpensiveDECminicomputersintroduced

Personalcomputerera:1981topresent
1981:IntroductionofIBMPC Proliferationin80s,90sresultedingrowthofpersonalsoftware

Client/serverera:1983topresent
Desktopclientsnetworkedtoservers,withprocessingworksplitbetween clientsandservers Networkmaybetwotieredormultitiered (Ntiered) Varioustypesofservers(network,application,Web)

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ITInfrastructure

EvolutionofITinfrastructure(cont.)
Enterprisecomputingera:1992topresent
Movetowardintegratingdisparatenetworks, applicationsusingInternetstandardsandenterprise applications

Cloudandmobilecomputing:2000topresent
Cl Cloud dcomputing: ti computing ti powerand dsoftware ft applicationssuppliedovertheInternetorother network
Fastestgrowingformofcomputing

Hospital Information Systems

STAGESINITINFRASTRUCTUREEVOLUTION
Illustratedherearethetypical computingconfigurations characterizingeachofthefive erasofITinfrastructure evolution.
FIGURE52

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STAGESINITINFRASTRUCTUREEVOLUTION(cont.)
Illustratedherearethetypical computingconfigurations characterizingeachofthefive erasofITinfrastructure evolution.
FIGURE52

Hospital Information Systems

AMULTITIEREDCLIENT/SERVERNETWORK(NTIER)

FIGURE53

Inamultitieredclient/servernetwork,clientrequestsforservicearehandledbydifferentlevelsofservers.

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ITInfrastructure

Technologydriversofinfrastructureevolution
Mooreslawandmicroprocessingpower Computingpowerdoublesevery18months Nanotechnology:
Shrinkssizeoftransistorstosizecomparabletosize ofavirus

LawofMassDigitalStorage Theamountofdatabeingstoredeachyear doubles

Hospital Information Systems

MOORESLAWANDMICROPROCESSORPERFORMANCE
Packingmorethan2billion transistorsintoatiny microprocessorhas exponentiallyincreased processingpower.Processing powerhasincreasedtomore than500,000MIPS(millionsof instructionspersecond).

FIGURE54

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FALLINGCOSTOFCHIPS
Packingmoretransistorsinto lessspacehasdrivendown transistorcostdramaticallyas wellasthecostoftheproducts inwhichtheyareused.
FIGURE55

Hospital Information Systems

EXAMPLESOFNANOTUBES
Nanotubesaretinytubes about10,000timesthinner thanahumanhair. hair They consistofrolledupsheetsof carbonhexagonsandhavethe potentialusesasminuscule wiresorinultrasmall electronic devicesandareverypowerful conductorsofelectrical current.
FIGURE56

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THECOSTOFSTORINGDATADECLINESEXPONENTIALLY19502012
Sincethefirstmagneticstorage devicewasusedin1955,the costofstoringakilobyteof datahasfallenexponentially, doublingtheamountofdigital storageforeachdollar expendedevery15monthson average.
FIGURE57

Hospital Information Systems

ITInfrastructure Technologydriversofinfrastructureevolution(cont.)

MetcalfesLawandnetworkeconomics Valueorpowerofanetworkgrows exponentiallyasafunctionofthenumberof networkmembers Asnetworkmembersincrease,morepeople wanttouseit(demandfornetworkaccess increases)

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ITInfrastructure Technologydriversofinfrastructureevolution(cont.)

DecliningcommunicationcostsandtheInternet Anestimated2.3billionpeopleworldwidehave Internetaccess Ascommunicationcostsfalltowardaverysmall numberandapproach0,utilizationof communicationandcomputingfacilities explodes

Hospital Information Systems

EXPONENTIALDECLINESININTERNETCOMMUNICATIONSCOSTS

FIGURE58

OnereasonforthegrowthintheInternetpopulationistherapiddeclineinInternetconnectionandoverall communicationcosts.ThecostperkilobitofInternetaccesshasfallenexponentiallysince1995.Digitalsubscriber line(DSL)andcablemodemsnowdeliverakilobitofcommunicationforaretailpriceofaround2cents.

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ITInfrastructure

Technologydriversofinfrastructureevolution (cont.)
Standardsandnetworkeffects Technologystandards:
Specificationsthatestablishthecompatibilityof productsandtheabilitytocommunicateina network Unleashpowerfuleconomiesofscaleandresultin pricedeclinesasmanufacturersfocusonthe productsbuilttoasinglestandard

Hospital Information Systems

InfrastructureComponents

ITInfrastructurehassevenmaincomponents
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Computerhardwareplatforms Operatingsystemplatforms Enterprisesoftwareapplications Datamanagementandstorage Networking/telecommunications ki / l i i platforms l f Internetplatforms Consultingsystemintegrationservices

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THEITINFRASTRUCTUREECOSYSTEM
Therearesevenmajor componentsthatmustbe coordinatedtoprovidethefirm withacoherentIT infrastructure.Listedhereare majortechnologiesand suppliersforeachcomponent.
FIGURE59

Hospital Information Systems

InfrastructureComponents

Computerhardwareplatforms
Clientmachines
DesktopPCs,mobiledevicesPDAs,laptops

Servers
Bladeservers:ultrathincomputersstoredinracks

Mainframes:
IBMmainframeequivalenttothousandsofblade servers

Topchipproducers:AMD,Intel,IBM Topfirms:IBM,HP,Dell,SunMicrosystems

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InfrastructureComponents

Operatingsystemplatforms
Operatingsystems
Serverlevel:65%runUnixorLinux;35%runWindows Clientlevel:
90%runMicrosoftWindows(XP,2000,CE,etc.) Mobile/multitouch(Android,iOS) Cloudcomputing(GooglesChromeOS)

Enterprisesoftwareapplications
Enterpriseapplicationproviders:SAPandOracle Middlewareproviders:BEA

Hospital Information Systems

InfrastructureComponents

Datamanagementandstorage
Databasesoftware: IBM(DB2),Oracle,Microsoft(SQLServer), Sybase(AdaptiveServerEnterprise),MySQL Physicaldatastorage: EMCCorp(largescalesystems),Seagate, Maxtor WesternDigital Maxtor, Storageareanetworks(SANs): Connectmultiplestoragedevicesondedicated network

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InfrastructureComponents

Networking/telecommunicationsplatforms
Telecommunicationservices Telecommunications,cable,telephone companychargesforvoicelinesandInternet access Telkom,XL,etc. Network N t koperating ti systems: t WindowsServer,Linux,Unix Networkhardwareproviders: Cisco,AlcatelLucent,Nortel,JuniperNetworks

Hospital Information Systems

InfrastructureComponents

Internetplatforms
Hardware,software,managementservicesto supportcompanyWebsites,(includingWeb hostingservices)intranets,extranets Internethardwareservermarket:IBM,Dell,Sun (Oracle),HP Webdevelopmenttools/suites:Microsoft (ExpressionStudio,.NET)OracleSun(Java), Adobe,RealNetworks

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ContemporaryHardwarePlatformTrends

Themobiledigitalplatform
Cellphones,smartphones(iPhone,Android,and Blackberry) Datatransmission,Websurfing,email,andIM duties Netbooks: Smalllightweightnotebooksoptimizedfor wirelesscommunicationandcoretasks Tablets(iPad) Networkedereaders(KindleandNook)

Hospital Information Systems

InteractiveSession:Management

SHOULDYOUUSEYOURIPHONEFORWORK?
ReadtheInteractiveSessionanddiscussthefollowingquestions

Whataretheadvantagesanddisadvantagesofallowing employeestousetheirpersonalsmartphonesforwork? Whatmanagement,organization,andtechnologyfactors shouldbeaddressedwhendecidingwhethertoallow p y tousetheirp personalsmartphones p forwork? employees Allowingemployeestousetheirownsmartphonesfor workwillsavethecompanymoney.Doyouagree?

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ContemporaryHardwarePlatformTrends

Cloudcomputing
Ondemand(utility)computingservicesobtained overnetwork
Infrastructureasaservice Platformasaservice Softwareasaservice

Cloudcanbep publicorprivate p AllowscompaniestominimizeITinvestments Drawbacks:Concernsofsecurity,reliability Hybridcloudcomputingmodel

Hospital Information Systems

CLOUDCOMPUTINGPLATFORM
Incloudcomputing,hardware andsoftwarecapabilitiesarea poolofvirtualizedresources providedoveranetwork,often theInternet.Businessesand employeeshaveaccessto applicationsandIT infrastructureanywhere,atany time,andonanydevice.
Figure510

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ContemporarySoftwarePlatformTrends

Opensourcesoftware:
Producedbycommunityofprogrammers Freeandmodifiablebyuser Examples:Apachewebserver,MozillaFirefox browser,OpenOffice

Linux
OpensourceOS Usedinmobiledevices,localareanetworks,Web servers,highperformancecomputing

Hospital Information Systems

ContemporarySoftwarePlatformTrends

SoftwarefortheWeb
Java:
Objectorientedprogramminglanguage Operatingsystem,processorindependent

HTML/HTML5
Webpagedescriptionlanguage Specifieshowtext,graphicsareplacedonWebpage HTML5islatestevolution
Includesanimationandvideoprocessingfunctionality previouslyprovidedbythirdpartyaddonssuchasFlash

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ContemporarySoftwarePlatformTrends

Softwareoutsourcingandcloudservices
Threeexternalsourcesforsoftware:
Softwarepackagesandenterprisesoftware Softwareoutsourcing
Contractingoutsidefirmstodevelopsoftware

Cloudbasedsoftwareservices
Softwareasaservice(SaaS) AccessedwithWebbrowseroverInternet ServiceLevelAgreements(SLAs):formalagreementwith serviceproviders

Hospital Information Systems

CHANGINGSOURCESOFFIRMSOFTWARE

Figure512

In2012,U.S.firmswillspendmorethan$279billiononsoftware.About35percentofthat($98billion)will originateoutsidethefirm,eitherfromenterprisesoftwarevendorssellingfirmwideapplicationsorindividual applicationserviceprovidersleasingorsellingsoftwaremodules.Another4percent($11billion)willbe providedbySaaSvendorsasanonlinecloudbasedservice.

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ManagementIssues

Dealingwithplatformandinfrastructure change h
Asfirmsshrinkorgrow,ITneedstobeflexibleand scalable Scalability: Abilitytoexpandtoservelargernumberofusers Formobilecomputing p gandcloudcomputing p g Newpoliciesandproceduresformanagingthesenew platforms Contractualagreementswithfirmsrunningcloudsand distributingsoftwarerequired

Hospital Information Systems

ManagementIssues

Management g and governance g


Who controls IT infrastructure? How should IT department be organized?
Centralized
Central IT department makes decisions

Decentralized
Business unit IT departments make own decisions

How are costs allocated between divisions, departments?

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ManagementIssues

Makingwiseinfrastructureinvestments
AmounttospendonITiscomplexquestion
Rentvs.buy,cloudcomputing Outsourcing

Totalcostofownership(TCO)model
Analyzesdirectandindirectcosts Hardware,softwareaccountforonlyabout20%ofTCO Othercosts:Installation Installation,training training,support support,maintenance maintenance, infrastructure,downtime,space,andenergy

TCOcanbereduced
Useofcloudservices,greatercentralizationandstandardizationof hardwareandsoftwareresources

Hospital Information Systems

Technology Acceptance

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Challenges in HIS Implementation Insufficientinterest/willtooptimisetheuse ofIS,especiallybyhealthprofessionals(based onagegroupandactivitydensity) Solution:Properhandlingofresistanceto change.

Hospital Information Systems

Resistance to Change
Informationsystemswillpotentiallychange organisationalstructure,culture,politics,andjob d descriptions resistance Leavitt(1965)diamond model
Jobs

Technology

People

Structure

Allcomponentshastobechangedsimultaneously

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Technology Acceptance Model


(Davis, 1989)

Perceived Usefulness Behavior Intention

Attitude

ActualUse

PerceivedEase ofUse

Thetheoryexplainsindividualacceptancetowardsthe useoftechnology

Hospital Information Systems

Managerial Responsibilities in the Implementation of IS SynchronisingISwithorganisationalgoals PlanningISdevelopment Measuringconformitywithorganisational policiesandgovernmentregulations AssessingthebenefitsofISimpelemntation AssessingtherisksofISfailure

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