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SOLID186

3-D 20-Node Structural Solid MP ME ST PR PRN DS DSS <> <> <> <> PP VT EME MFS Product Restrictions

SOLID186 is a higher order 3-D 20-node solid element that exhibits quadratic displacement behavior. The element is defined by 20 nodes having three degrees of freedom per node: translations in the nodal x, y, and z directions. The element supports plasticity, hyperelasticity, creep, stress stiffening, large deflection, and large strain capabilities. It also has mixed formulation capability for simulating deformations of nearly incompressible elastoplastic materials, and fully incompressible hyperelastic materials. SOLID186 is available in two forms: Homogenous Structural Solid (KEYOPT(3) = 0, the default) -- See "SOLID186 Homogenous Structural Solid Element Description ". Layered Structural Solid (KEYOPT(3) = 1) -- See "SOLID186 Layered Structural Solid Element Description". A lower-order version of the SOLID186 element is SOLID185.

SOLID186 Homogenous Structural Solid is well suited to modeling irregular meshes (such as those produced by various CAD/CAM systems). The element may have any spatial orientation.

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Various printout options are available. See SOLID186 in the Theory Reference for the Mechanical APDL and Mechanical Applications for more details.

The geometry, node locations, and the element coordinate system for this element are shown in Figure 186.1. A prism-shaped element may be formed by defining the same node numbers for nodes K, L, and S; nodes A and B; and nodes O, P, and W. A tetrahedral-shaped element and a pyramid-shaped element may also be formed as shown in Figure 186.1. SOLID187 is a similar, but 10-node tetrahedron element. In addition to the nodes, the element input data includes the anisotropic material properties. Anisotropic material directions correspond to the element coordinate

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properties. Anisotropic material directions correspond to the element coordinate directions. The element coordinate system orientation is as described in Coordinate Systems. Element loads are described in Node and Element Loads. Pressures may be input as surface loads on the element faces as shown by the circled numbers on Figure 186.1 Positive pressures act into the element. Temperatures may be input as element body loads at the nodes. The node I temperature T(I) defaults to TUNIF. If all other temperatures are unspecified, they default to T(I). If all corner node temperatures are specified, each midside node temperature defaults to the average temperature of its adjacent corner nodes. For any other input temperature pattern, unspecified temperatures default to TUNIF. As described in Coordinate Systems, you can use ESYS to orient the material properties and strain/stress output. Use RSYS to choose output that follows the material coordinate system or the global coordinate system. For the case of hyperelastic materials, the output of stress and strain is always with respect to the global Cartesian coordinate system rather than following the material/element coordinate system. KEYOPT(6) = 1 sets the element for using mixed formulation. For details on the use of mixed formulation, see Applications of Mixed u-P Formulations in the Element Reference. You can apply an initial stress state to this element via the INISTATE command. For more information, see "Initial State" in the Basic Analysis Guide . The effects of pressure load stiffness are automatically included for this element. If an unsymmetric matrix is needed for pressure load stiffness effects, use NROPT , UNSYM. The following table summarizes the element input. Element Input provides a general description of element input.

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Nodes I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P, Q, R, S, T, U, V, W, X, Y, Z, A, B Degrees of Freedom UX, UY, UZ Real Constants None Material Properties EX, EY, EZ, ALPX, ALPY, ALPZ (or CTEX, CTEY, CTEZ or THSX,THSY, THSZ), PRXY, PRYZ, PRXZ (or NUXY, NUYZ, NUXZ), DENS, GXY, GYZ, GXZ, DAMP Surface Loads Pressures -face 1 (J-I-L-K), face 2 (I-J-N-M), face 3 (J-K-O-N), face 4 (K-L-P-O), face 5 (L-I-M-P), face 6 (M-N-O-P) Body Loads

Temperatures -T(I), T(J),T(K), T(L), T(M), T(N), T(O), T(P), T(Q), T(R), T(S), T(T), T(U), T (V), T(W), T(X), T(Y), T(Z), T(A), T(B) Body force densities -The element values in the global X, Y, and Z directions. Special Features Plasticity (PLASTIC, BISO, MISO, NLISO, BKIN, MKIN, KINH, CHABOCHE, HILL) Hyperelasticity (AHYPER, HYPER, BB, CDM) Viscoelasticity (PRONY, SHIFT) Viscoplasticity/Creep (CREEP, RATE) Elasticity (ELASTIC, ANEL) Other material (USER, SDAMP, SMA, CAST, EDP, GURSON) Stress stiffening Large deflection

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Large strain Initial state Nonlinear stabilization Automatic selection of element technology Birth and death Linear perturbation Items in parentheses refer to data tables associated with the TB command. See the Theory Reference for the Mechanical APDL and Mechanical Applications for details of the material models. See Automatic Selection of Element Technologies and ETCONTROL for more information on selection of element technologies. KEYOPT(2) Element technology: 0 -Uniform reduced integration (default) 1 -Full integration KEYOPT(3) Layer construction: 0 -Homogenous Structural Solid (default) -- nonlayered 1 -Layered Structural Solid (not applicable to SOLID186 Homogenous Structural Solid) KEYOPT(6) Element formulation: 0 -Use pure displacement formulation (default) 1 -Use mixed formulation

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SOLID186 uses the uniform reduced integration method or the full integration method, as follows: Uniform reduced integration method Helps to prevent volumetric mesh locking in nearly incompressible cases. However, hourglass mode might propagate in the model if there are not at least two layers of elements in each direction. Full integration The full integration method does not cause hourglass mode, but can cause volumetric locking in nearly incompressible cases. This method is used primarily for purely linear analyses, or when the model has only one layer of elements in each direction.

The solution output associated with the element is in two forms: Nodal displacements included in the overall nodal solution Additional element output as shown in Table 186.1: SOLID186 Homogenous Structural Solid Element Output Definitions

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The element stress directions are parallel to the element coordinate system. A general description of solution output is given in Solution Output. See the Basic Analysis Guide for ways to view results. The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation: A colon (:) in the Name column indicates that the item can be accessed by the Component Name method ( ETABLE, ESOL). The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname.OUT. The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file. In either the O or R columns, Y indicates that the item is always available, a number refers to a table footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available, and - indicates that the item is not available.

Table 186.1 SOLID186 Homogenous Structural Solid Element Output Definitions Name EL NODES Definition Element number and name Nodes - I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P O R Y Y

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Y Y

Y 3 Y

Pressures P1 at nodes J, I, L, K; P2 at I, J, N, M; P3 at J, K, O, N; P4 at K, L, P, O; P5 at L, I, M, P; P6 at M, N, O, P Temperatures T(I), T(J), T(K), T(L), T(M), T(N), T(O), T(P) Stresses Principal stresses Stress intensity Equivalent stress Elastic strains Equivalent elastic strains [6] Thermal strains Equivalent thermal strains [6] Plastic strains [7] Equivalent plastic strains [6] Creep strains Equivalent creep strains [6]

TEMP S:X, Y, Z, XY, YZ, XZ S:1, 2, 3 S:INT S:EQV EPEL:X, Y, Z, XY, YZ, XZ EPEL:EQV EPTH:X, Y, Z, XY, YZ, XZ EPTH:EQV EPPL:X, Y, Z, XY, YZ, XZ EPPL:EQV EPCR:X, Y, Z, XY, YZ, XZ EPCR:EQV

Y Y Y Y Y

Y Y Y Y 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Y -

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EPTO:EQV NL:EPEQ NL:CREQ NL:SRAT NL:HPRES SEND:ELASTIC, PLASTIC, CREEP LOCI:X, Y, Z SVAR:1, 2, ... , N 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Total equivalent mechanical strains (EPEL + EPPL + EPCR) Accumulated equivalent plastic strain Accumulated equivalent creep strain Plastic yielding (1 = actively yielding, 0 = not yielding) Hydrostatic pressure Strain energy density Integration point locations State variables

Y 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 5

Nonlinear solution (output only if the element has a nonlinear material) Output only if element has a thermal load Available only at centroid as a *GET item. Available only if OUTRES,LOCI is used. Available only if the USERMAT subroutine and TB,STATE are used. The equivalent strains use an effective Poisson's ratio: for elastic and thermal this value is set by the user (MP,PRXY); for plastic and creep this value is set at 0.5. 7. For the shape memory alloy material model, transformation strains are reported as plasticity strain EPPL.

Table 186.2: SOLID186 Homogenous Structural Solid Item and Sequence Numbers lists output available through ETABLE using the Sequence Number method. See General Postprocessor (POST1) in the Basic Analysis Guide and The Item and Sequence Number Table in this document for more information. The following notation is used in Table 186.2: SOLID186 Homogenous Structural Solid Item and Sequence Numbers: Name output quantity as defined in Table 186.1: SOLID186 Homogenous Structural

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Solid Element Output Definitions Item predetermined Item label for ETABLE I,J,...,B sequence number for data at nodes I, J, ..., B

Table 186.2 SOLID186 Homogenous Structural Solid Item and Sequence Numbers Output Quantity Name P1 P2 P3 P4 P5 P6 ETABLE and ESOL Command Input Item I J K L 3 M 8 N 7 O P Q,...,B -

1 4 6 -

9 10 -

12 11 16 15 20

13 14 -

SMISC 18 SMISC -

17 19 -

21 22 23 24

See Surface Solution in this document for the item and sequence numbers for surface output for ETABLE.

The element must not have a zero volume. Also, the element may not be twisted such that the element has two separate volumes (which occurs most frequently when the element is not numbered properly). Elements may be numbered either as shown in Figure 186.1 or may have the planes IJKL and MNOP interchanged. An edge with a removed midside node implies that the displacement varies

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linearly, rather than parabolically, along that edge. See Quadratic Elements (Midside Nodes) in the Modeling and Meshing Guide for more information on the use of midside nodes. Use at least two elements in each direction to avoid hourglass mode if uniform reduced integration is used (KEYOPT(2) = 0). When degenerated into a tetrahedron, wedge, or pyramid element shape (see Triangle, Prism, and Tetrahedral Elements), the corresponding degenerated shape functions are used. Degeneration to a pyramidal form should be used with caution. The element sizes, when degenerated, should be small to minimize the stress gradients. Pyramid elements are best used as filler elements or in meshing transition zones. For mixed formulation (KEYOPT(6) = 1), no midside nodes can be missed, and no degenerated shapes are recommended. If you use the mixed formulation, you must use the sparse solver (default). Stress stiffening is always included in geometrically nonlinear analyses (NLGEOM,ON). Prestress effects can be activated via the PSTRES command. This element has a layered option (KEYOPT(3) = 1). See "SOLID186 Layered Structural Solid Assumptions and Restrictions" for additional information.

When used in the product(s) listed below, the stated product-specific restrictions apply to this element in addition to the general assumptions and restrictions given in the previous section. ANSYS Professional. The only special feature allowed is stress stiffening.

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Description

Use SOLID186 Layered Structural Solid to model layered thick shells or solids. The layered section definition is given by ANSYS section (SEC xxx) commands. A prism degeneration option is also available.

The geometry, node locations, and the element coordinate system for this element are shown in Figure 186.3. A prism-shaped element may be formed by defining the same node numbers for nodes K, L, and S; nodes A and B; and nodes O, P, and W.

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In addition to the nodes, the element input data includes the anisotropic material properties. Anisotropic material directions correspond to the layer coordinate directions which are based on the element coordinate system. The element coordinate system follows the shell convention where the z axis is normal to the surface of the shell. The nodal ordering must follow the convention that I-J-K-L and M-N-O-P element faces represent the bottom and top shell surfaces, respectively. You can change the orientation within the plane of the layers via the ESYS command in the same way that you would for shell elements (as described in Coordinate Systems To achieve the correct nodal ordering for a volume mapped (hexahedron) mesh, you can use the VEORIENT command to specify the desired volume orientation before executing the VMESH command. Alternatively, you can use the EORIENT command after automatic meshing to reorient the elements to be in line with the orientation of another element, or to be as parallel as possible to a defined ESYS axis. Layered Section Definition Using Section Commands You can associate SOLID186 Layered Structural Solid with a shell section (SECTYPE). The layered composite specifications (including layer thickness, material, orientation, and number of integration points through the thickness of the layer) are specified via shell section (SECxxx) commands. You can use the shell section commands even with a single-layered element. ANSYS obtains the actual layer thicknesses used for element calculations by scaling the input layer thickness so that they are consistent with the thickness between the nodes. A section can be partially defined using data from a FiberSIM .xml file. You can designate the number of integration points (1, 3, 5, 7, or 9) located through the thickness of each layer. Two points are located on the top and bottom surfaces respectively and the remaining points are distributed equal distance between the two points. The element requires at least two points through the entire thickness. When no shell section definition is provided, the element is treated as single-layered and uses two integration points through the thickness. SOLID186 Layered Structural Solid does not support real constant input for defining layer sections. Other Input

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The default orientation for this element has the S1 (shell surface coordinate) axis aligned with the first parametric direction of the element at the center of the element and is shown as x o in Figure 186.3. The default first surface direction S1 can be reoriented in the element reference plane (as shown in Figure 186.3) via the ESYS command. You can further rotate S1 by angle THETA (in degrees) for each layer via the SECDATA command to create layerwise coordinate systems. See Coordinate Systems for details. Element loads are described in Node and Element Loads. Pressures may be input as surface loads on the element faces as shown by the circled numbers in Figure 186.3 Positive pressures act into the element. If you specify no element body load for defining temperatures--that is, if you define temperatures with commands other than BFE--SOLID186 Layered Structural Solid adopts an element-wise temperature pattern and requires only eight temperatures for the eight element corner nodes. The node I temperature T(I) defaults to TUNIF. If all other temperatures are unspecified, they default to T(I). If all corner node temperatures are specified, each midside node temperature defaults to the average temperature of its adjacent corner nodes. For any other input temperature pattern, unspecified nodal temperatures default to TUNIF. ANSYS computes all layer interface temperatures by interpolating nodal temperatures. Alternatively, you can input temperatures as element body loads at the corners of the outside faces of the element and at the corners of the interfaces between layers. In such a case, the element uses a layer-wise pattern. Temperatures T1, T2, T3, T4 are used for the bottom of layer 1, temperatures T5, T6, T7, T8 are used for interface corners between layers 1 and 2, and so on between successive layers, ending with temperatures at the top layer NLayer. If you input exactly NLayer+1 temperatures, one temperature is used for the four bottom corners of each layer, and the last temperature is used for the four top corner temperatures of the top layer. The first corner temperature T1 defaults to TUNIF. If all other corner temperatures are unspecified, they default to T1. For any other input pattern, unspecified temperatures default to TUNIF. As described in Coordinate Systems, you can use the ESYS command to orient the material properties and strain/stress output. Use RSYS to choose output that follows the material coordinate system or the global coordinate system. For the case of Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc.

and its subsidiaries and affiliates

the material coordinate system or the global coordinate system. For the case of hyperelastic materials, the output of stress and strain is always with respect to the global Cartesian coordinate system rather than the material/element coordinate system. KEYOPT(6) = 1 sets the element for using u-P mixed formulation. For details about the use of mixed formulation, see Applications of Mixed u-P Formulations in the Element Reference. You can apply an initial stress state to this element via the INISTATE command. For more information, see "Initial State" in the Basic Analysis Guide . The effects of pressure load stiffness are automatically included for this element. If an unsymmetric matrix is needed for pressure load stiffness effects, use NROPT , UNSYM. The following table summarizes the element input. Element Input provides a general description of element input.

Nodes I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P, Q, R, S, T, U, V, W, X, Y, Z, A, B Degrees of Freedom UX, UY, UZ Real Constants None Material Properties EX, EY, EZ, ALPX, ALPY, ALPZ (or CTEX, CTEY, CTEZ or THSX,THSY, THSZ), PRXY, PRYZ, PRXZ (or NUXY, NUYZ, NUXZ), DENS, GXY, GYZ, GXZ, DAMP Surface Loads face 1 (J-I-L-K), face 2 (I-J-N-M), face 3 (J-K-O-N),

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face 4 (K-L-P-O), face 5 (L-I-M-P), face 6 (M-N-O-P) Body Loads Temperatures -T1, T2, T3, T4 at bottom of layer 1; T5, T6, T7, T8 between layers 1-2; similarly for between successive layers, ending with temperatures at top of layer NLayer (4 * (NLayer + 1) maximum) Body force densities -The element values in the global X, Y, and Z directions. Special Features Plasticity (PLASTIC, BISO, MISO, NLISO, BKIN, MKIN, KINH, CHABOCHE, HILL) Hyperelasticity (AHYPER, HYPER, BB, CDM) Viscoelasticity (PRONY, SHIFT) Viscoplasticity Creep Stress stiffening Large deflection Large strain Initial state Automatic selection of element technology Birth and death Linear perturbation See "Structures with Material Nonlinearities" in the Theory

details on the material models. See Automatic Selection of Element Technologies and ETCONTROL for more information on selection of element technologies. KEYOPT(2) Element technology:

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0 -Uniform reduced integration (default) KEYOPT(3) Layer construction: 0 -Homogenous Structural Solid (not applicable to SOLID186 Layered Structural Solid) 1 -Layered Structural Solid KEYOPT(6) Element formulation: 0 -Use pure displacement formulation (default) 1 -Use mixed formulation KEYOPT(8) Layer data storage: 0 -Store data for bottom of bottom layer and top of top layer 1 -Store top and bottom data for all layers. (The volume of data may be excessive.)

SOLID186 Layered Structural Solid supports only the uniform reduced integration method (KEYOPT(2) = 0), which helps to prevent volumetric mesh locking in nearly incompressible cases. However, hourglass mode might propagate in the model if there are not at least two layers of elements in each direction.

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The solution output associated with the element is in two forms: Nodal displacements included in the overall nodal solution Additional element output as shown in Table 186.3: SOLID186 Layered Structural Solid Element Output Definitions

The element stress directions are parallel to the layer coordinate system. A general description of solution output is given in Solution Output. See the Basic Analysis Guide for ways to view results. The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation: A colon (:) in the Name column indicates that the item can be accessed by the Component Name method ( ETABLE, ESOL). The O column indicates the availability

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of the items in the file Jobname.OUT. The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file. In either the O or R columns, Y indicates that the item is always available, a number refers to a table footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available, and - indicates that the item is not available.

Table 186.3 SOLID186 Layered Structural Solid Element Output Definitions Name EL NODES MAT VOLU: XC, YC, ZC PRES Definition Element number and name Nodes - I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P Material number Volume Location where results are reported O R Y Y Y Y

Y 3 Y

Pressures P1 at nodes J, I, L, K; P2 at I, J, N, M; P3 at J, K, O, N; P4 at K, L, P, O; P5 at L, I, M, P; P6 at M, N, O, P T1, T2, T3, T4 at bottom of layer 1; T5, T6, T7, T8 between layers 1-2; similarly for between successive layers, ending with temperatures at top of layer NL (4 * (NL + 1) maximum) Stresses Principal stresses Stress intensity Equivalent stress Elastic strains

TEMP

Y Y Y Y Y

Y Y

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EPEL:EQV EPTH:X, Y, Z, XY, YZ, XZ EPTH:EQV EPPL:X, Y, Z, XY, YZ, XZ EPPL:EQV EPCR:X, Y, Z, XY, YZ, XZ EPCR:EQV EPTO:X, Y, Z, XY, YZ, XZ EPTO:EQV NL:EPEQ NL:CREQ NL:SRAT NL:HPRES SEND: ELASTIC, PLASTIC, CREEP LOCI:X, Y, Z

Equivalent elastic strains [6] Thermal strains Equivalent thermal strains [6] Plastic strains [7] Equivalent plastic strains [6] Creep strains Equivalent creep strains [6] Total mechanical strains (EPEL + EPPL + EPCR) Total equivalent mechanical strains (EPEL + EPPL + EPCR) Accumulated equivalent plastic strain Accumulated equivalent creep strain Plastic yielding (1 = actively yielding, 0 = not yielding) Hydrostatic pressure Strain energy density

Y Y 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Y Y 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

4 5 8 8

SVAR:1, 2, ... , State variables N ILSXZ ILSYZ SXZ interlaminar shear stress SYZ interlaminar shear stress

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ILSUM ILANG

Interlaminar shear stress vector sum Angle of interlaminar shear stress vector (measured from the element x-axis toward the element y-axis in degrees)

8 8

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Nonlinear solution (output only if the element has a nonlinear material) Output only if element has a thermal load Available only at centroid as a *GET item. Available only if OUTRES,LOCI is used. Available only if the USERMAT subroutine and TB,STATE are used. The equivalent strains use an effective Poisson's ratio: for elastic and thermal this value is set by the user (MP,PRXY); for plastic and creep this value is set at 0.5. 7. For the shape memory alloy material model, transformation strains are reported as plasticity strain EPPL. 8. Available only if a valid shell section (SECTYPE,,SHELL) is defined for the element.

Table 186.4: SOLID186 Layered Structural Solid Item and Sequence Numbers lists output available via ETABLE using the Sequence Number method. See The General Postprocessor (POST1) in the Basic Analysis Guide and The Item and Sequence Number Table in this document for more information. The following notation is used in Table 186.4: SOLID186 Layered Structural Solid Item and Sequence Numbers Name output quantity as defined in Table 186.3: SOLID186 Layered Structural Solid Element Output Definitions Item predetermined Item label for ETABLE I,J,...,B sequence number for data at nodes I, J, ..., B

Table 186.4 SOLID186 Layered Structural Solid Item and Sequence Numbers

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1 4 6 -

9 10 -

12 11 16 15 20

13 14 -

SMISC 18 SMISC -

17 19 -

21 22 23 24

ETABLE and ESOL Command Input Item SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC Bottom of Layer i 8 * (i - 1) + 41 8 * (i - 1) + 43 8 * (i - 1) + 45 8 * (i - 1) + 47 Top of Layer NL 8 * (NL - 1) + 42 8 * (NL - 1) + 44 8 * (NL - 1) + 46 8 * (NL - 1) + 48

See Surface Solution in this document for the item and sequence numbers for surface output for ETABLE.

The element must not have a zero volume. Also, the element may not be twisted such that the element has two separate volumes (which occurs most frequently when the element is not numbered properly). Elements may be numbered either as shown in Figure 186.3 or may have the planes IJKL and MNOP interchanged.

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An edge with a removed midside node implies that the displacement varies linearly, rather than parabolically, along that edge. See Quadratic Elements (Midside Nodes) in the Modeling and Meshing Guide for more information on the use of midside nodes. Use at least two elements in each direction to avoid hourglass mode. When degenerated into a wedge element shape (see Triangle, Prism, and Tetrahedral Elements), the corresponding degenerated shape functions are used. The element sizes, when degenerated, should be small to minimize the stress gradients. For mixed formulation (KEYOPT(6) = 1), no midside nodes can be missed, and no degenerated shapes are recommended. If you use the mixed formulation, you must use the sparse solver (default). Stress stiffening is always included in geometrically nonlinear analyses (NLGEOM,ON). It is ignored in geometrically linear analyses (NLGEOM when specified by SSTIF,ON. Prestress effects can be activated via the PSTRES command. If the material of a layer is hyperelastic, the layer orientation angle has no effect.

When used in the product(s) listed below, the stated product-specific restrictions apply to this element in addition to the general assumptions and restrictions given in the previous section. ANSYS Professional. The only special feature allowed is stress stiffening.

Release 13.0 - 2010 SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved.

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