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Biology IGCSE 2012-2013 FALL Curriculum Map

Approximate Days and Dates (to use as reference only

Concept

Objectives

Key Vocabulary

Required Labs !ossible Activities

"# instructional days Cambrid%e +xpectation and Lab !rocedures C$aracteristics of Livin% Or%anisms ,-&-& Adaptations of Or%anisms to t$eir Au%ust "&'()* &)"( +nvironment ,-"-) C$aracteristics of livin% or%anisms ' List and describe the characteristics of living organisms

Cover .$at is expected in durin% a Cambrid%e style exam* lab C$aracteristics of life and lab .rite up%. /utrition &- +xcretion To be illustrated by examples whenever possible use throughout (- Respiration the whole course. 0- 1ensitivity #- Reproduction 2- 3ro.t$ Define the terms: 4- 5ovement nutrition as taking in of nutrients which are organic 6inomial nomenclature substances and mineral ions containing raw 3enus materials or energy for growth and tissue repair 1pecies absorbing and assimilating them 7is$ excretion as removal from organisms of toxic materials the waste products of metabolism Amp$ibians !chemical reactions in cells including respiration" Reptiles and substances in excess of re#uirements 6irds respiration as the chemical reactions that break 5ammals down nutrient molecules in living cells to release 5onocotyledon energy Dicotyledons sensitivity as the ability to detect or sense changes Art$ropod in the environment !stimuli" and to make responses reproduction as the processes that make more of ,nsect the same kind of organism Crustacean growth as a permanent increase in si$e and dry Arac$nids mass by an increase in cell number or cell si$e or 5yriapods both Annelids movement as an action by an organism or part of /ematodes an organism causing a change of position or place 5ollus8s

Required Lab9

Activities9

,-&-" Classification and diversity of livin% or%anisms & 'oncept and use of classificatory system ,-&-& Adaptations of or%anisms to t$eir environment

Define and describe the binomial system of naming species as a system in which the scientific name of an organism is made up of two parts showing the genus and species

List the main features used in the classification of the following groups: (ertebrates: )ony fish *mphibians +eptiles )irds ,ammals -nvertebrates *rthropods -nsects 'rustaceans *rachnids ,yriapods *nnelids .ematodes ,ollusks /lowering plants !basics" ,onocotyledons 0udicotyledons !Dicotyledons" 1se simple dichotomous keys on easily identifiable features

: instructional days Cells and Or%ani;ation 1eptember ('"(* &)"(

,,-" Cell structure and or%ani;ation

2tate that living organisms are made of cells Describe the differences in structure between typical animal and plant cells

,,-&-& Levels of or%ani;ation

Define tissue as a group of cells with similar structures working together to perform a shared function organ as a structure made up of a group of tissues working together to perform specific functions organ system as a group of organs with related functions working together to perform body functions +elate the structure of the following to their functions: !brief focus on these in body systems" ciliated cells in respiratory tract root hair cells absorption xylem vessels conduction and support muscle cells contraction red blood cells transport

Cell <issue Or%an Or%an 1ystem Or%anism Cell membrane Cell .all Cytoplasm /ucleus C$loroplast Vacuole 5itoc$ondria

Required Labs9 --.%.3 -dentify and describe the structure of a plant cell !palisade cell" and an animal cell !liver cell" as seen under a light microscope --.4 'alculate magnification and si$e of biological specimens using millimeters as units Activities9

"" instructional days ,,-&-0-" 5ovement in and Define diffusion as the net movement of molecules from a region out of cells = Diffusion of their higher concentration to a region of their lower 5ovement ,n and concentration down a concentration gradient as a result of their Out of Cells random movement 1eptember "2' 1eptember () ,,-&-0-& 5ovement in and out of cells = Osmosis Define osmosis as the diffusion of water molecules from a region of their higher concentration !dilute solution" to a region of their lower concentration !concentrated solution" through a partially permeable membrane Describe the importance of osmosis in the uptake of water by plants and its effects on plant and animal tissues Describe the importance of diffusion of gases and solutes and of water as a solvent

Diffusion Osmosis 1olute 1olvent Concentration %radient 1electively permeable

Required Labs9 Activities9


Passive and Active Transport Practice

"( instructional days ,,-2- " /utrients C$emicals of Life October "'">* &)"(

+eview nutrition definition

,,-#-" +n;ymes

Carbo$ydrate 7at List the chemical elements that make up: !rotein carbohydrates 1u%ar fats 3lucose proteins 1ucrose 1tarc$ Describe the synthesis of large molecules from smaller basic units 3lyco%en simple sugars to starch and glycogen 3lycerol amino acids to proteins 7atty acid fatty acids and glycerol to fats and oils Amino acid ,odine Describe tests for 6enedict?s starch!iodine" 6iuret reducing sugars !)enedict5s" Catalyst protein !biuret" +n;ymes /utrition Define the term catalyst as a substance that speeds up a chemical reaction and is not changed by the reaction Define en$ymes as proteins that function as biological catalysts -nvestigate and describe the effect of changes in temperature and p6 on en$yme activity

Required Labs9

Activities9

+/D 7,R1< C@+CK!O,/< ") instructional days ,,-2-"-( /utrients Animal /utrition October &"' /ovember "* &)"( List the principal sources of and describe the importance of: carbohydrates fats proteins vitamins !' and D" mineral salts !calcium and iron" fibre !roughage" Describe the deficiency symptoms for: vitamins !' and D" mineral salts !calcium and iron" 5etabolism ,n%estion +%estion Di%estion Absorption Assimilation /utrients Carbo$ydrates 7ats !roteins Vitamins C and D Calcium ,ron Required Labs9 Activities9

,,-2-"-0 Deficiency diseases

7ibre 6alanced diet 5alnutrition Describe the effects of malnutrition in relation to starvation 1tarvation coronary heart disease constipation Alimentary canal ,,-2-(-& 7ood 1upply Discuss ways in which the use of modern technology has resulted in 5out$ increased food production !to include modern agricultural 1alivary %lands machinery chemical fertili$ers pesticides and herbicides artificial +sop$a%us selection" 1tomac$ ,,-2-(-( @uman Define ingestion as taking in substances !e.g. food drink" into the 1mall intestine Alimentary Canal body through the mouth Duodenum Define egestion as passing out of food that has not been digested as ,leum feces through the anus Villi and microvilli !ancreas -dentify the main regions of the alimentary canal and associated Liver organs including mouth salivary glands esophagus stomach small 3all bladder intestine !duodenum and ileum" pancreas liver gall bladder large Lar%e intestine intestine !colon and rectum" anus Colon Describe the functions of the regions of the alimentary canal listed Rectum above in relation to ingestion digestion absorption assimilation Anus and egesting of food <eet$ ,,-2-(-0 5ec$anical and Define digestion as the breakdown of large insoluble food 5olar p$ysical di%estion molecules into small water&soluble molecules using mechanical Canine and chemical processes ,ncisor +n;ymes -dentify the types of human teeth and describe their structure and Amylase functions !rotease Lipase 2tate the causes of dental decay and describe the proper care of teeth 6ile (/O< an en;yme* mec$anical di%estionA Describe the process of chewing ,,-2-(-" Animal /utrition 2tate what is meant by the term balanced diet and describe a = Diet balanced diet related to age sex and activity of an individual Describe the role of longitudinal and circular muscles in peristalsis 7utline the role of bile in emulsifying fats to increase the surface area for the actions of en$ymes 2tate the significance of chemical digestion in the alimentary canal in producing small soluble molecules that can be absorbed

,,-2-(-# C$emical di%estion

2tate where in the alimentary canal amylase protease and lipase en$ymes are secreted 2tate the function of the typical amylase a protease and a lipase listing the substrate and end products Define absorption as the movement of digested food molecules through the wall of the intestine into the body or lumps ,,-2-(-2 Absorption -dentify the small intestine as the region for the absorption of digested food Describe the significance of villi increasing the internal surface area of the small intestine Define assimilation as the movement of digested food molecules into the cells of the body where they are used becoming part of the cells Describe the role of the liver in the metabolism of glucose !glucose 89 glycogen" and amino acids !amino acids 89 proteins and destruction of excess amino acids" Describe the role of fat as an energy storage substance "0 instructional days ,,-4-& <ransport in $umans <ransport in Animals /ovember 0'&&* &)"( ,,-4-&-" @eart Describe the circulatory system as a system of tubes with a pump and valves to ensure one&way flow of blood Describe the double circulation in terms of a low pressure circulation to the lungs and a high pressure circulation to the body tissues and relate these differences to the different functions of the two circuits Describe the structure of the heart including the muscular wall and septum chambers valves and associated blood vessels Describe the function of the heart in terms of muscular contraction and the working of the valves Describe coronary heart disease in terms of the blockage of coronary arteries and state the possible causes !diet stress and smoking" and preventive measures 4-&-& Arteries* veins and capillaries .ame the main blood vessels to and from the heart lungs liver and kidney Double circulation Oxy%enated Deoxy%enated C$amber Valve Artery Vein Capillary Ri%$t Atrioventricular valve (tricuspidA Ri%$t semilunar valve 5itral valve (bicuspid* left atrioventricularA Left semilunar valve Vena cava Ri%$t atrium Ri%$t ventricle Left atrium Left ventricle !ulmonary vein !ulmonary artery Aorta Required Labs9 ,,-4-&-" -nvestigate state and explain the effect of physical activity on pulse rate Activities9 ,,-4-&-4 -dentify red and white blood cells as seen under the light microscope on prepared slides and in diagrams and photomicrographs

,,-2-(-4 Assimilation

,,-4-&-( 6lood

Describe the structure and functions of arteries veins and capillaries List the components of blood as red blood cells white blood cells platelets and plasma --.3.3 +elate the structure of the following to their functions: red blood cells transport 2tate the functions of blood: red blood cells hemoglobin and oxygen transport white blood cells phagocytosis and antibody formation platelets causing clotting !no details" plasma transport of blood cells ions soluble nutrients hormones carbon dioxide urea and plasma proteins

!latelets !lasma Red blood cell B$ite blood cell

"& ,nstructional days ,,-> Respiration Respiration /ovember &#' December "(* &)"( ,,->-"Aerobic Respiration

Define respiration as the chemical reactions that break down nutrient molecules in living cells to release energy.

Respiration Aerobic respiration Anaerobic respiration 2tate the uses of energy in the body of humans: muscle contraction Lactic acid protein synthesis cell division active transport growth the passage Larynx of nerve impulses and the maintenance of a constant body 6ronc$i temperature. 6ronc$ioles Define aerobic respiration as the release of a relatively large Alveoli amount of energy in cells by the breakdown of food substances in Capillaries 7ermentation the presence of oxygen. 2tate the word e#uation for aerobic respiration Define anaerobic respiration as the release o a relatively small amount of energy by the breakdown of food substances in the absence of oxygen. 2tate the word e#uation for anaerobic respiration in muscles during hard exercise !glucose : lactic acid" and the microorganism yeast !glucose : alcohol ; carbon dioxide" Describe the role of anaerobic respiration in yeast during brewing and bread&making 'ompare aerobic respiration and anaerobic respiration in terms of relative amounts of energy released List the features of gas exchange surfaces in animals

Required Labs9 --.<.4 1se lime water as a test for carbon dioxide to investigate the differences in composition between inspired and expired air Activities9 --.<.4 -nvestigate and describe the effects of physical activity on rate and depth of breathing

,,->-& Anaerobic Respiration

,,->-( 3as +xc$an%e

-dentify on diagrams and name the larynx trachea bronchi bronchioles alveoli and associated capillaries +elate the structure of ciliated cells to their function in the respiratory tract. 2tate the differences in composition between inspired and expired air <.o days to prep for final* t$en Binter 6rea8C 4 instructional days ,,-: +xcretion in @umans @omeostasis and +xcretion Danuary 2'"0* &)"0 Define excretion as the removal from organisms of toxic materials the waste products of metabolism !chemical reactions in cells including respiration" and substances in excess of re#uirements. 2ubstances should include carbon dioxide urea and salts +xcretion Kidney Erea Ereter 6ladder Describe the function of the kidney in terms of the removal of urea Eret$ra and excess water and the reabsorption of glucose and some salts Renal artery !details of kidney structure and nephron are not re#uired" Renal vein dialysis 2tate the relative positions of ureters bladder and urethra in the body 2tate that urea is formed in the liver from excess amino acids 2tate that alcohol drugs and hormones are broken down in the liver "& ,nstructional days ,,-")-" /ervous Control in @umans Coordination* Response* and Dru%s Danuary "#'("* &)"0 Describe the human nervous system in terms of the central nervous system !brain and spinal cord as areas of coordination" and the peripheral nervous system which together serve to coordinate and regulate body functions Central nervous system 1pinal cord 6rain !erip$eral nervous system 5otor neuron -dentify motor !effector" relay !connector" and sensory neurons Relay neuron from diagrams 1ensory neuron +ffector Describe a simple reflex arc in terms of sensory relay and motor Receptor neurons and a reflex action as a means of automatically and rapidly Reflex arc integrating 1timuli and coordinating stimuli with responses Anta%onistic muscles 1clera 2tate that muscles and glands can act as effectors Optic nerve Required Labs9 Required Labs9

Activities9 (irtual 0ye Dissection http:==www.eschoolonline.com=company=exa mples=eye=eyedissect.html

Activities9

,,-")-& @ormones

6lood vessels ,ris Cornea !upil +elate the structure of the muscle cells to their function Aqueous $umor contraction. Vitreous $umor Lens Define sense organs as groups of receptor cells responding to Retina specific stimuli: light sound touch temperature and chemicals. 6lind spot @ormone Describe the structure and function of the eye including Adrenaline accommodation and pupil reflex @omeostasis 18in Define hormone as a chemical substance produced by a gland @air follicle carried by the blood which alters the activity of one or more 1.eat %land specific target organs and is then destroyed by the liver <emperature receptors 7at layer 2tate the role of the hormone adrenaline in chemical control of Vasoconstriction metabolic activity including increasing the blood glucose Vasodilation concentration and pulse rate Dru% ?ive examples of situations in which adrenaline secretion increases Antibiotic 'ompare nervous and hormonal control systems Describe the action of antagonistic muscles to include the biceps and triceps at the elbow >oint Define homeostasis as the maintenance of a constant internal environment -dentify on a diagram of the skin: hairs sweat glands temperature receptors blood vessels and fatty tissue Describe the maintenance of a constant body temperature in humans in terms of insulation and the role of temperature receptors in the skin sweating shivering vasodilation and vasoconstriction of arterioles supplying skin surface capillaries and the coordinating role of the brain Define drug as any substance taken into the body that modifies or affects chemical reactions in the body Describe the medicinal use of antibiotics for the treatment of bacterial infection Describe the effects of the abuse of heroin: a powerful depressant problems of addiction severe withdrawal symptoms and associated

,,-")-0 @omeostasis

,,-")-# Dru%s

problems such as crime and infection e.g. 6-(=*-D2 Describe the effects of excessive consumption of alcohol: reduced self&control depressant effect on reaction times damage to liver and social implications Describe the effects of tobacco smoke and its ma>or toxic components !tar nicotine carbon monoxide smoke particles" on the gas exchange system "> instructional days ,,-2-&-"!lant /utrition = Describe photosynthesis as the fundamental process by which !$otosynt$esis !$otosynt$esis plants manufacture carbohydrates from raw materials using energy C$loroplast !lants from light C$lorop$yll 5onocotyledon 7ebruary ('&>* &)"0 2tate the word e#uation for the production of simple sugars and Dicotyledon oxygen 1tomata 5esop$yll Describe the intake of carbon dioxide and water by plants Fylem !$loem 0xplain that chlorophyll traps light energy and converts it into +pidermis chemical energy for the formation of carbohydrates and their Cuticle subse#uent storage 1tarc$ Cellulose ,-&-& Adaptations of List the main features used in the classification of the following 3eotropism Or%anisms to <$eir groups: flowering plants !monocotyledons and eudicotyledons !$ototropism +nvironment !dicotyledons"" 1epal ,,-2-&-& Leaf 1tructure -dentify and label the cuticle cellular and tissue structure of a !etal dicotyledonous leaf as seen in cross&section under the light microscope and describe the significance of these features in terms Ant$er 7ilament of functions to include: 1tamen distribution of chloroplasts photosynthesis 1ti%ma stomata and mesophyll cells gas exchange vascular bundles !xylem and phloem" transport and 1tyle Ovary support Ovules Carpel ,,-2-&-( 5ineral Describe the importance of !ollination Requirements nitrate ions for protein synthesis !ollen magnesium ions for chlorophyll synthesis !ollen tube 7ertili;ation Describe the uses and dangers of overuse of nitrogen fertili$ers Cotyledon ,,-4-" <ransport in 2tate the functions of xylem and phloem <esta !lants Radicle +elate the structure of the following to their !lumule Required Labs9 ,,-2-&-" -nvestigate the necessity for chlorophyll light and carbon dioxide for photosynthesis using appropriate controls

Activities9 ,,-4-" -dentify the positions of xylem and phloem tissues as seen in transverse sections of unthickened herbaceous dicotyledonous roots stems and leaves ,,-2-&-& -dentify and label the cuticle cellular and tissue structure of a dicotyledonous leaf as seen in cross&section under the light microscope and describe the significance of these features in terms of functions to include: distribution of chloroplasts photosynthesis stomata and mesophyll cells gas exchange vascular bundles !xylem and phloem" transport and support --.@.%.% -dentify root hair cells as seen under the light microscope and state their functions --.@.%.% -nvestigate using a suitable stain the

,,-&-" Levels of Or%ani;ation ,,-4-"-" Bater Epta8e ,,-4-"-& <ranspiration

functions: root hair cells absorption xylem vessels conduction and support 2tate the pathway taken by water through root stem and leaf !root hair root cortex cells xylem mesophyll cells" Define transpiration as evaporation of water at the surfaces of the mesophyll cells followed by loss of water vapor from plant leaves through the stomata. Describe how water vapor loss is related to cell surfaces air spaces and stomata Describe the effects of variation of temperature humidity and light intensity on transpiration rate Describe how wilting occurs Define translocation in terms of movement of sucrose and amino acids in phloem from regions of production to regions of storage 7+ to regions of utili$ation in respiration or growth.

pathway of water through the above ground parts

,,-4-"-( <ranslocation

,,-")-( <ropic Responses Define geotropism as a response in which a plant grows towards or away from gravity ,,,-"-&-" 1exual Reproduction in !lants Define phototropism as a response in which a plant grows towards or away from the direction from which light is coming 2tate the functions of the sepals petals anthers stigmas and ovaries -dentify and draw using a hand lens if necessary the sepals petals stamens anthers carpels ovaries and stigmas of one locally available named insect&pollinated dicotyledonous flower and examine the pollen grains under a light microscope or in photomicrographs 1se a hand lens to identify and describe the anthers and stigmas of one locally available named wind&pollinated flower and examine the pollen grains under a light microscope or in photomicrographs 'andidates should expect to apply their understanding of the flowers they have studied to unfamiliar flowers

Define pollination as the transfer of pollen grains from the male part of the plant !anther of stamen" to the female part of the plant !stigma". .ame the agents of pollination 'ompare the different structural adaptations of insect pollinated and wind&pollinated flowers Describe the growth of the pollen tube and its entry into the ovule followed by fertili$ation !production of endosperm and details of development are not re#uired" -nvestigate and describe the structure of a non&endospermic seed in terms of the embryo !radicle plumule and cotyledons" and testa protected by the fruit 7utline the formation of a seed !limited to embryo cotyledons testa and role of mitosis" and fruit !produced from the ovary wall" 2tate that seed and fruit dispersal by wind and by animals provides a means of coloni$ing new areas Describe using named examples seed and fruit dispersal by wind and by animals -nvestigate and state the environmental conditions that affect germination of seeds: re#uirement for water and oxygen suitable temperature Distinguish between self&pollination and cross&pollination Discuss the implications to a species of self&pollination and cross& pollination Describe asexual reproduction in tuber formation in potatoes. ,,,-"-" Asexual Reproduction +nd 1econd C$ec8point "# instructional days ,,,-"-" Asexual Reproduction ,n$eritance Define asexual reproduction as the process resulting in the production of genetically identical offspring from one parent Asexual Reproduction 1exual reproduction ,n$eritance Required Labs9

,,,-&-( 3ro.t$ and Development ,,,-"-&-" 1exual Reproduction in !lants 1upplement

5arc$ ('&"* &)"0

Describe asexual reproduction in bacteria spore production in fungi and tuber formation in potatoes

,,,-"-& 1exual Reproduction

,,,-& 3ro.t$ and Development

,,,-(- ,n$eritance ,,,-(-" C$romosomes

D/A 3ene Allele 0xtended: Discuss the advantages and disadvantages to a species of C$romosome asexual reproduction @aploid Define sexual reproduction as the process involving the fusion of Diploid 5itosis haploid nuclei to form a diploid $ygote and the production of 5eiosis genetically dissimilar offspring 3enotypes 0xtended: Discuss the advantages and disadvantages to a species of !$enotypes @omo;y%ous sexual reproduction @etero;y%ous Define growth in terms of a permanent increase in si$e and dry Dominant mass by an increase in cell number or cell si$e or both Recessive 5utation Define development in terms of increase in 3amete complexity Define inheritance as the transmission of genetic information from /atural 1election Artificial selection generation to generation. 3enetic +n%ineerin% Define the terms: chromosome as a thread of D.* made up of a string of genes gene as a length of D.* that is the unit of heredity and codes for a specific protein. * gene may be copied and passed on to the next generation allele as any of two or more alternative forms of a gene haploid nucleus as a nucleus containing a single set of unpaired chromosomes !e.g. sperm and egg" diploid nucleus as a nucleus containing two sets of chromosomes !e.g. in body cells" Describe the inheritance of sex in humans !AA and AB chromosomes" Define mitosis as nuclear division giving rise to genetically identical cell in which the chromosome number is maintained by the exact duplication of chromosomes !details of stages are .7T re#uire" 2tate the role of mitosis in growth repair of damaged tissues replacement of worn out cells and asexual reproduction Define meiosis as reduction division in which the chromosome number is halved from diploid to haploid !details of stages are not

Activities9

,,,-(-& 5itosis

,,,-(-( 5eiosis

re#uired" 2tate that gametes are the result of meiosis 2tate that meiosis results in genetic variation so the cells produced are not all genetically identical Define the terms: genotype as genetic makeup of an organism in terms of the alleles present e.g. Tt or ??" phenotype as the physical or other features of an organism due to both its genotype and its environment !e.g. tall plant or green seed" homo$ygous as having two identical alleles of a particular gene !e.g. TT or gg". Two identical homo$ygous individuals that breed together will be pure&breeding hetero$ygous as having two different alleles of a particular gene !e.g. Tt or ?g" not pure&breeding dominant as an allele that is expressed if it is present !e.g. T or ?" recessive as an allele that is only expressed when there is no dominant allele of the gene present !e.g. t or g" 'alculate and predict the results of monohybrid crosses involving % : % and 4 : % ratios 2tate that continuous variation is influenced by genes and environment resulting in a range of phenotypes between two extremes e.g. height in humans 2tate that discontinuous variation is caused by genes alone and results in a limited number of distinct phenotypes with no intermediates e.g. * ) *) and 7 blood groups in humans Define mutation as a change in a gene or chromosome. Describe mutation as a source of variation as shown by Down5s syndrome 7utline the effects of ioni$ing radiation and chemicals on the rate of mutation Describe the role of artificial selection in the production of varieties

,,,-(-0 5ono$ybrid in$eritance

,,,-(-# Variation

,,,-(-2 1election

of animals and plants with increased economic importance Define natural selection as the greater chance of passing on of genes by the best adapted organisms. 0xtension: Describe the development of strains of antibiotic resistant bacteria as an example of natural selection Define genetic engineering as taking a gene from one species and putting it into another species. 0xtension: 0xplain why and outline how human insulin genes were put into bacteria using genetic engineering ") ,nstructional Days ,,,-"-&-& 1exual reproduction in $umans 1exual Reproduction in @umans ,,,-& 3ro.t$ and Development 5arc$ &0'April "" -dentify on diagrams of the male reproductive system the testes scrotum sperm ducts prostate gland urethra and penis and state the functions of these parts 1perm <estes 1crotum 1perm duct -dentify on diagrams of the female reproductive system the !rostate %land ovaries oviducts uterus cervix and vagina and state the Eret$ra functions of these parts !enis Ovum Describe the menstrual cycle in terms of changes in the uterus and Ovary ovaries Oviducts Eterus 7utline sexual intercourse and describe fertili$ation in terms of the Cervix >oining of the nuclei of male gamete !sperm" and the female gamete Va%ina !egg" 5enstrual cycle 7ertili;ation 7utline early development of the $ygote simply in terms of the Gy%ote formation of a ball of cells that becomes implanted in the wall of 7etus the uterus !lacenta Embilical cord 7utline the development of the fetus Ante'natal 3ro.t$ Describe the function of the placenta and umbilical cord in relation Development to exchange of dissolved nutrients gases and excretory products +stro%en !no structural details are re#uired" <estosterone 6irt$ control Define growth in terms of permanent increase ein si$e and dry mass 3onorr$ea by an increase in cell number or cell si$e or both @,V A,D1 Define development in terms of increase in complexity Required Labs9

,,,-(-4 3enetic +n%ineerin%

Activities9

Describe the ante&natal care of pregnant women including special dietary needs and maintaining good health 7utline the processes involved in labor and birth Describe the roles of testosterone and estrogen in the development and regulation of secondary sexual characteristics at puberty ,,,-"-0 5et$ods of birt$ 7utline the following methods of birth control: control natural !abstinence rhythm method" chemical !contraceptive pill spermicide" mechanical !condom diaphragm femidom -1D" surgical !vasectomy female sterili$ation" ,,,-"-( 1ex $ormones ,,,-"-# 1exually transmissible diseases Describe the symptoms signs effects and treatment of gonorrhea Describe the methods of transmission of human immunodeficiency virus !6-(" and the ways in which 6-(=*-D2 can be prevented from spreading 7inal C$ec8point "0 ,nstructional Days ,V-" +ner%y 7lo. +colo%y April "0'5ay & ,V-& 7ood C$ains and Bebs 2tate that the sun is the principle source of energy input to biological systems +ner%y 7ood c$ain 7ood .eb Describe the non&cyclical nature of energy flow !roducer Consumer Define the terms: @erbivore food chain as a chart showing the flow of energy !food" from one organism to the next beginning with a producer Carnivore Omnivore !e.g. mahogany tree : caterpillar : songbird : hawk" Decomposer food web as a network of interconnected food chains 1caven%er showing the energy flow through part of an ecosystem +cosystem <rop$ic level producer as an organism that makes its own organic !opulation nutrients usually using energy form sunlight through La% p$ase photosynthesis. +xponential (lo%A p$ase 'onsumer as an organism that gets its energy by feeding on 1tationary p$ase other organisms Deat$ p$ase 6erbivore as an animal that gets its energy by eating plants Deforestation +utrop$ication 'arnivore as an animal that gets its energy by eating other !ollution Required Labs9

Activities9
Oh Deer Activity Ecoological Pyramids Activity

Nature Cycles Book

animals Rene.able materials Decomposer as an organism that gets its energy from dead /on'rene.able materials or waste organic matter 0cosystem as a unit containing all the organisms and their environment interacting together in a given area !e.g. decomposing log or a lake Trophic level as the position of an organism in a food chain food web or pyramid of biomass numbers or energy.

Describe energy losses between trophic levels Draw describe and interpret pyramids of biomass and numbers Describe the carbon and water cycles ,V-( /utrient Cycles

Define population as a group of organisms of one species living in the same area at the same time 2tate the factors affecting the rate of population growth for a population of an organism !limit to food supply predation and disease" and describe their importance -dentify the lag exponential !log" stationary and death phases in the sigmoid population growth curve for a population growing in an environment with limited resources Describe the increase in human population si$e and its social implications

,V-0 !opulation 1i;es

-nterpret graphs and diagrams of human population history 7utline the effects of humans on ecosystems with emphasis on examples of international importance !tropical rain forests oceans and important rivers" ,V-# @uman ,nfluences List the undesirable effects of deforestation !to include extinction on t$e +cosystem loss of soil flooding carbon dioxide build up" ,V-#-" A%riculture Describe the undesirable effects of overuse of fertili$ers !to include eutrophication of lakes and rivers" Describe the undesirable effects of pollution to include:

,V-#-& !ollution

water pollution by sewage and chemical waste air pollution by sulfur dioxide air pollution by greenhouse gases !carbon dioxide and methane" contributing to global warming pollution due to pesticides including insecticides and herbicides pollution due to nuclear fall&out

,V-#-( Conservation

Describe the need for conservation of: species and their habitats natural resources !limited to water and nonrenewable materials including fossil fuels" Revie. for Cambrid%e +xam* !rojects* 7inal +xam