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In eqns.

21 and 22, J , , y0 and HJZ) are Bessel functions of the frst, second and third kinds of order 0 respectively. The above eqns. 18-21 are equivalent to eqn. 39 in Otto [3] and eqn. 12 in Williamson [lo].

Conclusions: A method using only the z-directed magnetic vector potential to analyse a radial-line/coaxial-linejunction is presented. The method is simple and direct. It needs to neither consider the magnetic current in the coaxial aperture plane and its images nor deal with the electric vector potential. The admittance of the junction as seen from the coaxial line is obtained by the TEM approximation where the radial line is perfectly matched. The result is equivalent to that of Otto [3] and Williamson [lo].
0 IEE 1998 10 March 1998 Electronics Letters Online No: 19980656 Duolong Wu and Chengli Ruan (Institute of Applied Physics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054, People S Republic of China)

1 LEWIN, L.: A contribution to the theory of cylindrical antennaradiation between parallel plates, IRE Trans., 1959, AP-7, pp.

ongoing into possible altemative transmission line technologies for use in this range [2 - 41. A 4 p high rectangular waveguide structure fabricated using conventional monolithic circuit techniques has been previously proposed [3], although this exhibited very high loss (> 40dBlwavelength at 100GHz). Micromachined rectangular waveguides using standard W photoresist formers have also been reported [4]. These guides suffer from a difficulty in coupling into standard waveguides owing to a maximum height limitation of 1 0 0 p (1/13th of full height at 100GHz), and therefore can also be lossy. The LIGA X-ray lithographic process has been used in the micro-machining of tall, high-aspect-ratio structures [5], but this is both time-consuming and expensive to implement. A recently introduced negative photoresist (known as EPON SU-8TM [6]) is capable of producing features in excess of 1 mm in height with large aspect ratios in a single W exposure. This Letter reports a new technique for the fabrication of micro-machined rectangular waveguides using SU-8 photoresist and presents some measured S-parameter results. Greater waveguide heights can be achieved than in [4], reducing attenuation and mismatch loss. Also, the waveguides are physically more robust, thus simplifying the measurement process and increasing the ease-of-handling.

2 RAO, B.R.: Current distribution and impedance of an antenna in a parallel plate region, Proc. ZEE, 1965, 112, pp. 259-268
OTTO, D v.: The admittance of cylindrical antennas driven from a coaxial line, Radio Sci., 1967, 2 (new series), pp. 1031-1042 4 OTTO, D.v.: Fourier transform method in cylindrical antenna theory, Radio Sei., 1968, 3 (new series), pp. 1050-1057 5 ALLISON, R.C., EISENHART, R.L., and GREILING, P.T.: A matched coaxial-radial transmission line junction, ZEEE MTT-S, 1978, pp. 4446 6 SENGUPTA, D.L , and MARTINS-CAMELO, L.F.: Theory of dielectricfilled edge-slot antennas, ZEEE Trans., 1980, AP-28, pp. 481490 7 WILLIAMSON, A.G : Equivalent circuits for radial-lineicoaxial-line junction, Electron. Lett., 1981, 17, pp. 300-301 8 WILLIAMSON, A.G.: Analysis and modelling of a coaxial-line/ rectangular-waveguide junction, Proc. ZEE, 1982, 129H, pp. 262270 9 WILLIAMSON, A.G.: Analysis and modelling of two-gap coaxial line rectangular waveguide junctions, ZEEE Trans., 1983, MTT-31, pp. 295-302 10 WILLIAMSON, A.G.: Radial-lineicoaxial-line junction: analysis and equivalent circuits, Znt. J. Elect., 1985, 58, pp. 91-104 11 KEAM, R.B., and WILLIAMSON, A.G.: Analysis of a general coaxiallinehadial-line region junction, ZEEE Trans., 1993, MTT-41, pp. 516-520 12 MARCUVITZ, M.: Waveguide handbook (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1951), Vol. 10 of MIT Rad. Lab.


gold-coated substrate and SU-8


gold-walled rectangular waveguide d p z j

Fig. 1 Fabrication of micro-machined rectangular waveguide using EPON SU2VMphotoresist a Spin thick layer of SU-8 onto substrate b Expose, bake and develop to form waveguide troughs c Sputter coat with gold to form inside walls of waveguide d Attach pre-sputtered lid to complete waveguide

Technique for micro-machining millimetrewave rectangular waveguide

C.E. Collins, R.E. Miles, R.D. Pollard, D.P. Steenson, J.W. Digby, G.M. Parkhurst, J.M. Chamberlain, N.J. Cronin, S.R. Davies and J.W. Bowen
A new technique is reported for micro-machining millimetre-wave rectangular waveguide components. S-parameter measurements on these structures show that they achieve lower loss than those produced using any other on-chip fabrication technique, have highly accurate dimensions, are physically robust, and are cheap and easy to manufacbxe.

Waveguidefabrication technique: The fact that SU-8 is a negative resist and cannot be easily removed after W exposure means that a completely different fabrication technique is required to that previously reported [4]. The waveguide fabrication procedure is detailed in Fig. 1. A thick layer of SU-8 is first spun onto a semiconductor substrate and baked. The sample is then exposed, baked again, and developed to reveal troughs which will become the waveguide structures. The sample is sputtered with gold to a thickness of 600nm (two skin depths at W-band) to coat the inside walls, and attached to a sample holder with epoxy. The waveguide walls are therefore supported by hardened SU-8 making the guides physically robust and easy to handle. The sample holder already contains standard W-band flange detail to allow the micromachined waveguides to be connected directly onto standard waveguides for measurement purposes. Finally a pre-sputtered lid is attached over the lithographically formed troughs to complete the waveguide (Fig. 2).

Introduction: Commercial interest in the millimetre-wave frequency range is increasing for a variety of applications including automotive radar, passive imaging, and remote sensing. Interest is also increasing in exploiting the large bandwidths available in the submillimetre-wave range as soon as a suitable cost-effective technology becomes available [l]. The rectangular waveguide is commonly used in the millimetre and submillimetre wave ranges owing to its low loss, although it becomes more dificult and expensive to machine at these frequencies due to its small size and consequently tighter manufacturing tolerances. Research is

Fig. 2 Photograph of micro-machined W-band waveguide



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This new technique fabricates waveguides similar in form to injection moulded metallised plastic guides which have been previously used in millimetre-wave radars [7]. However, the use of a lithographic technique here means that the new waveguides can be fabricated with much higher levels of precision than injection moulding; they are cheap and easy to make, and will lend themselves to highly accurate manufacture of all kinds of waveguide components at these and higher frequencies. In addition, fabrication on a semiconductor substrate will enable active devices to be integrated into the waveguides.

the narrow walls. The measured sample was several wavelengths long, and the results actually correspond to an insertion loss of between 0.2 and 0.3dB per wavelength over most of the measurement frequency range, as shown in Fig. 4. Conclusions: A new technique for micro-machining millimetrewave rectangular waveguides has been demonstrated and measured results reported for the first time. The waveguides produced using this technique can achieve greater dimensional precision than injection moulded waveguides owing to the use of photolithographic techniques. The photoresist used requires only a single W exposure to form features up to 1 mm in height; the new technique is therefore simple, cost-effective and highly accurate. The measured results presented show that the micro-machined waveguides achieve much lower loss than previously reported on1 owing to their additional height, as well as chip waveguides [3, 4 being physically more robust. They do not suffer from the difficulty of coupling into conventionally machined waveguides as they can be bolted directly onto standard flanges. This new technique will also be useful at submillimetre-wave frequencies where standard machining becomes even more difficult. Ackowledgments: This work is supported by the U K Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) as part of the TINTIN program. The authors wish to thank T. Moseley of the University of Leeds for machining the sample holders, and HPEEsof for the donation of their high frequency structure simulator software (HFSS).



Fig. 3 Measured S-parameters


o f

micro-machined waveguide

insertion loss ........... return loss


0 IEE 1998 Electronics Letters Online No: 19980665

4 March 1998

C.E. Collins, R.E. Miles, R.D. Pollard and D.P. Steenson (Institute of
Microwaves and Photonics, School of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT, United Kingdom)

E-mail: een5carc@sun.leeds.ac.uk

J.W. Digby, G.M. Parkhurst and J.M. Chamberlain (Physics Department, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD, United Kingdom)

N.J. Cronin, S.R. Davies (School of Physics, University of Bath,

Claverton Down, Bath, BA2 7AY, United Kingdom)




J.W. Bowen (Department o f Cybernetics, University o f Whiteknights, Reading, RG6 6 A Y, United Kingdom)

Reading, of

C.E. Collins:

Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD, United Kingdom






Fig. 4 Measured loss per wavelength of micro-machined waveguide

insertion loss


Measured results: The W-band frequency range was chosen for the
design of some preliminary waveguide structures due to the availability of standard measurement equipment at these frequencies. The results presented here are for a straight piece of 17 long, cross-section 2.54 by 7 0 0 p (- half height) waveguide. A standard TRL calibration was performed at the waveguide test ports of a W-band vector network analyser and the micromachined waveguide was then connected between the test ports and its S-parameters measured. The measurements displayed a periodic ripple caused by multiple reflections between the full to reduced height waveguide junctions. The effect of these reflections can be removed from the measurements by renormalising the Sparameters to the characteristic impedance of the micro-machined sample rather than the full height test port impedance. 3D electromagnetic field simulations were performed of both the micromachined and full-height W-band waveguide in order to determine the relevant impedances, which were then used to renormalise the S-parameter matrix [8]. The characteristic impedance of the micromachined waveguide was found to be approximately half that of the full height waveguide. The renormalised measurement results obtained are shown in Fig. 3 and demonstrate low insertion loss, in spite of the join between the two waveguide halves occurring in

and MILES, R.E (Eds.): New directions in terahertz technology (Kluwer Academic Publishing, Dordrecht, 1997) KATEHI, L.P.B.: Novel transmission lines for the submillimeter-wave region, Proc. ZEEE, 1992, SO, (ll), pp. 1771-1787 LUCYSZYN, s., WANG, Q.H., and ROBERTSON, I.D.: 0.1THz rectangular waveguide on GaAs semi-insulating substrate, Electron. Lett., 1995, 31, (9), pp. 721-722

COLLINS, C.E., DIGBY, J.W., POLLARD, R.D., MILES, R.E., PARKHURST, G.M., CHAMBERLAIN, J.M., STEENSON, D.P., CRONIN, N.J., KARATZAS, L.s., and BOWEN, J.w.: W-band measurements of 1 0 0 p

height micro-machined air-filled rectangular waveguides. 1997 IEEE Int. Microwave Symp. Dig., Denver, CO, June 1997, pp. 1439- 1442
MOON, S.W., MA, C.M., MADDISON, B.J., TURCU, I.C.E., ALLOT, R., HUQ, s.E., and LISI, N.: Terahertz waveguide components fabricated

using a 3D X-ray microfabrication technique, Electron. Lett., 1996, 32, (19), pp. 17941795


RISHTON, %A., CHANG, -r.H.-P.:


applications of a high resolution ultrathick

Micromachining photoresist, J. Vac.

Sci. Technol. B, 1995, 13, (6), pp. 3012-3016

Automotive radar at 80-90GHz. 1992 IEEE MTT-S Int. Microwave Symp. Dig., June 1992, pp. 613-616 HP85180A High-frequency structure simulator users reference release 3.0, Appendix A, Implementation and theory (Hewlett Packard Co., USA, 1994), pp. A26-A27


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