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On Drawing the Mind into the Heart: Psychic Wholeness in the Greek Patristic Tradition

David Bradshaw University of Kentucky dbradsh@uky.edu

A recurrent complaint about western culture is that it suffers from a divorce between the head and the heart. The heart here stands for feeling passion imagination and intuition! the head for reason especially insofar as it is critical of the deliverances of the heart. "igns of a tension between them can be found in virtually every area of modern life from music to literature to the technocratic organi#ation of society to ordinary practices of friendship and romantic love. Above all they are to be found in the area of religion. $on%believers tend to look upon religious belief as a surrender of the head to the heart&that is a matter of believing something because one wants or needs it to be true rather than because of firm rational evidence. 'any believers unwittingly encourage this perception by practicing forms of evangelism and worship that give primacy to feeling over rational conviction. (n the other hand philosophies which are opposed to religion especially those grounded in science generally make no attempt to address the heart at all. They assume that a stance of neutral disinterested ob)ectivity is the only one that could possibly be relevant in deciding the fundamental *uestions of life. The result is that we seem to be faced with the choice between a +heart first, approach to life and a +head first, approach. $ot surprisingly most people find this an impossible choice to make. Their response instead is to compartmentali#e- they concede that science and reason ought to govern public life but when it comes to matters of feeling emotion or personal commitment they look for guidance elsewhere. 'y aim in this paper is two%fold. .irst / wish to describe how the vocabulary of the heart and the head entered western thought. /f we understand how this particular way of mapping out the terrain of human e0istence arose we will see that there is nothing about it that necessarily implies a conflict between the two poles that it identifies. 1e will also see that to forestall the

possibility of conflict by refusing to acknowledge a separate role for the heart 2as in philosophies that derive their inspiration from science3 would be a serious mistake. "econd / wish to describe the particular approach to harmoni#ing the heart and the head that was adopted within the 4reek% speaking branch of the 5hristian tradition during the 'iddle Ages. As we will see the 4reek 5hurch .athers believed that the possibility of a conflict between the heart and the head is part of our fallen human condition. 6owever they also held that 7esus 5hrist as the great +unifier of what is disunited , has opened up the possibility of overcoming this division. 8et us begin with the heart. Although 4reek philosophy has a great deal to say about the passions and emotions it identifies their source as a faculty or +part, of the soul 2the thumos3 rather than any particular physical organ.9 /t also does not connect the emotions with imagination intuition or +feeling, in the broader sense. The peculiar assumption that these are somehow linked and can be located together in the heart is due to the influence of the Bible. 6owever what the heart represents in the Bible is different from what it represents in modern thought. 1e must first understand the Biblical idiom in its own right before we can see how it was later transformed. The 6ebrew word generally translated :heart; 2lb and its cognates3 occurs over eight hundred times in the (ld Testament. < Although it is the name of the physical organ we call the heart most of its uses are metaphorical. /n its broadest sense it designates the hidden inaccessible core of something. Thus one finds +the heart of the sea, to indicate the depths of the sea and +the heart of the heaven, to indicate its unattainable heights. = As applied to human beings it indicates the inner reality of someone as distinct from superficial appearances. The book of Deuteronomy commands +thou shalt love the 8ord thy 4od with all thine heart and with all thy soul and with all thy might , meaning that every depth of one;s being should actively share in this love.> /n /saiah 4od complains of the /sraelites that they +draw near me with their mouth and with their lips do honor me but they have removed their heart far from me, 2<?-9=3. 6is complaint is not precisely that the /sraelites are hypocrites for it is *uite likely that they believe that they are serving 6im as they ought. /t is rather that despite their words and their conscious thoughts they are far removed from 6im in the deepest wellspring of their being. This passage illustrates a point of crucial significance- the heart is hard to know and indeed it can be fully known only by 4od. According to / "amuel +man looketh on the outward <

appearance but the 8ord looketh on the heart, 29@-A3. King "olomon in his prayer at the dedication of the Temple declares to 4od that +thou only knowest the hearts of the children of men, 2// 5hron. @-=B3. 7eremiah e0claims that +the heart is deceitful above all things and desperately wicked- who can know itC, 6e then answers his own *uestion- +/ the 8ord search the heart / try the reins even to give every man according to his ways and according to the fruit of his doings, 27er. 9A-?%9B3. There is an especially interesting e0ample of this view in the book of Daniel. Daniel in e0plaining to $ebuchadne##ar the meaning of a dream by which $ebuchadne##ar has been deeply troubled states that 4od has revealed it to him 2Daniel3 +that thou mightest know the thoughts of thy heart, 2Dan. <-=B3! in other words it is Daniel;s role as prophet to reveal to $ebuchadne##ar that which is deepest within him. This is not to suggest that there is no connection between the heart and outward deeds. Actions express what is in the heart and to some e0tent they even shape what is in the heart. 'oses tells the /sraelites that 4od made them wander in the wilderness +to know what was in thine heart whether thou wouldest keep his commandments, 2Deut. D-<3. /n light of the passages )ust mentioned he could scarcely be suggesting that 4od did not already know their hearts insofar as these could be known. / take it what he means is that their years in the wilderness were a period of trial during which as a result of their actions their hearts took on a definite and knowable form. "o far the Biblical conception of the heart is not too different from the modern conception. 'ost people today would tend to agree that the heart is deep and hard to know although it e0presses itself in action and to some e0tent can also be shaped by action. (ne point on which the Biblical conception is sharply different from the modern conception however is that in the Bible the heart has no particular connection with emotion. Because it is the whole person at his deepest level it is the seat not only of the emotions but also of reason intelligence and desire. /n fact the Bible draws little distinction among these different functions. The book of Eroverbs commands +( ye simple understand wisdomand ye fools be ye of an understanding heart, 2D-F3. The conte0t makes plain that to be of an +understanding heart, is not primarily a matter of mental acuity but of the possession of rightly ordered intentions and desires. The reason that this is seen as a form of understanding is that for them to be rightly ordered re*uires that they be formed in light of the knowledge of 4od. 8ater in the same book we find +A man;s heart deviseth his way- but the 8ord directed his steps, 29@-?3. 6ere too the =

heart is the organ of rationally%informed desire no more 2or less3 intellective than volitional and desiderative. The same is true when we read that +David;s heart smote him because he had cut off "aul;s skirt, 2/ "am. <>-F3. The guilt that David feels is the product e*ually of his reason will and desire. /n saying that his +heart smote him , the author conveys first that the guilt is present at a deeper level than the relatively superficial thoughts that led him to perform the act itself! and second that it affects David so completely that he feels it as a physical blow albeit one coming from within.F /t is in light of both the depth of the heart and its holistic integrity that we can understand the supreme importance of a heart that is rightly ordered. 1hen in 7eremiah 4od promises of the /sraelites +/ will give them an heart to know me, 2<>-A3 6e means not primarily that they will know about 4od but that they will know 6im by responding to 6is direction and feeling 6is presence. Thus the heart can have a more or less receptive condition insofar as it is or is not responsive to 4od. /n G#ekiel the change between these two states is put in terms of an actual replacement of the heart- +/ will take the stony heart out of their flesh and will give them an heart of flesh- That they may walk in my statutes and keep mine ordinances and do themand they shall be my people and / will be their 4od, 299-9?%<B3. A +heart of flesh, is not only one that is healthy and functioning properly but one that is readily moved rather than being cold and insensitive. 1ithout such a heart any real communion between man and 4od is impossible. /n light of the holistic nature of the heart in the Bible how has it come to be contrasted so sharply to the mindC To answer that *uestion we must consider the growth of the concept of the mind. 6ere / will focus particularly on the 4reek term nous the most common term for mind in the $ew Testament. Actually it bears a range of meanings- mind reason understanding thought )udgment resolve and disposition.@ The best way to get a handle on this range of possibilities is to think of its meaning as related in various ways to the act of understanding. "pecifically it ranges from- 2a3 the faculty of understanding to 2b3 the characteristic way that faculty is e0ercised to 2c3 a particular act of its e0ercise to 2d3 the virtue of e0ercising it well. .or e0ample when "t. Eaul *uotes from the 4reek translation of /saiah +1ho has known the mind 2nous3 of the 8ordC, 2/ 5or. <-9@3 he would seem to be referring to 2c3 the specific content of the divine mind. 1hen he then goes on to declare triumphantly +But we have the mind of 5hrist , he probably refers instead to 2b3 a characteristic way of thinking. 6e may hint as well

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that we share in 2a3 5hrist;s very faculty of understanding since otherwise our sharing in his way of thinking could be merely a temporary or accidental fact. .or our purposes there are two important points to notice. The first is that because of this range of meanings nous does not stand in opposition to feeling or emotion in the same way as does :mind; in Gnglish. Eaul often attaches to it a moral character speaking of a +fleshly mind 2nous3, 25ol. <-9D3 a +corrupt mind, 2/ Tim. @-F // Tim. =-D3 or a mind that has been tested and found unworthy 2Hom. 9-<D3.A 6e does not refer here merely to failings of intellect but to a habitual tendency to think and feel in ways that are self%serving or morally debased. The same is true in the opposite sense of the +mind of 5hrist,- it is not so much a distinctive intellectual ability as a way of thinking and feeling that is in service to 5hrist and takes him as its model. The second point to notice is that because nous possesses a moral and spiritual character our current fallen nous is in need of transformation. (ne of the most familiar verses in the $ew Testament is that where "t. Eaul commands +be not conformed to this world- but be ye transformed by the renewing of your mind 2nous3 that ye may prove what is that good and acceptable and perfect will of 4od, 2Hom. 9<-<3. 6ere the +renewing of the mind, results not so much in a new intellectual ability as in a practical understanding of the will of 4od that is effective within the sphere of action. Glsewhere Eaul directs his audience to +be renewed in the spirit of your mind 2nous3 and . . . ItoJ put on the new man which after 4od is created in righteousness and true holiness, 2Gph. >-<=%<>3. 6ere too the renewal of the mind is a thoroughgoing transformation that brings one into conformity with the will of 4od. /n both passages Eaul assumes that the +world, which constitutes our normal and habitual sphere of reference&roughly the values and e0pectations that are thrust upon us by society&will not be helpful in this endeavor. 1hat we need is not more of what we already are but a radical transformation. /t is plain that the Biblical contrast between the heart and the mind is not at all that between feeling and thought. /t is rather that between the core of what we are and our phenomenal consciousness composed as it is of thoughts emotions feelings and desires whether habitual or transitory. Already we can see how the notion of +drawing the mind into the heart, might make sense on such a view. Before turning to the 4reek .athers one further point which needs clarifying is the different ways in which the mind and the heart relate to 4od. 1e F

have seen that both of them can be more or less pure and that both are in need of some kind of transformation. The 4reek .athers were primarily concerned with the different ways this is true in each case and how the transformation of each must work together before they can coalesce into a unity. 8et us consider what Biblical motivation there might be for such a view. / have mentioned 4od;s promise in G#ekiel that he will take away the +stony heart, of the /sraelites and give them a +heart of flesh., Although this language is metaphorical it is also closely tied to an awareness of the heart as a physical organ one that we do not see but that we depend upon in all that we do and that occasionally 2when it is agitated3 we can feel as a physical presence. The physicality of the heart is thus an essential component of its meaning. Eerhaps the most vivid e0ample of how the heart as a spiritual organ cannot be separated from the physical organ is an episode in the book of 7eremiah. 7eremiah has been placed in the stocks and publicly ridiculed for his prophecies. "ince it was his attempt to obey 4od that brought him to this point he places the blame for what has been done to him s*uarely upon 4od- +( 8ord thou hast deceived me and / was deceived- thou art stronger than / and hast prevailed- / am in derision daily every one mocketh me, 2<B-A3. 6e then adds that he had resolved to speak 4od;s word no more but the word itself would not allow him- +Then / said / will not make mention of him nor speak any more in his name. But his word was in mine heart as a burning fire shut up in my bones and / was weary with forbearing and / could not stay Ii.e. refrain from speakingJ, 2<B-?3. His word was in mine heart as a burning fire shut up in my bones . The heart is here not only a metaphor for the deepest level of his being! it is also the physical organ itself one that 7eremiah;s conscious mind cannot escape or overrule however much he might wish to do so. The fact that the heart is a physical organ which we do not see but whose power wells up from within us makes it mysterious in a way that the mind is not. /n the $ew Testament where the polarity of the heart and the mind is much more prominent than in the (ld Testament this sense of the heart as a mystery grows even stronger. 7esus in rebuking the Eharisees observes that their words have an appearance of righteousness but do not witness to a good heart. ( generation of vipers how can ye being evil speak good thingsC for out of the abundance of the heart the mouth speaketh. A good man out of the good treasure of the heart bringeth forth good things- and an evil man out of the evil treasure bringeth forth evil things. 2'att. 9<-=>%=F3

8ater he elaborates +out of the heart proceed evil thoughts murders adulteries fornications thefts false witness blasphemies- these are the things which defile a man, 29F-9?%<B3. $o doubt the Eharisees believed they were righteous but their words and deeds revealed otherwise. The heart is thus a mystery deep within a person one from which well up thoughts and actions that even the person himself may not fully understand. /t is also an organ of perception one that is capable of receiving mysteries in a way that the conscious mind is not. After the birth of 7esus accompanied as it was by the appearance of +a multitude of the heavenly host , 'ary +kept all these things and pondered them in her heart, 28uke <-9?3. The word translated :pondered; is sumballousa literally +drawing together., 'ary draws all that she has seen and heard into her heart where its meaning will unfold not so much intellectually as by her continual act of living in light of it. D 'uch later in the same 4ospel after the resurrection of 7esus he appears to his disciples and e0plains to them the prophecies pertaining to himself. 1hen they at last reali#e who he is he vanishes and they e0claim to one another- +Did not our heart burn within us while he talked with us by the way and while he opened to us the scripturesC, 2<>-=<3. 6ere too it is the heart that recogni#es and receives the mysteries that 7esus reveals. The fact that as it does so it +burns within us, indicates that )ust as with 7eremiah the heart is still very much a physical organ as well as a place of spiritual receptivity. .inally we must mention the letters of "t. Eaul where the heart as an organ of spiritual receptivity is a recurrent theme. Eaul speaks of 4od as giving +the earnest of the "pirit in our hearts, 2// 5or. 9-<<3 as having +shined in our hearts, 2// 5or. >-@3 and as having +sent forth the "pirit of his "on into your hearts crying Abba .ather, 24al. >-@3. 6e describes the new 5hristians in 5orinth as an epistle +written not with ink but with the "pirit of the living 4od! not in tables of stone but in fleshy tables of the heart, 2// 5or. =-=3. 8ike 8uke he understands the heart as capable of receiving and understanding mysteries in a way surpassing the mind. Thus he prays for the Gphesians that +the eyes of your heart be enlightened that ye may know what is the hope of his I4od;sJ calling and what the riches of the glory of his inheritance in the saints, 2Gph. 9-9D3.? 8ater he urges them not to be like those who are +alienated from the life of 4od through the ignorance that is in them because of the hardness of their heart, 2>-9D3. /n speaking of the heart as an organ of spiritual receptivity / mean to emphasi#e its physical character. /n this it contrasts with the mind which is instead 2as in Eaul;s teaching A

about the renewal of the mind3 a faculty of spiritual receptivity. The difference is that as an organ the heart is part of our physical make%up something that we did not choose and cannot readily change. /ndeed it is so deep within us that we do not fully know its contents or understand what it utters. (nly 4od who +searches the heart , is capable of knowing it fully and transforming it through 6is love. The mind as the level of conscious awareness is more immediately sub)ect to our control yet is also sub)ect to self%deception. This means that if the heart has received the "pirit of 4od as prophesied in the (ld Testament and proclaimed boldly by "t. Eaul then if the mind is alienated from the heart it will also be alienated from 4od. 8et us now turn to the 4reek .athers. (ne who speaks e0tensively of the heart is the unknown fourth%century author 2conventionally referred to as 'acarius3 of the Macarian Homilies. 'acarius has a vivid sense of the capacity of the heart for both good and evilThe heart itself is but a small vessel yet there also are dragons and there are lions! there are poisonous beasts and all the treasures of evil. And there are rough and uneven roads! there are precipices. But there is also 4od also the angels the life and the kingdom the light and the Apostles the treasures of grace&there are all things.9B 6e likens the heart to an enclosed garden outside of which is a fast%moving river. /f the river eats away the foundations of the wall the wall will be destroyed and the garden flooded. +"o it is also with man;s heart. /t has good thoughts but the rivers of evil are always flowing near the heart seeking to bring it down and draw it to its own side. /f the mind should be turned ever so little toward frivolity and yield to unclean thoughts look out&the spirits of error have roamed the pastureland and have entered and have overturned there the beautiful things., 99 To guard the heart one must guard the mind keeping it from evil thoughts. Glsewhere he alters the metaphor slightly describing how )ust as a gardener who works hard must still look to heaven for rain we too must +work the soil of the heart by free deliberation and hard work , while recogni#ing that without grace our labors can bring nothing.9< Ultimately it is only through the heart that grace can penetrate our whole being including the body. 'acarius e0plains- +The heart directs all the organs of the body and when grace gains possession of the heart it rules over all the members Iof the bodyJ and the thoughts. .or there in the heart the mind abides as well as all the thoughts of the soul and all its hopes. This is how grace penetrates throughout all parts of the body.,9= The necessity of guarding the heart through watchfulness over one;s thoughts becomes a ma)or theme in later authors. As an e0ample we may take "t. 6esychius of "inai 2eighth or ninth D

century3 whose work On Watchfulness and Holiness was highly popular in the monastic tradition. 6esychius e0plains- +1atchfulness is a continual fi0ing and halting of thought at the entrance to the heart. /n this way predatory and murderous thoughts are marked down as they approach and what they say and do is noted! and we can see in what specious and delusive form the demons are trying to deceive the intellect., 9> .ollowing a number of earlier authors 6esychius holds that purity is the intellect;s natural state so that watchfulness is not an unnatural restraint but instead a return to our natural condition. 6e writes/n this way the soul can attain in the 8ord that state of beauty loveliness and integrity in which it was created by 4od in the beginning. As Antony Ithe 4reatJ the great servant of 4od said +6oliness is achieved when the intellect is in its natural state, . . . And shortly after this he adds+8et us purify our minds for / believe that when the mind is completely pure and in its natural state it gains penetrating insight and it sees more clearly and further than the demons since the 8ord reveals things to it.,9F 6esychius adds however that to attain purity of heart also re*uires the aid of 5hrist. +/t is impossible to find the Hed "ea among the stars or to walk this earth without breathing air! so too it is impossible to cleanse our heart from impassioned thoughts and to e0pel its spiritual enemies without the fre*uent invocation of 7esus 5hrist.,9@ 6ere he has in mind less the imitation of 5hrist as a model than the fre*uent indeed constant invocation of 5hrist in prayer. 6e e0plainsA certain 4od%given e*uilibrium is produced in our intellect through the constant remembrance and invocation of our 8ord 7esus 5hrist provided that we do not neglect this constant spiritual entreaty or our close watchfulness and diligence. /ndeed our true task is always the same and is always accomplished in the same way- to call upon our 8ord 7esus 5hrist with a burning heart so that 6is holy name intercedes for us.9A The name of 7esus +gladdens the earth of our heart, like rain falling on the earth making it soft and pliable.9D Besides seeking 5hrist;s aid invoking him constantly is also a way of keeping the intellect occupied while freeing it from the need for +thoughts , that is mental images which can distract it from 4od. The goal is that the invocation of 7esus become a +prayer which is ever active in the inner shrine of the soul.,9? Ultimately then +none but 7esus 5hrist 6imself unifier of what is disunited can give your heart lasting peace from passions.,<B "uch constant invocation of 7esus seeking to establish his name as a prayer which is +ever active, within the heart is known as the +7esus prayer., <9 The last author / shall cite is "t. ?

4regory Ealamas 29<?@%9=F?3 who more than anyone else articulated the intellectual foundations of the monastic practice of the 7esus prayer. Ealamas *uotes the words of 'acarius about how when grace gains possession of the heart it +rules over all the members and the thoughts., 6e then continuesThus our heart is the place of the rational faculty the first rational organ of the body. 5onse*uently when we seek to keep watch over and correct our reason by a rigorous sobriety with what are we to keep watch if we do not gather together our mind which has been dissipated abroad by the senses and lead it back again into the interior to the selfsame heart which is the seat of the thoughtsC This is why . . . 'acarius immediately goes on to say +/t is there one must look to see if grace has inscribed the laws of the "pirit., 1here but in the heart the controlling organ the throne of grace where the mind and all the thoughts of the soul are to be foundC<< (n the one hand the heart is the natural seat of the mind the +first rational organ of the body,! on the other our mind in its current state has been +dissipated abroad by the senses., The only solution is to lead the mind back into the heart by constant watchfulness over one;s thoughts and by constantly invoking the aid of 7esus. /n this way what / referred to earlier as the faculty of spiritual receptivity will again be centered in the organ of spiritual receptivity where 4od especially imparts the gift of grace. Elainly for the 4reek .athers +drawing the mind into the heart, has nothing to do with a surrender to sentimentality. /t re*uires rigorous watchfulness over one;s thoughts and feelings re)ecting any that are alien to divine grace. 6owever it is also not simply a process of mental self%correction. There is a real physical connection to be made one that is only possible because we are both physical beings and spiritual beings and our spirituality is incomplete if it does not permeate our physical being. This means that the mind and the heart must come to act as one each in its own proper way responding to divine grace. Then in the words of 'acarius grace will issue from the heart and +penetrate throughout all parts of the body., / have focused on eastern 5hristianity because / believe it is there that the Biblical understanding of the mind and the heart reaches its fullest e0pression. Hegrettably the points that / have attributed to the 4reek .athers&the emphasis on the heart as the channel of divine grace the use of the 7esus prayer the goal of +drawing the mind into the heart,&have played little role within western 5hristianity. /ndeed to western ears the statement of Ealamas that the 9B

heart is +the first rational organ of the body, has a distinctly parado0ical ring. That is because we have grown accustomed to contrasting the heart as the locus of feeling with the mind as the locus of reason. / believe that many of the ills of western culture can be attributed to this grave distortion of Biblical teaching. The 4reek .athers present us with a theology of the mind and heart that never lost touch with its Biblical roots. By so doing they offer hope that we can again unite thought and feeling into a living whole.

APPENDIX Due to space limitations / was not able to address within the main body of the paper the *uestion of how in the 1est the heart came to be associated with feeling and the mind with reason. This is a comple0 sub)ect that deserves a lengthy discussion in its own right. 6ere / will offer )ust a few observations. The great divide separating the psychology of the 8atin%speaking 1est from that of the 4reek .athers is the concept of voluntas +will., Although there are a number of 4reek terms that can be translated +will, 2boulsis, thelsis and sometimes prohairesis3 none of them covers the same range of meaning as voluntas.<= Voluntas was made central to the 8atin theological tradition by "t. Augustine. 6e uses it to designate roughly that in us which chooses in a way not governed by reason. This meaning emerges most clearly in his discussion of why some angels fell away from 4od 2becoming demons3 while others remained steadfast even though all had been created e*ually good. 6e likens this case to that of two identical men of whom one succumbs to temptation and the other does not/f two men alike in physical and moral constitution see the same corporal beauty and one of them is e0cited by the sight to desire an illicit en)oyment while the other steadfastly maintains a modest restraint of his will what do we suppose brings it about that there is an evil will in the one and not in the otherC 1hat produces it in the man in whom it e0istsC $ot the bodily beauty for that was presented e*ually to the ga#e of both and yet did not produce in both an evil will. Did the flesh of the one cause the desire as he lookedC But why did not the flesh of the otherC (r was it the dispositionC But why

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not the disposition of bothC .or we are supposing that both were of a like temperament of body and soul.<> Augustine;s answer is that there is no answer other than the will itself. $othing e0ternal to the will makes it choose as it does! the final e0planation is simply that one person has a good will and the other a bad one.<F Although Augustine does not directly contrast will to reason plainly if will is to play the role that he attributes to it its choices cannot be determined by the rational apprehension of what is good. (n the other hand any choice however free is always a response to the alternatives that reason presents. Thus Augustine be*ueathed to his successors the bedeviling *uestion of precisely how reason and will are related. 1e need not e0amine here the various answers that were given to this *uestion. All that is important for our purposes is that by isolating voluntas and giving it the central role that he does Augustine made the polarity of reason and will the dominant theme of medieval philosophical psychology. 4iven such a view what becomes of the heartC /t is not obvious what the answer to this *uestion should be. The trouble is that the heart as we have seen is not a distinct faculty at all! it is more like a distinct level one at which a person;s physical and spiritual natures coincide. But medieval psychology was committed to understanding the soul in terms of its distinct faculties of reason and will. Thus to a remarkable e0tent the heart simply disappeared from the picture. Augustine himself acute Biblical e0egete though he was has remarkably little to say about the heart. 6e dismisses any association of the heart in the Bible with the physical organ asserting instead that it is a metaphor for the soul 2 anima3 or mind 2mens3.<@ Because of this interpretation he apparently sees no particular reason to speak of the heart at all and his own e0tensive psychological investigations 2in the De rinitate and elsewhere3 focus instead on the soul or the mind. Among later authors "t. Anselm "t. Bernard of 5lairvau0 and "t. Thomas A*uinas all identify the heart with voluntas.<A They too do not themati#e it in any significant way. Although / have not checked other authors in these three the identification with voluntas is taken as obvious in a way which suggests that it was a commonplace. The removal of the heart from philosophical psychology then is the first stage of our story. The second stage is the remarkable shift that occurred within the western Guropean consciousness during the twelfth century. 1e find in this era a new preoccupation with the pursuit of intensity and vividness of feeling especially 2though not solely3 religious feeling. 9<

Andrew 8outh contrasts the mysticism of "t. Bernard with that of earlier authors such as Augustine precisely by the way in which it isolates feeling from understanding. .or Augustine . . . the soul;s love of 4od and the soul;s knowledge of 4od go togetherthe soul wants to know 4od more and more because it loves him and loves him because it knows that he is supreme Truth and Beauty. 8ove and knowledge of 4od are united in the kind of knowledge we have of 4od namely wisdom sapientia. !apientia in contrast to scientia ordinary knowledge is concerned with eternal reality and contemplation of it . . . 1ith Bernard however there is a sharp contrast between knowledge and love for love is not primarily a desire for possession and delight in possessing as with Augustine but a feeling. "mor est affectio naturalis, una de #uattor&:8ove is a feeling one of four; 2the others being fear )oy and sorrow3 . . . 1hen he contrasts sapientia and scientia he is not contrasting a higher intellectual activity with a lower but a feeling which delights in the good and finds it sweet with an intellectual activity. <D (ther signs of the new preoccupation with feeling can also be found at this time&for e0ample in the courtly love movement and in naturalistic trends within religious art. <? 1hatever may have been the cause of these changes they created a ma)or new psychological category that was not readily at home within the Augustinian psychology of reason and will. / would suggest as a plausible hypothesis that the heart was adopted popularly 2if not officially so to speak3 in order to serve as the home for this new category of feeling that e0ists in isolation from knowledge. Although / have not attempted to verify this con)ecture in detail one indication that it is on the right track is the growth of devotion during the twelfth and thirteenth centuries to the "acred 6eart of 7esus.=B (bviously this story needs fleshing out at many points. A more detailed investigation would surely turn up some important *ualifications as well as additional causal factors that / have not attempted to discuss here. 2Aside from the shifting meanings of the heart one would have to take into account changing conceptions of reason as well. =93 $onetheless / believe that these two great shifts in medieval psychology are at least much of the reason that the heart and the mind are separated in the way that we find today.

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The classic statement of this view is Book /K of Elato;s $epublic. .or this statement and much of what follows / am indebted to the e0cellent discussion in 6ans 1alter 1olff "nthropology of the Old estament 2Ehiladelphia- .ortress Eress 9?A>3 >B%FD. = Deuteronomy >-99 Esalm >@-< G#ekiel <D-D 7onah <-=! cf. 1olff "nthropology >=. > Biblical translations are from the King 7ames Kersion which / regard as superior to modern translations in both beauty and accuracy. /ndeed / would add that it is beautiful because it is accurate in that it tries to convey the literal sense of the te0t rather than ad)usting to an idiom in which the reader is presumed to be comfortable. "ee on this point 4erald 6ammond he Ma%ing of the &nglish 'ible 2'anchester- 5arcanet $ew Eress 9?D<3 9%9F. F An especially interesting case is / Kings =-? where King "olomon prays to 4od +4ive therefore thy servant an understanding Iliterally- listeningJ heart to )udge thy people that / may discern between good and bad., The eminent (ld Testament scholar 4erhard von Had comments on this passage+1hat he I"olomonJ the paradigm of the wise man wished for himself was not the authoritative reason which reigns supreme over dead natural matter the reason of modern consciousness but an :understanding; reason a feeling for the truth which emanates from the world and addresses man. 6e was totally receptive to that truth but this was not passivity but an intense activity the ob)ect of which was response prudent articulation. The discovery of truth on the basis of the modern concept of reason on the other hand is rather an e0perience of power. /t produces an ability to control in which basically everyone can participate. (ur reason is technically determined! it is knowledge about what one can do and as such is in opposition to the receptivity of wisdom and e*ually hostile to the attainment of trust. $evertheless there has survived even when today we speak about a :wise man ; something of the understanding of reason which the ancients had. 1e mean by this a man who has at his disposal knowledge which can be used for other than merely technical ends and who actually also has no method . . . The "olomon of / Kings = could&regarded ob)ectively&have said that he would yield to Lahweh so that the world might not remain dumb for him but that it might be understood by him., 4erhard von Had Wisdom in (srael 28ondon- "5' Eress 9?A<3 <?@%?A. @ "ee the heological Dictionary of the )ew estament ed. 4erhard Kittel 24rand Hapids '/Gerdmans 9?@A3 vol. > ?F9%@B. A That is the literal meaning of ado%imos translated in the K.7.K. as :reprobate.; D 8uke is careful to mention 'ary;s part in the remaining events of 7esus; youth so that we see at least some of this process. 1hen 7esus is presented at the Temple "imeon prophesies to her +Lea a sword shall pierce through thy own soul also , making plain that 7esus; birth will bring her sorrow as well as )oy 2<-=F3. 1hen at the age of twelve 7esus is found *uestioning the rabbis in 7erusalem 'ary again +kept all these sayings in her heart , a statement that emphasi#es her open and receptive spirit 2<-F93. ? / have modified slightly the K.7.K. which translates %ardia 2heart3 here as +understanding., 9B Homilies >=.A! trans. 4eorge 'aloney *seudo+Macarius, he -ifity !piritual Homilies and the .reat /etter 2$ew Lork- Eaulist Eress 9??<3 <<<. 99 Homilies >=.@! tr. 'aloney <<9 slightly modified. 9< Homilies <@.9B! tr. 'aloney 9@A. 9= Homilies 9F.<B! tr. 'aloney 99@ modified. 9> On Watchfulness @! translation in he *hilo%alia tr. 4.G.6. Ealmer Ehilip "herrard and Kallistos 1are vol. 9 28ondon- .aber and .aber 9?A?3 9@=. 9F On Watchfulness 9A? citing Athanasius /ife of "ntony <B and =>! tr. *hilo%alia vol. 9 9?>. 9@ On Watchfulness <D! tr. *hilo%alia vol. 9 9@@. 9A On Watchfulness ?A! tr. *hilo%alia vol. 9 9AD. 9D On Watchfulness >9! tr. *hilo%alia vol. 9 9@?. 9? On Watchfulness <9! tr. *hilo%alia vol. 9 9@F. <B On Watchfulness 9D>! tr. *hilo%alia vol. 9 9?F.
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"ee further /rMnMe 6ausherr he )ame of 0esus 2Kalama#oo '/- 5istercian Eublications 9?AD3! Kallistos 1are +6ow Do 1e Gnter the 6eart and 1hat Do 1e .ind 1hen 1e GnterC, and +The Eower of the $ame- The 7esus Erayer in (rthodo0 "pirituality , both in Merton and Hesychasm, *rayer of the Heart ed. Bernadette Dieker and 7onathan 'ontaldo 28ouisville- .ons Kitae Eress <BB=3. << riads /.<.=! trans. $icholas 4endle .regory *alamas, he riads 2$ew Lork- Eaulist Eress 9?D=3 >=. .or a fuller discussion of Ealamas see the introduction to this volume by 7ohn 'eyendorff as well as my own "ristotle &ast and West, Metaphysics and the Division of 1hristendom 25ambridge5ambridge University Eress <BB>3 <<?%><. <= "ee on this point 5harles Kahn +Discovering the 1ill- .rom Aristotle to Augustine, in he 2uestion of &clecticism, !tudies in /ater .ree% *hilosophy ed. 7ohn Dillon and A.A. 8ong 2BerkeleyUniversity of 5alifornia Eress 9?DD3 <=>%F?. <> 1ity of .od N//.@! trans. 'arcus Dods )icene and *ost+)icene -athers ed. Ehilip "chaff 24rand Hapids '/- Gerdmans 9?D=3 "eries / vol. < <<?%=B. <F /n N//.? Augustine goes on to add that the good angels must have received more grace from 4od than did the evil angels! however this concession does not affect his theory of the will. <@ On the rinity N.A2?3 "ermon <@F5! cf. 4oulven 'adec +5or, in "ugustinus+/exi%on ed. 5ornelius 'ayer 2Basel- "chwabe 9?D@3. <A Anselm On ruth 9< On the 1oncordance of .od3s -ore%nowledge, *redestination, and .race with Human -reedom ///.<! Bernard of 5lairvau0 !ermons on the !ong of !ongs ><.>.A! A*uinas !umma heologiae /a//ae O. <> art. = //a//ae O. >> art. F! cf. //a//ae O. A art. < ob). 9. <D Andrew 8outh +Bernard and Affective 'ysticism, in he (nfluence of !aint 'ernard ed. Benedicta 1ard 2(0ford- "84 Eress 9?A@3 <%9B at =. <? "ee for e0ample 8ynn 1hite 7r. Medieval $eligion and echnology, 1ollected &ssays 2BerkeleyUniversity of 5alifornia Eress 9?AD3 especially +$atural "cience and $aturalistic Art in the 'iddle Ages,! 5olin 'orris he Discovery of the (ndividual, 4565+4755 2Toronto- University of Toronto Eress 9?DA3. =B "ee +"acred 6eart of 7esus, in the )ew 1atholic &ncyclopedia with the literature there cited. =9 "ee for e0ample Alfred 5rosby he Measure of $eality, 2uantification and Western !ociety, 4765+4855 25ambridge- 5ambridge University Eress 9??A3! Gdward 4rant .od and $eason in the Middle "ges 25ambridge- 5ambridge University Eress <BB93.
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