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Objectives In this course you will learn the following Introduction to variable loading on a structure.

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6.1 Introduction: Variable Loadings So far in this course we have been dealing with structural systems subjected to a specific set of loads. However, it is not necessary that a structure is subjected to a single set of loads all of the time. For example, the single-lane bridge deck in Figure 6.1 may be subjected to one set of a loading at one point of time (Figure 6.1a) and the same structure may be subjected to another set of loading at a different point of time. It depends on the number of vehicles, position of vehicles and weight of vehicles. The variation of load in a structure results in variation in the response of the structure. For example, the internal forces change causing a variation in stresses that are generated in the structure. This becomes a critical consideration from design perspective, because a structure is designed primarily on the basis of the intensity and location of maximum stresses in the structure. Similarly, the location and magnitude of maximum deflection (which are also critical parameters for design) also become variables in case of variable loading. Thus, multiple sets of loading require multiple sets of analysis in order to obtain the critical response parameters.

Influence lines offer a quick and easy way of performing multiple analyses for a single structure. Response parameters such as shear force or b ending moment at a point or reaction at a support for several load sets can be easily computed using influence lines.

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For example, we can construct influence lines for (shear force at B ) or moment at C ) or (bending (vertical

reaction at support D ) and each one will help us calculate the corresponding response parameter for different sets of loading on the beam AD (Figure 6.2).

An influence line is a diagram which presents the variation of a certain response parameter due to the variation of the position of a unit concentrated load along the length of the structural member. Let us consider that a unit downward concentrated force is moving from point A to point B of the beam shown in Figure 6.3a. We can assume it to be a wheel of unit weight moving along the length of the beam. The magnitude of the vertical support reaction at A ( ) will change depending on the location of this unit downward force. The influence line for (Figure 6.3b) gives us the value of for different locations of the moving unit when the unit

load. From the ordinate of the influence line at C, we can say that load is at point C .

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for beam AB

Thus, an influence line can be defined as a curve, the ordinate to which at any abscissa gives the value of a particular response function due to a unit downward load acting at the point in the structure corresponding to the abscissa. The next section discusses how to construct influence lines using methods of equilibrium.

Recap In this course you have learnt the following Introduction to variable loading on a structure. The problems of analyzing a structure for multiple loading cases. Introduction to the concept of infulence line as a solution to this problem.

Congratulations, you have finished Lecture 1. To view the next lecture select it from the left hand side menu of the page

Objectives In this course you will learn the following Construction of influence lines using equilibrium conditions. Some examples following this method.

6.2 Construction of Influence Lines using Equilibrium Methods The most basic method of obtaining influence line for a specific response parameter is to solve the static equilibrium equations for various locations of the unit load. The general procedure for constructing an influence line is described below. 1. Define the positive direction of the response parameter under consideration through a free body diagram of the whole system. 2. For a particular location of the unit load, solve for the equilibrium of the whole system and if required, as in the case of an internal force, also for a part of the member to obtain the response parameter for that location of the unit load. This gives the ordinate of the influence line at that particular location of the load. 3. Repeat this process for as many locations of the unit load as required to determine the shape of the influence line for the whole length of the member. It is often helpful if we can consider a generic location (or several locations) x of the unit load. 4. Joining ordinates for different locations of the unit load throughout the length of the member, we get the influence line for that particular response parameter.

The following three examples show how to construct influence lines for a support reaction, a shear force and a bending moment for the simply supported beam AB .

Example 6.2 Draw the influence line for (shear force at mid point) of beam AB in Fig. E6.2.

Solution:

For

For

Example 6.3 Draw the influence line for (bending moment at ) for beam AB in Fig. E6.3.

Solution:

For

For

Similarly, influence lines can be constructed for any other support reaction or internal force in the beam. However, one

should note that equilibrium equations will not be sufficient to obtain influence lines in indeterminate structures, because we cannot solve for the internal forces/support reactions using only equilibrium conditions for such structures.

6.3 Use of Influence Lines In this section, we will illustrate the use of influence lines through the influence lines that we have obtained in Section 6.2. Let us consider a general case of loading on the simply supported beam (Figure 6.4a) and use the influence lines to find out the response parameters ( , and ) for their loading. We can consider this loading as the sum of three different loading conditions, (A), (B) and (C) (Figure 6.4b), each containing only one externally applied force.

Figure 6.4 Application of influence lines for a general loading: (a) all the loads, and (b) the general loading is divided into single force systems

For loading case (A), we can find out the response parameters using the three influence lines. Ordinate of an influence line gives the response for a unit load acting at a certain point.

Therefore, we can multiply this ordinate by the magnitude of the force to get the response due to the real force at that point. Thus

By the theory of superposition, we can add forces for each individual case to find the response parameters for the original loading case (Figure 6.4a). Thus, the response parameters in the beam AB are:

One should remember that the method of superposition is valid only for linear elastic cases with small displacements only. So, prior to using influence lines in this way it is necessary to check that these conditions are satisfied. It may seem that we can solve for these forces under the specified load case using equilibrium equations directly, and influence lines are not necessary. However, there may be requirement for obtaining these responses for multiple and more complex loading cases. For example, if we need to analyse for ten loading cases, it will be quicker to find only three influence lines and not solve for ten equilibrium cases. The most important use of influence line is finding out the location of a load for which certain response will have a maximum value. For example, we may need to find the location of a moving load (say a gantry) on a beam (say a gantry girder) for which we get the maximum bending moment at a certain point. We can consider bending moment at point D of Example 6.3, where the beam AB becomes our gantry girder. Looking at the influence line of , one can say that will reach its maximum value when the load is at point D . Influence lines can be used not only for concentrated forces, but for distributed forces as well, which is discussed in the next section.

6.4 Using Influence Lines for Uniformly Distributed Load Consider the simply-supported beam AB in Figure 6.5, of which the portion CD is acted upon by a uniformly distributed load of intensity w/unit length . We want to find the value of a certain response function R under this loading and let us assume that we have already constructed the influence line of this response function. Let the ordinate of the influence line at a distance x from support A be . If we consider an elemental length dx of the beam at a distance x from A , the total force acting on this elemental length is wdx . Since dx is infinitesimal, we can consider this force to be a concentrated force acting at a distance x . The contribution of this concentrated force wdx to R is:

Therefore, the total effect of the distributed force from point C to D is:

Thus, we can obtain the response parameter by multiplying the intensity of the uniformly distributed load with the area under the influence line for the distance for which the load is acting. To illustrate, let us consider the uniformly distributed load on a simply supported beam (Figure 6.6). To find the vertical reaction at the left support, we can use the influence line for that we have obtained in Example 6.1. So as: we can calculate the reaction

Similarly, we can find any other response function for a uniformly distributed loading using their influence lines as well. For non-uniformly distributed loading, the intensity w is not constant through the length of the distributed load. We can still use the integration formulation:

Objectives In this course you will learn the following The Mller-Breslau principle for influence lines.

6.5 Mller-Breslau Principle The Mller-Breslau principle uses Betti's law of virtual work to construct influence lines. To illustrate the method let us consider a structure AB (Figure 6.7a). Let us apply a unit downward force at a distancex from A , at point C . Let us assume that it creates the vertical reactions and at supports A and B , respectively (Figure 6.7b). Let us call this condition System 1. In System 2 (figure 6.7c), we have the same structure with a unit deflection applied in the direction of . Here is the deflection at point C .

Figure 6.7 (a) Given system AB , (b) System 1, structure under a unit load, (c) System 2, structure with a unit deflection corresponding to

According to Betti's law, the virtual work done by the forces in System 1 going through the corresponding displacements in System 2 should be equal to the virtual work done by the forces in System 2 going through the corresponding displacements in System 1. For these two systems, we can write:

The right side of this equation is zero, because in System 2 forces can exist only at the supports, corresponding to which the displacements in System 1 (at supports A and B ) are zero. The negative sign before accounts for the fact that it acts against the unit load in System 1. Solving this equation we get:

In other words, the reaction at support A due to a unit load at point C is equal to the displacement at point C when the structure is subjected to a unit displacement corresponding to the positive direction of support reaction at A . Similarly, we can place the unit load at any other point and obtain the support reaction due to that from System 2. Thus the deflection pattern in System 2 represents the influence line for .

Following the same general procedure, we can obtain the influence line for any other response parameter as well. Let us consider the shear force at point C of a simplysupported beam AB (Figure 6.8a). We apply a unit downward force at some point D as shown in System 1 (Figure 6.8b). In system 2 (Figure 6.8c), we apply a unit deflection corresponding to the shear force, . Note that the displacement at point C is applied in a way such that there is no relative rotation between AC and CB . This will avoid any virtual work done by the bending moment at C ( ) going through the rotation in System 2. Now, according to Betti's law:

Figure 6.8 (a) Given system AB , (b) System 1, structure under a unit load, (c) System 2, structure with a unit deflection corresponding to Printed withcreated FinePrint trial version - trial purchase at www.pdffactory.com www.fineprint.com PDF with pdfFactory version

, (d) System 2,

Thus, the deflected shape in System 2 represents the influence line for shear force . Similarly, if we want to find the influence line for bending moment , we

obtain System 2 (Figure 6.8d) by applying a unit rotation at point C (that is, a unit relative rotation between AC and CB ). However, we do not want any relative displacement (between AC and CB ) at point C in order to avoid any virtual work done by going through the displacements in System 2. Betti's law provides the virtual work equation:

So, as we have seen earlier, the displaced shape in System 2 represents the influence line for the response parameter . onstruction of System 2 for a given response function is the most important part in applying the Mller-Breslau principle. One must take care that other than the concerned response function no other force (or moment) in System 1 should do any virtual work going through the corresponding displacements in System 2. So we make all displacements in System 2 corresponding to other response functions equal to zero. For example, in Figure 6.8c, displacements corresponding to , and are equal to zero. Example 6.4 illustrates the construction of influence lines using Mller-Breslau principle.

Example 6.4 Construct influence lines for , , and for the beam AB in Fig. E6.4.

Solution:

System 2 for

System 2 for

The deflected shape in each system 2 provides the influence line for the corresponding response function.

TUTORIAL PROBLEMS Draw the Influence Line Diagram (ILD) forRE . Consider B & B and C & C to be at an infinitesimal distance to each other. T6.1

Answer

Figure T6.1

Draw the Influence Line Diagram (ILD) for MG for the following Figure T6.2.

T6.2

Answer

Figure T6.2

T6.3 Find the maximum shear force at C for the moving load combination in Figure T6.3.

Figure T6.3

Answer

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T6.1

T6.2

T6.3 58.75 kN

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