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Genocide initial lesson: (40 minutes total) Objective: Students will get an introduction to genocide in preparation for a 2 week

unit on genocide. Hook: I will tell the students that in preparation for the unit we will be doing that they will learn a bit about the genocide today. Materials: Students will be in pairs and will work using the below information and KWL chart provided to them by the teacher. Explicit Instruction: I will begin the lesson with a short video clip from Teachertube. (URL below) I will then show the students a short picture slideshow with pictures from each genocide we will study. URL: http://www.teachertube.com/viewVideo.php?video_id=81733&title=Genocide I will then talk with them for about five minutes on genocide. I will provide the definition, and will discuss which genocides we will learn about and when they took place. I will write the word "Genocide" on the board. I will then ask the students if they know what it means. I will share with them that the term was first used by Rafael Lempkin in 1944 in his book, Axis Rule in Occupied Europe. The word is a hybrid consisting of the Greek word "genos," meaning race, nation or tribe, and the Latin suffix, "cide," meaning killing. I will then provide them with some of the statistics from different genocides, along with rates of killing: Holocaust numbers 5,022 / day 11 million estimate 2,739 / day 6 million estimate Rwanda numbers 8,000/ day 800,000 Total killed. People were killed two to three times as quickly in Rwanda than during the Holocaust. Independent Instruction: Students will read the below information in pairs and will complete the KWL chart that is below. I expect this to take 20 minutes. We will then have a 15-20 minute class discussion on what they learned and what they wrote in their charts. Students will turn in their charts for review by the teacher.

Assessment: No credit will be given for the charts. Charts are used for teacher information in regards to formulating the unit and assessing how the introductory lesson went in terms of student understanding. Some of the below information is from: Adapted from: United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. The Holocaust. Holocaust Encyclopedia. http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/?ModuleId=10005143. Britannica.com http://www.unitedhumanrights.org/genocide/genocide-in-sudan.htm

Genocide after World War Two

THE TERM "GENOCIDE" The term "genocide" did not exist before 1944. It is a very specific term, referring to violent crimes committed against groups with the intent to destroy the existence of the group. Human rights, as laid out in the U.S. Bill of Rights or the 1948 United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights, concern the rights of individuals. THE CRIME OF GENOCIDE On December 9, 1948, the United Nations approved the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide. This convention establishes "genocide as an international crime, which signatory nations undertake to prevent and punish. It defines genocide as: [G]enocide means any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group, as such: (a) Killing members of the group; (b) Causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group; (c) Deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part; (d) Imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group; (e) Forcibly transferring children of the group to another group. 1944: "Genocide" coined Nazi leadership embarked on a variety of population policies aimed at restructuring the ethnic composition of Europe by force, using mass murder as a tool. Included among these policies and involving mass murder were the attempt to murder all European Jews, which we now refer to as the Holocaust, the attempt to murder most of the Gypsy (Roma) population of Europe, and the attempt to physically liquidate the leadership classes of Poland and the former Soviet Union. Also included in these policies were numerous smaller scale resettlement policies involving the use of brutal force and murder that we now refer to as a form of ethnic cleansing. 1988: U.S. signs the Genocide Convention On November 4, 1988, U.S. President Ronald Reagan signed the UN Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of Genocide 1991-1995: Wars of the former Yugoslavia The wars of the former Yugoslavia were marked by massive war crimes and crimes against humanity. The conflict in Bosnia (19921995) brought some of the harshest fighting and worst massacres to Europe since World War II. In one small town, Srebrenica, as many as 8,000 Bosnian men and boys were murdered by Serbian forces. 1994: Genocide in Rwanda From April until mid-July, at least 500,000 civilians, mostly from the Tutsi minority group, were killed in Rwanda. It was killing on a devastating scale, scope, and speed. In October, the UN Security Council extended the mandate of the ICTY to include a separate but linked tribunal for Rwanda, the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR), located in Arusha, Tanzania. 2004: Genocide in Darfur For the first time in U.S. government history, an ongoing crisis was referred to as a "genocide." On September 9, 2004, Secretary of State Colin Powell testified before the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, "We concluded -- I concluded -that genocide has been committed in Darfur and that the Government of Sudan and the Janjaweed bear responsibility -- and that genocide may still be occurring."

SUMMARIES: BOSNIA: Bosnian conflict, ethnically rooted war (199295) in Bosnia and Herzegovina, a former republic of Yugoslavia with a multiethnic population comprising Bosniacs (formerly designated as Muslims), Serbs, and Croats. After years of bitter fighting that involved the three Bosnian groups as well as the Yugoslav army, Western countries with backing by the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) imposed a final cease-fire negotiated at Dayton, Ohio, U.S., in 1995. Deaths: Between 100,000 and 200,00 killed and more than 2,000,000 displaced during the 199295 war. RWANDA: Rwanda genocide of 1994, planned campaign of mass murder in Rwanda that occurred over the course of some 100 days in AprilJuly 1994. The genocide was conceived by extremist elements of Rwandas majority Hutu population who planned to kill the minority Tutsi population and anyone who opposed those genocidal intentions. It is estimated that some 200,000 Hutu, spurred on by propaganda from various media outlets, participated in the genocide. More than 800,000 civiliansprimarily Tutsi, but also moderate Hutuwere killed during the campaign. As many as 2,000,000 Rwandans fled the country during or immediately after the genocide. By the end of April, according to Human Rights Watch, "the worst massacres had finished ... perhaps half of the Tutsi population of Rwanda" had been murdered. CAMBODIA: As a reaction against the United States bombings of Cambodia (due to the United States war in Vietnam) a communist man named Pol Pot was elected prime minister of the new Khmer Rouge (political party) government from 1976 until he was overthrown by invading Vietnamese in January 1979. It is estimated that from 1975 to 1979, under the leadership of Pol Pot, the government caused the deaths of between one million and two million people from forced labor, starvation, disease, torture, or execution while carrying out a program of radical social and agricultural reforms. Nearly 25% of the population in Cambodia was killed. SUDAN: In 2003, two Darfuri rebel movements- the Sudan Liberation Army (SLA) and the Justice and Equality Movement (JEM)- took up arms against the Sudanese government, complaining about the marginalization of the area and the failure to protect sedentary people from attacks by nomads. The government of Sudan responded by unleashing Arab militias known as Janjaweed, or devils on horseback. Sudanese forces and Janjaweed militia attacked hundreds of villages throughout Darfur. Over 400 villages were completely destroyed and millions of civilians were forced to flee their homes. In the ongoing genocide, African farmers and others in Darfur are being systematically displaced and murdered at the hands of the Janjaweed. The genocide in Darfur has claimed 400,000 lives and displaced over 2,500,000 people. More than one hundred people continue to die each day; five thousand die every month. The Sudanese government disputes these estimates and denies any connection with the Janjaweed.

What (if anything) do you already KNOW about genocide? (before reading about genocide)

After reading with you partner, What do you most WANT to learn about genocide?

What did you LEARN from reading the article and timeline? Remember to use specific examples from the article or timeline