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English Season Present Perfect Continuous and Past Perfect Continuous

By Group 4 1. Desi Puspitasari 2. Dwi Endah Yulistiowati . !ani" #eyrista 4. $sthi"o%ah &. 'iti Yuli (nggraeni

("ade%i )eperawatan * Ya"pe%as * Banyu%as +l. ,aya +o%po )ulon- So"ara.a Banyu%as & 1/1 'elp01a2. 3 42/1 5 6&76/16

1.

Present Perfect Continuous


(. 18,#

9:as 0 ha;e < =een < present participle> Examples:


You ha;e =een waiting here for two hours. :a;e you =een waiting here for two hours? You ha;e not =een waiting here for two hours.

B. ?SE 1 Duration fro% the Past ?ntil !ow

We use the Present Perfect Continuous to show That something started in the past and has continued up Until now. !or fi"e minutes# for two wee$s# and since Tuesday are all durations the which cans %e Used with the Present Perfect Continuous. Examples:

They ha;e =een tal"ing for the last hour. &he has =een wor"ing at That company for three years. What ha;e you =een doing for the last '( minutes? )ames has =een teaching at the uni"ersity since )une. We ha;e =een waiting here for o"er two hours* Why has +ancy not =een ta"ing her medicine for the last three days?

C. ?SE 2 ,ecently- @ately

,lso You can use the Present Perfect Continuous W-T./UT &uch a duration as for two wee$s. Without the duration# the tense has a more general meaning of lately. /ften We use the words lately or recently to emphasi0e this meaning. Examples:

1ecently# - ha;e =een feeling really Tired. &he has =een watching too much tele"ision lately. :a;e you =een e2ercising lately? 2ary has =een feeling a little depressed. 3isa has not =een practicing her .ome. What ha;e you =een doingA

D. $#P8,'(!'
1emem%er That The Present Perfect Continuous has the meaning of lately or recently. -f you use the Present Perfect Continuous in a 4uestion &uch as .a"e you %een feeling alright? # -t cans suggest That the person loo$s sic$ or unhealthy. , 4uestion &uch as .a"e you %een smo$ing? cans suggest That you smell the smo$e on the person. Using this tense in a 4uestion &uggests you can see# smell# hear or feel the results of the action. -t is possi%le to insult someone %y using this tense incorrectly.

E. ,e%e%=er !onBContinuous Cer=s 0 #i2ed Cer=s


-t is -mportant to remem%er That the +on5Continuous 6er%s can not %e Used in any continuous tenses. ,lso# non5continuous perform certain meanings for 2ixed 6er%s can not %e Used in continuous tenses. -nstead of using Present Perfect Continuous with these "er%s# you must use the Present Perfect . Examples:

&am has =een ha;ing his car for two years. Not Correct &am has :ad his car for two years. Correct

1. (d;er= place%ent

The examples %elow show the placement for grammar ad"er%s &uch as: always# only# ne"er# e"er# still# 7ust# etc. Examples:

You ha"e only %een waiting here for one hour. .a"e you only %een waiting here for one hour?

G. (C'$CE 0 P(SS$CE
Examples:

1ecently# )ohn has =een doing the wor$. ACTIVE 1ecently# the wor$ has =een =eing done %y )ohn. PASSIVE +/TE: Present Perfect Continuous is less commonly Used in its passi"e form.

2.

Past Perfect Continuous


(. 18,#

9:ad =een < present participle> Examples:


:ad you =een waiting there for more Than two hours Pls she finally arri"ed. :ad you =een waiting there for more Than two hours Pls she finally arri"ed? :ad you not =een waiting there for more Than two hours Pls she finally arri"ed.

B. ?SE 1 Duration Before So%ething in the Past

We use the Past Perfect Continuous to show That something started in the past and continued up Until another time in the past. !or fi"e minutes and for two wee$s are %oth durations the which cans %e Used with the Past Perfect Continuous. +otice That this is

related to the Present Perfect Continuous 8 howe"er# the duration does not continue Until now# it stops %efore something else in the past. Examples:

They :ad =een tal"ing for o"er an hour %efore Tony arri"ed. :ad she =een wor"ing at That company for three years Pls it Went out of %usiness. .ow long :ad you =een waiting to get on the %us? 2i$e wanted to sit down 9ecause he :ad =een standing all day at wor$. :ad )ames =een teaching at the uni"ersity for more than a year %efore he left for ,sia.

,: .ow long :ad you =een studying Tur$ish %efore you mo"ed to ,n$ara? 9: i had not =een studying Tur$ish "ery long.

C. ?SE 2 Cause of So%ething in the Past

Using the Past Perfect Continuous %efore another action in the past is a good way to show cause and effect. Examples:

9ecause )ason was Tired :ad he =een .ogging. &am gained weight 9ecause he :ad =een o;ereating. 9etty failed the final test 9ecause :ad she not =een (ttending class.

D. Past Continuous ;s.. Past Perfect Continuous


-f you do not include a duration &uch as for fi"e minutes# Continuous. for two wee$s or since Past

!riday# many spea$ers choose to use .ome the Past Continuous rather Than the Past Perfect 9e careful cans 9ecause this change the meaning of the sentence. Continuous emphasi0es interrupted actions# whereas Past Perfect Continuous emphasi0es a duration of time %efore something in the past. &tudy the examples %elow to understand the difference.

Examples:

.e
THIS
MOMENT.

was

Tired

9ecause
THAT
HE WAS

he

was

e2ercising

so

hard.
THAT
EXACT

SENTENCE EMPHASIZES

TIRED BECAUSE

HE WAS EXERCISING AT

.e
THIS
OF TIME. FINISHED.

was
IT

Tired

9ecause
THAT

he

:ad

=een
HAD

e2ercising

so

hard.
HE JUST

SENTENCE EMPHASIZES IS POSSIBLE

THAT TIRED BECAUSE

HE WAS

HE BEEN EXERCISING OVER A PERIOD

HE WAS STILL EXERCISING AT

THAT MOMENT OR THAT HAD

E. ,e%e%=er !onBContinuous Cer=s 0 #i2ed Cer=s


-t is -mportant to remem%er That the +on5Continuous 6er%s can not %e Used in any continuous tenses. ,lso# non5continuous perform certain meanings for 2ixed 6er%s can not %e Used in continuous tenses. -nstead of using Past Perfect Continuous with these "er%s# you must use Past Perfect . Examples:

The motorcycle :ad =een =elonging to :eorge for years %efore Tina 9ought it. Not Correct

:ad The motorcycle =elonged to :eorge for years %efore Tina 9ought it. Correct

1. (d;er= place%ent
The examples %elow show the placement for grammar ad"er%s &uch as: always# only# ne"er# e"er# still# 7ust# etc. Examples:

.ad you only %een waiting there for , !ew 2inutes Pls she arri"ed. .ad you only %een waiting there for , !ew 2inutes Pls she arri"ed?

G. (C'$CE 0 P(SS$CE
Examples:

:ad )ones =een Chef Preparing the restaurant;s fantastic dinners for two years %efore he mo"ed to Paris. ACTIVE

The restaurant;s fantastic dinners :ad =een =eing Prepared %y Chef )ones for two years %efore he mo"ed to Paris. PASSIVE

+/TE: Passi"e forms of the Past Perfect Continuous are not common.