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R1234yf System Enhancements Enhancements and and Comparison Comparison to to R134a R134a R1234yf System June
R1234yf System Enhancements Enhancements and and Comparison Comparison to to R134a R134a R1234yf System June
R1234yf System Enhancements Enhancements and and Comparison Comparison to to R134a R134a R1234yf System June

R1234yf System

Enhancements Enhancements and and

Comparison Comparison to to R134a R134a

R1234yf System

Enhancements and and Comparison Comparison to to R134a R134a R1234yf System June 10, 2008 John Meyer

June 10, 2008

John Meyer

R1234yf R1234yf Agenda Agenda ► System Performance Evaluation – TXV (Egelhof) and MCV (TGK) tuning

R1234yfR1234yf AgendaAgenda

R1234yf R1234yf Agenda Agenda ► System Performance Evaluation – TXV (Egelhof) and MCV (TGK) tuning –

System Performance Evaluation

TXV (Egelhof) and MCV (TGK) tuning

Baseline and enhanced system test results

» IHX

» Oil Separator

» High Effectiveness Evaporator

Compressor Durability

P P - - T T for for R134a R134a and and R1234yf R1234yf 3500

PP--TT forfor R134aR134a andand R1234yfR1234yf

P P - - T T for for R134a R134a and and R1234yf R1234yf 3500 3000
3500 3000 R134a 2500 R1234yf 2000 Cross at ~30C 1500 R1234yf has higher saturation pressure
3500
3000
R134a
2500
R1234yf
2000
Cross at ~30C
1500
R1234yf has higher
saturation pressure
1000
R1234yf has lower
saturation pressure
500
0
-10
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
Pressure [kPaA]

Temperature [C]

R134a R134a Stand Stand Evaluation Evaluation ► Production system used for analysis ► 160cc variable

R134aR134a StandStand EvaluationEvaluation

R134a R134a Stand Stand Evaluation Evaluation ► Production system used for analysis ► 160cc variable displacement

Production system used for analysis

160cc variable displacement compressor

16mm IRD condenser

2.0T cross-charged TXV

58mm plate-fin evaporator

Slightly modified discharge and liquid line

Modified for installation on stand

Slightly modified SL

To allow for in situ torque calibration

R1234yf R1234yf – – Stand Stand Evaluation Evaluation ► Changes to R134a system hardware –

R1234yfR1234yf StandStand EvaluationEvaluation

R1234yf R1234yf – – Stand Stand Evaluation Evaluation ► Changes to R134a system hardware – Same

Changes to R134a system hardware

Same 16mm IRD condenser

Same 58mm plate-fin evaporator

Same VS16 compressor, new MCV set points

Same 200 cc PAG

2.0T, 2.5T, 1.75T TXVs at high & low SH settings evaluated

Same slightly modified discharge and liquid line

Same slightly modified SL to allow for torque calibration

Evaluation Evaluation Matrix Matrix   Compressor Condenser Airflow Evaporator Airflow      

EvaluationEvaluation MatrixMatrix

Evaluation Evaluation Matrix Matrix   Compressor Condenser Airflow Evaporator Airflow      
 

Compressor

Condenser Airflow

Evaporator Airflow

     

Temp

Flow

Temp

RH

RPM

l/s

°C

l/s

°C

%

1

2500

700

45

140

43

40

2

1800

650

45

140

43

40

3

800

600

45

140

43

40

4

2500

700

37

140

35

40

5

1800

650

37

140

35

40

6

800

600

37

140

35

40

7

2500

700

27

100

25

40

8

1800

650

27

100

25

40

9

800

600

27

100

25

40

R134a R134a Charge Charge Determination Determination 2100 24 560 g chosen 2050 20 2000 16

R134aR134a ChargeCharge DeterminationDetermination

R134a R134a Charge Charge Determination Determination 2100 24 560 g chosen 2050 20 2000 16 1950
2100 24 560 g chosen 2050 20 2000 16 1950 12 1900 8 Disch P
2100
24
560 g chosen
2050
20
2000
16
1950
12
1900
8
Disch P
Air out T
SH
1850
4
SC
1800
0
300
350
400
450
500
550
600
650
Pressure [kPaG]
Temperature [C]

Charge [g]

R1234yf R1234yf Charge Charge Determination Determination 1950 24 550 g 1900 20 1850 16 1800

R1234yfR1234yf ChargeCharge DeterminationDetermination

R1234yf R1234yf Charge Charge Determination Determination 1950 24 550 g 1900 20 1850 16 1800 12
1950 24 550 g 1900 20 1850 16 1800 12 1750 8 Pdisch Evap SH
1950
24
550
g
1900
20
1850
16
1800
12
1750
8
Pdisch
Evap SH
1700
4
SC
disch air
1650
0
300
350
400
450
500
550
600
650
Pressure [kPaG]
Temperature [C]

Charge [g]

Adjusting Adjusting R1234yf R1234yf SH SH ► TXVs have a “set screw” to adjust SH

AdjustingAdjusting R1234yfR1234yf SHSH

Adjusting Adjusting R1234yf R1234yf SH SH ► TXVs have a “set screw” to adjust SH setting

TXVs have a “set screw” to adjust SH setting Each valve was evaluated at a high and low SH setting

35C, 1800RPM (pt 5)

14 12 Evap SH Subcool 10 COP Capacity 8 6 4 2 0 0 1
14
12
Evap SH
Subcool
10
COP
Capacity
8
6
4
2
0
0
1
2
3
4
5
COP, SC, SH, Capacity

# of 60 degree CCW turns of the TXV

Temperature [C]

Temperature [C] R1234yf vs R134a; Evaporator SH 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2
Temperature [C] R1234yf vs R134a; Evaporator SH 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2

R1234yf vs R134a; Evaporator SH

18

16

14

12

10

8

6

4

2

0

SH comparison

R134a baselineR1234yf 2T high SH R1234yf 2T low SH R1234yf 2.5T high SH R1234yf 2.5T low

R134a baseline R1234yf 2T high SH R1234yf 2T low SH R1234yf 2.5T high SH R1234yf 2.5T

R1234yf 2T high SH R1234yf 2T low SH

R134a baseline R1234yf 2T high SH R1234yf 2T low SH R1234yf 2.5T high SH R1234yf 2.5T
R134a baseline R1234yf 2T high SH R1234yf 2T low SH R1234yf 2.5T high SH R1234yf 2.5T

R1234yf 2.5T high SH

R1234yf 2.5T low SHR1234yf 2T high SH R1234yf 2T low SH R1234yf 2.5T high SH R1234yf 1.75T high SH

R1234yf 1.75T high SHR1234yf 2T low SH R1234yf 2.5T high SH R1234yf 2.5T low SH R1234yf 1.75T low SH

R1234yf 1.75T low SHSH R1234yf 2.5T high SH R1234yf 2.5T low SH R1234yf 1.75T high SH SH TXV at

SH R1234yf 2.5T low SH R1234yf 1.75T high SH R1234yf 1.75T low SH SH TXV at
SH R1234yf 2.5T low SH R1234yf 1.75T high SH R1234yf 1.75T low SH SH TXV at
SH R1234yf 2.5T low SH R1234yf 1.75T high SH R1234yf 1.75T low SH SH TXV at
SH R1234yf 2.5T low SH R1234yf 1.75T high SH R1234yf 1.75T low SH SH TXV at
SH R1234yf 2.5T low SH R1234yf 1.75T high SH R1234yf 1.75T low SH SH TXV at
SH R1234yf 2.5T low SH R1234yf 1.75T high SH R1234yf 1.75T low SH SH TXV at
SH R1234yf 2.5T low SH R1234yf 1.75T high SH R1234yf 1.75T low SH SH TXV at
SH R1234yf 2.5T low SH R1234yf 1.75T high SH R1234yf 1.75T low SH SH TXV at
SH R1234yf 2.5T low SH R1234yf 1.75T high SH R1234yf 1.75T low SH SH TXV at

SH

TXV

at

to

1.75T

(blue) seems

of

Control

high

loads

lose
lose

800

1800

25C

2500

800

1800

35C

2500

800

1800

43C

2500

R1234yf R1234yf TXV TXV and and MCV MCV Evaluation Evaluation ► Cross charge TXVs from

R1234yfR1234yf TXVTXV andand MCVMCV EvaluationEvaluation

R1234yf TXV TXV and and MCV MCV Evaluation Evaluation ► Cross charge TXVs from Egelhof ►

Cross charge TXVs from Egelhof

2.0, 2.5, and 1.75T valves tested

1.75T TXV is undersized

TXV at low SH

Although no strong indication that low SH leads to improved performance:

» Low SH facilitates IHX integration

» Improved evaporator discharge air stratification

MCVs from TGK

Initial MCV calibration slightly off

Gen II MCVs better tuned for this system

R1234yf R1234yf Evaporator Evaporator Stratification Stratification ► 4x4 thermocouple matrix on evaporator outlet

R1234yfR1234yf EvaporatorEvaporator StratificationStratification

Evaporator Evaporator Stratification Stratification ► 4x4 thermocouple matrix on evaporator outlet –

4x4 thermocouple matrix on evaporator outlet

Stratification = T max – T min

With similar SH settings, R1234yf shows slightly improved stratification

Baseline R1234yf System Defined ► Same compressor, heat exchangers, lines, lubricant ► 2.0T TXV from
Baseline R1234yf System Defined ► Same compressor, heat exchangers, lines, lubricant ► 2.0T TXV from

Baseline R1234yf System Defined

Same compressor, heat exchangers, lines, lubricant

2.0T TXV from Egelhof at “low” SH setting

“GEN II” MCV from TGK

R1234yf R1234yf Enhancements Enhancements ► Internal Heat Exchanger (IHX) – Production Intent (SOP ‘09) –
R1234yf R1234yf Enhancements Enhancements ► Internal Heat Exchanger (IHX) – Production Intent (SOP ‘09) –

R1234yfR1234yf EnhancementsEnhancements

Internal Heat Exchanger (IHX)

Production Intent (SOP ‘09)

Fully validated with R134a

Oil Separator

High efficiency evaporator

Tube-fin

Same package

Lower air-side pressure drop

Capacity [kw]

Capacity [kw] R134a R134a vs vs 1234yf 1234yf – – IHX; IHX; Capacity Capacity 8 7

R134aR134a vsvs 1234yf1234yf IHX;IHX; CapacityCapacity

vs vs 1234yf 1234yf – – IHX; IHX; Capacity Capacity 8 7 6 5 4 3

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

0

R134a baselineR134a IHX R1234yf baseline R1234yf IHX MCV controls capacity

R134a baseline R134a IHX R1234yf baseline R1234yf IHX MCV controls capacity

R134a IHX

R1234yf baselineR134a baseline R134a IHX R1234yf IHX MCV controls capacity

R1234yf IHX

MCV controls capacity

R134a baseline R134a IHX R1234yf baseline R1234yf IHX MCV controls capacity

800

9

1800

8

2500

7

800

6

1800

5

2500

4

800

3

1800

2

2500

1

 

25C

   

Point

35C

   

43C

 
R134a R134a vs vs 1234yf 1234yf – – IHX; IHX; Efficiency Efficiency R134a baseline 5.0

R134aR134a vsvs 1234yf1234yf IHX;IHX; EfficiencyEfficiency

vs 1234yf 1234yf – – IHX; IHX; Efficiency Efficiency R134a baseline 5.0 4.5 R134a IHX R1234yf
R134a baseline 5.0 4.5 R134a IHX R1234yf baseline R1234yf IHX 4.0 3.5 3.0 2.5 2.0
R134a baseline
5.0
4.5
R134a IHX
R1234yf baseline
R1234yf IHX
4.0
3.5
3.0
2.5
2.0
1.5
1.0
0.5
0.0
800
800
9
1800
1800
8
2500
2500
7
800
800
6
1800
1800
5
2500
2500
4
800
800
3
1800
1800
2
2500
2500
1
25C
25C
Point Number
35C
35C
43C
43C
COP [ - ]
Discharge Discharge and and Pressure Pressure Ratio Ratio 2200 11 R134a P [kPaG] R134a [C]

DischargeDischarge andand PressurePressure RatioRatio

Discharge Discharge and and Pressure Pressure Ratio Ratio 2200 11 R134a P [kPaG] R134a [C] 1234yf
2200 11 R134a P [kPaG] R134a [C] 1234yf [C] 2000 10 R1234yf 1700 62.9 65.0
2200
11
R134a
P [kPaG]
R134a [C]
1234yf [C]
2000
10
R1234yf
1700
62.9
65.0
R134a
1800
9
1800
65.2
67.5
R1234yf
1900
67.5
69.9
1600
8
2000
69.6
72.2
1400
7
1200
6
1000
5
800
4
600
3
P-T
relationship
predicts
400
2
~100kPa lower discharge
pressure for R1234yf
200
1
0
0
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
800
1800
2500
800
1800
2500
800
1800
2500
Point
25C
35C
43C
Pressure [kPaG]
Pressure Ratio [ - ]
R134a R134a vs vs 1234yf 1234yf – – IHX; IHX; Compressor Compressor Discharge Temperature Discharge

R134a R134a vs vs 1234yf 1234yf IHX; IHX; Compressor Compressor

Discharge Temperature

Discharge Temperature

Compressor Discharge Temperature Discharge Temperature 120 R134a Baseline 110 R134a IHX 100 R1234yf baseline
120 R134a Baseline 110 R134a IHX 100 R1234yf baseline R1234yf IHX 90 80 70 60
120
R134a Baseline
110
R134a IHX
100
R1234yf baseline
R1234yf IHX
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
800
800
1800
1800
2500
2500
800
800
1800
1800
2500
2500
800
800
1800
1800
2500
2500
25C
25C
Point
35C
35C
43C
43C
Temperature [C]

Capacity [kw]

Capacity [kw] R134a R134a vs vs 1234yf 1234yf – – Oil Oil Separator Separator & &

R134a R134a vs vs 1234yf 1234yf Oil Oil Separator Separator & & High High

Efficiency Evaporator; Capacity

& & High High Efficiency Evaporator; Capacity Efficiency Evaporator; Capacity 8 7 6 5 4 3

Efficiency Evaporator; Capacity

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

0

R134a baselineR1234yf baseline R1234yf Oil Sep R1234yf HE evap MCV controls capacity

R1234yf baselineR134a baseline R1234yf Oil Sep R1234yf HE evap MCV controls capacity

R1234yf Oil SepR134a baseline R1234yf baseline R1234yf HE evap MCV controls capacity

R1234yf HE evapR134a baseline R1234yf baseline R1234yf Oil Sep MCV controls capacity

MCV controls capacity

R1234yf Oil Sep R1234yf HE evap MCV controls capacity 9 800 800 8 1800 1800 7

9

800

800

8

1800

1800

7

2500

2500

6

800

800

5

1800

1800

2500

2500

4

800

800

3

1800

1800

2

2500

2500

1

 

25C

25C

   

Point

35C

35C

   

43C

43C

 
R134a R134a vs vs 1234yf 1234yf – – Oil Oil Separator Separator & & High

R134a R134a vs vs 1234yf 1234yf Oil Oil Separator Separator & & High High

Efficiency Evaporator; Efficiency

& & High High Efficiency Evaporator; Efficiency Efficiency Evaporator; Efficiency 5.0 R134a baseline

Efficiency Evaporator; Efficiency

5.0 R134a baseline R1234yf baseline 4.5 R1234yf Oil Sep R1234yf HE evap 4.0 3.5 3.0
5.0
R134a baseline
R1234yf baseline
4.5
R1234yf Oil Sep
R1234yf HE evap
4.0
3.5
3.0
2.5
2.0
1.5
1.0
0.5
0.0
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
800
800
1800
1800
2500
2500
800
800
1800
1800
2500
2500
800
800
1800
1800
2500
2500
Point Number
25C
25C
35C
35C
43C
43C
COP [ - ]
Evaporator Evaporator Inlet Inlet Quality Quality ► Higher quality = less liquid = lower capacity

EvaporatorEvaporator InletInlet QualityQuality

Evaporator Evaporator Inlet Inlet Quality Quality ► Higher quality = less liquid = lower capacity 0.75

Higher quality = less liquid = lower capacity

0.75 0.70 R134a 0.65 R1234yf 0.60 0.55 0.50 0.45 Inputs 10°C Subcool 0.40 5°C Evaporation
0.75
0.70
R134a
0.65
R1234yf
0.60
0.55
0.50
0.45
Inputs
10°C Subcool
0.40
5°C Evaporation temp
8% Less Liquid
0.35
Supercritical R744 high-
0.30
side pressure = 13MPa
0.25
0.20
0.15
0.10
0.05
0.00
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
Quality [ - ]

Condensing Temperature [C]

Evaporator Evaporator Inlet Inlet Quality Quality ► Higher quality = less liquid = lower capacity

EvaporatorEvaporator InletInlet QualityQuality

Evaporator Evaporator Inlet Inlet Quality Quality ► Higher quality = less liquid = lower capacity 0.75

Higher quality = less liquid = lower capacity

0.75 0.70 R134a 0.65 R1234yf 0.60 R744 0.55 0.50 29% Less Liquid 0.45 Inputs 10°C
0.75
0.70
R134a
0.65
R1234yf
0.60
R744
0.55
0.50
29% Less Liquid
0.45
Inputs
10°C Subcool
0.40
5°C Evaporation temp
8% Less Liquid
0.35
Supercritical R744 high-
0.30
side pressure = 13MPa
0.25
0.20
0.15
0.10
0.05
0.00
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
Quality [ - ]

Condensing Temperature [C]

R1234yf R1234yf Performance Performance Summary Summary ► Baseline R1234yf system used same tonnage TXV with

R1234yfR1234yf PerformancePerformance SummarySummary

R1234yf R1234yf Performance Performance Summary Summary ► Baseline R1234yf system used same tonnage TXV with modified

Baseline R1234yf system used same tonnage TXV with modified bulb charge and adjusted MCV

R1234yf has approximately 8-10°C cooler compressor discharge temperature vs R134a

As near drop-in, capacity and efficiency fall slightly short of R134a

R1234yf R1234yf Performance Performance Summary Summary (cont) (cont) ► R1234yf with IHX – ~Matches/exceeds

R1234yf R1234yf Performance Performance Summary Summary

(cont)

(cont)

Performance Performance Summary Summary (cont) (cont) ► R1234yf with IHX – ~Matches/exceeds R134a baseline

R1234yf with IHX

~Matches/exceeds R134a baseline capacity

Has slightly higher average efficiency than baseline R134a across all points

~Matches R134a compressor discharge temperature

R1234yf with Oil Separator

Small increase in capacity and efficiency

Falls short of baseline R134a at high ambient

R1234yf with High Efficiency Evaporator

Small increase in capacity and efficiency

Falls short of baseline R134a at high ambient

R1234yf R1234yf Compressor Compressor Testing Testing ► Initial Compressor Durability – High Pressure Low Charge

R1234yfR1234yf CompressorCompressor TestingTesting

R1234yf R1234yf Compressor Compressor Testing Testing ► Initial Compressor Durability – High Pressure Low Charge

Initial Compressor Durability

High Pressure Low Charge – high load and temperature test

» Completed initial testing - No issues

High Speed – high friction and high temperature test

» Completed initial testing – No issues

Durability Durability Teardown Teardown Results Results

DurabilityDurability TeardownTeardown ResultsResults

Durability Durability Teardown Teardown Results Results
Durability Durability Teardown Teardown Results Results
Durability Durability Teardown Teardown Results Results
Durability Durability Teardown Teardown Results Results
Durability Durability Teardown Teardown Results Results
Acknowledgements Acknowledgements ► Thanks to…. – for prototype MCVs – Egelhof for prototype TXVs –

AcknowledgementsAcknowledgements

Acknowledgements Acknowledgements ► Thanks to…. – for prototype MCVs – Egelhof for prototype TXVs –

Thanks to….

– for prototype MCVs

for prototype MCVs

Egelhof for prototype TXVs

JCS for tube-fin evaporator

Honeywell and DuPont for R1234yf