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Roadmap on the Future Research Needs of Tall Buildings

Editors: Philip Oldeld, Dario Trabucco & Antony Wood

Bibliographic Reference: Oldeld, P., Trabucco, D. & Wood, A. (eds.) (2014) Roadmap on the Future Research Needs of Tall Buildings. Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat: Chicago. Editors: Philip Oldeld, Dario Trabucco & Antony Wood Layout & Design: Marty Carver & Steven Henry Copy Editor: Daniel Safarik First published 2014 by the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat

Published by the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat (CTBUH) 2014 Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat Printed and bound in the USA by Source4 The right of the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat to be identied as author of this work has been asserted by them in accordance with sections 77 and 78 of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or utilized in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publishers. Trademark notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are used only for identication and explanation without intent to infringe. ISBN13 978-0-939493-36-4

Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat S.R. Crown Hall Illinois Institute of Technology 3360 South State Street Chicago, IL 60616 Phone: +1 (312) 567-3487 Fax: +1 (312) 567-3820 Email: info@ctbuh.org www.ctbuh.org

Editors
Philip Oldfield, University of Nottingham Dario Trabucco, CTBUH & Iuav University of Venice Antony Wood, CTBUH & Illinois Institute of Technology

The Research informing this document was conducted between January 2012 and October 2013 at the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat at the Illinois Institute of Technology in Chicago, the Iuav University of Venice, and the University of Nottingham.

Steering Group
Abbas Aminmansour, University of Illinois Wim Bakens, CIB Jordi Morato, UNESCO Chair of Sustainability Philip Oldfield, University of Nottingham Dario Trabucco, CTBUH & Iuav University of Venice Fahim Sadek, NIST Antony Wood, CTBUH & Illinois Institute of Technology

Research Support
Daria Petucco, Iuav University of Venice

Peer Review Panel


Urban Design, City Planning and Social Issues Seifu Bekele, Global Wind Technology Services, Melbourne, Australia Jon DeVries, Marshall Bennett Institute of Real Estate, Chicago, USA Robert Lau, Roosevelt University, Chicago, USA Michael Short, University of West England, Bristol, UK Architecture and Interior Design Nicholas Holt, Skidmore, Owings & Merrill, New York, USA Moira Moser, M Moser Associates, Hong Kong, China Jason Pomeroy, Pomeroy Studio, Singapore Javier Quintana de Ua, IE School of Architecture, Madrid, Spain Economics and Cost Peter De Jong, TU University, Delft, Netherlands Sofia Dermisi, Roosevelt University, Chicago, USA Jon DeVries, Marshall Bennett Institute of Real Estate, Chicago, USA Steve Watts, Alinea Consulting, London, UK Structural Performance, Multi-Hazard Design and Geotechnics Abbas Aminmansour, University of Illinois, Urbana Champaign, USA Peter Irwin, Rowan Williams Davies & Irwin, Guelph, Canada Mark Sarkisian, Skidmore, Owings & Merrill, San Francisco, USA David Scott, Laing ORourke, London, UK Hi Sun Choi, Thornton Tomasetti, New York, USA Circulation: Vertical Transportation and Evacuation James Fortune, Fortune Shepler Consulting, Morrison, USA Marja Liisa Siikonen, KONE, Espoo, Finland George Von Klan, GVK Consulting, San Francisco, USA Dario Trabucco, Iuav University of Venice, Italy Fire and Life Safety Jason Averill, NIST, Gaithersburg, USA Richard Bukowski, Rolf Jensen and Associates, Washington D.C., USA Daniel OConnor, AON Fire Protection Engineering Corporation, Chicago, USA Jose Torero, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia Cladding and Skin Marzio Perin, Permasteelisa, Vittorio Veneto, Italy Karel Vollers, TU University, Delft, Netherlands Peter Weismantle, AS + GG Architecture, Chicago, USA Building Materials and Products Philip Oldfield, University of Nottingham, UK Dario Trabucco, Iuav University of Venice, Italy Jason Vollen, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, New York, USA Sustainable Design, Construction and Operation Abbas Aminmansour, University of Illinois, Urbana Champaign, USA Luke Leung, Skidmore, Owings & Merrill, Chicago, USA Kyoung Sun Moon, Yale University, New Haven, USA Lester Partridge, AECOM, Sydney, Australia Cathy Yang, Taipei 101, Taipei, Taiwan Construction and Project Management Ahmad Abdelrazaq, Samsung Corporation, Seoul, South Korea William Maibusch, CTBUH Trustee, Doha, Qatar Energy: Performance, Metrics and Generation Philip Oldfield, University of Nottingham, UK Joana Carla Soares Gonalves, University of So Paulo, Brazil Werner Sobek, Werner Sobek Group, Stuttgart, Germany

Contents

About CTBUH, CIB and UNESCO About the Editors Background to this Guide Executive Summary Introduction and Background Tall Building Research Roadmap Aims and Objectives Methodology General Observations Research Limitations Dewey: General Information Dewey Classications Used in this Roadmap Research Sections 1. Urban Design, City Planning and Social Issues 2. Architecture and Interior Design 3. Economics and Cost 4. Structural Performance, Multi-Hazard Design and Geotechnics 5. Circulation: Vertical Transportation and Evacuation 6. Fire and Life Safety 7. Cladding and Skin 8. Building Materials and Products 9. Sustainable Design, Construction and Operation 10. Construction and Project Management 11. Energy: Performance, Metrics and Generation Conclusion: Emergent Research Priorities Next Steps

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27 33 39 45 53 61 69 75 81 89 95 101 103

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About CTBUH
The Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat is the worlds leading resource for professionals focused on the design, construction and operation of tall buildings and future cities. A not-for-prot organization based at the Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, the group facilitates the exchange of the latest knowledge available on tall buildings around the world through events, publications, research, working groups, web resources and its extensive network of international representatives. At the same time, the Councils research department is spearheading the investigation of the next generation of tall buildings by aiding original research on sustainability and key development issues. Its free database on tall buildings, The Skyscraper Center, is updated daily with detailed information, images, data and news. The CTBUH also developed the international standards for measuring tall building height and is recognized as the arbiter for bestowing such designations as The Worlds Tallest Building.

About CIB
CIB (International Council for Research and Innovation in Building and Construction) was established in 1953 as an Association whose objectives were to stimulate and facilitate international cooperation and information exchange between governmental research institutes in the building and construction sector, with an emphasis on those institutes engaged in technical elds of research. CIB has since developed into a world wide network of over 5,000 experts from about 500 member organization with a research, university, industry or government background, who collectively are active in all aspects of research and innovation for building and construction.

About UNESCO

Chair on Sustainability
The UNESCO Chair on Sustainability (UNESCOSOST) was the second UNESCO Chair to be established, reecting a long tradition in teaching, excellence in research, innovation and training activities. Since its creation in 1996, UNESCOSOSTs mission has been to contribute to sustainable development, in an integrated and holistic way. Research and innovation are essential tools for navigating through all societal challenges. Many adaptations are likely to require deep transformations of culture, values and technology, which can only be identied and justied by research. Urban societies transformation to a more sustainable condition should take into consideration the entire range of human interactions with the Earths ecosystems. Development of new technologies must be accompanied by a robust change in behavioral patterns, a key aspect to achieving higher social and environmental resilience and a more sustainable human development.

6 | About CTBUH, CIB and UNESCO

About the Editors


Philip Oldeld
University of Nottingham, UK

Dr. Philip Oldeld is a Lecturer at the Department of Architecture and Built Environment, University of Nottingham. His role at Nottingham includes Co-Directing the Masters Course in Sustainable Tall Buildings. Oldeld also leads the Departments high-rise architecture design studios and seminars. Philip is Co-Chair of the CTBUH Research, Academic and Postgraduate Working Group and a member of the Student Competitions Committee, Research Seed Funding Review Committee and CTBUH Journal Editorial Board. He has written peer-reviewed papers for the Journal of Architecture, the CTBUH Journal, Urbanism and Architecture, and Architectural Science Review. In addition he has written articles for the Guardian (UK), Structure Magazine (USA), BbICOTHbIE (Russia) and The Big Project (UAE), among others.

Dario Trabucco
Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat & Iuav University of Venice, Italy

Dr. Dario Trabucco is a Researcher at the Department of Architecture, Construction and Conservation, Iuav University of Venice, Italy where he teaches Building Technology and undertakes research on tall buildings and sustainability. Dario is Co-Chair of the CTBUH Research, Academic and Postgraduate Working Group and a member of the Student Competitions Committee and Research Seed Funding Review Committee. He spent a year in Chicago as a Research Associate at CTBUH from February 2013 to February 2014. He has written peer-reviewed papers for the Journal of Architecture, The Structural Design of Tall and Special Buildings, the CTBUH Journal, and Energy and Buildings, and has contributed to several international conferences and publications.

Antony Wood
Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat & Illinois Institute of Technology, USA

Dr. Antony Wood has been Executive Director of the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat since 2006. Based at the Illinois Institute of Technology, Antony is also a Studio Associate Professor in the College of Architecture, where he convenes various tall building design studios. A UK architect by training, his eld of specialism is the design, and in particular the sustainable design, of tall buildings. He is also chair of the CTBUH Tall Buildings and Sustainability Working Group. Prior to becoming an academic, Antony worked as an architect in practice in Hong Kong, Bangkok, Kuala Lumpur, Jakarta and London. He is the author and editor of numerous books and papers in the eld, including the 2013 title The Tall Buildings Reference Book. His PhD explored the multidisciplinary aspects of skybridge connections between tall buildings.
About the Editors |7

Background to this Guide


The Roadmap on the Future Research Needs of Tall Buildings aims to identify priority research topics and research gaps in the eld of tall buildings. In doing so, it acts as a guide to assist all those concerned with the typology with the necessary planning of future research and the pursuit of research funding in order to advance tall buildings to their optimum level in the coming years. The Roadmap is split into 11 broad elds, ranging from Urban Design, City Planning and Social Issues, to Energy: Performance, Metrics and Generation. In each eld, a list of research topics is presented as a graphical research tree, organized into appropriate categories and subcategories. Each topic has been evaluated through a series of questionnaires distributed to those involved in the ownership, development, design, planning, construction, consultancy, operation, maintenance and research of tall buildings. Through this process, each topic has been scored based on its importance and relative immaturity. Scores have been averaged and combined to create a priority index a score that denes the level of research priority for each topic. The result is 11 sections, set out over the following pages, which numerically present the perceived priority of given research topics in different tall building fields There are 358 individual research topics represented overall. The results are presented alongside commentary outlining key trends and highlighting key issues. This Roadmap has been initiated as a joint venture between the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat (CTBUH), the International Council for Research and Innovation in Building and Construction (CIB) and the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO).

Research funding, in most regions of the world, has declined year-on-year for most of the last several decades putting in jeopardy the very act of research to better our existence. Against the backdrop of the planets urban population increasing by a million or more people every week, research into making cities more ecient and sustainable is vitally needed, now more than ever. Urban density is a key factor in this and, while tall buildings are not the only solution for achieving greater density, they are being embraced as a key element of that solution in many cities around the world. This Research Roadmap is thus timely in its suggestion of a hierarchy of research priorities for the industry to consider in the coming years.
Timothy Johnson, Chairman, Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat & Design Partner, NBBJ

Tall buildings represent the most challenging building typology from many points of view and they will inuence, for better or worse, the future of cities worldwide. It is in our possibilities to turn tall buildings into nice, aordable and sustainable places to live in, and academic and industry research is the way forward. This Research Roadmap prioritizes the topics that require more research eorts in the near future, so as to reach such goals as soon as possible. The cooperation between CIB and CTBUH created a strong platform for the development of this Roadmap and it is our hope that we will prot from this platform in its implementation.
Wim Bakens, Secretary General, CIB

The Roadmap can be used as a mechanism to increase double way technology transfer, to facilitate the interchange of new concepts, processes and technologies, and to select the successful solutions for rethinking the transformation of cities.
Jordi Morato, Coordinator of UNESCO Chair on Sustainability

Background to this Guide |9

Executive Summary
Aims and Objectives
This Roadmap has three primary aims: 1. To identify research which is important in tall buildings. 2. To identify immaturity (research gaps) in the eld of tall buildings. 3. To suggest research priorities in the eld of tall buildings.

Approach
Discussion on such a document started in 2010 when more than 80 researchers from all over the world gathered at the Iuav University of Venice for the inaugural meeting of the CTBUH Academic Research and Postgraduate Working Group. In 2012 a rst open-ended questionnaire was released to 20,000 colleagues to initiate the Research Roadmap; its aim was to identify what possible research topics were considered to be of importance, across all disciplines, by researchers and professionals around the world. In 2013 a second questionnaire was released. This was aimed at ranking and prioritizing the 1,243 research topics resulting from the rst questionnaire that had been divided into 11 broad research elds covering all aspects of tall building planning, design, construction and management. These 11 elds are: 1. Urban Design, City Planning and Social Issues 2. Architecture and Interior Design 3. Economics and Cost 4. Structural Performance, Multi-Hazard Design and Geotechnics 5. Circulation: Vertical Transportation and Evacuation 6. Fire and Life Safety 7. Cladding and Skin 8. Building Materials and Products 9. Sustainable Design, Construction and Operation 10. Construction and Project Management 11. Energy: Performance, Metrics and Generation

Research gap is dened as an area of research that is signicantly immature and/or is suering from a signicant lack of available information and knowledge in the eld. Priority research is dened as an area of research that requires priority funding and scientic interest in order to advance the typology of tall buildings in the coming years. The main objective of the Roadmap is to create a guide for the CTBUH, CIB, UNESCO and all those involved in tall buildings to assist in the planning of future research and the pursuit of funding, in order to advance the typology to its optimum level. This may include, for example: Funding bodies using the Roadmap to establish the potential impact of funding bids, or for the development of specic calls for projects. Researchers/research organizations using the Roadmap to focus their research activities and develop funding bids. PhD candidates using the Roadmap to explore research topics that are under-developed and worthy of PhD proposals. The Roadmaps intended audience includes intergovernmental organizations, national governments and agencies, non-governmental organizations, academia and research institutes, industry and industry umbrella organizations. This Roadmap has been initiated as a joint venture between the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat (CTBUH), the International Council for Research and Innovation in Building and Construction (CIB) and the United Nations Educational, Scientic and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). In order to facilitate the dissemination of the Roadmap ndings and to promote the opportunities for research for both individuals and companies, this document is available for free download on the CTBUH website at: www.ctbuh.org/roadmap In addition, a physical copy of the Roadmap will be mailed to the following: All CTBUH organizational members Key public and private research funding bodies Selected city authorities Selected universities Other organizations with a high interest in research in these fields

Highlighted Findings
The results of the investigation are described in detail in each specic section of this publication. The ten most important ndings of the Roadmap are highlighted below: 1. The social sustainability of tall buildings A clear trend for priority research identied in the Roadmap is a focus on the social sustainability of tall buildings, at both an urban and a building scale, with topics related to the social role of tall buildings and tall building living among the highest ranked topics in the eld of both Urban Design, City Planning and Social Issues and Architecture and Interior Design. There is a clear trend across the two elds, suggesting that a signicant group of responders believe research to improve the social impact of tall buildings on both surrounding communities, and on those who live and work at height, is a signicant research priority. 2. Energy performance of tall buildings Energy: Performance, Metrics and Generation has the highest mean priority value of all sections (7.6) denoting that research in this broad area is a priority to evolve the typology of tall buildings. This is also reected by the highest average immaturity score in all sections (3.6), showing that even though a lot has been written on the subject in recent years, topics of this category still need to be developed .
Executive Summary |11

3. Safety in tall buildings Four out of the ve topics that scored highest research priority across the entire Roadmap, deal with safety and security in tall buildings, as a combined eect of extremely high importance and relevant immaturity. This shows that tall buildings are still seen as a vulnerable typology, especially under re scenarios. 4. Dening appropriate levels of safety performance in tall buildings A second broad trend in the domain of safety that is apparent from the Roadmap results is the need for research to establish appropriate levels of safety performance in tall buildings. In particular, this is evident from the scores in two elds: Structural Performance, Multi-Hazard Design and Geotechnics and Fire and Life Safety where several topics related to the safety performance of tall buildings are all ranked among the highest priority topics. 5. The embodied energy of tall buildings and their components When talking about environmental sustainability, current emphasis has shifted to also include the environmental impact of building materials and components. Research has suggested that, due to their greater structural requirements, tall buildings use more embodied energy than low-rise buildings and the results of the Roadmap here highlight that both establishing and reducing embodied energy in tall buildings is considered a priority topic across multiple elds. Topics connected to the environmental performance of building systems and products can be found among the highest ranking topics in the Sustainable Design, Construction and Operation; Building Materials and Products; and Cladding and Skin elds. 6. Life-cycle sustainability of tall buildings In a similar manner to the calls for priority research on embodied energy above, the Roadmap shows that more research is needed on tall building life-cycle sustainability issues beyond day-to-day operations. While this broad area includes embodied energy and the specic topics previously mentioned, other highly prioritized topics include material and component durability, the design for easy repair and replacement of materials, disassembly and deconstruction of tall buildings, strategies to extend tall buildings lifecycles, adaptive reuse and retrotting, research to determine whole-life-cycle impacts of tall buildings, and the holistic and integrated sustainable performance of tall buildings. Again, this broader thinking in terms of tall building sustainability is a reection of current thought in the built environment community as a whole, but also identies the need for research dedicated to the unique challenges and opportunities of tall building lifecycles specically. 7. Disassembly/deconstruction/demolition of tall buildings Research examining the opportunities and strategies to allow for disassembly/deconstruction at the end of a tall buildings life (and as such, re-use of components, materials, etc.) received the third-highest immaturity score of all Roadmap research topics. This ts well in the overall life-cycle issues of tall buildings noted above, but it reinforces a perceived lack of knowledge regarding the end of the life-cycle of tall buildings which is likely to become a dominant research eld for the future of cities re-development as many tall buildings are now approaching the end of their service lives.

8. The Economic impact of tall buildings The joint-highest score in the Roadmap, in terms of importance, is Research on tall buildings nancial relationship with global economic cycles and conditions. Tall buildings are often assessed in terms of their impact on the local real estate market but, in an ever-increasing competition among cities at a global scale, the role of tall buildings (as individual buildings, or their booming construction in a single city) must be carefully assessed to prevent the bursting of real estate bubbles and in relation to larger scale economic conditions. 9. The use and performance of new and innovative materials in tall buildings A trend in priority research, apparent across multiple elds, is the use and performance of new and innovative materials in tall buildings. The development and application of such materials will have a signicant impact on other disciplines as well, as recognized by issues such as the call for studies on the re behavior of green and innovative materials. 10. Highlighted high-scoring research gaps Only four topics across the whole Roadmap received a score of immaturity higher than 4 (extremely immature), implying that research is still needed to discover new potentialities. These four topics are: Research on alternative evacuation systems that allow for evacuation through the faade in emergency scenarios (immaturity 4.2) Research on strategies and technologies for energy sharing between tall buildings such that excess energy generated in one, may coincide with a peak demand in another (immaturity 4.1) Research examining the opportunities and strategies to allow for disassembly/deconstruction at the end of a tall buildings life (immaturity 4.0) Research to determine and calculate the maximum sustainable height of tall buildings (immaturity 4.0)

Summary of Findings, Across All Research Fields


The top ve priority research subjects across each eld embraced in this Roadmap, as determined by their Priority Index scores are indicated below (scores are out of 10): Urban Design, City Planning and Social Issues 1. Research examining the social sustainability of tall buildings at an urban/city scale (including impact on social behavior, community and lifestyle, societal needs for tall buildings, ghettoization, social impact in dierent geographical locations, etc.) 7.8 2. Research to determine optimum height, density and massing of tall buildings to provide appropriate social interaction and communities at an urban/city scale 7.6 3. Research to examine and improve the pedestrian realm at ground-oor level in and around tall building developments (including public amenities, social spaces, development of regulations, etc.) 7.6

12 | Executive Summary

4. Research on the design and integration of tall buildings in or near historic urban districts (including UNESCO designated areas, regulatory systems, etc.) 7.5 5. Research on tall building city planning and regulatory policies (including local city plans, planning for changing demographics, political and nancial policies, urban design standards, etc.) 7.4 Architecture and Interior Design 1. Research on the impact living in tall buildings has on families with children, and strategies to make high-rise living more appropriate for families with children 7.9 2. Research on the experience, happiness and satisfaction of those who live and work in tall buildings 7.6 3. Research on the needs of the elderly and disabled with respect to high-rise living 7.6 4. Research to improve the social-communal experience of occupants in tall buildings (including appropriate mix of functions, humanizing tall building environments, strategies to foster community, etc.) 7.5 5. Research on architectural strategies to improve tall buildings integration and relationship with the surrounding urban context 7.4 Economics and Cost 1. Research on tall buildings nancial relationship with global economic cycles and conditions 7.9 2. Research to determine the holistic economic benets and costs of tall building construction on the city/surrounding urban area (including direct tax benets and indirect employment tax/ spending benets, impact of creating recognizable icons on the city, value of surrounding area, externalities, etc.) 7.9 3. Research to establish cost metrics for key architectural decisions and dierent building types (including location, height, land-use, footprint, oor-to-oor, structural systems, etc.) 7.9 4. Research on the life-cycle cost analysis of tall buildings (including development of methodologies, creation of a database of results, etc.) 7.8 5. Research on strategies to reduce construction costs of tall buildings 7.7 Structural Performance, Multi-Hazard Design and Geotechnics 1. Research on the development and implementation of real-time structural monitoring of completed tall buildings (including the creation of a database of results, comparison with design assumptions, determining actual performance such as in-situ natural frequency, damping, vertical shortening, acceleration, creep, etc.) 7.9 2. Research on the validation of modelling assumptions for wind and seismic loading 7.5 3. Research to improve tall building protection from multi-hazard events such as seismic and wind events, blast, plane impact, tornadoes, etc. (including robustness, structural optimization, etc.) 7.5

4. The development of design criteria to determine the appropriate level of safety for tall buildings in extreme events (such as seismic and wind events, blast, plane impact, tornadoes, etc.) 7.4 5. Research on the development of holistic performance-based multi-hazard design and analysis of tall buildings across multiple disciplines 7.4 Circulation: Vertical Transportation and Evacuation 1. Research on the planning, design and implications of using elevators for evacuation in tall buildings 8.3 2. Research on appropriate evacuation and egress strategies for the disabled (including emergency planning, the use of safe zones, etc.) 8.0 3. Research on strategies and technologies to deliver information to occupants in evacuation/emergency scenarios (including dynamic route guidance systems, integrated audio and video technology, wireless systems, occupants attitude toward such systems and conformance to legislation) 7.8 4. Research on the use of elevators for evacuation in extreme events, e.g., after an earthquake 7.8 5. Research on real-time tall building evacuation management strategies and technologies 7.8 Fire and Life Safety 1. Research to determine credible worst-case design res for tall buildings 8.3 2. Research to establish the impact of new sustainable materials, technologies and design strategies in tall buildings on re and life safety performance 8.2 3. Research to develop better collaborations between architects, re-engineers and the re-ghting community 8.1 4. Research and development of realistic re scenarios for the design of tall building structural re protection 8.0 5. Research focussing on re and life safety issues in tall buildings in developing and the least developed countries 8.0 Cladding and Skin 1. Research on the use of innovative/advanced materials and cladding systems in tall building faades (including composite materials, photochromatic glazing, aerogel, application of aerospace/shipbuilding technologies, etc.) 7.9 2. Research to develop strategies and products to improve the thermal performance of tall building faades (including development of new products such as vacuum insulation panels, highly insulating but thin cladding products, improved thermal performance of framing components, etc.)7.8 3. Research to establish the embodied energy of tall building faades (including the development of reliable, quickly-sourced metrics) 7.8 4. Research on the design, construction and performance of dynamic/active faade systems in tall buildings (including user control, development of standards and regulations, impact on energy performance and indoor climate, etc.) 7.7

Executive Summary |13

5. Research on faade-integrated energy generation and collection systems in tall buildings (including building-integrated photovoltaics, wind energy systems, water collection, etc.) 7.7 Building Materials and Products 1. Research on the use of composite materials and systems in tall buildings 7.5 2. Research to improve material and component durability in tall buildings 7.5 3. Research on the responsible procurement of materials and components in tall buildings (e.g., in areas that do not have strict controls on processing-plant emissions and toxic waste disposal) 7.4 4. Research to determine material and component durability in tall buildings 7.4 5. Research on the application and performance of ber-reinforced polymers in tall buildings (e.g., carbon, glass) 7.3 Sustainable Design, Construction and Operation 1. Research on strategies and technologies to develop carbonneutral, net-zero-energy, zero-carbon and self-sustaining tall buildings (including evaluations of whether such concepts are technically viable) 7.8 2. Research on strategies and techniques to reduce embodied energy/carbon in tall buildings 7.8 3. Research on environmental optimization strategies and methodologies for tall building form 7.7 4. Research on the integration of passive design strategies and technologies into tall buildings to reduce energy requirements and improve occupant comfort 7.6 5. Research examining the opportunities and strategies to allow for disassembly/deconstruction at the end of a tall buildings life (and, as such, re-use of components, materials, etc.) 7.6 Construction and Project Management 1. Research on the dissemination of construction logistics best practices and lessons learned from tall building project and team leaders internationally 7.8 2. Research and development of new construction methods and systems for complex tall building projects 7.6 3. Research and development of strategies to increase the speed of tall building construction (including Lean Building Principles, etc.) 7.4 4. Research to develop strategies and practices to reduce waste and waste water during tall building construction 7.3 5. Research and development of integrated software and tools, such as BIM, and their impact on tall building design, construction and logistics 7.3 Energy: Performance, Metrics and Generation 1. Research to determine and calculate the holistic and integrated sustainable performance of tall buildings (including environmental, economic and social sustainability, integrated cost, carbon and energy analyses, etc.) 8.3
14 | Executive Summary

2. Research on strategies and technologies for heat storage and sharing in tall buildings (including waste energy harvesting in mixed-use tall buildings, etc.) 8.0 3. Research on the post-occupancy evaluation of tall buildings to monitor real energy performance and water requirements in operation (including use of monitoring systems, energy use in dierent geographical locations, verication of computer simulations, comparison with design loads, creation of an inventory of data, etc.) 7.9 4. Research to determine and calculate the whole life-cycle environmental impacts of tall buildings (including Life-cycle Assessment, development of methodologies, etc.) 7.8 5. Research on strategies and technologies for energy sharing between tall buildings such that excess energy generated in one, may coincide with a peak demand in another 7.8

Executive Summary |15

Introduction and Background


Tall Building Research
Each discipline involved in tall buildings is continually evolving its science, but also has immediate problems to solve on current projects. One cannot wait to build until we know all there is to know. Conversely, just because we are currently creating buildings, we cannot forget that we must broaden our knowledge and extend the science of tall buildings. William Baker, Skidmore, Owings & Merrill academic and industrial spheres. Universities are increasingly engaging with the typology at both an individual seminar/module level, and through the development of postgraduate courses and qualications that deal specically with tall buildings. Doctoral studies examining a whole range of high-rise related topics, from social sustainability to re safety, are becoming increasingly popular, while dedicated journals such as the CTBUH Journal, the International Journal of High-Rise Buildings, or The Structural Design of Tall and Special Buildings, and specic tall building funding opportunities such as the CTBUH Research Seed Funding Initiative are emerging. Some commercial organizations are following suit, teaming up with universities, developing in-house tall building research teams, and even publishing their ndings in freely accessible reports. This growth is perhaps best demonstrated by exploring the number of tall building-related papers published in peer-reviewed journals over recent years. The database ScienceDirect (2013) provides access to papers from more than 2,500 journals, and data drawn from this resource shows publication numbers in the eld have been generally consistent and mainly focused on wind-engineering. However, more recently there has been a signicant spike in tall building-related journal publications, with three times as many papers published in 2012 as compared to 2008, while also covering a broad range of disciplines and topics (see Figure 1). While this is clearly encouraging, it is dicult to argue that research developments have been anywhere near as spectacular as the growth in actual tall building construction, and it is clear that more tall building

It is widely known that we are now experiencing a huge surge in tall building construction internationally, with more and taller skyscrapers being designed, constructed and completed since 2000 than at any other time in history. The statistics demonstrating this are staggering. According to the CTBUH tall building database (www.skyscrapercenter.com), it has been shown, for example, that 265 buildings measuring 200 meters or taller were completed around the world prior to the year 2000. However, in the 12 years that followed, to the end of 2012, almost double this number have been built, with 518 skyscrapers completed. Although Asia, and in particular China, dominate tall building construction globally, what is fascinating is that this growth is not limited to any one geographic region. There are 543 cities around the world which embrace at least one building taller than 100 meters as a signicant element within their urban realm. Perhaps less well-publicized is that this boom in construction has coincided with a growth in tall building research across both the
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Figure 1: Tall building-related papers published in peer review journals available on ScienceDirect, 2013. Source: Compiled by Roadmap editors

Introduction and Background |17

research needs to be undertaken. However, there is little consensus as to what specic research areas are most in need of priority research, and until recently, there has not been a platform or a network for such discussions to take place.1 Too much tall building research is occurring in isolation, with little widespread eort to reach out to all of those involved in the planning, design, construction and operation of high-rises to evolve a comprehensive direction for future tall building research that will advance the typology in the immediate future. With vast levels of population growth and urbanization predicted for the coming decades, more and more people will be living and working in tall buildings. The opportunity for research to improve tall buildings, the safety and comfort of those who occupy them, and their performance in the environmental and physical context, is enormous. Perhaps nowhere is this more apparent than in the aftermath of 9/11. Following this terrible event, many questioned the safety of tall buildings, and huge research activities were directed toward assessing and improving the safety and security of the typology. Hundreds of papers were published, dedicated conferences held, traditional codes and methods questioned, and new technologies and strategies developed. Research related to evacuation, progressive collapse, structural redundancy and re suppression all developed dramatically, with the results having a direct bearing on the design and construction of towers over the past decade. For example, 7 World Trade Center, completed just ve years after 9/11, included a more redundant looped sprinkler system; stronger, more adhesive structural re-proong; concreteencased cores; and other safety features. Meanwhile the use of elevators for evacuation purposes is starting to become a reality in many locations. While investigations in these elds still continues apace, there can be little doubt that the urry of research after September 11th has improved the safety and security of high-rises, and consequently our condence in the typology. The development of any tall building demands a signicant level of investment not only monetarily, but also in terms of consultant expertise and time. Due to this, built high-rises are increasingly being used as test beds for innovative new ideas, technologies and systems, which just wouldnt be viable to explore in smaller constructions, though they may be applicable to their design once tested and established in tall buildings. Recent examples include dynamic faade shading systems, building-integrated energy generation systems and seismic damping technologies all at the cutting edge of innovation, and all being tested in recently completed high-rises. Tall building research and development, then, has the potential to have a much greater impact across the built environment, beyond just the high-rise typology itself. It is clear, then, that tall building research is important and can play a signicant role in the development of the cities of the future. However, while increased research activities in the eld are to be celebrated, there is a genuine need to identify priority research topics and signicant research gaps, such that the next generation of high-rise buildings benet from the best possible knowledge and developments in the eld as soon as possible.

Roadmap Aims and Objectives


This Roadmap has three primary aims: 1. To identify research which is important in tall buildings. 2. To identify immaturity (research gaps) in the eld of tall buildings. 3. To suggest research priorities in the eld of tall buildings.

Research gap is dened as an area of research that is signicantly immature and/or is suering from a signicant lack of available information and knowledge in the eld. Priority research is dened as an area of research that requires priority funding and scientic interest in order to advance the typology of tall buildings in the coming years. The main objective of the Roadmap is to create a guide for the CTBUH, CIB, UNESCO and all those involved in tall buildings to assist in the planning of future research and the pursuit of funding, in order to advance the typology to its optimum level. This may include, for example: Funding bodies using the Roadmap to establish the potential impact of funding bids, or for the development of specic calls for projects. Researchers/research organizations using the Roadmap to focus their research activities and develop funding bids. PhD candidates using the Roadmap to explore research topics that are under-developed and worthy of PhD proposals. The Roadmaps intended audience includes intergovernmental organizations, national governments and agencies, non-governmental organizations, academia and research institutes, industry and industry umbrella organizations. It is important to note that the Roadmap does not aim to identify research that is unimportant, or is of little to no value. All 358 topics listed and presented in the research trees over the following pages have been identied as being priority research by at least one responder in the rst questionnaire (see Methodology below) and, as such, all topics have at least some value to tall buildings. However, the Roadmap does establish which research is considered the greatest priority, is the most important and the most immature (or under developed), thus allowing readers to see a full breakdown of how those involved in tall buildings perceive the value of individual topics, and their role in the development of future skyscrapers.

Methodology
The Roadmap was rst initiated as a necessary project at the inaugural meeting of the CTBUH Research, Academic and Postgraduate Working Group in Venice, June 1718, 2010 (see Figure 2). This meeting and workshop was attended by over 80 researchers representing 60 institutions and 18 countries from around the world.

1. The commencement of the CTBUH Research, Academic and Postgraduate Working Group in 2010 aimed to ll this gap by promoting networking and collaboration between those involved in the research of tall buildings at both an academic and industrial level. The group is involved with a number of activities including summer schools, annual meetings and networking events, student competitions and the development of strategies to support and coordinate research in the eld, including the development of this Roadmap.

18 | Introduction and Background

The rst and the second questionnaires, described below, were responded to by 245 and 252 experts, respectively. Peer-review teams consisting of between two and ve key experts for each of the 11 elds were established to provide comment and feedback on the both the process in its entirety and the results in each eld specically. Results were periodically presented and reviewed at key meetings of the CTBUH Research, Academic and Postgraduate Working Group. These meetings included: October 9th, 2011 at the Dongbu Financial Center tower, Seoul, South Korea, as part of the CTBUH 2011 World Conference. September 18th, 2012 at the Jin Mao Grand Hyatt, Shanghai, China, as part of the CTBUH 9th World Congress. June 12th, 2013 at the Brewery, London, UK, as part of the CTBUH 2013 World Conference.
Figure 2: The inaugural meeting of the CTBUH Research, Academic and Postgraduate Working Group in Venice, June 2010.

A full overview of the processes that formed the Roadmap methodology are outlined on the following pages. Questionnaire 1: Identifying Priority Topics The rst questionnaire was designed to collate a comprehensive list of possible research topics considered as priority research in each of the 11 broad research elds. Following initial pilot tests with the peer-review panels, the questionnaire was released in April 2012 through multiple avenues designed to maximize the number of expert responders. These avenues included: Dedicated invitation emails to researchers in the field of tall buildings. Dedicated invitation emails to experts identied by the peer review panels. Dedicated invitation emails to all those who had published conference papers at recent tall building conferences. A general email blast to all those on the CTBUH database (approximately 20,000 addresses), asking for experts to answer the questionnaire. Articles in the May 2012 edition of the CTBUH newsletter, and June 2012 edition of the CIB newsletter. A dedicated question in the questionnaire asking responders to nominate other experts in the eld of tall buildings who might be willing to complete the survey. Following this multi-faceted approach, a total of 245 responders completed the questionnaire. In doing so, they were asked to identify which of the 11 elds best represented where their expertise on tall buildings lay. They were then asked to identify in an open-ended manner between three and ve topics that they felt were most deserving of priority research in that eld. So, if a responder had identied Cladding and Skin as being the eld in which his or her expertise was based, he or she was asked: What topics do you feel are the most deserving of priority research in the eld of Cladding and Skin in tall buildings? Please list three to ve topics. Priority research is dened as an area of research that requires priority funding and scientic interest in order to advance the typology of tall buildings in the coming years. When listing your topics, please be as specic and explicit as possible. For example,
Introduction and Background |19

Following this, a Steering Group was established, consisting of key individuals from the three supporting organizations; the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat (CTBUH), the International Council for Research and Innovation in Building and Construction (CIB) and the United Nations Educational, Scientic and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). The Steering Group identied 11 key streams of tall building research that would form the basis of the Roadmap. These are: 1. Urban Design, City Planning and Social Issues 2. Architecture and Interior Design 3. Economics and Cost 4. Structural Performance, Multi-Hazard Design and Geotechnics 5. Circulation: Vertical Transportation and Evacuation 6. Fire and Life Safety 7. Cladding and Skin 8. Building Materials and Products 9. Sustainable Design, Construction and Operation 10. Construction and Project Management 11. Energy: Performance, Metrics and Generation

It was decided to identify and prioritize tall building research within each of these streams through the creation of a series of questionnaires, to be answered by those involved in the ownership, development, design, planning, construction, consultancy, operation, maintenance and research of tall buildings. The questionnaires were designed using the Delphi Method, a systematic forecasting process that involves the results of an initial questionnaire inuencing the design of latter questionnaires, thus allowing responders to re-evaluate their original answers. In this instance, an initial open-ended questionnaire was used to rst establish a comprehensive list of possible research topics that could be considered as priority research in the eld of tall buildings. These topics were grouped by commonality, and then evaluated and scored in a second multiple-choice questionnaire. To induce the maximum return of responders, the Delphi Method was modied to allow responders who didnt answer the rst questionnaire to be able to answer the second. In the design of both questionnaires, signicant eort was given to following best-practice guidelines in terms of question planning, format, grammar and wording.

instead of writing Tall Building Form, write Use of parametric modeling for generation of complex tall building form. After listing their topics, responders were allowed to choose additional elds (if relevant), and to again dene topics they felt were areas of priority research in these areas. This allowed responders who had tall building expertise in more than one area to contribute to multiple elds. In total, the 245 responders identied 1,243 topics. The next stage of the methodology involved sorting and organizing these topics to create a series of research trees that form the structure of this Roadmap. With assistance from the peer review panels, topics that were similar, complimentary or duplicative were merged together, and those that were too general (e.g., tall building sustainability, structural design of tall buildings, etc.) were removed. In each eld, topics are organized under broader categories and subcategories, and these have been denoted with a Dewey Decimal Classication a library notation system that allowed for categorization and further research in each area (see page 23). In total, the original 1,243 suggested topics were combined to create 358 topics organized over the 11 elds as per below: Urban Design, City Planning and Social Issues Architecture and Interior Design Economics and Cost Structural Performance, Multi-Hazard Design and Geotechnics Circulation: Vertical Transportation and Evacuation Fire and Life Safety Cladding and Skin Building Materials and Products Sustainable Design, Construction and Operation Construction and Project Management Energy: Performance, Metrics and Generation Total 31 topics 31 topics 26 topics 54 topics 38 topics 43 topics 32 topics 26 topics 36 topics 22 topics 19 topics

know if it is important/immature, please leave the question blank. However, responders are asked to answer as many questions as they feel they can. Rankings are evaluated as such: Importance of research topic: How important do YOU feel the topic is with the aim of improving tall buildings over the next ten years? 1. Not at all important 2. Slightly important 3. Moderately important 4. Very important 5. Extremely important

Immaturity of research topic: How immature do YOU feel the existing knowledge and understanding is related to this topic? 1. Not at all immature 2. Slightly immature 3. Moderately immature 4. Very immature 5. Extremely immature

Again, following pilot tests with the peer review panels, the questionnaire was released in March 2013 and publicized through the following avenues: Dedicated invitation emails to those who answered the rst questionnaire. A general email blast to all those on the CTBUH database (approximately 20,000 addresses), asking for experts to answer the questionnaire. An article in the March edition of the CTBUH newsletter. Dedicated emails to experts in fields that returned low responses (e.g., Economics and Cost; Construction and Project Management). Following this approach, 252 responders completed the second questionnaire. As with the rst questionnaire, responders were allowed to complete multiple elds, so in total 347 questionnaires over the 11 elds were completed as outlined below: Field No. of responders in Questionnaire 2 38 76 9 62 22 33 32 16 28 12 19 347

358 topics

Questionnaire 2: Evaluation and Ranking of Topics The organization of responses from questionnaire 1 described above created a manageable and rened list of topics for responders to evaluate and score as part of the second questionnaire. It was decided to ask responders to evaluate topics based on two criteria importance and immaturity thus allowing for identication of the degree of value responders assigned to each topic (importance) and how developed they feel each topic is, identifying whether or not they felt there was a research gap (immaturity).2 As in the rst questionnaire, responders were initially asked to identify in which of the 11 broad elds their expertise in tall buildings lay. They were then directed to the list of topics in that eld, and asked to score them. So, if a responder had identied Cladding and Skin as his or her eld of expertise they were told: Below are listed 32 research topics in the eld of Cladding and Skin identied by experts in the rst questionnaire released in April 2012. For each topic, you are asked to identify how important you feel it is, and how immature you feel it is. You indicate this by giving each topic a score from one to ve for importance and immaturity. If you have no judgment on a topic, or you do not

Urban Design, City Planning and Social Issues Architecture and Interior Design Economics and Cost Structural Performance, Multi-Hazard Design and Geotechnics Circulation: Vertical Transportation and Evacuation Fire and Life Safety Cladding and Skin Building Materials and Products Sustainable Design, Construction and Operation Construction and Project Management Energy: Performance, Metrics and Generation Total

2. The actual questionnaire asked for maturity rather than immaturity, with a higher score meaning a more developed (mature) topic. It was later decided to reverse the results to indicate immaturity, to show a higher score as a higher priority, making the term and scale consistent with the importance scale. Original scores of maturity were thus inversed to achieve their current immaturity ranking.

20 | Introduction and Background

100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

Following the completion of the questionnaire, the data was processed and managed. An average score out of ve for importance and immaturity was determined for each individual topic, and these were added together to create a priority index score out of ten: this is the number used to prioritize the various research topics. Priority index scores could range from two3 (not at all important and not at all immature) to 10 (extremely important and extremely immature), with a higher score denoting a greater research priority. In the actual results, however, all 358 topics received a priority index score in the 5.08.3 range, as outlined in Figure 3. Priority index scores were used to dene the ranking of topics in each of the 11 elds; thus, the topic ranked number one in each eld is that with the highest priority index. The nal results and scores were collated, and presented as part of the research trees, as found in the following pages of the Roadmap. Additional commentary is provided in each eld to identify trends and provide comments from the peer review panels.

2. Research Immaturity Those involved in the design, construction and operation of tall buildings believe research on tall buildings is broadly immature and underdeveloped. As a typology, the tall building itself is somewhat immature. It has been less than 130 years since skyscrapers rst emerged in Chicago and New York, and in some regions, a matter of mere years since high-rises appeared on the scene. So, perhaps not surprisingly, those who completed the questionnaire feel that research in the eld of tall buildings is relatively immature and underdeveloped. Of the 358 topics ranked and evaluated by responders, 293 (82%) received a mean immaturity score of 3.0 or greater (moderately immature), suggesting the majority of topics require clear and pressing research in order to improve existing knowledge and understanding. In some elds, thisThe trendtext is more apparent than inin others. In particular in Tall Building Economics and Cost and Energy: Performance, Metrics and Generation, all abstract, title, keywords topics received immaturity scores of 3.0 or greater.

General Observations
In compiling the results of the second questionnaire a number of observations were made, as outlined below. In addition, some specic topics were highlighted as priority research topics across multiple elds in the Roadmap, and these are discussed in the Conclusion (see page 101). 1. Research Importance Those involved in the design, construction and operation of tall buildings believe that research on many tall building topics is very important. While this is perhaps an obvious statement to make, it is telling that of the 358 individual topics that responders ranked and evaluated, 186 received a mean importance score of 4.0 (very important) or greater. This equates to 52% of all topics being considered very important. Only ve topics, just over 1% of the total, received mean importance scores lower than 3.0 (moderately important).

Research Limitations

The text High-Rise Building in abstract, title, keywords

The Roadmap methodology and results have the following limitations: 1. Responder samples Signicant eorts were made to circulate and promote the Roadmap questionnaires to such an extent that a broad and reasonable distribution of the tall building expert population responded. In many ways, this process was successful. For example, the vast majority of responders to both questionnaires had completed signicant outputs related to tall buildings (completed projects, journal papers, etc.) (see Figure 4) and as such they were in an ideal position to comment on tall building priority research. Likewise, the location of building/research projects with which responders are involved show a good geographical spread (see Figure 5), with the majority doing work in Asia or North America. However, very few responders do work in Africa, Central or South America, and it would be fair to say that the list of priority research topics identied here may not match research priorities in these regions. In terms of responders background (see Figure 6), the majority were from engineering, academic and architectural/urban design realms, with these three groups representing more than 80% of completed questionnaires.

90

92

94

96

98

00

02

04

06

08

10

19

19

19

19

19

20

20

20

20

20

20

What this suggests is simply that experts in the eld of tall buildings believe that research is an important and necessary tool for developing the typology over the next decade.

2
Lowest possible priority

20
7

12

10
Highest possible priority

Lowest priority given to any topic in the Roadmap = 5.0


Figure 3: Scale of priority used in the eleven sections, as a result of the second questionnaire.

Highest priority given to any topic in the Roadmap = 8.3

3. Importance ranges from one to ve, and immaturity ranges from one to ve, also. So the priority index ranges from two to 10, as shown in Figure 3.

Introduction and Background |21

Patents and/or the industrial development of products/components/materials Built/future tall building projects (e.g., ownership, development, design, construc tion, consultancy, operation, maintenance, etc.) Published journal papers

Book contributions

Conference papers/presentations

Funded research projects

None of the above 0 50 100 150 200 250 300

Number of Responders
Figure 4: Areas to which responders have applied knowledge in tall buildings.

Africa Asia Australasia Central America Europe Middle East North America South America Worldwide 0 20 40 60 80 100 120
Industry: Other 15%

Industry: Developer/ Owner/Manager 3%

Academ Research
Industry: Engineering30%

Architec Planning

Engineer
Industry: Architectural/ Urban Planning 24%

Develop Manager
Academia/University/ Research27%

Consulta Other

Number of Responders
Figure 5: Geographic location of building or research projects with which responders are connected. Figure 6: Overview of the responders background for the second questionnaire.

22 | Introduction and Background

There was a lack of response from the tall building developer/owner/ manager backgrounds in particular, and again, it would be fair to say that the priority topics detailed here may not match this particular groups needs or desires. In terms of responses to each of the 11 individual elds, four received less than 20 completed second questionnaires: Economics and Cost; Building Materials and Products; Construction and Project Management; and Energy: Performance, Metrics and Generation. In these elds the results are perhaps less robust when compared to the other seven areas, despite specic eorts from the authors to contact and encourage additional experts to complete the survey. 2. Geographic location of responders Even if Asia appears to be the largest represented region in terms of responders of the second questionnaire, this doesnt reect the actual geographic location of the responder, but only the area in which his/ her built or research projects are located. The actual physical location of the responders was not the subject of a specic question in the survey and therefore the real geographic representation can only be assumed on the basis of the responders aliation. The majority of responders were physically located in North America or Europe, but with businesses predominantly in Asia. Eorts were spent on increasing the participation of Asian professionals and researchers, in particular by encouraging the Asian speakers of the previous CTBUH 2011 Seoul Conference and 2012 Shanghai Congress to take part in the survey, and through individual emails sent to the personal contacts of the editors, but results are far from an accurate representation of the world presence of tall buildings. This can reect a cultural/language barrier to respond to the survey, or an actual lack of local experts in the least represented areas. 3. Emergence of new trends and events that create a change in research priorities The Roadmap methodology outlined here relies on the initial openended questionnaire (completed in April 2012) to generate the priority topics, which were later ranked and evaluated in the second questionnaire. As such, any research topics that have emerged since this initial questionnaire closed have not been considered. One possible example of this is the after eects and implications of Hurricane Sandy, which had a signicant impact on New York in October 2012. Since then, it has been suggested that New Yorks buildings are more vulnerable to climate change and ooding than previously thought, and there have been signicant and well-publicized calls for the citys building stock to be more resilient in the face of such disastrous events. However, this concept of resilience is not reected in the priority topics suggested in the Roadmap, despite its current potential to become a signicant research priority in a tall building city. As such, while the Roadmap is designed to provide guidance on necessary tall building research over the next ten years, readers need to be aware that as-yet-unknown and unpredictable future events (such as Hurricane Sandy, 9/11, climate change issues, etc.) could occur and, as such, change the research needs and requirements of the typology. 4. Inter-disciplinary research topics Research topics identied in the Roadmap have been organized into 11 broad categories, as established early on in the course of this research.

The main driver behind this decision was the need to create manageable questionnaires that could be completed by responders in a relatively short duration of time, rather than a single questionnaire with more than 300 topics, which would deter responders. However, tall buildings are incredibly complex entities, and research topics related to high-rises often span multiple elds and disciplines, rather than belonging to any one specic area. As such, with the categorization of topics in the Roadmap, signicant eort was expended in placing topics in the most appropriate eld, considering which area most people would commonly associate with the topic, and what discipline would be primarily concerned with the specic research. For example, Research on the life-cycle costs of dierent faade solutions in tall buildings is located in the Economics and Cost eld, rather than the Cladding and Skin eld. However, by following this methodology, there are circumstances where topics are placed in a category that may restrict some appropriate responders evaluating it. In the example above, experts in Cladding and Skin may not have also completed the Economics and Cost questionnaire, and as such, not been able to score Research on the life-cycle costs of dierent faade solutions in tall buildings in terms of its importance and immaturity. Signicant eorts have been made to minimize the impacts of this, for example, by allowing responders to complete questionnaires in more than one eld in which they had a broader knowledge base. We also provided the opportunity to make comments and draw comparisons throughout the Roadmap on trends and topics that are similar or complimentary across multiple elds.

Dewey: General Information


In each of the elds in this Roadmap, topics are organized under broader categories and subcategories, and these have been denoted with a Dewey Decimal Classication (DDC). This is a library notation system that uses Arabic numbers, conceived by Melvil Dewey in 1873 and rst published in 1876. The DDC provides a classication methodology for human knowledge, and it provides an easy and logical organization method to search a library archive and to organize its shelves. The Dewey is used now in 135 countries, and is translated into more than 30 languages. Thus it is the most widely used classication system. Since its development at the end of the nineteenth century, the DDC has been constantly updated, due to the progress in various elds of knowledge. The Decimal Classication Editorial Policy Committee (EPC), a ten-member international board, meets twice a year to review and update the system. A new edition of the Dewey is published every six years (the last one, the 23rd edition, was released in 2011), while the online version is updated monthly. The world of knowledge is divided into 10 main classes, identied by a three-digit number. A publication is always labeled with at least a three digit-number: 000 Generalities 100 Philosophy, parapsychology and occultism, psychology 200 Religion 300 Social science

Introduction and Background |23

400 Language 500 Natural science and mathematics 600 Technology 700 The arts, ne and decorative arts 800 Literature and rhetoric 900 Geography, history, and auxiliary disciplines Each class is then subdivided ten times. Each of these subdivisions is divided into an additional 10 sections. The Dewey is then formed by 10 classes, 100 divisions and 1,000 sections, wherein the rst digit-number represents the class, the second the division, and the third the section. XXX : DDC number X : main class X : division X : section 720 : Architecture 7 : The arts, Fine and decorative arts 2 : Architecture 0 : Architecture

Dewey Classications Used in this Roadmap


000 Computer Science, Information & General Works 000 Computer Science, Knowledge & Systems 004 Data processing & computer science 005 Computer programming, programs & data 100 Philosophy & Psychology 150 Psychology 150.1 Philosophy and theory; systems, viewpoints 152.1 Sensory perception 152.14 Visual perception 155.93 Inuence of specic situations 155.94 Inuence of community and housing 300 Social Sciences 300 Social Sciences, Sociology & Anthropology 307.1 Planning and development 307.2 Movement of people to, from, within communities 307.76 Urban communities 330 Economics 330.91732 Urban economics 333 Economics of land & energy 333.332 Value and price of land 333.337 Urban lands 333.338 Buildings and other xtures 333.7 Land, recreational and wilderness areas, energy 333.791 Energy conservation 338.54 Economic uctuations 338.542 Business cycles 338.73Partnerships 338.9 Economic development and growth 338.927 Appropriate technology 360 Social Problems & Social Services 363.1791 Toxic chemicals 363.3 Other aspects of public safety 363.34Disasters 363.37 Fire hazards 363.378 Remedial measures, services, forms of assistance 363.3781 Rescue operationsre safety 363.69 Historic preservation 363.7284 Liquid wastes 500 Science 510 Mathematics 519Probabilities & applied mathematics 550 Earth Sciences & Geology 551.525Temperatures 600 Technology 600 Technology 604.7 Hazardous materials technology 620 Engineering 620.110287 Testing and measurement 620.112 Properties of materials and nondestructive testing 620.1122 Resistance to decay, decomposition, deterioration 620.1123 Resistance to mechanical deformation (Mechanics of materials) 620.1124 Resistance to specic mechanical stresses 620.11242Compression 620.11243Torsion 620.11248Vibrations 620.3 Mechanical vibration 620.82 Human factors engineering 620.86 Safety engineering

After the basic three-digit number and a decimal point, it is possible to deepen the classication using the same principle. Similar numbers identify the works with similar topics and those with topics that are connected with each other. This system proves to be really useful in bibliographical research. The DDC is a hierarchical notation system: every topic is subordinate to and part of all the broader topics above it. Example 720.483: Tall Building 720 = Architecture 4 = Special topics 8 = Building by shape 3 = Tall building The classication of works is arranged by discipline, and not by subject. This means that it is possible to have multiple codes for a given subject, according to the discipline being considered. For example, the topic Foundations is studied by dierent disciplines, and consequently it has dierent DDCs: 721.1 (Architecture) 690.11 (Construction) 624.15 (Structural Engineering). In the Roadmap, however, the hierarchy is bypassed, so as to assign to a single topic of research all the Dewey numbers that are relevant, so as to reect the contribution of dierent disciplines to the study of every given topic. As the title of this publication declares, the Roadmap is a tool for future research. The organization of hundreds of research topics needs to be supported by a bibliographical backbone, considering literature on the topic and the state of the art of two preliminary steps of scientic research. In the present document, however, it has not been possible to assign a Dewey number to all topics suggested. The DDC number that matches the suggested research topics (or categories/subcategories) could thus act as a navigator in the world of libraries and publications. The Dewey number will summarize in one nomenclature a whole complexity of books that the researcher could autonomously nd, choose and even implement.

24 | Introduction and Background

621.042 Energy engineering 621.389 Security, sound recording, related systems 621.4 Prime movers and heat engineering 621.4022 Heat transfer 621.45 Wind engines 621.47 Solar-energy engineering 621.8 Machine Engineering 621.8676Escalators 621.877Elevators 624 Civil Engineering 624.15 Foundation engineering and engineering geology 624.17 Structural analysis and design 624.171 Specic elements of structural analysis 624.172Loads 624.175 Wind loads 624.176 Stresses and strains (Deformation) 624.177 Structural design and specic structural elements 624.1771 Structural design 624.1773 Trusses and frames 628.1 Water supply 628.92 Fire safety and re ghting technology 628.922 Fire safety technology 628.9223 Fireproong and re retardation 628.9225 Fire detection and alarm 629.2772 Heaters, ventilators, air-conditioners 640 Home & Family Management 644.6Plumbing 650 Management & Public Relations 657.833 Finance and real estate 658.2 Plant management 658.202 Maintenance management 658.404 Project management 658.4083 Protection of environment 658.477 Protection against res and other disasters 658.5 Management of production 658.562 Quality control 658.7 Management of materials 659Advertising & public relations 690 Building & Construction 690.028 Auxiliary techniques and procedures, apparatus, equipment 690.0287 Buildingsconstructionmeasurement 690.1832 Escalatorsbuilding construction 690.22 Provision for safety 690.24 Maintenance and repair 691 Building materials 691.1Timber 691.2 Natural stones 691.3 Concrete and articial stones 691.4 Ceramic and clay materials 691.5 Masonry adhesives 691.6Glass 691.7 Iron and steel (Ferrous metals) 691.8Metals 691.9 Other building materials 691.95 Insulating materials 692 Auxiliary construction practices 692.3 Construction specications 692.5 Estimates of labor, time, materials 693.8 Construction for specic purposes 693.82 Fireproof construction 693.832 Thermal insulation 693.85 Shock-resistant construction

693.852 Earthquake-resistant construction 693.892 Waterproof construction 693.96Glass 693.97 Prefabricated materials 696Utilities 697 Heating, ventilating, air-conditioning engineering

700 Arts & Recreation 710 Landscaping & Area Planning 711 Area planning (Civic art) 711.4 Local community planning (City planning) 711.42 Plans based on environment 711.7 Transportation facilities 711.73 Motor vehicle transportation facilities 720 Architecture 720.2 Miscellany 720.286Remodeling 720.288 Maintenance and repair 720.47 Architecture and the environment 720.472 Energy resources 720.48 Buildings by shape, buildings with atriums 720.483 Tall buildings 720.87 Disabled peoplearchitecture for 720.9 Historical, geographic, persons treatment 721.0449 Other materials 721.04496 Glassarchitectural construction 721.04497 Prefabricated materialsarchitectural construction 721.2 Walls 721.83 Means of vertical access 721.832Stairs 721.833Elevators 725.38 Motor Vehicle Transportation Buildings 729Design & decoration 729.1 Design in vertical plane 729.24 Interior arrangement 729.28Lighting 729.29Acoustics 740 Drawing & Decorative Arts 747 Interior decoration

Introduction and Background |25

1. Urban Design, City Planning and Social Issues


Questionnaire Sample In which geographical region is your involvement in the eld of Urban Design, City Planning and Social Issues mainly located?

Africa Middle East Asia Australasia Europe North America Central America South America Worldwide 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% First questionnaire Second questionnaire

Has your knowledge in the eld of Urban Design, City Planning and Social Issues been applied to any of the following outputs, specic to tall buildings?

Patents and/or the industrial development of products/components/materials Built/future tall building projects Published journal papers Book contributions Conference papers/presentations Funded research projects None of the above 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% First questionnaire Second questionnaire

Please note: The percentages above may total greater than 100% due to responders option to choose multiple answers

Urban Design, City Planning and Social Issues |27

Phase 1: Identifying Priority Topics


Priority Ranking
The Research Tree presented here outlines the various topics identied in questionnaire 1 as deserving priority research in the eld of Urban Design, City Planning and Social Issues. These have been grouped together by commonality, and were later ranked by importance and immaturity in questionnaire 2, to determine the nal results (see Evaluation and Ranking of Topics on the following page). Here topics are organized by broad categories and subcategories, with the numbers in parentheses denoting each elds Dewey Decimal Classication, which can be used for further enquiry or research in each area. For a more in-depth explanation of this system, along with a key, please refer to pages 2325.

Field

Category

Subcategory

Topic No.
1.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Social Issues (307.76)

2.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Social Issues (307.76)

Public Acceptance/Criticism of Tall Buildings (720.483)

14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . City Planning and Zoning (711; 711.4; 711.42; 720.47) 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Urban Design, City Planning and Social Issues (711; 307.76)

Density (307.2; 711.42)

6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Skyline (307.1)

Urban Design (711.4)

Integration into the Historical Urban Realm (363.69) Transportation and Infrastructure Implications (711.7)

4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

25. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Environmental Performance at the Urban Scale (711.42; 551.525)

28 | Urban Design, City Planning and Social Issues

Phase 2: Evaluation and Ranking of Topics


responders to rank and score all topics based on their importance (1 = not at all important, 5 = extremely important) and immaturity (1 = not at all immature, 5 = extremely immature). These scores have been combined to create a Priority index, which in turn leads to a Priority Ranking (listed on the left). The ranking highlights the topics which are most deserving of priority research in the eld in the coming years. The top ve scores are highlighted in yellow for easy reference. For a more in-depth explanation of these denitions, please refer to page 18.

Topic
. . . . . . . . . . . Research examining the social sustainability of tall buildings at an urban/city scale (including impact on social behavior, community and lifestyle, societal needs for tall buildings, ghettoization, social impact in dierent geographical locations, etc.) . . . . . . . . . . . Research to determine optimum height, density and massing of tall buildings to provide appropriate social interaction and communities at an urban/city scale . . . . . . . . . . . Research examining the cultural impact of tall buildings at an urban/city scale . . . . . . . . . . . Research examining tall building demographics and living trends . . . . . . . . . . . Research exploring the formation of ghost towns and their relationship with rapid urban growth and high-density construction

4.7 3.2 7.8 4.5 3.1 7.6 4.2 3.2 7.4 4.0 3.0 7.0 3.5 3.3 6.8

. . . . . . . . . . . Research exploring public acceptance and pride related to tall buildings (including in dierent contexts, NIMBYism, etc.)

3.8 3.4 7.2

. . . . . . . . . . . Research to examine and improve the pedestrian realm at ground-oor level in and around tall building developments (including public amenities, social spaces, development of regulations, etc.) . . . . . . . . . . . Research on tall building city planning and regulatory policies (including local city plans, planning for changing demographics, political and nancial policies, urban design standards, etc.) . . . . . . . . . . . Research on horizontal connectivity and skybridges in tall buildings, and their ability to create alternative layers of public realm at height in the city . . . . . . . . . . . Research exploring appropriate tall building heights for urban development (including how high is too high? , existing height restriction zones, etc.) . . . . . . . . . . . Research examining the appropriate context for tall building zoning/development (including suburban opportunities) . . . . . . . . . . . Research on the development of tools and software to model cities and precincts to test the impact of tall buildings . . . . . . . . . . . Research examining the impact of tall building development on the surrounding realm (e.g., impact on character, circulation, property values) . . . . . . . . . . . Research exploring the possibilities for outdated, vacant high-rise housing developments (e.g., demolish, refurbish, renovate, etc.) . . . . . . . . . . . Research examining the safety of land used to construct tall buildings (including impact of former uses, remediation strategies, hazardous operations and substances, etc.) . . . . . . . . . . . Research examining the impact of density and the creation of tall buildings on the availability of public open spaces . . . . . . . . . . . Research to establish what densities are achievable in tall buildings and cities . . . . . . . . . . . Research on the relationship between density, sustainability and tall buildings (including urban versus suburban development, analysis of case studies, etc.) . . . . . . . . . . . Research to establish alternative models to high-density urban living

4.6 3.0 7.6 4.5 2.9 7.4 3.9 3.4 7.3 4.3 2.9 7.2 4.1 2.9 7.1 4.1 2.9 7.0 4.3 2.7 7.0 3.8 3.1 6.9 3.6 3.0 6.6

4.3 3.1 7.4 4.3 3.0 7.3 4.2 2.9 7.1 3.9 3.0 6.9 4.1 2.8 6.8 4.0 2.6 6.6 3.7 2.8 6.5 4.3 3.2 7.5 3.8 3.4 7.1 4.5 2.8 7.3 4.3 3.0 7.3 4.1 2.8 6.9 4.3 3.0 7.2 3.8 3.3 7.1 4.0 3.1 7.1 3.9 3.0 6.9

. . . . . . . . . . . Research on the impact of tall buildings on city skylines (visual impact, public satisfaction, skyline identity, etc.) . . . . . . . . . . . Research on the impact of tall buildings on strategic urban views . . . . . . . . . . . Research on the role of the tall building as a city/regional icon

. . . . . . . . . . . . Research on the design and integration of tall buildings in or near historic urban districts (including UNESCO designated areas, regulatory systems, etc.)

. . . . . . . . . . . . Research on the integration of tall buildings into the European urban context

. . . . . . . . . . . . Research on tall building integration with mass transit systems (including impact of high-rise on the economics of mass transit, construction implications, capital expenditure needed by public agencies, architectural implications, etc.)

. . . . . . . . . . . . Research on the impact of tall buildings on urban mobility (including impact on existing transportation infrastructure, access to tall building areas, overcrowding, etc.) . . . . . . . . . . . . Research examining the impact of tall building development on local infrastructure services (water supply, electricity, gas, sewage capacity, etc.)

. . . . . . . . . . . Research on the environmental impact of tall buildings on the surrounding urban realm (including rights of light, rights of wind, wind downdraft on the pedestrian realm, etc.) . . . . . . . . . . . Research on district energy/water systems in tall building zones . . . . . . . . . . . Research on ground-level ecology and landscaping in and around tall building developments . . . . . . . . . . . Research exploring the impact tall buildings, and tall building clusters, have on the urban heat island eect

Urban Design, City Planning and Social Issues |29

Priority index *

* Priority Index: Following the identication of priority topics in questionnaire 1, a second questionnaire asked Importance Immaturity

Top-Five Priority Index Scores


Topic 1 Research examining the social sustainability of tall buildings at an urban/city scale (including impact on social behavior, community and lifestyle, societal needs for tall buildings, ghettoization, social impact in dierent geographical locations, etc.) 2 Research to determine optimum height, density and massing of tall buildings to provide appropriate social interaction and communities at an urban/city scale 3 Research to examine and improve the pedestrian realm at ground-oor level in and around tall building developments (including public amenities, social spaces, development of regulations, etc.) 4 Research on the design and integration of tall buildings in or near historic urban districts (including UNESCO designated areas, regulatory systems, etc.) 5 Research on tall building city planning and regulatory policies (including local city plans, planning for changing demographics, political and nancial policies, urban design standards, etc.) Priority Index 7.8

7.6

7.6

7.5

7.4

Highlighted Findings
In the eld of Urban Design, City Planning and Social Issues, 31 individual topics of relative importance and/or immaturity were recognized. Questionnaire responders in this eld gave high importance scores overall, with most topics receiving an average importance score greater than 4 (very important). No topic received a score below 3.5. In addition, the topic Research examining the social sustainability of tall buildings at an urban/city scale received the joint-highest average importance score (4.7) in any section of the Roadmap. This underlines the perceived importance of the broad research eld as a whole, and suggests that tall buildings may still be widely considered to be disconnected from the urban realm in the physical and social sense. Immaturity scores in the eld ranged from 2.63.4, with over 60% of topics receiving a score of 3.0 (moderately immature) or higher. These scores are somewhat lower than other elds, but still suggest knowledge related to Urban Design, City Planning and Social Issues is perceived as somewhat underdeveloped.

I think in headline terms what the results show in the area of Urban Design, City Planning and Social Issues, is that the integration of tall buildings within urban systems remain an important and under-researched area in the eld. It would seem that the social implications of tall buildings are particularly relevant to the discipline and I think this is the area that would concur with my own view of research gaps.
Michael Short, University of the West of England, Bristol, UK

Priority Research in the Field


One of the main ndings that can be drawn from the results is the need for more research related to the social sustainability of tall buildings at an urban scale, with the two highest scoring topics in the priority index concerned with this. Such ndings were also supported by the peer review panel.

We do need more research on livability in terms of inter-generational living. There is a huge dierence between high-rise buildings for seniors or for young single professionals, or for families with children. Are planners thinking about the kind of communities we want in terms of family structure? Otherwise, we could end up without the kind of age diversity (not to mention class diversity) that might not be healthy in the long run. Robert Lau, Roosevelt University & Jon DeVries, Marshall Bennett Institute of Real Estate, Chicago, USA
While research has been developing in this area, it is clear that social sustainability is still a signicant research gap and priority in the eld of tall buildings, with a need for examples of socially-successful vertical communities published as example case studies to educate those unfamiliar to this style of living.
30 | Urban Design, City Planning and Social Issues

Some of the more specic research statements grouped under the topic Research examining the social sustainability of tall buildings at an urban-city scale suggested by responders in the rst open-ended questionnaire include: How do megatall buildings impact human behavior within and around them? Research on the correlation between plot ratio and social behavior in urban habitats. Are tall buildings socially sustainable, and do they add significant benefit to cities vitality and the lifestyle of people living and working in cities?

Studies on whether tall buildings are a development for a limited, wealthy elite or whether the typology provides assets for a wider range of social groups within the city. Such studies should include the displacement of residents that may occur to make way for the tall building and could also include public resources (like green spaces or subway access) within the development. Studies related to urban density, in particular vertical density as a positive factor in the quality of urban life.

Two additional topics received high importance scores from the questionnaire responders. Research on tall building city planning and regulatory policies received an importance score of 4.5, although it is suggested by the peer review panel that such research can be tricky as some cities may not provide data relating to regulatory policies, and success stories do not necessarily mean that other city governments will follow suit. Research on tall building integration with mass transit systems also received an importance score of 4.5, with high-rise communities that prosper from ecient, accessible and aordable transportation considered worthy of signicant focus.

Additional Research Gaps


It is interesting to note that the top three research gaps in this eld did not rank in the top 5 priority index nding. Three topics received the highest immaturity score of 3.4 (between moderately immature and very immature) and can thus be considered as research gaps in the eld. These are: Research on horizontal connectivity and skybridges in tall buildings Research exploring public acceptance and pride related to tall buildings Research on the integration of tall buildings in the European urban context

Some aspects of research related to the impact of tall buildings on the physical urban realm were considered a lower priority by responders, with Research on the role of the tall building as a city/regional icon, Research on the impact of tall buildings on strategic urban views, Research on the impact of tall buildings on city skylines and Research examining the impact of tall building development on the surrounding realm all receiving lower scores overall. This may be due to the maturity of such studies, with signicant work on zoning and skylines already undertaken. The main exception here is Research on the design and integration of tall buildings near historic urban districts, which achieved the fourth-highest priority index score in this section. This is likely due to recent and widely publicized debate regarding the placement of tall buildings in sensitive historic areas, such as controversies with regard to high-rises in UNESCO World Heritage Zones in London and St Petersburg.

Results Broken Down by Questionnaire Responders


Responders who completed the second questionnaire in this section have a professional background in the following disciplines:

Academia/University/Research43% Industry: Architectural/Urban Planning 43% Industry: Other 14%

Results by Professional Background


Responders in this eld were quite evenly distributed between the academic and industrial realm, with most from the latter being in the architecture/ urban planning eld. Outlined below are the three highest-scoring topics for academic and industrial responders respectively: Academia/University/Research Research examining the social sustainability of tall buildings at an urban/city scale (8.0) Research to determine optimum height, density and massing of tall buildings to provide appropriate social interaction and communities at an urban/city scale (7.9) Research examining the impact density and the creation of tall buildings has on the availability of public open spaces (7.8)

Urban Design, City Planning and Social Issues |31

Industry: Architecture/Urban Planning Research examining the social sustainability of tall buildings at an urban/city scale (7.6) Research to examine and improve the pedestrian realm at ground-floor level in and around tall building developments (7.5) Research on tall building city planning and regulatory policies (7.5)

The results show that both groups consider research on the social sustainability of tall buildings to be the greatest priority. However, those in industry gave more emphasis to research on the pedestrian realm and planning and regulatory policies, no doubt due to these being among the primary issues architects face in the realization of high-rises.

Results by Geographical Area


The locations of building/research projects with which responders are involved with are based across a wide range of geographical areas, although with no representation of the Middle Eastern region. Outlined below are the three highest-scoring topics for the four best-represented geographical areas: Asia Research examining the social sustainability of tall buildings at an urban/city scale (7.5) Research on tall building integration with mass transit systems (7.5) Research on the design and integration of tall buildings in or near historic urban districts (7.4)

Australasia Research to establish alternative models to high-density urban living (8.0) Research to determine optimum height, density and massing of tall buildings to provide appropriate social interaction and communities at an urban/city scale (8.0) Research on horizontal connectivity and skybridges in tall buildings, and their ability to create alternative layers of public realm at height in the city (7.9) Europe Research on tall building city planning and regulatory policies (7.8) Research examining the impact density and the creation of tall buildings have on the availability of public open spaces (7.8) Research on the design and integration of tall buildings in or near historic urban districts (7.8)

North America Research examining the social sustainability of tall buildings at an urban/city scale (9.2) Research examining the impact density and the creation of tall buildings have on the availability of public open spaces (8.6) Research to determine optimum height, density and massing of tall buildings to provide appropriate social interaction and communities at an urban/city scale (8.5) Here, results show that while social sustainability of tall buildings at an urban/city scale is the top research priority in North America and Asia, in Europe responders gave greater priority to regulatory policies and the integration of tall buildings in historic environments, likely due to the more complex/ onerous planning laws and challenges facing high-rise construction in that continent.

32 | Urban Design, City Planning and Social Issues

2. Architecture and Interior Design


Questionnaire Sample In which geographical region is your involvement in the eld of Architecture and Interior Design mainly located?

Africa Middle East Asia Australasia Europe North America Central America South America Worldwide 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% First questionnaire Second questionnaire

Has your knowledge in the eld of Architecture and Interior Design been applied to any of the following outputs, specic to tall buildings?

Patents and/or the industrial development of products/components/materials Built/future tall building projects Published journal papers Book contributions Conference papers/presentations Funded research projects None of the above 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% First questionnaire Second questionnaire

Please note: The percentages above may total greater than 100% due to responders option to choose multiple answers

Architecture and Interior Design |33

Phase 1: Identifying Priority Topics


Priority Ranking
The Research Tree presented here outlines the various topics identied in questionnaire 1 as deserving priority research in the eld of Architecture and Interior Design. These have been grouped together by commonality, and were later ranked by importance and immaturity in questionnaire 2, to determine the nal results (see Evaluation and Ranking of Topics on the following page). Here topics are organized by broad categories and subcategories, with the numbers in parentheses denoting each elds Dewey Decimal Classication, which can be used for further enquiry or research in each area. For a more in-depth explanation of this system, along with a key, please refer to pages 2325.

Field

Category

Subcategory
Architectural Concepts (720.483)

Topic No.
8.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Relationship with Climate and Context (720.47)

Architectural Design (720.48)

Building Form and Shape (720.48)

Architecture and Interior Design (720; 729; 747)

Architectural and Design Team Interactions (720.2)

7.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Typologies and Mixed-Use (architectural, technological, performances, etc.) (720.9)

16. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Occupant Experience and Needs (155.94)


Occupant Experience and Needs (155.94)

Layout of Floor Plate and Inuence of Internal Function (729.24)

Planning and Interior Design (747)

Service Core Design (621.8; 690.1832; 721.83)

23. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Accesibility and Parking (711.73; 725.38)

22. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Visual/Acoustic Quality of Internal Space (729.28; 729.29)

34 | Architecture and Interior Design

Phase 2: Evaluation and Ranking of Topics


responders to rank and score all topics based on their importance (1 = not at all important, 5 = extremely important) and immaturity (1 = not at all immature, 5 = extremely immature). These scores have been combined to create a Priority index, which in turn leads to a Priority Ranking (listed on the left). The ranking highlights the topics which are most deserving of priority research in the eld in the coming years. The top ve scores are highlighted in yellow for easy reference. For a more in-depth explanation of these denitions, please refer to page 18.

Topic
. . . . . . . . . . . Research to develop new architectural concepts for tall building design (including biomimicry, adaptive forms, etc.) . . . . . . . . . . . Research and development of tall building architectural concepts informed by structural behavior

4.0 3.2 7.3 4.4 2.6 7.0 4.6 2.9 7.4 4.4 2.8 7.2 3.6 3.4 7.0 3.9 3.1 7.0 4.3 2.6 6.9 3.7 3.0 6.7 3.2 3.1 6.4 4.4 2.9 7.3 3.8 3.4 7.2

. . . . . . . . . . . Research on architectural strategies to improve tall buildings integration and relationship with the surrounding urban context . . . . . . . . . . . Research on architectural strategies to improve tall buildings relationship with the local climate (including orientation, form, impact on shading, etc.) . . . . . . . . . . . Research on the possibilities for vernacular architecture to inspire and inform the design of high-rise buildings

. . . . . . . . . . . Research to develop tools and software to assist architects in designing, controlling and managing complex tall building forms . . . . . . . . . . . Research to explore and develop tall building forms that maximize functionality and eciency . . . . . . . . . . . Research to explore the shape and form of tall building podiums, shafts and crowns and the relationship between these three elements and the surrounding context . . . . . . . . . . . Research on the use of complex, asymmetric and free-form architectural forms in tall buildings . . . . . . . . . . . Research to develop and improve coordination and interaction between the dierent disciplines involved in the design of tall buildings . . . . . . . . . . . Research to explore the challenges and solutions to international consultants expertise being curtailed at the design development stage in the design of tall buildings in China (including impact on building performance, quality, design compliance, etc.)

. . . . . . . . . . . Research exploring the opportunities and challenges for alternative functions and programs in tall buildings (e.g., beyond oce, residential and hotel) . . . . . . . . . . . Research examining mixed-use tall buildings (including optimization of functions, benets and challenges of mixed-use high-rise, etc.) . . . . . . . . . . . Research and development of databases containing tall building information (including built and unbuilt projects) . . . . . . . . . . . Research examining the history of tall buildings . . . . . . . . . . . Research on the impact living in tall buildings has on families with children, and strategies to make high-rise living more appropriate for families with children . . . . . . . . . . . Research on the experience, happiness and satisfaction of those who live and work in tall buildings . . . . . . . . . . . Research on the needs of the elderly and disabled with respect to high-rise living . . . . . . . . . . . Research to improve the social-communal experience of occupants in tall buildings (including appropriate mix of functions, humanizing tall building environments, strategies to foster community, etc.) . . . . . . . . . . . Research on the impact sky gardens and sky courts have on occupants social behavior in tall buildings . . . . . . . . . . . Research on the services and functions that would satisfy tenants in mixed-use tall building . . . . . . . . . . . Research on the impact smart-building technologies have on the planning, interior design and tenant experience of tall buildings . . . . . . . . . . . Research on the design of plant/technical spaces and oors in tall buildings . . . . . . . . . . . Research to establish best-practice tall building oor plate metrics for dierent heights and functions (e.g., column spacing, lease span, ceiling heights, core size, MEP spaces, toilets) . . . . . . . . . . . Research to improve the exibility and adaptability of tall building oce interiors (including technological advances, adaptable partitions, M&E implications, etc.) . . . . . . . . . . . Research to improve the functionality and eciency of tall building internal layouts

3.9 3.1 7.0 4.2 2.9 7.0 3.9 3.0 6.9 3.3 2.7 6.0 4.3 3.6 7.9

4.3 3.4 7.6 4.0 3.6 7.6 4.2 3.3 7.5 4.0 3.3 7.3 3.8 3.3 7.1 4.0 3.3 7.2 3.8 3.0 6.8 3.8 2.9 6.7 3.9 2.8 6.7 3.9 2.8 6.7

. . . . . . . . . . . Research on service-core design in tall buildings (including improving space eciency, alternatives for location, development of design metrics, etc.)

3.9 2.9 6.8

. . . . . . . . . . . Research on public accessibility of tall buildings (including street-level spaces and spaces at height such as high level restaurants, viewing galleries, etc.) . . . . . . . . . . . Research on the integration of vehicular parking into tall building design and operation

3.8 3.1 6.9 3.4 3.1 6.4 4.2 3.0 7.2 4.1 3.1 7.1

. . . . . . . . . . . Research on the use of atria in tall buildings for visual communication, natural ventilation, social interaction, daylighting, etc. . . . . . . . . . . . Research on the eective use and planning of the perimeter zone of tall building oor plates (including light, glare, thermal and acoustic performance, etc.)

Architecture and Interior Design |35

Priority index *

* Priority Index: Following the identication of priority topics in questionnaire 1, a second questionnaire asked Importance Immaturity

Top-Five Priority Index Scores


Topic 1 Research on the impact living in tall buildings has on families with children, and strategies to make high-rise living more appropriate for families with children 2 Research on the experience, happiness and satisfaction of those who live and work in tall buildings Priority Index 7.9

7.6

3 Research on the needs of the elderly and disabled with respect to high-rise living 4 Research to improve the social-communal experience of occupants in tall buildings (including appropriate mix of functions, humanizing tall building environments, strategies to foster community, etc.) 5 Research on architectural strategies to improve tall buildings integration and relationship with the surrounding urban context

7.6

7.5

7.4

Highlighted Findings
In the eld of Architecture and Interior Design, 31 individual topics of relative importance and/or immaturity were recognized. By nature this is a broad and holistic eld, encompassing a wide range of research topics related to the other ten elds found in the Roadmap. It also received the greatest number of responders with 22% of all responders answering the second questionnaire. Responders generally gave high importance scores overall, with 15 of the 31 topics receiving an average importance score of greater than 4 (very important). The average immaturity score for all topics fell within the 2.63.6 range, with over 60% of topics scoring 3.0 (moderately immature) or greater, suggesting a perceived need for future research development.

Priority Research in the Field


Perhaps the most signicant nding is the clear and denitive need for more research on the socio-physiological experience of occupants living and working in tall buildings, with ve of the six highest-ranked topics related to this. In fact, it is striking how so many of the topics in this subcategory of Occupant Experience and Needs were ranked highly by responders, with topics related to specic design issues ranked in the middle, and those concerned with tall building functionality and eciency generally receiving lower scores. This focus on occupant experience in tall buildings highlights the desire for prioritizing research on the needs of those not typically associated with high-rise living, including families with children, the elderly and disabled. This may be fuelled in part by increasing urbanization, population growth and changing demographics, and the recognizable concept that more of us will need to live at higher densities in the future.

Given the worlds aging population, the most relevant area could be Research on the needs of the elderly and disabled with respect to high-rise living. This can be researched with regard to measurable criteria relating to physical limitations that the elderly and disabled face. Research into issues related to loss of memory, confusion and other mental instabilities would also be worthwhile. Moira Moser, FAIA, M Moser Associates, Hong Kong, China
This perceived research priority concerned with social sustainability and occupants experience is reected and strengthened by similar results found at an urban-city scale in Section 1 of the Roadmap, Urban Design, City Planning and Social Issues (see page 27). The highest average importance score in this section (4.6) was given to Research on architectural strategies to improve tall buildings integration and relationship with the surrounding urban context. However, in this instance, this conicts with some results from the Urban Design, City Planning and Social Issues eld, with topics such as Research on the role of the tall building as a city/regional icon, Research on the impact of tall buildings on

36 | Architecture and Interior Design

strategic urban views and Research on the impact of tall buildings on city skylines perceived as being lower priorities in that eld. However, Research on the design and integration of tall buildings near historic urban districts was highly ranked in the Urban Design, City Planning and Social Issues eld. This demonstrates how perhaps some aspects of tall buildings relationship with the surrounding urban context are perceived as being of greater research priority than others, and the additional specicity presented in Section 1 sheds light onto this.

Additional Research Gaps


In terms of immaturity, it is again the topics related to the living experience of families, children, the elderly and disabled that received the highest immaturity score of 3.6 (between moderately immature and very immature) and can thus be considered as the main research gaps in the eld. Perhaps somewhat surprisingly, those topics related to the functionality and eciency of tall building design (including interior layouts, oor plate metrics, plant and technical spaces, core design, etc.) were perceived as being lower research priorities, receiving lower importance and lower immaturity scores. These topics remain key drivers to tall building development, and signicant information and experience in these areas exists in the professional realm. However, this is not to say that research should ignore the functionality of high-rises, as reected by the opinions of the peer review panel.

Research to explore and develop tall building forms that maximize functionality and eciency is probably the biggest topic of them all, even if it is a mature one. Javier Quintana de Ua, IE School of Architecture, Madrid, Spain

Results Broken Down by Questionnaire Responders


Responders that completed the second questionnaire in this section have a professional background in the following disciplines:

Architectural Urban Design


Academia

Industry: Architectural/Urban Planning 59% 25%

Engineering Academia/University/Research Consultants Industry: Other

Other (mostly Engineering) 16%

Results by Professional Background


Responders in this eld predominantly represent two professional backgrounds, those in architecture/urban planning and academics. The remainder (around 16%) are a mixture of engineers, owners and consultants. Outlined below are the three highest scoring topics for each of these groups respectively: Industry: Architecture/Urban Planning Research on the impact living in tall buildings has on families with children, and strategies to make high-rise living more appropriate for families with children (8.4) Research on the experience, happiness and satisfaction of those who live and work in tall buildings (8.3) Research on the needs of the elderly and disabled with respect to high-rise living (8.0)

Academia/University/Research Research on the impact living in tall buildings has on families with children, and strategies to make high-rise living more appropriate for families with children (7.6) Research on the experience, happiness and satisfaction of those who live and work in tall buildings (7.3) Research on the needs of the elderly and disabled with respect to high-rise living (7.3)

Industry: Other (mostly Engineering) Research on architectural strategies to improve tall buildings integration and relationship with the surrounding urban context (8.0) Research on the impact living in tall buildings has on families with children, and strategies to make high-rise living more appropriate for families with children (7.9) Research on the needs of the elderly and disabled with respect to high-rise living (7.8)
Architecture and Interior Design |37

This highlights the consistency of the results, with all groups giving priority to research on occupant experience and lifestyle, with specic focus on families, children, the elderly and disabled.

Results by Geographical Area


The locations of building/research projects with which responders are involved are based across a wide range of geographical areas, although almost half work in Asia, the center of high-rise construction today. Outlined below are the three highest-scoring topics for the four best-represented geographical areas: Asia Research on the impact living in tall buildings has on families with children, and strategies to make high-rise living more appropriate for families with children (7.7) Research on the needs of the elderly and disabled with respect to high-rise living (7.5) Research on the experience, happiness and satisfaction of those who live and work in tall buildings (7.4)

Europe Research on architectural strategies to improve tall buildings relationship with the local climate (7.8) Research on the impact living in tall buildings has on families with children, and strategies to make high-rise living more appropriate for families with children (7.7) Research to develop and improve coordination and interaction between the different disciplines involved in the design of tall buildings (7.6)

North America Research on the impact living in tall buildings has on families with children, and strategies to make high-rise living more appropriate for families with children (8.7) Research on the experience, happiness and satisfaction of those who live and work in tall buildings (8.6) Research to improve the social-communal experience of occupants of tall buildings (8.4)

Middle East Research on the impact living in tall buildings has on families with children, and strategies to make high-rise living more appropriate for families with children (7.7) Research on the needs of the elderly and disabled with respect to high-rise living (7.6) Research on the experience, happiness and satisfaction of those who live and work in tall buildings (7.5)

Again, this shows a consistency in terms of the perceived need for priority research related to occupant lifestyle in tall buildings, families, children, the elderly and disabled, across multiple geographic areas.

38 | Architecture and Interior Design

3. Economics and Cost


Questionnaire Sample In which geographical region is your involvement in the eld of Economics and Cost mainly located?

Africa Middle East Asia Australasia Europe North America Central America South America Worldwide 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% First questionnaire Second questionnaire

Has your knowledge in the eld of Economics and Cost been applied to any of the following outputs, specic to tall buildings?

Patents and/or the industrial development of products/components/materials Built/future tall building projects Published journal papers Book contributions Conference papers/presentations Funded research projects None of the above 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% First questionnaire Second questionnaire

Please note: The percentages above may total greater than 100% due to responders option to choose multiple answers

Economics and Cost |39

Phase 1: Identifying Priority Topics


Priority Ranking
The Research Tree presented here outlines the various topics identied in questionnaire 1 as deserving priority research in the eld of Economics and Cost. These have been grouped together by commonality, and were later ranked by importance and immaturity in questionnaire 2, to determine the nal results (see Evaluation and Ranking of Topics on the following page). Here topics are organized by broad categories and subcategories, with the numbers in parentheses denoting each elds Dewey Decimal Classication, which can be used for further enquiry or research in each area. For a more in-depth explanation of this system, along with a key, please refer to pages 2325.

Field

Category
Large Scale Economic Dynamics (333)

Subcategory
Response to Economic Cycles (338.542) Risk Assessment (338.54) Economic Context (333.337) Land Acquisition (333.332)

Topic No.
1.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

9.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Economics Related to the Country/City (333.337; 338.9)

Public-Private Partnerships (338.73) Economic Impact on the City and Surroundings (330.91732)

22. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Economics and Cost (330; 692.5)

Building Cost (692.5)

5.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Life-cycle Cost Analysis (338.927)

4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Economics Related to the Building and Occupier (692.5)

Quality and Design Decisions (658.5; 690.0287) Layout (333.338) Maintenance and Refurbishment (690.24)

Marketability of Tall Buildinga (657.833)

24. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Economics Related to Materials and Components (692.5)

Economics Related to Materials and Components (692.5)

6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

40 | Economics and Cost

Phase 2: Evaluation and Ranking of Topics


responders to rank and score all topics based on their importance (1 = not at all important, 5 = extremely important) and immaturity (1 = not at all immature, 5 = extremely immature). These scores have been combined to create a Priority index, which in turn leads to a Priority Ranking (listed on the left). The ranking highlights the topics which are most deserving of priority research in the eld in the coming years. The top ve scores are highlighted in yellow for easy reference. For a more in-depth explanation of these denitions, please refer to page 18.

Topic
. . . . . . . . . . . Research on tall buildings nancial relationship with global economic cycles and conditions

4.7 3.2 7.9

. . . . . . . . . . . Research on economic risk assessment of tall buildings

4.2 3.1 7.3

. . . . . . . . . . . Research on tall building economics and nancial feasibility in developing countries . . . . . . . . . . . Research on the impact of local regulations, laws of ownership, and market conditions on tall building construction

4.1 3.4 7.5 3.7 3.2 6.9

. . . . . . . . . . . Research on the cost of land versus the market value of tall buildings

4.0 3.3 7.3

. . . . . . . . . . . Research on public-private partnerships in the development of tall buildings, and their role in future cities

3.6 3.4 7.0

. . . . . . . . . . . Research to determine the holistic economic benets and costs of tall building construction on the city/surrounding urban area (including direct tax benets and indirect employment tax/spending benets, impact of creating recognizable icons on the city, value of surrounding area, externalities, etc.) . . . . . . . . . . . Research on the aordability of socially sustainable high-rise housing

4.4 3.5 7.9 4.0 3.5 7.5 4.4 3.5 7.9 4.4 3.3 7.7 4.4 3.2 7.6 3.8 3.5 7.3

. . . . . . . . . . . Research to establish cost metrics for key architectural decisions and dierent building types (including location, height, land-use, footprint, oor-to-oor, structural systems, etc.) . . . . . . . . . . . Research on strategies to reduce construction costs of tall buildings . . . . . . . . . . . Research on the relationship between sustainability and tall building economics . . . . . . . . . . . Research on tall building cost modeling techniques (including better integration into the design process, integrated performance and cost modeling, etc.)

. . . . . . . . . . . Research on the life-cycle cost analysis of tall buildings (including development of methodologies, creation of a database of results, etc.) . . . . . . . . . . . Research on the use of BIM and its impact on the life-cycle cost of tall buildings . . . . . . . . . . . Research on the relationship between quality of space and architecture (including iconic buildings) and cost . . . . . . . . . . . Research on occupant comfort in tall buildings and its relationship to productivity

4.3 3.5 7.8 3.3 3.7 7.0 3.7 3.7 7.4 3.8 3.3 7.1 3.8 3.5 7.3 3.3 3.4 6.7 4.3 3.3 7.6 3.5 3.5 7.0

. . . . . . . . . . . Research on the economic implications of exibility and adaptability of mixed-use high-rise developments . . . . . . . . . . . Research on the economic impact (cost and revenue) of dierent tall building oce layouts . . . . . . . . . . . Research on the economic comparison of tall building renovation versus demolition and rebuild . . . . . . . . . . . Research exploring the economic implications of tall building maintenance and inspection (including when to undertake inspections, who pays for maintenance if there are multiple owners, etc.)

. . . . . . . . . . . Research on rental trends and vacancy rates in tall buildings (including to what level governments / the private sector should control construction of tall buildings that are destined to remain vacant due to market conditions)

3.7 3.0 6.7

. . . . . . . . . . . Research on the life-cycle costs of dierent faade solutions in tall buildings . . . . . . . . . . . Research on the life-cycle costs of dierent structural framing systems in tall buildings . . . . . . . . . . . Research on the life-cycle costs related to the vertical transportation of people and goods within tall buildings . . . . . . . . . . . Research on the life-cycle costs related to re safety and structural re protection in tall buildings . . . . . . . . . . . Research on strategies for alternative materials to be considered during the design process in order to adapt to the volatility of material costs

4.2 3.5 7.7 3.9 3.4 7.3 4.0 3.2 7.2 3.8 3.4 7.2 3.6 3.1 6.7

Economics and Cost |41

Priority index *

* Priority Index: Following the identication of priority topics in questionnaire 1, a second questionnaire asked Importance Immaturity

Top-Five Priority Index Scores


Topic 1 Research on tall buildings nancial relationship with global economic cycles and conditions 2 Research to determine the holistic economic benets and costs of tall building construction on the city/surrounding urban area (including direct tax benets and indirect employment tax/spending benets, impact of creating recognizable icons on the city, value of surrounding area, externalities, etc.) 3 Research to establish cost metrics for key architectural decisions and dierent building types (including location, height, land-use, footprint, oor-to-oor, structural systems, etc.) 4 Research on the life-cycle cost analysis of tall buildings (including development of methodologies, creation of a database of results, etc.) 5 Research on strategies to reduce construction costs of tall buildings Priority Index 7.9

7.9

7.9

7.8

7.7

Highlighted Findings
In the eld of Economics and Cost, 26 individual topics of relative importance and/or immaturity were recognized. This section of the Roadmap received the lowest number of questionnaire responses among all categories, despite specic eorts from the authors to reach out to experts in eld (for details on the methodology see page 18). This is surprising, considering recent global economic instabilities and the role of economics and cost as key drivers in the design and construction of high-rise buildings. This lack of responders is also reected in the high immaturity scores given to topics in the eld, with none of the 26 topics receiving an average score lower than 3.0 (moderately immature). This suggests either a lack of knowledge in the eld, or more probably, a lack of available published data and studies in a discipline led predominately by consultants/professionals who may not be able to disseminate certain information due to condentiality issues.

The lack of research on the subjects outlined in Economics and Cost is caused by the absence of building-specic data, mainly due to owner condentiality issues. The absence of a large number of buildings disclosing data regarding their cost, sustainability indicators and other quantitative elements leads researchers to examine only case studies of certain buildings or a very limited number of buildings with available data. Soa Dermisi, Roosevelt University & Jon DeVries, Marshall Bennett Institute of Real Estate, Chicago, USA
Knowledge in the eld can be expanded by exploring avenues for the release of such information, or through the development of other strategies to overcome this hurdle (e.g., development of appropriate methodologies, assumptions, etc.). Similar trends in terms of research immaturity and lack of available data were also found in the Energy: Performance, Metrics and Generation eld on page 95.

Priority Research in the Field


Three topics scored an average priority index value of 7.9. One of these, Research to determine the holistic economic benets and costs of tall building construction on the city/surrounding urban area aims to dene the broader (and more dicult to determine) economic impact of tall building construction at a city/regional scale. It includes the following specic research ideas, grouped together under this topic, and suggested by responders in the rst open-ended questionnaire: Research on the fiscal benefits of high-rise development to local, state/provincial, and national governments including direct tax benefits and indirect employment tax/spending benets. Research on the economic benefits and costs of tall buildings to urban area governments particularly to counter NIMBY anti-density zoning decisions. Determination of the true economic benefits (if any) of using tall buildings to create identifiable iconic landmarks in developing countries.

42 | Economics and Cost

Studies on the socio-economic impact of tall buildings on the urban environment and the financial returns of tall buildings on the social fabric of city planning and urbanization. Residential development does it help or hinder the scale and value of nearby or contiguous commercial/office development?

The other two highest-ranked topics are Research to establish cost metrics for key architectural decisions and dierent building types and Research on tall buildings nancial relationship with global economic cycles and conditions. The latter also scored the joint highest average importance score in the entire Roadmap (4.7) likely fueled by current global economic instabilities and well-publicized suggestions of links between the construction of the worlds tallest buildings and business cycles. Research on the life-cycle cost analysis of tall buildings also scored highly with responders, having the fourth-highest priority index score. Related topics dealing with the life-cycle cost of specic tall building elements were also included in this eld, with the life-cycle cost of faades, structural framing, vertical transportation systems and re safety and structural re protection all individually ranked (6th, 14th, 17th and 18th respectively). In this instance, Research on the life-cycle costs of dierent faade solutions in tall buildings was ranked by far the highest, with greater importance and higher immaturity scores than the other topics. As such, it can be considered a priority area for further research in the eld of life-cycle costing.

Results Broken Down by Questionnaire Responders


Due to the limited number of responders, it is not practical/valuable to break the results down by geographical area or professional background.

Economics and Cost |43

4. Structural Performance, Multi-Hazard Design and Geotechnics


Questionnaire Sample In which geographical region is your involvement in the eld of Structural Performance, Multi-Hazard Design and Geotechnics mainly located?
Africa Middle East Asia Australasia Europe North America Central America South America Worldwide 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% First questionnaire Second questionnaire

Has your knowledge in the eld of Structural Performance, Multi-Hazard Design and Geotechnics been applied to any of the following outputs, specic to tall buildings?

Patents and/or the industrial development of products/components/materials Built/future tall building projects Published journal papers Book contributions Conference papers/presentations Funded research projects None of the above 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% First questionnaire Second questionnaire

Please note: The percentages above may total greater than 100% due to responders option to choose multiple answers

Structural Performance, Multi-Hazard Design and Geotechnics |45

Phase 1: Identifying Priority Topics


Priority Ranking
The Research Tree presented here outlines the various topics identied in questionnaire 1 as deserving priority research in the eld of Structural Performance, Multi-Hazard Design and Geotechnics. These have been grouped together by commonality, and were later ranked by importance and immaturity in questionnaire 2, to determine the nal results (see Evaluation and Ranking of Topics on the following page). Here topics are organized by broad categories and subcategories, with the numbers in parentheses denoting each elds Dewey Decimal Classication, which can be used for further enquiry or research in each area. For a more in-depth explanation of this system, along with a key, please refer to pages 2325.

Field

Category

Subcategory
In General (624.15)

Topic No.
39. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Building Foundations and Geotechnics (624.15)

Related to Special Conditions (seismic, hurricane) (693.8; 693.852)

38. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Structural Design and Specic Structural Elements (624.1771)

48. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Irregular and Complex Forms (624.177)

8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Structural Performance, Multi-Hazard Design and Geotechnics (624)

Structural Systems and Design (624.17)

Ecient and Sustainable Structures (720.47; 624.17)

15. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Resistance of Structural Connections (624.1773)

42. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Code Issues (624)

Structural Analysis, General (624.17) Building Motion and Occupant Comfort (620.11243; 620.11248; 624.171; 624.172)

43. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Structural Behavior (624.17)


Wind Engineering (620.11243; 620.11248; 624.175)

46 | Structural Performance, Multi-Hazard Design and Geotechnics

Phase 2: Evaluation and Ranking of Topics


responders to rank and score all topics based on their importance (1 = not at all important, 5 = extremely important) and immaturity (1 = not at all immature, 5 = extremely immature). These scores have been combined to create a Priority index, which in turn leads to a Priority Ranking (listed on the left). The ranking highlights the topics which are most deserving of priority research in the eld in the coming years. The top ve scores are highlighted in yellow for easy reference. For a more in-depth explanation of these denitions, please refer to page 18.

Topic
. . . . . . . . . . . Research on the impact of foundation and soil-structure interaction on drift simulations of tall buildings . . . . . . . . . . . Research on sustainability opportunities for tall building foundation design (including reuse of old foundations, etc.) . . . . . . . . . . . Development of techniques for the assessment of geotechnical parameters in tall building foundation design

3.7 3.2 6.9 3.1 3.6 6.7 3.9 2.8 6.7

. . . . . . . . . . . Research on the design and performance of tall building foundations under wind and seismic loads

4.2 2.8 6.9

. . . . . . . . . . . Research on the structural design and performance of alternative patterns for perimeter grid-structures (e.g. triangular, hexagonal, mixed triangular-hexagonal) . . . . . . . . . . . Research on the design and performance of stiened and un-stiened steel shear wall structural systems . . . . . . . . . . . Research on structural oor systems in tall buildings

3.5 3.1 6.6 3.5 3.0 6.5 3.8 2.2 6.0

. . . . . . . . . . . Research on the design and performance of structural systems for complex tall building forms and geometries

4.1 3.2 7.3 4.0 3.3 7.4 4.0 3.3 7.4 4.2 3.1 7.3 3.8 3.3 7.1 4.0 2.9 6.8 4.0 2.8 6.8 3.9 2.6 6.5 3.7 2.7 6.4 3.6 3.6 7.2 3.7 3.3 7.0 3.1 3.2 6.3 3.7 3.2 6.8 4.0 3.1 7.1 4.0 3.4 7.4 4.0 3.3 7.4 4.1 3.3 7.4 3.9 3.2 7.2 4.1 3.0 7.1 3.5 3.3 6.9

. . . . . . . . . . . Research on structural optimization opportunities to increase eciency and reduce embodied energy, material resources and cost (including lighter/stronger structural systems, material advancements, optimization of form, reduction of deadweight, etc.) . . . . . . . . . . . Research to determine life-cycle analysis data for tall building structural systems . . . . . . . . . . . Research on the use of sustainable construction materials and components in tall building structural systems . . . . . . . . . . . Research on structural connections/joints to enable greater reuse and recycling of structural elements

. . . . . . . . . . . Research on the design and performance of structural connections in tall buildings (including impact on speed of construction, gravity shear connections, three-dimensional behavior, mega-steel-concrete interfaces, etc.) . . . . . . . . . . . Research on structural connection ductility in tall buildings (including impact on alternative load paths, code implications, etc.) . . . . . . . . . . . Research on the design and performance of core-wall coupling beams . . . . . . . . . . . Research on the design and performance of column-base connections (including uplift during wind and seismic events) . . . . . . . . . . . Research on the opportunities and challenges in the unication of international building codes . . . . . . . . . . . Research and review of the major design code boundaries on its prescriptions, including whether code prescriptions lack physical and rational grounding in terms of tall buildings . . . . . . . . . . . Research on the structural implications of planning and building permit procedures for tall building construction . . . . . . . . . . . Research on the sequential analysis of tall building structures with dierent structural systems

. . . . . . . . . . . Research on human acceptability of tall building dynamics

. . . . . . . . . . . Development of approximate tools for optimization in the early stages of high-rise design for wind (including aerodynamic databases and other approximate tools and rules based on shape, height, slenderness, exposure, structural system, etc.) . . . . . . . . . . . Research to improve wind engineering education for tall building design professionals . . . . . . . . . . . Research on performance-based wind engineering methods in tall buildings (including time domain analysis, non-linear eects, etc.) . . . . . . . . . . . Development of wind statistics for use in tall building design and analysis (including directionality, storm types, geographic variations, impact of climate change, etc.) . . . . . . . . . . . Research on appropriate criteria for tall building motions and deections under wind action . . . . . . . . . . . Research on the impact of architectural form (including micro-features such as balconies) on tall building response to wind loads

Structural Performance, Multi-Hazard Design and Geotechnics |47

Priority index *

* Priority Index: Following the identication of priority topics in questionnaire 1, a second questionnaire asked Importance Immaturity

6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Seismic Design (620.11243; 620.11248; 624.172; 693.852) 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Structural Behavior (624.17)


Damping and Damping Systems (620.3)

25. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Structural Performance, Multi-Hazard Design and Geotechnics (624)

Shortenings of Columns and Core (620.1124; 620.11242)

27. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Structural Failure (363.34; 620.112)

Robustness and Progressive Collapse (620.1123)

11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Multi-Hazard Design and Mitigation (624.171) 5.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Monitoring Systems and Measurement (620.110287)

1.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Structural Monitoring and Simulation (620.110287)


Structural Simulation and Software (624.17)

2.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

48 | Structural Performance, Multi-Hazard Design and Geotechnics

. . . . . . . . . . . Research on strategies and methodologies to determine appropriate tall building seismic performance (considering uncertainties in earthquake magnitude, needs of users and communities, etc.) . . . . . . . . . . . Research on the assessment of seismic hazards (including vulnerability of existing tall buildings, impact on existing developed areas, seismic mapping of under-mapped areas, etc.) . . . . . . . . . . . Research on increasing the resilience and structural reliability of high-rise buildings subject to seismic loading . . . . . . . . . . . Research on the performance-based seismic design of tall buildings (including practical and simplied methods, scale-up method, non-linear time history analysis, serviceability analysis, impact in dierent regions of seismicity, etc.) . . . . . . . . . . . Research on tall building behavior in seismic events . . . . . . . . . . . Research on the seismic design of prestressed, precast concrete tall buildings with residential function

4.3 3.2 7.4 4.3 3.1 7.4 4.2 3.2 7.4 4.3 2.9 7.2 4.3 2.9 7.2 3.4 3.3 6.7

. . . . . . . . . . . Research on the use of supplemental damping materials as a strategy to control building and substructure responses . . . . . . . . . . . Research on the design and behavior of passive damping systems in tall buildings . . . . . . . . . . . Research examining the opportunities for the multi-functional use of heavy or large building systems or elements to form part of a tall building damping strategy . . . . . . . . . . . Research on the design and behavior of active damping systems in tall buildings

3.5 3.6 7.2 3.9 3.2 7.1 3.3 3.8 7.1 3.5 3.4 7.0

. . . . . . . . . . . Development of construction technologies and strategies to compensate for axial shortening and shrinkage in tall buildings

3.8 3.4 7.1

. . . . . . . . . . . Research on progressive collapse in tall buildings (including behavior of dierent structural systems, tying forces, mitigation strategies, etc.)

4.1 3.3 7.4

. . . . . . . . . . . Research to improve tall building protection from multi-hazard events such as seismic and wind events, blast, plane impact, tornadoes, etc. (including robustness, structural optimization, etc.) . . . . . . . . . . . The development of design criteria to determine the appropriate level of safety for tall buildings in extreme events (such as seismic and wind events, blast, plane impact, tornadoes, etc.) . . . . . . . . . . . Research on the development of holistic performance-based multi-hazard design and analysis of tall buildings across multiple disciplines . . . . . . . . . . . Development of methodologies for evaluating risk to, and reliability of, new and existing tall buildings in extreme event scenarios (such as seismic and wind events, blast, plane impact, tornadoes, etc.) . . . . . . . . . . . Research on tall building facility management strategies in extreme event scenarios (including contingency plans for unintended overloading of structural elements, etc.)

3.9 3.6 7.5 4.1 3.3 7.4 3.8 3.7 7.4 4.0 3.4 7.4 3.6 3.8 7.3

. . . . . . . . . . . Research on tall building structural behavior in extreme events and under unconventional loads such as blasts, large displacements, airplane impacts, etc. 3.6 3.6 7.2

. . . . . . . . . . . Research on the development and implementation of real-time structural monitoring of completed tall buildings (including the creation of a database of results, comparison with design assumptions, determining actual performance such as in-situ natural frequency, damping, vertical shortening, acceleration, creep, etc.)

4.2 3.7

7.9

. . . . . . . . . . . Research on the validation of modelling assumptions for wind and seismic loading . . . . . . . . . . . Research on the use of computational uid dynamic tools and models in the structural/wind design of tall buildings . . . . . . . . . . . Development of tools and models to adequately capture tall building response to seismic loads . . . . . . . . . . . Research on the use of parametric modeling in the design and verication of tall building structural systems (including development of form, structural dimensioning and geometry, simulation of wind loads, provision of instant feedback, etc.) . . . . . . . . . . . The use of software to assess and visualize serviceability issues in tall buildings, such as lateral acceleration and long-term deformation . . . . . . . . . . . Research on strategies and tools to allow for the automated design and construction of tall buildings and their structural systems . . . . . . . . . . . Research on the application of BIM tools for the integrated planning of tall buildings and their structural systems . . . . . . . . . . . Development of strategies and methodologies for establishing accurate estimates of wind loads on tall buildings by using wind tunnel testing

4.1 3.4 7.5 3.7 3.6 7.3 4.1 3.1 7.2 3.7 3.3 7.1 3.6 3.5 7.0 3.2 3.7 7.0 3.6 3.1 6.7 3.9 2.5 6.4

Structural Performance, Multi-Hazard Design and Geotechnics |49

Top-Five Priority Index Scores


Topic 1 Research on the development and implementation of real-time structural monitoring of completed tall buildings (including the creation of a database of results, comparison with design assumptions, determining actual performance such as in-situ natural frequency, damping, vertical shortening, acceleration, creep, etc.) 2 Research on the validation of modelling assumptions for wind and seismic loading 3 Research to improve tall building protection from multi-hazard events such as seismic and wind events, blast, plane impact, tornadoes, etc. (including robustness, structural optimization, etc.) 4 The development of design criteria to determine the appropriate level of safety for tall buildings in extreme events (such as seismic and wind events, blast, plane impact, tornadoes, etc.) 5 Research on the development of holistic performance-based multi-hazard design and analysis of tall buildings across multiple disciplines Priority Index 7.9

7.5

7.5

7.4

7.4

Highlighted Findings
In the eld of Structural Performance, Multi-Hazard Design and Geotechnics, 54 individual topics of relative importance and/or immaturity were recognized, giving this section the largest number of topics available for responders to rank. Some of these topics are interlinked, with broader research areas spread over a number of statements that were individually scored by responders. This section received the second-greatest number of responders to questionnaire 2, behind only Architecture and Interior Design. Due to the number of topics and specialities covered in the questionnaire (e.g., wind engineering, seismic design, geotechnics) this eld returned a higher number of unanswered responses than any of the other ten research areas. However, blank responses made up less than 11% of the total number of responses available. In keeping with common themes throughout the Roadmap, responders considered many of the topics important, with 43% scoring an importance value of 4.0 or greater (very important). Likewise, it was felt that many topics also had room for signicant development, with 81% receiving an immaturity score of 3.0 or greater (moderately immature).

Priority Research in the Field


The highest ranked topic identied by responders is Research on the development and implementation of real-time structural monitoring of completed tall buildings. This is supported by the peer review panel, who suggest such instruments will provide data valuable to the owner and engineering team to assess likely damage immediately following an earthquake, and to the design community to calibrate and further improve design procedures:

The survey results state loud and clear that instrumentation of tall buildings can oer very valuable data to verify design assumptions and may lead to new knowledge. However, to accomplish this, more building owners should be willing to share such information for the benet of advancing knowledge. That is a challenge, particularly in some parts of the world. Abbas Aminmansour, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, USA
Beyond this, a number of research topics related to the broader concept of performance-based design are highly ranked by responders. These include: Research on the validation of modeling assumptions for wind and seismic loading (priority rank 2) The development of design criteria to determine the appropriate level of safety for tall buildings in extreme events (priority rank 4) Research on the development of holistic performance-based multi-hazard design and analysis of tall buildings across multiple disciplines (priority rank 5) Research on strategies and methodologies to determine appropriate tall building seismic performance (priority rank 6)

50 | Structural Performance, Multi-Hazard Design and Geotechnics

Development of methodologies for evaluating risk to, and reliability of, new and existing tall buildings in extreme event scenarios (priority rank 9) Research on performance-based wind engineering methods in tall buildings (priority rank 14) Research on the performance-based seismic design of tall buildings (priority rank 21)

Performance-based seismic design is a common strategy used in tall buildings in some countries, which perhaps explains why the last of these topics listed above was ranked lower (Research on performance-based seismic design of tall buildings received a high importance score of 4.3, but also a low immaturity score of 2.9, suggesting the topic is relatively well developed). Results here suggest the need for priority research on performancebased design in other elds too, such as wind engineering and multi-hazard design, in order to determine the level of performance needed for tall buildings in terms of both safety and serviceability.

There is currently a lot of discussion (in North America) about performance-based design for wind, similar to the way performance-based design has entered into the seismic eld. Peter Irwin, Rowan Williams Davies & Irwin, Guelph, Canada
A related trend, suggesting priority research identifying specic design-level re scenarios for which tall buildings are expected to meet some level of safety performance, is also recognized in the Fire and Life Safety eld (see page 61). The trend of priority research on material sustainability and embodied energy is a common theme throughout the Roadmap (see Building Materials and Products, page 75). However, within this eld, topics such as structural optimization opportunities to increase eciency and reduce embodied energy, life-cycle analysis data for tall building structural systems and the use of sustainable construction materials and components are ranked slightly lower, being 13th, 15th and 18th respectively. It is suggested, however, that this is to be expected:

It is not surprising to me that sustainability featured low in the priorities of structural engineers, since most believe that structural eciency equates very closely to sustainability. David Scott, Laing ORourke, London, UK
These topics are intrinsically linked to the theme of performance-based design as well. For example, Research on structural optimization opportunities to increase eciency and reduce embodied energy, material resources and cost cannot be considered without deciding what level of structural performance is acceptable, which again ties back to the concept of performance-based design. Topics in the category of Building Foundations and Geotechnics were generally ranked as low research priorities by responders (between 38th and 46th overall). This was, however, challenged by the peer review panel:

I found that tall building foundations are undermined in the survey, especially Research on the impact of foundation and soil-structure interaction on drift simulations of tall buildings. Hi Sun Choi, Thornton Tomasetti, New York, USA
Results Broken Down by Questionnaire Responders
Responders that completed the questionnaire in this section have a professional background in the following disciplines:

Academia Other

Industry: Engineering 69% 21%

Engineering Academia/University/Research

Industry: Other 10%

Structural Performance, Multi-Hazard Design and Geotechnics |51

Results by Professional Background


As expected, the majority of questionnaire responders are structural engineers working in the professional eld (with 84% of all responders having been involved in a built/future tall building project). Outlined below are the three highest-scoring topics for engineering, and the second-largest responder group, academics: Industry: Engineering Research on the development and implementation of real-time structural monitoring of completed tall buildings (8.0) Research on the validation of modeling assumptions for wind and seismic loading (7.7) Research on strategies and methodologies to determine appropriate tall building seismic performance (7.6)

Academia/University/Research Research on the development of holistic performance-based multi-hazard design and analysis of tall buildings across multiple disciplines (8.0) Research on the development and implementation of real-time structural monitoring of completed tall buildings (7.8) Research on the use of computational fluid dynamic tools and models in the structural/wind design of tall buildings (7.6)

Results by Geographical Area


The locations of building/research projects with which responders are involved are mainly in three geographical areas, namely North America, Asia and Europe. Outlined below are the three highest scoring topics for these regions: North America Research on the development and implementation of real-time structural monitoring of completed tall buildings (8.5) Research on the validation of modeling assumptions for wind and seismic loading (8.3) Research to determine life-cycle analysis data for tall building structural systems (7.8)

Asia Research on the development of holistic performance-based multi-hazard design and analysis of tall buildings across multiple disciplines (7.7) Research to improve tall building protection from multi-hazard events, such as seismic and wind events, blast, plane impact, tornadoes, etc. (7.7) Development of tools and models to adequately capture tall building response to seismic loads (7.6)

Europe Research to determine life-cycle analysis data for tall building structural systems (7.4) Research on progressive collapse in tall buildings (7.4) The development of design criteria to determine the appropriate level of safety for tall buildings in extreme events (7.4)

Trends that emerge from these results include: prioritizing multi-hazard and seismic design and performance in Asia, and greater consideration of lifecycle analysis of structural systems in the European and North American contexts.

52 | Structural Performance, Multi-Hazard Design and Geotechnics

5. Circulation: Vertical Transportation and Evacuation


Questionnaire Sample In which geographical region is your involvement in the eld of Circulation: Vertical Transportation and Evacuation mainly located?
Africa Middle East Asia Australasia Europe North America Central America South America Worldwide 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% First questionnaire Second questionnaire

Has your knowledge in the eld of Circulation: Vertical Transportation and Evacuation been applied to any of the following outputs, specic to tall buildings?

Patents and/or the industrial development of products/components/materials Built/future tall building projects Published journal papers Book contributions Conference papers/presentations Funded research projects None of the above 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% First questionnaire Second questionnaire

Please note: The percentages above may total greater than 100% due to responders option to choose multiple answers

Circulation: Vertical Transportation and Evacuation |53

Phase 1: Identifying Priority Topics


Priority Ranking
The Research Tree presented here outlines the various topics identied in questionnaire 1 as deserving priority research in the eld of Circulation: Vertical Transportation and Evacuation. These have been grouped together by commonality, and were later ranked by importance and immaturity in questionnaire 2, to determine the nal results (see Evaluation and Ranking of Topics on the following page). Here topics are organized by broad categories and subcategories, with the numbers in parentheses denoting each elds Dewey Decimal Classication, which can be used for further enquiry or research in each area. For a more in-depth explanation of this system, along with a key, please refer to pages 2325.

Field

Category

Subcategory

Topic No.
5.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Evacuation Procedures, Design and Best Practice (363.37; 620.86)

Circulation: Vertical Transportation and Evacuation (150.1; 628.92; 721.83)

Evacuation (620.86; 628.92; 363.34)

Evacuation by Stairs (721.832)

34. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Elevators for Evacuation (621.877; 721.833)

1.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Evacuation of the Impaired (620.82; 620.86; 720.87)

2.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Fire Crew Needs (363.378; 363.3781)

15. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Signaling and Messages in Evacuation Scenarios (621.389; 628.9225)

3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Human Behavior (155.93)

Human Behavior in Emergency Scenarios (155.93)

7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

54 | Circulation: Vertical Transportation and Evacuation

Phase 2: Evaluation and Ranking of Topics


responders to rank and score all topics based on their importance (1 = not at all important, 5 = extremely important) and immaturity (1 = not at all immature, 5 = extremely immature). These scores have been combined to create a Priority index, which in turn leads to a Priority Ranking (listed on the left). The ranking highlights the topics which are most deserving of priority research in the eld in the coming years. The top ve scores are highlighted in yellow for easy reference. For a more in-depth explanation of these denitions, please refer to page 18.

Topic
. . . . . . . . . . . Research on real-time tall building evacuation management strategies and technologies . . . . . . . . . . . Research on evacuation and life safety strategies for occupants in supertall buildings, i.e., those over 300 meters in height . . . . . . . . . . . Research on simultaneous evacuation design, strategies and implications in tall buildings . . . . . . . . . . . Research on tall building evacuation codes and standards internationally . . . . . . . . . . . Research on strategies for the training of occupants and re wardens (including communication in multi-lingual areas, ensuring training takes place and is repeated, the use of simulators for training, etc.) . . . . . . . . . . . Research on refuge oor design, strategies and implications in tall buildings (including opportunities for combining refuge oors with sky gardens for social-communal benets) . . . . . . . . . . . Research on phased evacuation design, strategies and implications in tall buildings . . . . . . . . . . . Research on appropriate occupant protection strategies (defend-in-place, relocate or evacuate) in tall buildings, their planning, design and implications . . . . . . . . . . . Research on alternative evacuation systems that allow for evacuation through the faade in emergency scenarios (including chutes, parachutes, slides, etc.)

4.2 3.6 7.8 4.5 3.3 7.8 4.5 3.1 7.7 4.1 3.5 7.7 4.1 3.4 7.6 4.0 3.4 7.4 4.2 2.9 7.1 4.0 3.0 7.1 2.8 4.2 7.0

. . . . . . . . . . . Research on planning, design and implications of tall building evacuation by stairs

3.7 2.6 6.3

. . . . . . . . . . . Research on the planning, design and implications of using elevators for evacuation in tall buildings . . . . . . . . . . . Research on the use of elevators for evacuation in extreme events, e.g., after an earthquake . . . . . . . . . . . Research examining the code requirements and standards associated with the use of elevators in evacuation scenarios internationally (including comparison and development of existing codes, development of new codes and recommendations, etc.)

4.6 3.7 8.3 4.2 3.6 7.8 4.2 3.4 7.6

. . . . . . . . . . . Research on appropriate evacuation and egress strategies for the disabled (including emergency planning, the use of safe zones, etc.)

4.5

3.5

. . . . . . . . . . . Research on re brigade access and operations during re/other emergency scenarios in tall buildings

4.2 3.1 7.3

. . . . . . . . . . . Research on strategies and technologies to deliver information to occupants in evacuation/emergency scenarios (including dynamic route guidance systems, integrated audio and video technology, wireless systems, occupants attitude toward such systems and conformance to legislation) . . . . . . . . . . . Research on what information needs to be delivered to occupants in evacuation / emergency scenarios (including best practice, issues of language, etc.)

4.0

3.8 7.8

4.0 3.6 7.6

. . . . . . . . . . . Research on human behavior in evacuation scenarios and risk perception associated with dierent evacuation strategies in tall buildings (including impact of 9/11, attitudes to evacuation in dierent buildings of dierent heights, impact of human behavior on design, etc.)

4.3 3.4 7.7

Circulation: Vertical Transportation and Evacuation |55

Priority index *
8.0

* Priority Index: Following the identication of priority topics in questionnaire 1, a second questionnaire asked Importance Immaturity

Vertical Trac (721.83)

20. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Escalators (621.8676)

36. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

16. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Elevator Trac Design (hardware solutions) (621.877; 721.833) 26. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Circulation: Vertical Transportation and Evacuation (150.1; 628.92; 721.83) Vertical Transportation Systems and Technologies (721.83)

Elevator Trac Design (software solutions) (621.877; 721.833; 519)

22. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Monitoring and Acquisition of Data (n/a)

31. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

33. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Modeling/Calculation of Egress Routes and Ancillary Areas (721.83)

17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Elevator Cabin Design (architectural, comfort, functionality) (721.833) Installation and Maintenance of Elevators (621.877)

37. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

24. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Sustainability Issues (621.877; 721.833; 720.47)

25. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

56 | Circulation: Vertical Transportation and Evacuation

. . . . . . . . . . . Research on people ow, occupant navigation and waynding in tall buildings . . . . . . . . . . . Research to improve and promote the use of stairs for occupant interconnectivity between oor plates (including impact on trac ow, re compartmentation issues, etc.) . . . . . . . . . . . Research on the use of sky lobby systems in tall building vertical transportation . . . . . . . . . . . Research on the history of elevators and vertical transportation systems

4.2 3.0 7.1 3.3 3.3 6.6 3.6 2.6 6.2 2.8 2.2 5.0

. . . . . . . . . . . Research on escalators and moving sidewalks and their application in tall building design

3.0 3.0 6.0

. . . . . . . . . . . Research on alternative ropeless traction systems such as linear induction, magnetic levitation, non-use of counter-weights, innite screws, horizontal/vertical movement systems, etc. . . . . . . . . . . . Research on the design and application of multiple elevator cars in a single hoistway and the impact on building design . . . . . . . . . . Research on the application of modern technologies to improve traditional elevator systems (such as disk brakes, strategies to reduce car weight, shaft area, energy consumption and life-cycle costs)

3.6 3.7 7.2 3.7 3.1 6.8 3.9 2.7 6.5

. . . . . . . . . . . Research on elevator destination control systems, user interfaces and usability (including integrated security turnstiles, remote input devices such as smart phones, individual GPS in building tracking locators, face recognition security and oor assignments, design and performance implications, etc.)

4.1 3.0 7.1

. . . . . . . . . . . Research to collect passenger demographics and occupant characteristics (elderly, disabled, families, obesity, average walking speeds, social distances, etc.) in tall buildings of dierent functions and in dierent locations and examination of the impact this will have on egress and evacuation systems

4.1 3.5 7.6 4.2 3.0 7.2 3.7 2.8 6.5 3.5 2.9 6.4

. . . . . . . . . . . Research to collect vertical transportation data in real tall buildings in dierent regions (including energy usage, comparison of theoretical and actual waiting times and destination times, etc.)

. . . . . . . . . . . Development of metrics for evaluation of tall building vertical transportation systems, including peak usage times, determination of service quality and regional dierences?

. . . . . . . . . . . Research to examine the eects of high-speed vertical transportation on the human ear, and to develop strategies to mitigate ear discomfort due to rapid pressure changes in elevators

. . . . . . . . . . . Modeling of people ow to validate tall building egress and evacuation data

4.1 3.1 7.2

. . . . . . . . . . . Development of models and tools to assist in the calculation of the number of egress routes and their key dimensions (stair widths, lobby sizes, elevator 3.8 2.7 6.5 systems, etc.) based on fundamental building data

. . . . . . . . . . . Research on the design of elevator cars (including aordability, functionality, standardization, architectural features, use of glass, etc.)

2.8 2.3 5.1

. . . . . . . . . . . Research on vertical transportation modernization and conguration changes in tall buildings . . . . . . . . . . . Research on obsolescence factors and loss of vertical transportation performance in tall buildings

4.0 3.0 7.0 3.3 3.3 6.6

. . . . . . . . . . . Research to develop calculations, models and metrics to determine the environmental life-cycle impacts of tall building vertical transportation systems (including embodied and operational emissions) . . . . . . . . . . . Research on the design and development of sustainable and energy-ecient vertical transportation systems and technologies (including regeneration drives, etc.)

4.0 2.6 6.5 3.7 3.1 6.8

Circulation: Vertical Transportation and Evacuation |57

Top-Five Priority Index Scores


Topic 1 Research on the planning, design and implications of using elevators for evacuation in tall buildings 2 Research on appropriate evacuation and egress strategies for the disabled (including emergency planning, the use of safe zones, etc.) 3 Research on strategies and technologies to deliver information to occupants in evacuation/emergency scenarios (including dynamic route guidance systems, integrated audio and video technology, wireless systems, occupants attitude toward such systems and conformance to legislation) 4 Research on the use of elevators for evacuation in extreme events, e.g., after an earthquake Priority Index 8.3

8.0

7.8

7.8

5 Research on real-time tall building evacuation management strategies and technologies

7.8

Highlighted Findings
In the eld of Circulation: Vertical Transportation and Evacuation, 38 individual topics of relative importance and/or immaturity were recognized. This eld show the greatest range of scores across the whole Roadmap, with topics receiving priority index scores ranging from 5.08.3, and importance scores of 2.84.6. As such, the data presents a clear hierarchy of research in terms of priority in the eld of tall buildings. Like many other elds, immaturity scores in this eld are relatively high, with 73% of topics scoring a value of 3.0 (moderately immature) or higher. This suggests a perceived need for increased research in the eld, to advance the typology in the coming years.

Priority Research in the Field


As outlined in the research tree, topics in this eld can be broken down into three main sections: Evacuation, Human Behavior and Vertical Transportation Systems and Technologies. These are quite clearly split in the ranking of topics, with those related to evacuation perceived to be a greater research priority, and those related to vertical transportation systems and technologies generally lower down the scale. This is perhaps not surprising given that evacuation tends to occur in hazardous scenarios (e.g., re, terrorism threats, earthquake) and is usually combined with an immediate threat to human life. The main outlier to this trend is the topic Research on planning, design and implications of tall building evacuation by stairs which was ranked as one of the lowest priorities in the eld. This is due in part to more developed research surrounding the topic (receiving an immaturity score of 2.6) when compared to other evacuation topics (which are typically in the range of 3.03.8), with responders clearly feeling knowledge related to evacuation by stairs is reasonably mature and thus not a current research priority. The highest-ranked topic, by some distance, is that of Research on the planning, design and implications of using elevators for evacuation in tall buildings, which received a priority index score of 8.3 the highest in the Roadmap overall, although tied with two topics in other categories. Despite considerable research in this area post 9/11, the use of elevators in evacuation scenarios is still rare in built high-rises. However, with the dramatic growth of more skyscrapers, and higher occupied oor levels, the development of elevator evacuation strategies and technologies for the safe and speedy evacuation of tall buildings is clearly seen as a major research priority by responders. This is also highlighted in other related and highly ranked topics such as Research on appropriate evacuation and egress strategies for the disabled, Research on the use of elevators for evacuation postextreme events and Research on evacuation and life safety strategies for occupants in supertall buildings.

[Emergency evacuation] has received much specic attention, and yet there remains great opportunity to improve in this area, specically regarding how and when elevators can be used. George von Klan, GVK Consulting, San Francisco, USA

58 | Circulation: Vertical Transportation and Evacuation

In terms of research related to non-emergency egress, the highest ranked topics are Research to collect passenger demographics and occupant characteristics in tall buildings of dierent functions and in dierent locations and examination of the impact this will have on egress and evacuation systems and Research on alternative ropeless traction systems, such as linear induction, magnetic levitation, non-use of counter weights, innite screws, horizontal/vertical movement systems, etc.

Additional Research Gaps


The topic Research on alternative evacuation systems that allow for evacuation through the faade in emergency scenarios received an immaturity score of 4.2 the highest in the Roadmap but also a low importance score of 2.8. This suggests that while it is a research gap, it is not currently seen as a viable approach to tall building evacuation, and not a research priority. Other topics that are not considered a research priority include Research on the history of elevators and vertical transportation systems and Research on the design of elevator cars receiving a priority index score of 5.0 and 5.1 respectively the lowest of any topics in the Roadmap. This is not to say that developments in these areas will not occur manufacturers will continue to improve and customize cabins and the interior environment of elevator cars but just that developments in these areas is perceived to be of very low priority for researchers in the eld. Topics related to life-cycle environmental impacts are ranked highly across a number of elds in the Roadmap, and yet here Research to develop calculations, models and metrics to determine the environmental life-cycle impacts of tall building vertical transportation systems is ranked only 25th overall, and 7th in the category of Vertical Transportation Systems and Technologies. This relatively low score is challenged by the peer review panel:

The energy eciency, and the larger category of total life-cycle cost and carbon footprint, of both elevators and their related impacts on the building (such as core and building systems impacts), remains an enormous opportunity. The calculations, models and metrics of the ways to optimize this have not been widely developed, disseminated or understood in a way that they can be applied consistently as a discipline in building design, or learned from operating buildings. George von Klan, GVK Consulting, San Francisco, USA
Results Broken Down by Questionnaire Responders
Responders that completed the second questionnaire in this section have a professional background in the following disciplines:

Industry: Other 54% Industry: Engineering 46%

Results by Professional Background


The majority of responders in this eld were other consultants with engineering the second-most represented profession. Outlined below are the three highest scoring topics for those from other professions grouped together and those with an engineering background respectively: Industry: Other Research on appropriate evacuation and egress strategies for the disabled (8.2) Research on evacuation and life safety strategies for occupants in supertall buildings, i.e., those over 300 meters in height (8.2) Research on the planning, design and implications of using elevators for evacuation in tall buildings (8.2)

Circulation: Vertical Transportation and Evacuation |59

Industry: Engineering Research on the planning, design and implications of using elevators for evacuation in tall buildings (8.4) Research on the use of elevators for evacuation in extreme events, e.g., after an earthquake (8.2) Research on real-time tall building evacuation management strategies and technologies (7.8)

These results show that all professional groups have in general prioritized tall building evacuation research over everyday egress-related topics, again, with an emphasis on research on elevator evacuation planning, design and implications.

Results by Geographical Area


The locations of building/research projects with which responders are involved are based across a wide range of geographical areas, with about a third working specically in North America. Responders of other areas are grouped together into a single category here, with most operating on a worldwide scale, or in Asia and Europe specically: North America Research on the use of elevators for evacuation in extreme events, e.g., after an earthquake (8.3) Research on the planning, design and implications of using elevators for evacuation in tall buildings (8.1) Research on real-time tall building evacuation management strategies and technologies (7.8)

Rest of the world (mostly worldwide, Europe and Asia) Research on the planning, design and implications of using elevators for evacuation in tall buildings (8.3) Research on strategies and technologies to deliver information to occupants in evacuation/emergency scenarios (8.1) Research on appropriate evacuation and egress strategies for the disabled (8.0)

These results demonstrate that research on elevators for evacuation is perceived as a signicant research priority in all the geographic areas represented.

60 | Circulation: Vertical Transportation and Evacuation

6. Fire and Life Safety


Questionnaire Sample In which geographical region is your involvement in the eld of Fire and Life Safety mainly located?

Africa Middle East Asia Australasia Europe North America Central America South America Worldwide 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% First questionnaire Second questionnaire

Has your knowledge in the eld of Fire and Life Safety been applied to any of the following outputs, specic to tall buildings?

Patents and/or the industrial development of products/components/materials Built/future tall building projects Published journal papers Book contributions Conference papers/presentations Funded research projects None of the above 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% First questionnaire Second questionnaire

Please note: The percentages above may total greater than 100% due to responders option to choose multiple answers

Fire and Life Safety |61

Phase 1: Identifying Priority Topics


Priority Ranking
The Research Tree presented here outlines the various topics identied in questionnaire 1 as deserving priority research in the eld of Fire and Life Safety. These have been grouped together by commonality, and were later ranked by importance and immaturity in questionnaire 2, to determine the nal results (see Evaluation and Ranking of Topics on the following page). Here topics are organized by broad categories and subcategories, with the numbers in parentheses denoting each elds Dewey Decimal Classication, which can be used for further enquiry or research in each area. For a more in-depth explanation of this system, along with a key, please refer to pages 2325.

Field

Category

Subcategory

Topic No.
2.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Life Safety in Tall Buildings (363.3)

Life Safety in Tall Buildings (363.3)

Building Management (628.922; 658.477) Legislation (628.92)

30. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Fire and Life Safety (363.37)


Smoke Management and Fire Control (628.9223)

8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Fire Scenarios and Mitigation (628.92)

Fire Modeling (628.92)

10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Fire Safety During Construction (363.37; 690.22)

29. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

62 | Fire and Life Safety

Phase 2: Evaluation and Ranking of Topics


responders to rank and score all topics based on their importance (1 = not at all important, 5 = extremely important) and immaturity (1 = not at all immature, 5 = extremely immature). These scores have been combined to create a Priority index, which in turn leads to a Priority Ranking (listed on the left). The ranking highlights the topics which are most deserving of priority research in the eld in the coming years. The top ve scores are highlighted in yellow for easy reference. For a more in-depth explanation of these denitions, please refer to page 18.

Topic
. . . . . . . . . . . Research to establish the impact of new sustainable materials, technologies and design strategies in tall buildings on re and life safety performance . . . . . . . . . . . Research to develop better collaborations between architects, re-engineers and the re-ghting community . . . . . . . . . . . Research focussing on re and life safety issues in tall buildings in developing and the least developed countries . . . . . . . . . . . Research to establish and examine what are the appropriate levels of re and life safety required in tall buildings as compared to other typologies . . . . . . . . . . . Research on re and life safety in tall buildings during disasters and extreme events . . . . . . . . . . . Research examining case studies of previous tall building life safety disasters, such as the collapse of the WTC Towers . . . . . . . . . . . Research on emergency power and generation systems in tall building

4.3 3.9 4.4 3.7

4.1 3.9 8.0 4.2 3.4 7.6 4.1 3.4 7.5 4.0 2.8 6.7 3.4 3.1 6.5

. . . . . . . . . . . Research examining disaster risk management and reduction planning in tall buildings . . . . . . . . . . . Research on tall building security systems and technologies

3.7 3.4 7.1 3.2 3.0 6.1

. . . . . . . . . . . Research on the performance based re and life-safety design of tall buildings and alternative means of legislative compliance

4.1 3.4 7.5

. . . . . . . . . . . Research and development of new construction materials suitable for tall buildings with increased re resistance and to improve overall re safety . . . . . . . . . . . Research on smoke control techniques specic to tall buildings . . . . . . . . . . . Research on the risk associated with re resistance reductions as a trade-o against automatic sprinkler protection in high-rise . . . . . . . . . . . Research on the spread of smoke through tall buildings and how construction products may inuence this . . . . . . . . . . . Research on vertical compartmentation in tall buildings (including development of materials and assemblies to improve performance) . . . . . . . . . . . Research on new and improved strategies to provide appropriate re and smoke protection of egress and evacuation spaces and systems in tall buildings . . . . . . . . . . . Research on the propagation of re through tall buildings and the impact space geometry, interior design and nishes can have on growth and severity . . . . . . . . . . . Research examining the capability of re compartmentation to contain all aspects of re including smoke and the inuence of any leakage on human behavior in evacuation scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . Research on the testing, quality control during installation and ongoing inspection of Spray-Applied Fire Resistive Materials (SFRM) . . . . . . . . . . . Research on the application and development of passive control/suppression systems for use in tall buildings . . . . . . . . . . . Research on the use of sprinklers in tall buildings (including development for multi-level re scenarios, interaction between sprinklers and smoke, etc.)

3.9 3.8 7.7 4.3 3.3 7.7 3.9 3.6 7.5 4.2 3.3 7.5 4.0 3.4 7.4 4.3 3.0 7.3 3.9 3.3 7.3 3.7 3.3 7.0 3.8 3.2 6.9 3.9 3.0 6.9 3.8 2.8 6.6 4.4 3.8 8.3 4.5 3.5 8.0 4.1 3.7 7.8 3.8 3.8 7.6 3.8 3.8 7.6 3.9 3.5 7.5 4.1 3.3 7.4 3.8 3.0 6.8 3.2 3.1 6.3

. . . . . . . . . . . Research to determine credible worst-case design res for tall buildings . . . . . . . . . . . Research and development of realistic re scenarios for the design of tall building structural re protection . . . . . . . . . . . Research on the validation and comparison between computational models and behavior in real tall building re scenarios (including connection response, shear failure modes, concrete spalling, pre-loading, etc.) . . . . . . . . . . . Research on the probabilistic approach to tall building design in re scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . Research and development of computational models, data and technologies to enhance automated building management operations and emergency response decision-making support (e.g. real-time monitoring of interior environment for re, response of systems, response of structure, etc.) . . . . . . . . . . . Research to develop and collate re protection, egress and communication system reliability and resiliency data . . . . . . . . . . . Research and development of tools and computational models for the design and analysis of tall buildings in re scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . Testing and development of standards for re/smoke penetration in tall buildings, and in particular oor-to-oor transmissions . . . . . . . . . . . Research to determine the level of re hazard posed by emergency generator fuel supply systems in tall buildings, and the necessary re resistance they require

. . . . . . . . . . . Research on the behavior and mitigation of re scenarios occurring during the construction period

3.8 3.5 7.2

Fire and Life Safety |63

Priority index *
8.2 8.1

* Priority Index: Following the identication of priority topics in questionnaire 1, a second questionnaire asked Importance Immaturity

Fire and Life Safety (363.37)

Structural Behavior in Fire Scenarios (624.176; 693.82)

Structural Fire Behavior (693.82)

6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Top-Five Priority Index Scores


Topic 1 Research to determine credible worst-case design res for tall buildings 2 Research to establish the impact of new sustainable materials, technologies and design strategies in tall buildings on re and life safety performance 3 Research to develop better collaborations between architects, re-engineers and the re-ghting community Priority Index 8.3

8.2

8.1

4 Research and development of realistic re scenarios for the design of tall building structural re protection

8.0

5 Research focussing on re and life safety issues in tall buildings in developing and the least developed countries

8.0

Highlighted Findings
In the eld of Fire and Life Safety, 43 individual topics of relative importance and/or immaturity were recognized. Research across a number of areas related to the re and life safety of tall buildings is clearly considered a priority by the questionnaire responders, with ve topics in this eld receiving a priority index score greater than 8.0. To put this into perspective, only nine topics in the entire Roadmap received such high scores. Such priority is no doubt linked to re and life safetys intrinsic relationship to occupant protection and wellbeing in hazardous and life-threatening scenarios. The perceived need for priority research in this eld is also reected in the high immaturity scores received by many topics, with 93% scoring 3.0 or higher, and several topics receiving scores closer to 4.0 (very immature). Research in this eld then is in need of notable further development in order to progress the re and life safety knowledge base in future years.

Priority Research in the Field


The highest ranked topic is Research to determine credible worst-case design res for tall buildings which scored a priority index value of 8.3 the joint highest in the Roadmap (with Research on the planning, design and implications of using elevators for evacuation in tall buildings and Research to determine and calculate the holistic and integrated sustainable performance of tall buildings see pages 54 and 96). Several highly ranked topics in this eld deal in some way with the need to identify specic design level re scenarios for which tall buildings are expected to meet some expected level of safety performance, and priority research in this broader area is suggested.

64 | Fire and Life Safety

. . . . . . . . . . . Research on opportunities for the integration of structural and re safety design in tall buildings . . . . . . . . . . . Research on the behavior of high and ultra-high strength structural concrete in re scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . Research on the behavior of plastic polymers and composites used in tall building structure in re scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . Research examining how structural performance in re scenarios can impact evacuation and means of escape in tall buildings . . . . . . . . . . . Research on the behavior and appropriate protection of tall building structural nodes and connections in re scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . Research examining the redundancy of high-rise structures in re scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . Research on the behavior of structural transfer systems in re scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . Research on the behavior of concrete lled composite columns in re scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . Research on the behavior of composite oor systems in re scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . Research on the behavior of tall building structures in multiple ignition re scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . Research on structural re protection systems and materials in tall buildings . . . . . . . . . . . Research on the application of the hydrocarbon time temperature curve in the structural design of tall buildings

4.3 3.5 7.8 3.9 3.6 7.5 3.8 3.6 7.4 4.0 3.5 7.4 4.0 3.4 7.4 4.0 3.4 7.4 3.9 3.4 7.3 3.9 3.4 7.3 3.8 3.2 7.1 3.2 3.8 7.0 3.9 2.9 6.9 2.9 3.4 6.3

The issue of specic design level re scenario standards for tall buildings has been raised by regulators in several countries utilizing performance-based regulatory systemsTo meet the normal rigors of regulatory control, these regulators need agreed sets of design level events that are applied to every building of similar use (risk) with the provision for additional scenarios that reect unique risks associated with a particular building or tenant. Richard Bukowski, Rolf Jensen and Associates, Washington D.C., USA
Interestingly, similar priority research topics related to establishing the level of structural performance in tall buildings in multi-hazard scenarios was also identied in the Structural Performance, Multi-Hazard Design and Geotechnics eld (see page 45). However, many consider the re control/ suppression system to play the most important role in preventing res from becoming a threat to a tall building structure:

We need to think more about actively managing res with high reliability re suppression systems, so that the likelihood of res threatening the structure becomes very low in the future. Of course, a proper degree of re resistive capability in the structural frame is always needed.
Daniel OConnor, AON Fire Protection Engineering Corporation, Chicago, USA

A further trend among highly ranked topics is that of collaboration between multiple disciplines (ranked 3rd priority), with calls for strategies to promote closer collaborations between architects, re-engineers and the re-ghting community and, in addition, more specic teams such as those involved in building sustainability: Research to establish the impact of new sustainable materials, technologies and design strategies in tall buildings on re and life safety performance (ranked 2nd priority), and structural engineering: Research on opportunities for the integration of structural and re safety design in tall buildings (ranked 6th priority). These concerns are driven by the complexity of high-rise and the recognition that design decisions aect multiple disciplines, and a lack of understanding and communication among consultants could cause challenges to high-rise development. It is interesting to note that this concept of collaboration is a common theme in a number of sections in the Roadmap. In the Architecture and Interior Design eld the topic Research to develop and improve coordination and interaction between the dierent disciplines involved in the design of tall buildings is the 7th highest ranked topic, with a score of 7.3. However, the links between sustainability and re and life safety are considered less of a priority by responders in the eld of Sustainable Design, Construction and Operation. Here the topics Research on strategies for the integrated analysis of energy conservation and safety and Research on the impact of, and balance between sustainable initiatives and tall building re and life safety were ranked lower, being 21st and 23rd in the list respectively (although with scores of 7.3 and 7.2, which are similar to the collaboration topic in the Architecture and Interior Design eld see pages 33 and 81). These dierences of opinion may be caused by such research only having a minimal impact on building sustainable performance, but at the same time having a potentially much greater impact on re and life safety. It is recognized that sustainability drives designs to employ materials and strategies whose re performance is not well documented, which is also reected in a high mean immaturity score of 3.9 (very immature) for the topic Research to establish the impact of new sustainable materials, technologies and design strategies in tall buildings on re and life safety performance.

Fire and Life Safety |65

An additional topic highly ranked, with a score of 8.0, is that of Research focusing on re and life safety issues in tall buildings in developing and least developed countries.

based on the observation that an increasing number of developing countries are the sites of tall (but not record height) buildings, re and life safety issues for tall buildings in developing countries is an important topic to be addressed. Further, even in developed countries tall buildings are increasingly being built in smaller cities that have never had to deal with the unique needs of tall buildings.
Richard Bukowski, Rolf Jensen and Associates, Washington D.C., USA

This also received the joint highest immaturity score in this eld (3.9) and can thus be considered a signicant gap in the knowledge base.

Results Broken Down by Questionnaire Responders


Responders that completed the second questionnaire in this section have a professional background in the following disciplines:

Industry: Engineering 42% Industry: Other 30% Academia/University/Research 27%

Results by Professional Background


The majority of responders in this eld were from an engineering background. Outlined below are the three highest scoring topics for engineering, other consultant and academic responders respectively: Industry: Engineering Research to determine credible worst-case design fires for tall buildings (7.9) Research on the risk associated with fire resistance reductions as a trade-off against automatic sprinkler protection in high-rise (7.9) Research and development of realistic fire scenarios for the design of tall building structural fire protection (7.9)

Industry: Other Research to establish the impact of new sustainable materials, technologies and design strategies in tall buildings on fire and life safety performance (9.2) Research to develop better collaborations between architects, fire-engineers and the fire-fighting community (9.0) Research on the probabilistic approach to tall building design in fire scenario (8.8)

Academia/University/Research Research to determine credible worst-case design fires for tall buildings (9.2) Research to develop better collaborations between architects, fire-engineers and the fire-fighting community (8.7) Research and development of realistic fire scenarios for the design of tall building structural fire protection (8.6)

Results by Geographical Area


The location of building/research projects with which responders are involved are based in North America (39%) and Europe (21%). Outlined below are the three highest scoring topics for these two areas, as well as for the other geographical regions combined: North America Research to determine credible worst-case design fires for tall buildings (7.9) Research focusing on fire and life safety issues in tall buildings in developing and the least developed countries (7.9) Research to develop and collate fire protection, egress and communication system reliability and resiliency data (7.8)

66 | Fire and Life Safety

Europe Research to determine credible worst-case design fires for tall buildings (9.4) Research to develop better collaborations between architects, fire-engineers and the fire-fighting community (9.4) Research and development of realistic fire scenarios for the design of tall building structural fire protection (9.1)

Other Research to establish the impact of new sustainable materials, technologies and design strategies in tall buildings on fire and life safety performance(8.8) Research on the probabilistic approach to tall building design in fire scenarios (8.3) Research to develop better collaborations between architects, fire-engineers and the fire-fighting community (8.2)

These results rstly highlight that responders who mostly work in the European context give very high priority to some of the topics in this eld, with scores greater than 9.0 suggesting topics are considered both extremely important, and very or extremely immature. Secondly, while there is commonality between some of the results (e.g., research to develop better collaborations, research to determine credible worst-case design res) the variability beyond this is perhaps a consequence of dierent regulations and prescriptions in terms of re and life safety that are present in dierent regions internationally.

Fire and Life Safety |67

7. Cladding and Skin


Questionnaire Sample In which geographical region is your involvement in the eld of Cladding and Skin mainly located?

Africa Middle East Asia Australasia Europe North America Central America South America Worldwide 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% First questionnaire Second questionnaire

Has your knowledge in the eld of Cladding and Skin been applied to any of the following outputs, specic to tall buildings?

Patents and/or the industrial development of products/components/materials Built/future tall building projects Published journal papers Book contributions Conference papers/presentations Funded research projects None of the above 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% First questionnaire Second questionnaire

Please note: The percentages above may total greater than 100% due to responders option to choose multiple answers

Cladding and Skin |69

Phase 1: Identifying Priority Topics


Priority Ranking
The Research Tree presented here outlines the various topics identied in questionnaire 1 as deserving priority research in the eld of Cladding and Skin. These have been grouped together by commonality, and were later ranked by importance and immaturity in questionnaire 2, to determine the nal results (see Evaluation and Ranking of Topics on the following page). Here topics are organized by broad categories and subcategories, with the numbers in parentheses denoting each elds Dewey Decimal Classication, which can be used for further enquiry or research in each area. For a more in-depth explanation of this system, along with a key, please refer to pages 2325.

Field

Category

Subcategory
Design, Construction and Installation of Faade (729.1)

Topic No.
16. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Design, Construction and Installation of Faade (721.2; 729.1)

1.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Design and Integration of Non-Standard Faade Systems and Materials (729.1; 721.0449; 720.48) 4.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Faade Access and Maintenance (690.24)

24. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Cladding and Skin (721.2; 729.1)

Retrot, Recycling and Reuse of the Building Faade (690.24)

Performance and Optimization of Faade (693.832; 729.1)

3.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Thermal Performance of Faade (693.832; 621.4022) Air/Water Tightness of Faade (693.892)

2.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

32. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Performance of Faade (729.1)

Wind Response of Faade (624.175)

22. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Light/Solar Transmission and Internal Visual Comfort (729.28; 152.14)

12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Glass Proprieties and Performance (693.96; 691.6; 721.04496)

31. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

70 | Cladding and Skin

Phase 2: Evaluation and Ranking of Topics


responders to rank and score all topics based on their importance (1 = not at all important, 5 = extremely important) and immaturity (1 = not at all immature, 5 = extremely immature). These scores have been combined to create a Priority index, which in turn leads to a Priority Ranking (listed on the left). The ranking highlights the topics which are most deserving of priority research in the eld in the coming years. The top ve scores are highlighted in yellow for easy reference. For a more in-depth explanation of these denitions, please refer to page 18.

Topic
. . . . . . . . . . . Research on the constructability of tall building faades (including minimizing worker risks during construction, prefabrication opportunities, etc.) . . . . . . . . . . . Research and development of tools and modeling software for the design of high-rise faades (including parametric modeling, optimization tools, software to develop complex faades, etc.) . . . . . . . . . . . Research on the factors aecting faade aesthetics in tall buildings (including examination of architectural languages, impact of color, reectivity, transparency and scale of patterns on the visual impact of the city, etc.)

4.2 3.0 7.2 3.9 3.1 7.0 3.7 3.2 6.9

. . . . . . . . . . . Research on the use of innovative/advanced materials and cladding systems in tall building faades (including composite materials, photochromatic glazing, aerogel, application of aerospace/shipbuilding technologies, etc.) . . . . . . . . . . . Research on the design, construction and performance of dynamic/active faade systems in tall buildings (including user control, development of standards and regulations, impact on energy performance and indoor climate, etc.) . . . . . . . . . . . Research on faade-integrated energy generation and collection systems in tall buildings (including building-integrated photovoltaics, wind energy systems, water collection, etc.) . . . . . . . . . . . Research on manufacturing techniques and systems for the production of free-form and complex faade panels and their xings

4.3

3.6

4.2 3.5 7.7 4.3 3.4 7.7 3.6 3.4 7.0

. . . . . . . . . . . Research on tall building faade cleaning, access and maintenance (including systems and strategies, automation, reducing worker risk, etc.)

3.9 3.1 7.0 4.2 3.5 7.7

. . . . . . . . . . . Research on design strategies, practices and guidelines for the recladding/retrot of tall building faades (including data benets of retrot, minimization of disruption to ongoing building operations, provision of easy change-out glass panels, etc.) . . . . . . . . . . . Research on the use of sustainable, recycled and reused materials in tall building faades (including reuse and recyclability attributes of materials commonly used in faades, strategies to promote greater reuse and recycling, etc.) . . . . . . . . . . . Research to establish the embodied energy of tall building faades (including the development of reliable, quickly-sourced metrics) . . . . . . . . . . . Research on the interactions between, and the integration of, tall building faades with space conditioning and HVAC systems . . . . . . . . . . . Research on the optimization of transparent elements in tall building faades, and strategies to balance the factors they regulate (e.g., balancing glare, thermal performance, daylighting performance, etc.) . . . . . . . . . . . Research on tall building faade design and performance in dierent climates and the impact climate has on high-rise envelopes (including performance, eciency, cost and durability in hot, tropical, arid, temperate climates etc.) . . . . . . . . . . . Research on the design and performance of faade-integrated greenery in tall buildings (including impact on interior comfort in dierent climates, impact on thermal performance of faade and U-values, etc.) . . . . . . . . . . . Research on the optimization of tall building faades based on function, room usage and meteorological climate changes with height

3.9 3.7 7.6

4.0 3.7 7.8 4.3 3.2 7.5 4.3 3.0 7.3 4.1 3.0 7.2 3.5 3.4 6.9 3.5 3.4 6.9

. . . . . . . . . . . Research to develop strategies and products to improve the thermal performance of tall building faades (including development of new products such as vacuum insulation panels, highly insulating but thin cladding products, improved thermal performance of framing components, etc.)

4.4

3.3

. . . . . . . . . . . Research on the testing and improvement of air-and-water tightness performance in tall building faades (including factors aecting seal material deterioration, air and vapor barrier design, interaction of setting blocks with metallic coatings in standing water, appropriate pressure in glazing units, etc.)

3.9

2.8

. . . . . . . . . . . Research on the impact of wind on faade design (including impact of appendages such as balcony guards and solar shading, wind tunnel testing, impact of neighboring buildings on envelope peak loads, etc.)

4.1

3.0

. . . . . . . . . . . Research on appropriate tall building faade shading strategies and technologies (including active and passive systems, impact of solar analysis on design, appropriate location and orientation of shading systems, etc.) . . . . . . . . . . . Research to develop guidelines, tools and techniques for the consideration of interior and exterior glare in highly glazed tall buildings . . . . . . . . . . . Research on the modeling and assessment of daylighting benets in tall buildings (economic impact, occupant benets, environmental quality, etc.)

4.3 3.1

3.9 3.3 7.2 4.1 3.0 7.1

. . . . . . . . . . . Research to improve the performance of glass in tall building faades (including development of coatings, self-cleaning glazing, manufacturing techniques to minimize distortion, improved thermal performance, safety and greater visual light transmission, etc.)

4.1 2.6 6.7

Cladding and Skin |71

Priority index *
7.9 7.8 6.7 7.1 7.4

* Priority Index: Following the identication of priority topics in questionnaire 1, a second questionnaire asked Importance Immaturity

Double-Skin and Ventilated Faades (729.1)

8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Cladding and Skin (721.2; 729.1)

Performance of Faade (693.8; 729.1)

Multi-Hazard Resistance (693.85)

7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Durability of Faade Materials and Components (620.1122)

13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Top-Five Priority Index Scores


Topic 1 Research on the use of innovative/advanced materials and cladding systems in tall building faades (including composite materials, photochromatic glazing, aerogel, application of aerospace/shipbuilding technologies, etc.) 2 Research to develop strategies and products to improve the thermal performance of tall building faades (including development of new products such as vacuum insulation panels, highly insulating but thin cladding products, improved thermal performance of framing components, etc.) 3 Research to establish the embodied energy of tall building faades (including the development of reliable, quickly-sourced metrics) 4 Research on the design, construction and performance of dynamic/active faade systems in tall buildings (including user control, development of standards and regulations, impact on energy performance and indoor climate, etc.) 5 Research on faade-integrated energy generation and collection systems in tall buildings (including building-integrated photovoltaics, wind energy systems, water collection, etc.) Priority Index 7.9

7.8

7.8

7.7

7.7

Highlighted Findings
In the eld of Cladding and Skin, 32 individual topics of relative importance and/or immaturity were recognized. Like many elds in the Roadmap, responders in this eld of consider research in this area as being both highly important and somewhat immature. In terms of importance, only ve of the 32 topics (16%) received an importance score lower than 3.9 (which is just below very important). In terms of immaturity, more than 90% of topics received an immaturity score of 3.0 (moderately immature) or greater.

Priority Research in the Field


A number of trends are apparent from the results. Firstly, there seems to be a perceived desire for priority research on new and innovative materials and faade systems in tall buildings with the topics Research on the use of innovative/advanced materials and cladding systems in tall building faades, Research on the design, construction and performance of dynamic/active faade systems in tall buildings and Research on faade-integrated energy generation and collection systems in tall buildings ranked 1st, 4th and 5th, respectively. This is perhaps inuenced by the fact that while faade design has evolved since the development of the glazed curtain wall, the standardized use of glass, aluminum and silicone still prevails in the majority of buildings. Opportunities to develop and use advanced and alternative materials and systems such as photochromatic glazing, aerogel, highly insulating panels, dynamic faade systems, faade-integrated photovoltaics, etc. are seemingly popular with those in the eld, and such developments are beginning to be realized in the as-built realm.

72 | Cladding and Skin

. . . . . . . . . . . Research on faade design strategies and technologies to allow for natural ventilation in tall buildings . . . . . . . . . . . Research on the design and performance of double-skin and multi-layer faades in tall buildings (including performance in dierent climates, examination of case studies, life-cycle cost implications, etc.)

4.3 3.3 7.6 4.1 3.0 7.2

. . . . . . . . . . . Research on the performance of the faade in re scenarios (including testing, impact on faade brackets, use of re protection, etc.) . . . . . . . . . . . Research on re performance and smoke control of double-skin assemblies in tall buildings . . . . . . . . . . . Research on the performance and design of compartmentation junctions between oors and faades in tall buildings . . . . . . . . . . . Research and testing of faade performance in earthquake and building motion scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . Research on blast and projectile impact on tall building faades (including mitigation, resistant constructions, etc.)

4.3 3.3 7.6 4.2 3.4 7.6 3.9 3.2 7.1 4.0 2.9 7.0 3.7 3.2 6.8

. . . . . . . . . . . Research examining safety and failure modes of tall building faade materials and systems (including glazing failure/falling, reliability of heattreated products, etc.) . . . . . . . . . . . Research on the durability of faade materials and components in tall buildings (including establishing material/component life-spans, impact of geographical location and local weather/atmospheric conditions, etc.)

4.2 3.2

7.3

4.1 3.1 7.2

It is important to note that these topics related to the research and development of innovative and non-standard products and systems are primarily concerned with improving the environmental performance of tall building faades, and this is reected in the second-highest ranked topic Research to develop strategies and products to improve the thermal performance of tall building faades. This includes specic calls for research on the development of new materials and products, including vacuum-insulation panels, highly insulating but thin cladding products, improved thermal performance of framing components, etc.

What I read from the responses in Cladding and Skin is that the over-riding concern expressed was for improvements to faade performance, which I interpret to mean environmental performance. The application of non-standard systems and materials was one way to potentially accomplish this goal. Peter Weismantle, AS+GG Architecture, Chicago, USA
A further trend apparent in the results is the desire for research on tall building faades beyond their day-to-day performance, encompassing sustainability across the entirety of their life-cycle. This is a theme that is repeated in multiple elds across the Roadmap (and specically in Building Materials and Products, and Sustainable Design, Construction and Operation see pages 75 and 81), and gives signicant priority to topics such as establishing the embodied energy of tall building faades, retrotting and recladding of tall building faades, and using sustainable, recycled and reused materials. These topics also received the highest immaturity scores in the eld, denoting the need for development in order to improve knowledge, understanding and information in these realms. Research related to the multi-hazard resistance of tall building faades was scattered throughout the rankings, with Research on the performance of the faade in re scenarios and Research on re performance and smoke control of double-skin assemblies in tall buildings receiving the highest priority scores in this subcategory. Topics related to faade performance in earthquake, blast and projectile impact scenarios were considered a much lower priority by those who responded to the questionnaire.

Results Broken Down by Questionnaire Responders


Responders who completed the second questionnaire in this section have a professional background in the following disciplines:

Industry: Other (mostly Engineering) 51% Academia/University/Research 28% Industry: Architecture/Urban Planning 22%

Cladding and Skin |73

Results by Professional Background


Other than academics (who make up just over a quarter of responders), it is important to note that those who completed the questionnaire are predominantly represented by architects, engineers and consultants who have been involved in built/future tall building projects and as such have a hands on knowledge in the eld. A signicant deciency in the results is the lack of feedback received from building owners, managers and tenants (i.e., those who occupy and manage the building during its life), although their response was limited in all the Roadmap categories. Listed below are the three highest-scoring topics from responders in the other consultancy (mostly engineering), academic and architecture/ urban planning realms respectively: Industry: Other (mostly Engineering) Research on the design, construction and performance of dynamic/active faade systems in tall buildings (8.2) Research on the use of innovative/advanced materials and cladding systems in tall building faades (8.2) Research on faade-integrated energy generation and collection systems in tall buildings (8.2)

Academia/University/Research Research to establish the embodied energy of tall building faades (8.4) Research on the design, construction and performance of dynamic/active faade systems in tall buildings (8.3) Research on the use of sustainable, recycled and reused materials in tall building faades (8.3)

Industry: Architecture/Urban Planning Research on faade-integrated energy generation and collection systems in tall buildings (8.6) Research to establish the embodied energy of tall building faades (8.2) Research on the optimization of transparent elements in tall building faades, and strategies to balance the factors they regulate (8.1)

Across all professional backgrounds, there was a general prioritization of research concerned with the sustainability performance of tall building faades. However, it is notable that while those in the academic realm gave higher priority to life-cycle sustainability issues (such as embodied energy and the use of sustainable and recycled materials), those in the other consultancy realm gave priority to innovative materials and systems such as dynamic and energy-generating envelopes. Responders from an engineering background gave greater priority to research on the performance of the faade in re scenarios, as compared to the other groups.

Results by Geographical Area


The locations of building/research projects with which responders are involved are based across a wide range of geographical areas, with Europe, North America and Asia almost evenly represented, embracing approximately 75% of all responses. Outlined below are the three highest-scoring topics for these three best-represented regions: Europe Research on fire performance and smoke control of double-skin assemblies in tall buildings (7.8) Research on the performance and design of compartmentation junctions between floors and faades in tall buildings (7.7) Research to develop strategies and products to improve the thermal performance of tall building faades (7.6)

North America Research on faade-integrated energy generation and collection systems in tall buildings (8.5) Research on the interactions between, and the integration of, tall building faades with space conditioning and HVAC systems (7.9) Research on the use of innovative/advanced materials and cladding systems in tall building faades (7.9)

Asia Research on the use of sustainable, recycled and reused materials in tall building faades (8.7) Research on faade integrated energy generation and collection systems in tall buildings (8.6) Research on the use of innovative/advanced materials and cladding systems in tall building faades (8.5)

Of note here is the perceived need for research on re performance and smoke control of double-skin assemblies in the European context, likely due to the prominence of this faade technology in the region. In North America there seems to be a preference for research on innovative faade materials and systems, which is also mirrored in the responses from those whose work is predominantly in the Asian region.

74 | Cladding and Skin

8. Building Materials and Products


Questionnaire Sample In which geographical region is your involvement in the eld of Building Materials and Products mainly located?

Africa Middle East Asia Australasia Europe North America Central America South America Worldwide 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% First questionnaire Second questionnaire

Has your knowledge in the eld of Building Materials and Products been applied to any of the following outputs, specic to tall buildings?

Patents and/or the industrial development of products/components/materials Built/future tall building projects Published journal papers Book contributions Conference papers/presentations Funded research projects None of the above 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% First questionnaire Second questionnaire

Please note: The percentages above may total greater than 100% due to responders option to choose multiple answers

Building Materials and Products |75

Phase 1: Identifying Priority Topics


Priority Ranking
The Research Tree presented here outlines the various topics identied in questionnaire 1 as deserving priority research in the eld of Building Materials and Products. These have been grouped together by commonality, and were later ranked by importance and immaturity in questionnaire 2, to determine the nal results (see Evaluation and Ranking of Topics on the following page). Here topics are organized by broad categories and subcategories, with the numbers in parentheses denoting each elds Dewey Decimal Classication, which can be used for further enquiry or research in each area. For a more in-depth explanation of this system, along with a key, please refer to pages 2325.

Field

Category

Subcategory

Topic No.
1.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

General Aspects: Selection, Preservation, Construction Properties (691)

Performance of Traditional Materials (691.2; 691.3; 691.4; 691.5; 691.6; 691.7; 691.8)

Other Building Materials (691.9)

5.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Timber (691.1)

16. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Building Materials and Products (691) Hazardous Materials Technology (604.7)

Quality Control (658.562) Hazardous Materials Technology (604.7) Asbestos and Hazardous Materials (691.95; 363.1791)

8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

15. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

26. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Life-cycle Analysis and Sustainability of Materials (658.4083; 658.5)

6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Resistance to Decay, Decomposition, Deterioration (620.1122)

Life-cycle Analysis of Materials (658.4083; 658.5)

Maintenance and Repair (690.24) Use and Disposal of Building Materials and Products (658.7) Use and Procurement of Local Materials and Products (658.7; 720.47)

7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

76 | Building Materials and Products

Phase 2: Evaluation and Ranking of Topics


responders to rank and score all topics based on their importance (1 = not at all important, 5 = extremely important) and immaturity (1 = not at all immature, 5 = extremely immature). These scores have been combined to create a Priority index, which in turn leads to a Priority Ranking (listed on the left). The ranking highlights the topics which are most deserving of priority research in the eld in the coming years. The top ve scores are highlighted in yellow for easy reference. For a more in-depth explanation of these denitions, please refer to page 18.

Topic
. . . . . . . . . . . Research on the use of composite materials and systems in tall buildings . . . . . . . . . . . Research on the creep behavior of concrete in tall buildings . . . . . . . . . . . Research on the composition and elasticity of concrete used in tall buildings . . . . . . . . . . . Research on the use and performance of high- and ultra-high strength concrete in tall buildings . . . . . . . . . . . Research on the use and performance of high- and ultra-high strength steel in tall buildings . . . . . . . . . . . Research on steel TMT bar reinforcements of various sizes, and their application in tall buildings . . . . . . . . . . . Research on structural steel weight to size ratio in tall buildings

4.3 3.3 7.5 3.7 3.1 6.8 3.7 2.9 6.6 3.9 2.7 6.6 3.6 2.8 6.4 3.5 2.9 6.4 3.5 2.6 6.1 3.5 3.8 7.3 2.8 3.5 6.3

. . . . . . . . . . . Research on the application and performance of ber-reinforced polymers in tall buildings (e.g., carbon, glass) . . . . . . . . . . . Research on the use of elastic materials such as render, plaster, etc. and their application in tall buildings

. . . . . . . . . . . Research on the design and performance of timber as a structural material in tall buildings (including in a hybrid capacity, such as cross-laminated timber oor plates) . . . . . . . . . . . Research on non-structural applications of timber (cladding, shading systems, etc.) in tall buildings

3.0 3.7

3.1 3.5 6.6

. . . . . . . . . . . Research on opportunities for manufacturers to partner up to provide greater product compatibility in tall building design

4.1

3.1

. . . . . . . . . . . Research on the use of toxin-free and low VOC materials in tall building interiors

3.6

3.1

. . . . . . . . . . . Research on the use, impact and removal of asbestos from tall buildings (including regulations, practices, remediation, eect on productivity and occupation, etc.)

3.4

2.4

. . . . . . . . . . . Research on the development and use of sustainable and low-energy materials, products and components in tall buildings . . . . . . . . . . . The development of embodied energy/carbon data for tall building-specic materials and components . . . . . . . . . . . Research on the use of sustainable concrete and cement products in tall buildings

4.4 2.9 7.3 3.8 3.3 7.1 4.2 2.7 6.9 4.3 3.2 7.5 4.3 3.1 7.4 3.8 3.1 6.9 3.6 3.1 6.7

. . . . . . . . . . . Research to improve material and component durability in tall buildings . . . . . . . . . . . Research to determine material and component durability in tall buildings . . . . . . . . . . . Research on the eect of climate on materials and components used in tall buildings . . . . . . . . . . . Research on the compatibility and impact of tall building-specic materials and components on each other (e.g., deterioration of materials due to contact with other specic materials)

. . . . . . . . . . . Research on designing for easy repair and replacement of materials and products in tall buildings

3.9

3.4

. . . . . . . . . . . Research on recyclability and reusability of tall building materials and components (including demountable systems, environmental impact of recycling as compared to landll, etc.) . . . . . . . . . . . Research on prefabrication construction strategies and techniques in tall buildings

3.7 3.3

3.9 3.1 7.0 3.7 3.7 7.4

. . . . . . . . . . . Research on the responsible procurement of materials and components in tall buildings (e.g., in areas that do not have strict controls on processing-plant emissions and toxic waste disposal) . . . . . . . . . . . Research on the local procurement of materials and components in tall buildings (including economic issues, environmental issues, etc.)

3.6 3.0 6.6

Building Materials and Products |77

Priority index *
6.7 7.2 6.7 5.8 7.3 7.0

* Priority Index: Following the identication of priority topics in questionnaire 1, a second questionnaire asked Importance Immaturity

Top-Five Priority Index Scores


Topic 1 Research on the use of composite materials and systems in tall buildings Priority Index 7.5

2 Research to improve material and component durability in tall buildings 3 Research on the responsible procurement of materials and components in tall buildings (e.g., in areas that do not have strict controls on processing-plant emissions and toxic waste disposal) 4 Research to determine material and component durability in tall buildings

7.5

7.4

7.4

5 Research on the application and performance of ber-reinforced polymers in tall buildings (e.g., carbon, glass)

7.3

Highlighted Findings
In the eld of Building Materials and Products, 26 individual topics of relative importance and/or immaturity were recognized. The index of priority scores in this eld are slightly lower than in the other areas of the Roadmap, with values ranging from 5.87.5. Similarly, only six of the 26 topics in the eld scored a mean importance value of 4.0 or greater (very important), which again is the lowest return in the Roadmap. This suggests that responders perceive that research on building materials and products merits a lower priority when compared to other elds, or alternatively, that research on tall building materials and products is outside of the realm of the tall building researcher, instead being more applicable to general material scientists, product designers, etc. In terms of immaturity, trends are consistent with responses across the Roadmap, with only 31% of topics in this section scoring mean immaturity values lower than 3.0 (moderately immature), suggesting a perceived need for increased research in the eld, to advance the typology in the coming years.

Priority Research in the Field


The highest-ranked topic is Research on the use of composite materials and systems in tall buildings. This is a clear reection of current construction trends, with 48 of the tallest 100 buildings in the world completed or currently under construction using a composite structural system (data as of September 2013) according to the CTBUH tall building database (www.skyscrapercenter.com). Beyond this, two trends are apparent. Firstly, there is a perceived need for priority research on tall building material and component durability and life-cycle, with topics such as Research to improve material and component durability in tall buildings and Research on designing for easy repair and replacement of materials and products in tall buildings ranked highly (2nd and 7th overall). The second trend is related to tall building sustainability. Historically, focus in this area has been centered on energy use in operation, but this is clearly expanding to encompass more holistic concepts, including the life-cycle of building materials and products. Responders highlighted a need for research in this area by ranking topics such as Research on the responsible procurement of materials and components in tall buildings, Research on the development and use of sustainable and low-energy materials, products and components in tall buildings, The development of embodied energy/carbon data for tall building-specic materials and components and Research on the use of sustainable concrete and cement products in tall buildings in the top 50% of topics. These topics are inter-related to those dealing with durability, suggesting overall a clear need for priority research on the life-cycle sustainability of tall building materials and products, from their extraction, to their procurement, to end-of-life scenarios. This broader concept is apparent in multiple elds across the Roadmap. In the Sustainable Design, Construction and Operation eld, topics such as Research on strategies and techniques to reduce embodied energy/carbon in tall buildings, Research examining the opportunities and strategies to allow for disassembly/deconstruction at the end of a tall buildings life and Research on strategies to assess and extend the life-cycle of tall buildings excluding large-scale retrot are ranked 2nd, 5th and 6th respectively (see page 81). Likewise in Cladding and Skin, Research to establish the embodied energy of tall building faades and Research on the use of sustainable, recycled and reused materials in tall building faades are ranked 3rd and 9th (see page 69). In Energy: Performance, Metrics and Generation, Research to determine and calculate whole life-cycle environmental impacts of tall buildings and Research to determine and calculate the embodied energy/carbon of tall buildings and their key components are ranked 4th and 9th (see page 95). This strengthens the argument that research focused on determining and reducing the environmental impact of tall building materials,
78 | Building Materials and Products

products and components is widely supported as a priority research topic. There are, however, exceptions. In the Circulation: Vertical Transportation and Evacuation eld, the topic Research to develop calculations, models and metrics to determine the environmental life-cycle impacts of tall building vertical transportation systems is ranked only 25th, with a lower priority index of 6.5 (see page 53). Likewise, in Structural Performance, Multi-Hazard Design and Geotechnics, topics dealing specically with material sustainability are again ranked as a lower priority. However, here it is suggested that this is due to structural engineers intrinsically connecting structural eciency with material sustainability, and so dedicated research in the latter is encompassed by broader topics related to the former (see page 45).

Additional Research Gaps


In terms of research maturity, responders felt that research related to alternative materials is underdeveloped, with Research on the application and performance of ber-reinforced polymers in tall buildings and Research on the design and performance of timber as a structural material in tall buildings receiving mean immaturity scores of 3.8 and 3.7, respectively. Perhaps somewhat surprisingly, research related to the traditional tall building materials of steel and concrete were in general ranked towards the bottom of the list, with topics such as the use of high-performance steel and concrete, structural steel weight-to-size ratios, use of reinforcements and the composition and elasticity of concrete, all considered low priorities. This trend is driven by lower immaturity scores for these topics (all considered at least moderately immature, with scores below 3.0) and academic responders giving some of these topics much lower importance ratings as compared to engineers (see results broken down by questionnaire responders below).

Results Broken Down by Questionnaire Responders


Responders who completed the second questionnaire in this section have a professional background in the following disciplines:

Industry: Engineering 50% Academia/University/Research 31% Industry: Other 19%

Results by Professional Background


The majority of responders in this eld come from an engineering or academic background. Outlined below are the three highest-scoring topics from both of these groups respectively: Industry: Engineering Research on the use of sustainable concrete and cement products in tall buildings (7.5) Research on the use of composite materials and systems in tall buildings (7.5) Research on the creep behavior of concrete in tall buildings (7.4)

Academia/University/Research Research on the responsible procurement of materials and components in tall buildings (8.2) Research on the design and performance of timber as a structural material in tall buildings (8.0) Research on non-structural applications of timber (8.0)

These results show a clear dierence in research priorities between those in the engineering realm and those in academia. Responders in the former group have prioritized more traditional tall building materials and systems such as concrete and composite systems, most probably due to their common application in real tall building projects all over the world. Those in the academic realm prioritized more alternative materials, in particular the use of timber in a structural and non-structural capacity. While those in the academic realm ranked Research on the design and performance of timber as a structural material in tall buildings as their second-highest-priority topic, with a score of 8.0, those in the engineering realm ranked it as their second-lowest priority topic, with an index of importance and maturity score of just 5.9, and an average importance score of 2.3 (just above slightly important). In fact, 50% of responders with an engineering background ranked this topic as not important at all.

Building Materials and Products |79

Results by Geographical Area


The location of building/research projects with which responders are involved are based across six continents, but with Europe and North America dominating. Outlined below are the three highest-scoring topics for these two best-represented regions: Europe Research on recyclability and reusability of tall building materials and components (7.4) Research on the use of sustainable concrete and cement products in tall buildings (7.2) The development of embodied energy/carbon data for tall building-specific materials and components (7.2)

North America Research on the application and performance of fiber-reinforced polymers in tall buildings (9.0) Research on the use of composite materials and systems in tall buildings (8.3) Research to improve material and component durability in tall buildings (8.3)

The dierence in research priorities by professional background is reected in a similar manner when breaking down the results by geographical area. Responders whose work is in Europe suggest greatest research priority for topics related to material and product sustainability, while those in North America have focused priority on composite and advanced materials and durability. Again, there is an interesting polarization of scores in these two regions, with Research on the application and performance of ber-reinforced polymers in tall buildings receiving a priority index of 9.0 in North America, but only 6.3 in Europe. Likewise, Research on recyclability and reusability of tall building materials and components received the highest score of 7.4 in Europe, but only 5.8 in North America. Such dierences in magnitude suggest very dierent attitudes and research priorities, and the potential need for technology and knowledge transfer between the regions.

80 | Building Materials and Products

9. Sustainable Design, Construction and Operation


Questionnaire Sample In which geographical region is your involvement in the eld of Sustainable Design, Construction and Operation mainly located?

Africa Middle East Asia Australasia Europe North America Central America South America Worldwide 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% First questionnaire Second questionnaire

Has your knowledge in the eld of Sustainable Design, Construction and Operation been applied to any of the following outputs, specic to tall buildings?

Patents and/or the industrial development of products/components/materials Built/future tall building projects Published journal papers Book contributions Conference papers/presentations Funded research projects None of the above 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% First questionnaire Second questionnaire

Please note: The percentages above may total greater than 100% due to responders option to choose multiple answers

Sustainable Design, Construction and Operation |81

Phase 1: Identifying Priority Topics


Priority Ranking
The Research Tree presented here outlines the various topics identied in questionnaire 1 as deserving priority research in the eld of Sustainable Design, Construction and Operation. These have been grouped together by commonality, and were later ranked by importance and immaturity in questionnaire 2, to determine the nal results (see Evaluation and Ranking of Topics on the following page). Here topics are organized by broad categories and subcategories, with the numbers in parentheses denoting each elds Dewey Decimal Classication, which can be used for further enquiry or research in each area. For a more in-depth explanation of this system, along with a key, please refer to pages 2325.

Field

Category

Subcategory

Topic No.
3.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Sustainable Design Principles and Processes (720.47)

Sustainable Design Principles and Processes (720.47)

11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Sustainable Design, Construction and Operation (644.6; 720.47)

30. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Reducing Life-cycle Impacts of Tall Buildings (333.7; 658.2) Reducing Embodied Energy (333.791)

1.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reducing Operating Energy (720.472) 19. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Reducing Lifecycle Impacts of Tall Buildings (333.7; 658.2)

Water Waste/Usage (363.7284; 628.1; 644.6)

16. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Renovation and End-of-Life Scenarios (720.286; 720.288) and Management and Life Span of Buildings and Components (658.202)

5.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

82 | Sustainable Design, Construction and Operation

Phase 2: Evaluation and Ranking of Topics


responders to rank and score all topics based on their importance (1 = not at all important, 5 = extremely important) and immaturity (1 = not at all immature, 5 = extremely immature). These scores have been combined to create a Priority index, which in turn leads to a Priority Ranking (listed on the left). The ranking highlights the topics which are most deserving of priority research in the eld in the coming years. The top ve scores are highlighted in yellow for easy reference. For a more in-depth explanation of these denitions, please refer to page 18.

Topic
. . . . . . . . . . . Research on environmental optimization strategies and methodologies for tall building form . . . . . . . . . . . Research on the impact of meteorological changes with height on the sustainable design and performance of tall buildings (e.g., changes in air temperature, pressure and density, stack eect) . . . . . . . . . . . Research on strategies for high-rise design to take inspiration from nature and biomimetic concepts (including in the architecture, mechanical systems, etc.) . . . . . . . . . . . Research and strategies to improve design team uency and education in tall building sustainable practices and principles . . . . . . . . . . . Research on the inuence of microclimate on sustainable tall building design (e.g., local wind behavior, surrounding context) . . . . . . . . . . . Research on the use and development of software and modeling tools to improve tall building sustainability (including daylight, wind, stack eect, HVAC and energy modeling, use of modeling to inform early design stage energy performance, parametric models, development of modeling criteria, etc.) . . . . . . . . . . . Research on the application of Passivhaus design principles and performance in tall building design . . . . . . . . . . . Research on the design and opportunities for vertical farming and agriculture (including determining if such solutions actually provide more sustainable agricultural production) . . . . . . . . . . . Research on the design, performance and integration of greenery and planting on tall buildings (including green roofs, sky gardens, green plot ratio, etc.)

4.4 3.3 7.7 4.1 3.4 7.6 4.0 3.5 7.5 4.1 3.3 7.4 4.3 3.1 7.4 4.3 3.0 7.3 4.1 3.2 7.3 3.5 3.7 7.2 3.9 3.0 6.9

. . . . . . . . . . . Research on strategies and technologies to develop carbon-neutral, net-zero-energy, zero-carbon and self-sustaining tall buildings (including evaluations of whether such concepts are technically viable)

4.4 3.5

. . . . . . . . . . . Research on strategies and techniques to reduce embodied energy/carbon in tall buildings

4.1

3.6

. . . . . . . . . . . Research on the integration of passive design strategies and technologies into tall buildings to reduce energy requirements and improve occupant comfort . . . . . . . . . . . Research on strategies and technologies to allow for natural/mixed-mode ventilation in tall buildings (including impact of form, faade and internal organization, determining economic and environmental advantages of natural/mixed-mode ventilation, etc.) . . . . . . . . . . . Research on the use and development of low-energy air conditioning and climate management systems in tall buildings (including technologies such as absorption chillers, desiccant cooling, solar thermal cooling systems, etc.) . . . . . . . . . . . Research on the stack eect in tall buildings (including utilization where useful, and mitigation where unwanted) . . . . . . . . . . . Research on the use of energy recovery systems in tall buildings (e.g., mechanical ventilation and heat recovery systems) . . . . . . . . . . . Research to enhance air-conditioning and MEP system performance and eciency in tall buildings . . . . . . . . . . . Research on energy management control systems and strategies to achieve energy eciency in operations . . . . . . . . . . . Research to mitigate internal thermal loads due to computer operation in tall buildings (including removal of heat strategies, dephasing day-to-night operations, etc.)

4.5 3.1 7.6 4.3 3.2 7.5 4.3 3.0 7.3 4.3 3.0 7.3 4.3 2.7 7.0 4.1 2.8 6.9 4.2 2.6 6.8 3.8 3.0 6.8

. . . . . . . . . . . Research on strategies and technologies to reduce the use of water in tall buildings (including treatment of sewage, low plumbing xture ow-rates, water recycling, rainwater harvesting, etc.)

4.3 3.1 7.3

. . . . . . . . . . . Research examining the opportunities and strategies to allow for disassembly/deconstruction at the end of a tall buildings life (and, as such, re-use of components, materials, etc.) . . . . . . . . . . . Research on strategies to assess and extend the life-cycle of tall buildings to the exclusion of large-scale retrots (for example, reducing building maintenance, examining the needs of the occupants in terms of building obsolescence, etc.) . . . . . . . . . . . Research on strategies for adaptive reuse and change of function in tall buildings to extend their life-cycle . . . . . . . . . . . Research on retrotting tall buildings for improved energy performance and extended life-cycle

3.7 4.0 7.6 4.0 3.6 7.6 4.1 3.5 7.6 4.4 3.2 7.6

Sustainable Design, Construction and Operation |83

Priority index *
7.8 7.8

* Priority Index: Following the identication of priority topics in questionnaire 1, a second questionnaire asked Importance Immaturity

Sustainable Management (720.47) Sustainable Design, Construction and Operation (644.6; 720.47)

Interaction of Sustainability and Safety (n/a)

21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

24. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Occupant Comfort (152.1; 629.2772)

MEP and ITC Systems and Strategies (696)

MEP Systems and Design (621.8; 696)

13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

31. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

User Operation of Systems (n/a)

25. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Top-Five Priority Index Scores


Topic 1 Research on strategies and technologies to develop carbon-neutral, net-zero-energy, zero-carbon and self-sustaining tall buildings (including evaluations of whether such concepts are technically viable) 2 Research on strategies and techniques to reduce embodied energy/carbon in tall buildings Priority Index 7.8

7.8

3 Research on environmental optimization strategies and methodologies for tall building form 4 Research on the integration of passive design strategies and technologies into tall buildings to reduce energy requirements and improve occupant comfort 5 Research examining the opportunities and strategies to allow for disassembly/deconstruction at the end of a tall buildings life (and, as such, re-use of components, materials, etc.)

7.7

7.6

7.6

Highlighted Findings
In the eld of Sustainable Design, Construction and Operation, 36 individual topics of relative importance and/or immaturity were recognized. Sustainability is a holistic and interdisciplinary eld, especially in tall buildings. As such, many research topics related to sustainability are found throughout the Roadmap, beyond this individual section. Where possible, this section pulls together the research most commonly related to sustainability, although some topics that sit more comfortably in other elds are located accordingly (e.g., topics directly concerned with faade sustainability are found in Cladding and Skin). Like many elds in the Roadmap, immaturity scores of the topics in Sustainable Design, Construction and Operation are relatively high, with 89% scoring 3.0 or higher (moderately immature). This suggests a perceived need for increased research in the eld, to advance the typology in the coming years.

84 | Sustainable Design, Construction and Operation

. . . . . . . . . . . Research on strategies for integrating analysis of energy conservation and safety (including the introduction of safety metrics into sustainability criteria) . . . . . . . . . . . Research on the impact of, and balance between sustainable initiatives and tall building re and life safety (for example, the impact of sustainable new materials and design strategies on re load assumptions, etc.)

3.7 3.6 7.3 4.0 3.2 7.2

. . . . . . . . . . . Research on the impact of climate on alternative mechanical systems (for example the use of chilled beams and chilled ceilings in tropical climates without the risk of condensation occurring, etc.) . . . . . . . . . . . Research on strategies to integrate structure and MEP systems (for example, hollow-core slabs for air-conditioning conduits, etc.) . . . . . . . . . . . Research on strategies to reduce the amount of space taken up by MEP systems in tall buildings (including air supply systems, plant rooms, ceiling voids, service risers, etc.) . . . . . . . . . . . Research to establish appropriate MEP loads and systems sizing (including ventilation needs according to real CO2 content of microclimate, impact of occupancy rates on loads and HVAC sizing, examination of whether air-conditioning systems in tall buildings are regularly over-sized, etc.) . . . . . . . . . . . Research on strategies to enhance MEP system exibility . . . . . . . . . . . Research on the provision for current and future IT connectivity in and between tall buildings

3.9 3.3 7.2 3.7 3.3 7.0 3.9 3.1 6.9 3.9 3.0 6.9 3.8 3.0 6.9 3.5 3.2 6.7 4.2 3.2 7.4 4.0 2.9 6.9 3.9 3.4 7.3 3.9 3.2 7.1

. . . . . . . . . . . . Research to dene occupant comfort and psychological well-being in tall buildings (including in dierent climates, impact of dierent conditioning systems, etc.)

. . . . . . . . . . . . Research on interior air quality in tall buildings . . . . . . . . . . . Research on strategies to promote reduced occupant energy use in tall buildings (for example, tenants competing on a oor-by-oor basis in an oce building, etc.) . . . . . . . . . . . Research on user operation and education of MEP systems in tall buildings (including building management systems, impact of improper use of systems on HVAC energy/eciencies, etc.)

Priority Research in the Field


Due to sustainabilitys wide-ranging nature, a variety of dierent topics have been highly ranked by responders. The highest-priority score was given to Research on strategies and technologies to develop carbon-neutral, net-zero-energy, zero-carbon and self-sustaining tall buildings (including evaluations of whether such concepts are technically viable). This is a very broad theme, covering a variety of research streams, perhaps going some way to explain its popularity with responders. However, regardless of its breadth, there is clearly signicant opportunity and desire for more research in this area.

[Research] focus should be sharper on how to use the height of tall buildings and integration with the urban environment to get to net-zero on all resources (including new and existing buildings). Luke Leung, Skidmore, Owings & Merrill, Chicago, USA
Throughout the Roadmap there is a perceived need for more research on topics related to the broader life-cycle of tall building sustainability, beyond day-to-day operations and including construction and end-of-life scenarios. Themes such as reducing high-rise embodied energy/carbon, disassembly/deconstruction, extending tall buildings life-cycle, adaptive reuse and retrotting are all ranked within the top ten topics in this eld. This is reected in many areas of the Roadmap, and outlined in more detail in the Building Materials and Products eld (see page 75). This trend is also apparent in the wider built environment, beyond tall buildings, with increasing consideration for embodied energy/carbon in both professional and academic realms. The highest average importance score (4.5) was given to Research on the integration of passive design strategies and technologies into tall buildings to reduce energy requirements and improve occupant comfort, which again is a broad topic covering a number of themes. In this area, the more specic Research on strategies and technologies to allow for natural/mixed-mode ventilation in tall buildings also scored highly.

Tall buildings have a signicant sustainability impact when considering their role in the urban/suburban context. This impact needs to be quantied for better understanding of the sustainability contributions of tall buildings.
Abbas Aminmansour, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, USA

Sustainable Design, Construction and Operation |85

Additional Research Gaps


The highest immaturity score, 4.0 (very immature), was given to Research examining the opportunities and strategies to allow for disassembly/deconstruction at the end of a tall buildings life. This is the third-highest immaturity score in any section of the Roadmap, indicating a potentially signicant research gap. Research in this area has not progressed, since demolition of tall buildings is a generally rare event, only ve towers taller than 150 meters have ever been taken down voluntarily, and knowledge in the eld is held by only a small number of demolition companies. However, with many tall buildings approaching the end of their eective life, such research may be valuable in the coming years. This nding is supported by results in the Building Materials and Products eld (page 75), with Research on designing for easy repair and replacement of materials and products in tall buildings and Research on recyclability and reusability of tall building materials and components being ranked 7th and 10th, respectively. However, the desire for such research does not seem to extend to the structural or construction elds with Research on structural connections/joints to enable greater reuse and recycling of structural elements ranked only 31st out of 54 topics in Structural Performance, Multi-Hazard Design and Geotechnics (page 45). Research on design for disassembly strategies in tall buildings ranked last in the Construction and Project Management eld (page 89).

Results Broken Down by Questionnaire Responders


Responders who completed the second questionnaire in this section have a professional background in the following disciplines:

Industry (Architectural / Other UrbanIndustry: Planning)

(mostly Engineering) 46% 43%

Academia / University / Academia/University/Research Research Industry (Other mostly Engineers and Other Industry: Architectural/Urban Consultants)

Planning 11%

Results by Professional Background


Interestingly, the questionnaire received a lower-than-expected response from architects and urban planners. This may be due to these professionals only answering the sections on Architecture and Interior Design, or Urban Design, City Planning and Social Issues, or perhaps the group does not feel adequately knowledgeable or involved in the eld of sustainability. Responders in this eld were quite evenly distributed between the academic and industrial realm, with the latter being dominated by engineers and other consultants. Outlined below are the three highest-scoring topics for industrial and academic responders respectively: Industry: Other (mostly Engineering) Research on strategies and technologies to develop carbon-neutral, net-zero-energy, zero-carbon and self-sustaining tall buildings (7.7) Research on the integration of passive design strategies and technologies into tall buildings to reduce energy requirements and improve occupant comfort (7.6) Research on environmental optimization strategies and methodologies for tall building form (7.6)

Academia/University/Research Research on strategies and techniques to reduce embodied energy/carbon in tall buildings (8.4) Research examining the opportunities and strategies to allow for disassembly/deconstruction at the end of a tall buildings life (8.3) Research on strategies for adaptive reuse and change of function in tall buildings to extend their life-cycle (8.0)

It is interesting to note here that the topics ranked highest by industry tend to focus on building operations (e.g., carbon neutrality, passive design strategies) while those ranked highest by academics were focused on the broader life-cycle of tall building sustainability, including topics such as embodied energy, disassembly/deconstruction and adaptive reuse.

Results by Geographical Area


The locations of building/research projects with which responders are involved are based across a wide range of geographical areas, although Asia and North America the two leading markets for tall buildings dominate. Outlined below are the three highest-scoring topics for these two bestrepresented geographical areas:

86 | Sustainable Design, Construction and Operation

Asia Research on the integration of passive design strategies and technologies into tall buildings to reduce energy requirements and improve occupant comfort (7.8) Research on the impact of meteorological changes with height on the sustainable design and performance of tall buildings (7.8) Research to define occupant comfort and psychological well-being in tall buildings (7.7)

North America Research on strategies and technologies to develop carbon-neutral, net-zero-energy, zero-carbon and self-sustaining tall buildings (8.3) Research on environmental optimization strategies and methodologies for tall building form (8.1) Research on strategies to assess and extend the life-cycle of tall buildings, to the exclusion of large-scale retrofits (8.1)

Of interest here may be the fact that topics related to a buildings end of life (e.g., retrotting, adaptive reuse, life-cycle extension, disassembly/ deconstruction, etc.) all scored higher in terms of importance from responders in North America than in Asia. This is likely due to the fact that many high-rises constructed from the 1950s through1970s in North America are approaching the end of their service lives, whereas those in Asia are typically more recent, and as such, are still in their early- or mid-lifecycles.

Sustainable Design, Construction and Operation |87

10. Construction and Project Management


Questionnaire Sample In which geographical region is your involvement in the eld of Construction and Project Management mainly located?

Africa Middle East Asia Australasia Europe North America Central America South America Worldwide 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% First questionnaire Second questionnaire

Has your knowledge in the eld of Construction and Project Management been applied to any of the following outputs, specic to tall buildings?

Patents and/or the industrial development of products/components/materials Built/future tall building projects Published journal papers Book contributions Conference papers/presentations Funded research projects None of the above 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% First questionnaire Second questionnaire

Please note: The percentages above may total greater than 100% due to responders option to choose multiple answers

Construction and Project Management |89

Phase 1: Identifying Priority Topics


Priority Ranking
The Research Tree presented here outlines the various topics identied in questionnaire 1 as deserving priority research in the eld of Construction and Project Management. These have been grouped together by commonality, and were later ranked by importance and immaturity in questionnaire 2, to determine the nal results (see Evaluation and Ranking of Topics on the following page). Here topics are organized by broad categories and subcategories, with the numbers in parentheses denoting each elds Dewey Decimal Classication, which can be used for further enquiry or research in each area. For a more in-depth explanation of this system, along with a key, please refer to pages 2325.

Field

Category

Subcategory
Construction Software (005) Data Management (004)

Topic No.
5.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Software and Data Management (005) Construction and Project Management (658.404; 658.5; 659; 692)

Construction Techniques (692)

2.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Construction Techniques (692)

Prefabrication (721.04497; 693.97)

Procurement and Delivery (658.7)

Safety and Worker Rights (690.22; 620.86)

6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Construction Sustainability (658.2; 720.47; 658.5)

4.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Construction Management (658.2; 658.5)

Time Management (692.5)

Construction Logistics (692.5; 692.3)

1.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

90 | Construction and Project Management

Phase 2: Evaluation and Ranking of Topics


responders to rank and score all topics based on their importance (1 = not at all important, 5 = extremely important) and immaturity (1 = not at all immature, 5 = extremely immature). These scores have been combined to create a Priority index, which in turn leads to a Priority Ranking (listed on the left). The ranking highlights the topics which are most deserving of priority research in the eld in the coming years. The top ve scores are highlighted in yellow for easy reference. For a more in-depth explanation of these denitions, please refer to page 18.

Topic
. . . . . . . . . . . Research and development of integrated software and tools, such as BIM, and their impact on tall building design, construction and logistics . . . . . . . . . . . Research and development of software and technologies to allow for the automated construction of tall building components using 3D printing

4.2 3.1 7.3 3.5 3.8 7.2 3.8 3.2 7.0

. . . . . . . . . . . Research and development of data management systems on tall building construction materials (e.g. to allow for the evaluation and comparison of options)

. . . . . . . . . . . Research and development of new construction methods and systems for complex tall building projects . . . . . . . . . . . Research and development of strategies, technologies and techniques to improve tall building construction eciency . . . . . . . . . . . Research on the appropriate selection and operation of major construction equipment (cranes, forming systems, concrete pumps) and their impact on construction economics . . . . . . . . . . . Research on regional methods of tall building construction and how these inuence design, eciency and sustainability . . . . . . . . . . . Research on strategies and technologies that allow for greater tolerances in tall building construction

4.3 3.3 7.6 4.3 2.9 7.3 4.3 2.8 7.0 3.6 3.4 7.0 3.8 3.1 6.9 4.0 3.2 7.2

. . . . . . . . . . . Research on tall building prefabrication construction techniques (including customization opportunities, impact on cost, environment, schedule, opportunities in dierent geographical locations, etc) . . . . . . . . . . . Research on design for disassembly strategies in tall buildings

3.2 3.5 6.7 3.5 3.3 6.8 3.7 3.1 6.8

. . . . . . . . . . . Research on the benets and limitations of integrated project delivery (IPD) of tall building design, construction and operation . . . . . . . . . . . Research comparing conventional construction procurement and Design/Build procurement in tall building scenarios (advantages and disadvantages, impact on schedule, etc.)

. . . . . . . . . . . Research to improve site and construction safety in tall buildings (including cocoon systems, safe multi-level simultaneous work, etc.)

4.4

2.9

. . . . . . . . . . . Research to develop strategies and practices to reduce waste and waste water during tall building construction . . . . . . . . . . . Research to determine the total environmental impacts associated with the construction phase of tall buildings life-cycle . . . . . . . . . . . Research to develop strategies and technologies to reduce energy use during tall building construction

3.8 3.5 7.3 3.9 3.2 7.1 3.8 3.1 6.9 4.2 3.2 7.4 3.8 3.5 7.3 4.4 2.8 7.1 4.5 3.3 7.8 4.0 3.1 7.1 3.9 2.8 6.8

. . . . . . . . . . . Research and development of strategies to increase the speed of tall building construction (including Lean Building Principles, etc.) . . . . . . . . . . . Research on phased occupancy strategies for tall buildings . . . . . . . . . . . Research on tall building construction planning and programming

. . . . . . . . . . . Research on the dissemination of construction logistics best practices and lessons learned from tall building project and team leaders internationally . . . . . . . . . . . Research on tall building construction site logistics . . . . . . . . . . . Research on strategies to promote better collaboration between the consultants in tall building construction teams

Construction and Project Management |91

Priority index *
7.3

* Priority Index: Following the identication of priority topics in questionnaire 1, a second questionnaire asked Importance Immaturity

Top-Five Priority Index Scores


Topic 1 Research on the dissemination of construction logistics best practices and lessons learned from tall building project and team leaders internationally 2 Research and development of new construction methods and systems for complex tall building projects 3 Research and development of strategies to increase the speed of tall building construction (including Lean Building Principles, etc.) 4 Research to develop strategies and practices to reduce waste and waste water during tall building construction 5 Research and development of integrated software and tools, such as BIM, and their impact on tall building design, construction and logistics Priority Index 7.8

7.6

7.4

7.3

7.3

Highlighted Findings
In the eld of Construction and Project Management, 22 individual topics of relative importance and/or immaturity were recognized. This eld was (together with Economics and Cost) the section of the Roadmap that received the lowest number of responses in both questionnaires, despite specic attempts from the authors to reach out to experts in the eld (for details on the methodology see page 18). This is surprising, considering the breadth and relevance of the eld, with topics ranging from selection and operation of equipment to waste and water usage, and from procurement to worker safety. This lack of responders is also reected in the generally high immaturity scores, with only ve of the 22 topics receiving a mean immaturity score lower than 3.0 (moderately immature). This suggests many topics across construction and project management require signicant development or dissemination in order to progress research in this area.

I was disappointed to see generally high scores on mean immaturity for all topics in the Construction and Project Management eld. This demonstrates that our industry as a whole does not embrace the opportunities from structured learning from things like research. The construction industry as a whole really lags behind many other industries when it comes to productivity, or more importantly, wasted or down time. It has been stagnant for decades, and is one place where great improvements still need to be made.
William Maibusch, CTBUH Trustee, Doha, Qatar

Priority Research in the Field


The highest priority topic is that of Research on the dissemination of construction logistics best practices and lessons learned from tall building project and team leaders internationally with a priority index of 7.8. This strengthens the points made above, and the high immaturity scores throughout, suggesting it is not necessarily a lack of knowledge in the eld, but perhaps a lack of dissemination and knowledge transfer that is seen as restricting research in construction and project management. The second and third highest-ranked topics are Research and development of new construction methods and systems for complex tall building projects and Research and development of strategies to increase the speed of tall building construction, both of which are not surprising considering the growth of new and challenging tall building forms, heights and functions and the importance of construction speed in the viability and nancial return of any high-rise project. Beyond this, however, the topic of Research to develop strategies and practices to reduce waste and waste water during tall building construction is somewhat more surprisingly ranked as the fourth-highest priority, due in part to a high immaturity value of 3.5. Research on tall building sustainability outside day-to-day operations is a common theme in several sections of the Roadmap, with topics related to the reduction of embodied energy and sustainable construction and demolition ranked highly in Cladding and Skin; Building Materials and Products; and Sustainable Design, Construction and Operation (see pages 69, 75 and 81). However, in this eld, with the exception of strategies to reduce waste and waste water, such research is ranked noticeably lower, not being of priority concern for those in construction and project management. Of particular interest is the fact that Research examining the opportunities and strategies to allow for disassembly/deconstruction at the end of a tall buildings life

92 | Construction and Project Management

was the fth-highest-ranked topic in the eld of Sustainable Design, Construction and Operation (with a priority index of 7.6 see page 81). However, here it is ranked last, with a priority index of only 6.7, showing that those involved in the actual construction logistics of tall buildings do not consider this a valuable research area, despite its signicantly under-developed status, with an immaturity score of 3.5. Research on strategies to promote better collaboration between the consultants in tall building construction teams ranked as the second to last topic in Construction and Project Management with a priority score of 6.8. This conicts with similar topics in other sections, such as Research to develop and improve coordination and interaction between the dierent disciplines involved in the design of tall buildings that ranked seventh in Architecture and Interior Design (see page 33) and the participation of consultants in highly specic disciplines as in Fire and Life Safety where Research to develop better collaborations between architects, re-engineers and the re-ghting community comes as the third highest priority research topic in that eld (see page 61).

Additional Research Gaps


Other topics with the highest immaturity scores are: Research and development of software and technologies to allow for the automated construction of tall building components using 3D printing(3.8) Research on phased occupancy strategies in tall buildings (3.5) Research to develop strategies and practices to reduce waste and waste water during tall building construction (3.5) While all these can be seen as potential research gaps, it is the focus on phased occupancy which might be most valuable in the near future. The growing trend for mixed-use high-rise programs means that phased occupancy will become an increasingly important factor for developers (who can start generating income sooner) and buildings (giving them a competitive edge).

Results Broken Down by Questionnaire Responders


Due to the limited number of responders, it is not practical/valuable to break the results down by geographical area or professional background.

Construction and Project Management |93

11. Energy: Performance, Metrics and Generation


Questionnaire Sample In which geographical region is your involvement in the eld of Energy: Performance, Metrics and Generation mainly located?

Africa Middle East Asia Australasia Europe North America Central America South America Worldwide 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% First questionnaire Second questionnaire

Has your knowledge in the eld of Energy: Performance, Metrics and Generation been applied to any of the following outputs, specic to tall buildings?

Patents and/or the industrial development of products/components/materials Built/future tall building projects Published journal papers Book contributions Conference papers/presentations Funded research projects None of the above 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% First questionnaire Second questionnaire

Please note: The percentages above may total greater than 100% due to responders option to choose multiple answers

Energy: Performance, Metrics and Generation |95

Phase 1: Identifying Priority Topics


Priority Ranking
The Research Tree presented here outlines the various topics identied in questionnaire 1 as deserving priority research in the eld of Energy: Performance, Metrics and Generation. These have been grouped together by commonality, and were later ranked by importance and immaturity in questionnaire 2, to determine the nal results (see Evaluation and Ranking of Topics on the following page). Here topics are organized by broad categories and subcategories, with the numbers in parentheses denoting each elds Dewey Decimal Classication, which can be used for further enquiry or research in each area. For a more in-depth explanation of this system, along with a key, please refer to pages 2325.

Field

Category

Subcategory
Energy Generation (in General) (621.042) Wind Energy (621.45)

Topic No.
11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Energy Generation (621.042) Energy: Performance, Metrics and Generation (697; 720.47)

Solar Energy (621.47)

13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other (621.4) 5.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sustainability Performance (621.042; 621.4; 690) 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Post Occupancy Evaluation and Monitoring (621.042; 697) 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Building Performance and Metrics (621.042; 621.4; 690; 697)

Metrics and Rating Systems (690.028)

96 | Energy: Performance, Metrics and Generation

Phase 2: Evaluation and Ranking of Topics


responders to rank and score all topics based on their importance (1 = not at all important, 5 = extremely important) and immaturity (1 = not at all immature, 5 = extremely immature). These scores have been combined to create a Priority index, which in turn leads to a Priority Ranking (listed on the left). The ranking highlights the topics which are most deserving of priority research in the eld in the coming years. The top ve scores are highlighted in yellow for easy reference. For a more in-depth explanation of these denitions, please refer to page 18.

Topic
. . . . . . . . . . . Research on the maintenance costs of generating on-site renewable energy in tall buildings

4.0

3.6

. . . . . . . . . . . Research on strategies and technologies for on-site energy generation from the wind in tall buildings (including optimization of form for wind energy, development of technologies, examination of where to locate turbines, etc.) . . . . . . . . . . . Research on strategies and technologies for on-site energy generation from the sun in tall buildings (including optimization of form for solar energy, development of technologies, building integrated photovoltaic systems, etc.)

3.5

3.6

4.2

3.3

. . . . . . . . . . . Research on strategies and technologies for heat storage and sharing in tall buildings (including waste energy harvesting in mixed-use tall buildings, etc.) . . . . . . . . . . . Research on strategies and technologies for energy sharing between tall buildings such that excess energy generated in one, may coincide with a peak demand in another . . . . . . . . . . . Research on the opportunities for renewable energy and emergency generation systems to be combined for improved reliability . . . . . . . . . . . Research on the application of tri-generation systems in tall buildings

4.3 3.7

3.7 4.1 7.8 3.8 3.6 7.4 3.8 3.2 7.0 4.3 3.9 8.3

. . . . . . . . . . . Research to determine and calculate the holistic and integrated sustainable performance of tall buildings (including environmental, economic and social sustainability, integrated cost, carbon and energy analyses, etc.) . . . . . . . . . . . Research to determine and calculate the whole life-cycle environmental impacts of tall buildings (including Life-cycle Assessment, development of methodologies, etc.) . . . . . . . . . . . Research to determine and calculate the maximum sustainable height of tall buildings (e.g., at which point are environmental benets such as density balanced out by environmental negatives such as increased embodied energy?) . . . . . . . . . . . Research to determine and calculate the embodied energy/carbon of tall buildings and their key components . . . . . . . . . . . Research to determine and calculate the operational energy/carbon of tall buildings . . . . . . . . . . . Research comparing the life-cycle environmental impacts of tall buildings with low-rise buildings

4.3 3.6 7.8 3.8 4.0 7.7 4.0 3.8 7.7 4.4 3.1 7.5 3.6 3.6 7.3 4.6 3.4 7.9

. . . . . . . . . . . Research on the post-occupancy evaluation of tall buildings to monitor real energy performance and water requirements in operation (including use of monitoring systems, energy use in dierent geographical locations, verication of computer simulations, comparison with design loads, creation of an inventory of data, etc.) . . . . . . . . . . . Research on the post-occupancy evaluation of tall buildings to monitor user behavior, satisfaction and comfort . . . . . . . . . . . Research to establish the actual performance of tall building integrated renewable energy systems . . . . . . . . . . . Research to establish occupant expectations in terms of tall building performance . . . . . . . . . . . Research to identify/develop appropriate environmental performance metrics specic to tall buildings . . . . . . . . . . . Research on the applicability and development of tall building-specic assessment and rating systems (including evaluation of existing rating frameworks and possibilities for their modication to make them specic to tall buildings, etc.)

4.2 3.6 7.8 4.2 3.6 7.7 3.9 3.4 7.2 4.1 3.4 7.5 3.8 3.4 7.2

Energy: Performance, Metrics and Generation |97

Priority index *
7.5 7.1 7.4 8.0

* Priority Index: Following the identication of priority topics in questionnaire 1, a second questionnaire asked Importance Immaturity

Top-Five Priority Index Scores


Topic 1 Research to determine and calculate the holistic and integrated sustainable performance of tall buildings (including environmental, economic and social sustainability, integrated cost, carbon and energy analyses, etc.) 2 Research on strategies and technologies for heat storage and sharing in tall buildings (including waste energy harvesting in mixed-use tall buildings, etc.) 3 Research on the post-occupancy evaluation of tall buildings to monitor real energy performance and water requirements in operation (including use of monitoring systems, energy use in dierent geographical locations, verication of computer simulations, comparison with design loads, creation of an inventory of data, etc.) 4 Research to determine and calculate the whole life-cycle environmental impacts of tall buildings (including Life-cycle Assessment, development of methodologies, etc.) 5 Research on strategies and technologies for energy sharing between tall buildings such that excess energy generated in one, may coincide with a peak demand in another Priority Index 8.3

8.0

7.9

7.8

7.8

Highlighted Findings
In the eld of Energy: Performance, Metrics and Generation, 19 individual topics of relative importance and/or immaturity were recognized. This eld received the highest overall priority index scores as compared to other elds in the Roadmap, with values in the range of 7.08.3. This is driven predominantly by all topics receiving mean immaturity scores greater than 3.0 (moderately immature) and almost half greater than 3.5, demonstrating the most signicant level of perceived research underdevelopment in any eld. This is not surprising given that research related to energy performance, measurement, post-occupancy evaluation and renewable energy systems is relatively immature and still evolving in the wider built environment, beyond just the tall building typology.

Priority Research in the Field


The highest ranked topic identied by responders is Research to determine and calculate the holistic and integrated sustainable performance of tall buildings (including environmental, economic, and social sustainability, integrated cost, carbon and energy analyses, etc.), which scored a priority index of 8.3, the joint highest in the Roadmap. Development in this area would require an interdisciplinary approach, encompassing a wide variety of stakeholders and expertise. It is a very broad topic, and one which is relevant and developing across the wider building industry, being not just specic to high-rises. The second highest ranking topic is Research on strategies and technologies for heat storage and sharing in tall buildings, a topic which may be fuelled by the increase in mixed-use tall buildings constructed globally, opening up possibilities for heat/energy sharing between dierent programs (specically between oce and residential/hotel). The related topic Research on strategies and technologies for energy sharing between tall buildings, such that excess energy generated in one may coincide with a peak demand in another also ranks highly, with the highest immaturity score of 4.1 (beyond very immature), denoting a signicant research gap. Beyond this, three topics related to the subcategory of Post Occupancy Evaluation and Monitoring were all ranked highly, focusing on the actual performance of energy, user behavior and satisfaction, and integrated renewable systems in tall buildings. Again, this is a topic relevant to the broader built environment, with signicant evidence suggesting buildings do not perform as well as predicted and post occupancy evaluation being a powerful tool used to provide better data and feedback for actual building performance. However, research specic to the eld of tall buildings is also relevant here, for example, to develop appropriate methodological approaches for post occupancy evaluation in high-rises, given their unique architectural organization and systems.

How post-occupancy evaluation should be actually conductedby who and in which buildings, are huge questions to be discussed by a specialized group. I say this because I dont believe so much in the conventional post-occupancy evaluation methods. I think there is a huge need for the revision of those.
Joana Carla Soares Gonalves, University of So Paulo, Brazil

98 | Energy: Performance, Metrics and Generation

Topics related to the broader environmental performance of tall buildings beyond energy use, including life-cycle issues and embodied energy/ carbon are common in several elds in the Roadmap, and noted as priority research in Cladding and Skin, Building Materials and Products and Sustainable Design, Construction and Operation (see pages 69, 75 and 81). In this eld, the topics Research to determine and calculate the whole lifecycle environmental impacts of tall buildings and Research to determine and calculate the embodied energy/carbon of tall buildings and their key components are ranked relatively highly (4th and 9th respectively), with priority index scores comparable with, or even higher than, related topics in these other elds. Topics related to the broader category of Energy Generation were generally considered a lower priority by responders, with the exception of Research on strategies and technologies for heat storage and sharing in tall buildings and Research to establish the actual performance of tall building integrated renewable energy systems. The latter of these oers particularly valuable opportunities for research, given the increasing application of renewable energy systems to high-rise, but the lack of published details regarding their actual performance.

Regarding the issue of energy generation in tall buildingsI personally think very little has actually been conrmed or achieved in this eld of research. It would be important to know more, especially related to wind, as almost all the few buildings which have this technology, do not work well (or at all!) Joana Carla Soares Gonalves, University of So Paulo, Brazil
Results Broken Down by Questionnaire Responders
Responders that completed the second questionnaire in this section have a professional background in the following disciplines:

Industry: Other 64% Academia/University/Research 37%

Results by Professional Background


Outlined below are the three highest scoring topics for other consultants and academics respectively: Industry: Other Research to determine and calculate the holistic and integrated sustainable performance of tall buildings (8.2) Research to determine and calculate whole life-cycle environmental impacts of tall buildings (8.1) Research on the post-occupancy evaluation of tall buildings to monitor real energy performance and water requirements in operation (7.9)

Academia/University/Research Research on strategies and technologies for heat storage and sharing in tall buildings (8.4) Research on the maintenance costs of generating on-site renewable energy in tall buildings (8.4) Research to determine and calculate the holistic and integrated sustainable performance of tall buildings (8.3)

Of interest here is the fact that Research on the maintenance costs of generating on-site renewable energy in tall buildings received the joint highest priority index score from academics (8.4), but the lowest from those in consultancy (6.7). Beyond this, scores were generally consistent from both groups.

Results by Geographical Area


The locations of building/research projects with which responders are involved are well distributed geographically, but with a greater representation of professionals working predominantly in the North American market. However, responses were generally consistent across regions, and as such, are not presented here in detail.

Energy: Performance, Metrics and Generation |99

Conclusion: Emergent Research Priorities


Beyond the results demonstrating that responders feel tall building research is generally both important and immature, some specic research topics were perceived to be priority research across the Roadmap, either through achieving very high scores in either importance and/or immaturity, or through reoccurring across numerous elds. These emergent research priorities are discussed below. the entire Roadmap deal with safety and security in tall buildings, as a combined eect of extremely high importance and relevant immaturity. These are: Research on the planning, design and implications of using elevators for evacuation in tall buildings (8.3)

Highlighted Findings
1. The social sustainability of tall buildings A clear trend for priority research identied in the Roadmap is a focus on the social sustainability of tall buildings, at both an urban and a building scale. In the eld of Urban Design, City Planning and Social Issues, the two highest scoring topics are: 1. Research examining the social sustainability of tall buildings at an urban/city scale (7.8) 2. Research to determine optimum height, density and massing of tall buildings to provide appropriate social interaction and communities at an urban/city scale (7.6) In the eld of Architecture and Interior Design, the four highest-scoring topics are related to livability, and occupant social experience: 1. Research on the impact living in tall buildings has on families with children, and strategies to make high-rise living more appropriate for families with children (7.9) 2. Research on the experience, happiness and satisfaction of those who live and work in tall buildings (7.6) 3. Research on the needs of the elderly and disabled, with respect to high-rise living (7.6) 4. Research to improve the social-communal experience of occupants in tall buildings (7.5) This is a clear trend across the two elds, suggesting that a signicant group of responders believe research to improve the social impact of tall buildings on both surrounding communities, and on those who live and work at height, is a signicant research priority. This is supported by external literature, which suggests that high-rises are less satisfactory than other housing forms for most people, that they are not optimal for children, that social relations are more impersonal, and helpful behavior is less than in other residential typologies. 2. Energy: Performance, Metrics and Generation Energy: Performance, Metrics and Generation has the highest mean priority value of all sections (7.6) denoting that research in this broad area is a priority to evolve the typology of tall buildings. This is also reected by the highest average immaturity score in all sections (3.6), showing that even though a lot has been written on the subject in recent years, topics of this category still need to be developed. 3. Safety in tall buildings Four out of the ve topics that scored highest research priority across

Research to determine credible worst-case design fires for tall buildings(8.3) Research to establish the impact of sustainable materials, technologies and design strategies in tall buildings on re and life safety performance (8.2) Research to develop better collaborations between architects, re-engineers and the re-ghting community (8.1) This shows that tall buildings are still seen as a vulnerable typology, especially under re scenarios. 4. Dening appropriate levels of safety performance in tall buildings A second broad trend in the domain of safety that is apparent from the Roadmap results is the need for research to establish appropriate levels of safety performance in tall buildings. In particular, this is evident from the scores in two elds: Structural Performance, Multi-Hazard Design and Geotechnics, and Fire and Life Safety. In the former, research topics such as The development of design criteria to determine the appropriate level of safety for tall buildings in extreme events, Research on the development of holistic performance-based multi-hazard design and analysis of tall buildings across multiple disciplines, Research on strategies and methodologies to determine appropriate tall building seismic performance and Development of methodologies for evaluating risk to, and reliability of new and existing tall buildings in extreme event scenarios are all ranked in the ten highest priority topics. Likewise, in Fire and Life Safety Research to determine credible worst-case design res for tall buildings, Research and development of realistic re scenarios for the design of tall building structural-re protection and Research on the validation and comparison between computational models and behavior in real tall building re scenarios are again ranked highly by responders. As such, studies and projects to determine the appropriate level of safety required in tall buildings in both re and other multi-hazard scenarios (seismic, wind, blast, etc.) is consistently regarded as an area of priority research. 5. The embodied energy of tall buildings and their components Improving buildings environmental performance has historically focused on reducing energy use and emissions from day-to-day uses: lighting, heating, ventilation, conditioning, etc. However, current emphasis has shifted to also include the environmental impact of building materials and components also known as embodied energy/carbon within a broader consideration of environmental performance. Research has suggested that, due to their greater structural requirements, tall buildings use more embodied energy than low-rise buildings, and the results of the

Conclusion: Emergent Research Priorities |101

Roadmap here highlight that both establishing and reducing embodied energy in tall buildings is considered a priority topic across multiple elds. For example, in the Sustainable Design, Construction and Operation eld Research on strategies and techniques to reduce embodied energy/ carbon in tall buildings is the second-highest-ranked topic. In Building Materials and Products, Research on the responsible procurement of materials and components in tall buildings, Research on the development and use of sustainable and low-energy materials, products and components in tall buildings and The development of embodied energy/carbon data for tall building-specic materials and components are all highly ranked. In Cladding and Skin, the topics Research to establish the embodied energy of tall building faades and Research on the use of sustainable, recycled and reused materials in tall building faades are also ranked highly by responders. However, there are some exceptions to this trend. In the eld of Circulation: Vertical Transportation and Evacuation, the topic Research to develop calculations, models and metrics to determine the environmental life-cycle impacts of tall building vertical transportation systems was ranked much lower in the list of priority topics. Likewise in the eld of Structural Performance, Multi-Hazard Design and Geotechnics, topics related to the reduction of embodied energy in structural systems were much less of a priority than in the sustainability, materials and cladding elds. However, here it is suggested that this lower priority is due to structural engineers equating structural eciency very closely with material sustainability, and as such, topics related to embodied energy are encompassed within the broader focus on more-ecient, less-wasteful structural systems. 6. Life-cycle sustainability of tall buildings In a similar manner to the calls for priority research on embodied energy above, there are consistent calls for more research on tall building life-cycle sustainability issues beyond day-to-day operations. While this broad area includes embodied energy and the specic topics previously mentioned, other highly prioritized topics include material and component durability, the design for easy repair and replacement of materials (Building Materials and Products), disassembly and deconstruction of tall buildings, strategies to extend tall buildings lifecycles, adaptive reuse and retrotting (Sustainable Design, Construction and Operation), research to determine whole-life-cycle impacts of tall buildings, and the holistic and integrated sustainable performance of tall buildings (Energy: Performance, Metrics and Generation). Again, this broader thinking in terms of tall building sustainability is a reection of current thought in the built environment community as a whole, but also identies the need for research dedicated to the unique challenges and opportunities of tall building lifecycles specically. 7. Disassembly/deconstruction/demolition of tall buildings Research examining the opportunities and strategies to allow for disassembly/deconstruction at the end of a tall buildings life (and as such, re-use of components, materials, etc.) received the third-highest immaturity score of all Roadmap research topics. This ts well in the overall life-cycle issues of tall buildings noted above, but it reinforces a perceived lack of knowledge regarding the end of the life-cycle of tall buildings. The tallest building ever demolished to date is the Singer Building, New York at 187 meters in height (not including the destruction

of the World Trade Center Towers, New York). This is less than one quarter of the height of the tallest building recently constructed, and with many tall buildings approaching the end of their service life, this topic (and its extension to demolition strategies, costs and consequences) is likely to become a dominant research eld for the future of cities re-development. 8. The Economic impact of tall buildings The joint-highest score in the Roadmap, in terms of importance, is Research on tall buildings nancial relationship with global economic cycles and conditions. This topic can perhaps be considered a subset of the larger scale of life-cycle sustainability, from an economic perspective. Tall buildings are often assessed in terms of their impact on the local real estate market but, in an ever-increasing competition among cities at a global scale, the role of tall buildings (as individual buildings, or their booming construction in a single city) must be carefully assessed to prevent the bursting of real estate bubbles and in relation to larger scale economic conditions. 9. The use and performance of new and innovative materials in tall buildings A trend in priority research, apparent across multiple elds, is the use and performance of new and innovative materials in tall buildings. This is perhaps clearest in the Cladding and Skin eld, where research on the use of innovative/advanced materials including composites, photochromatic glazing, aerogel, application of aerospace/shipbuilding technologies, new products such as vacuum insulation panels, highly insulating but thin cladding products, and faade-integrated energy generation systems are all ranked highly by responders. However, the development and application of such materials will have a signicant impact on other disciplines as well, as recognized by the fact that the second-highestpriority topic in the eld of Fire and Life Safety is Research to establish the impact of new sustainable materials, technologies and design strategies in tall buildings on re and life safety performance. In the eld of Building Materials and Products, topics related to the development of new sustainable and low-energy materials, and ber-reinforced polymers, are also highly ranked. 10. Highlighted high-scoring research gaps Only four topics across the whole Roadmap received a score of immaturity higher than 4 (extremely immature), implying that research is still needed to discover new potentialities. These four topics are: Research on alternative evacuation systems that allow for evacuation through the faade in emergency scenarios (immaturity 4.2) Research on strategies and technologies for energy sharing between tall buildings such that excess energy generated in one, may coincide with a peak demand in another (immaturity 4.1) Research examining the opportunities and strategies to allow for disassembly/deconstruction at the end of a tall buildings life (immaturity 4.0) Research to determine and calculate the maximum sustainable height of tall buildings (immaturity 4.0) These four topics have not ranked particularly high in their categories in terms of priority as a consequence of the low or average perceived importance as research elds. However, further research can show unexpected potentialities that might result in signicant ndings and benets for the future of tall buildings.

102 | Conclusion: Emergent Research Priorities

Next Steps
Identifying Research Projects and Programs The overarching aim of this Roadmap has been to identify priority research topics and research gaps in the eld of tall buildings, in order to provide a clear direction for future research in this area. The Roadmap presents 358 research topics spread over 11 broad categories, ordered and ranked by how important and how immature those in the tall building community perceive each topic to be. What is established then is a series of priority research topics that those involved in the ownership, development, design, planning, construction, consultancy, operation, maintenance and research of tall buildings feel deserve priority research focus and development in order to advance the typology over the coming years. It is clear from these ndings that those in the industry perceive tall building research to be of signicant importance to its future development, and also believe that notable gaps in the research and understanding of tall buildings currently exist. It will require a comprehensive and multi-disciplinary program of research and development to ll these gaps, and progress tall building design and performance across the multitude of elds the typology impacts. While this Roadmap clearly establishes a hierarchy for future tall building research, what it does not do is identify the specic research programs and projects necessary to develop these priority areas. Any of the 358 research topics identied in the Roadmap may require several, if not more, individual research projects or programs developed by dierent teams (and perhaps across dierent disciplines) in order to advance knowledge in the topic area, and as such, improve tall buildings and close the research gaps that exist in the eld. The next stage of the Roadmap will identify the key research streams required to progress the topics identied as needing greatest priority attention within this document. This will involve identifying the specic projects and research questions, costs, teams, funding streams and timescales necessary within each priority topic. As part of this, the CTBUH will develop activities to facilitate the development of research on the topics ranked higher in terms of priority, and ideally all research topics included in this Roadmap. It is hoped that Researchers and Research Teams will use this document to promote and progress the need for research in their respective elds. It is also hoped that the document will be useful in supporting the leverage of research funds from both public and private research funding bodies. In order to facilitate the dissemination of the Roadmap ndings and to promote the opportunities for research for both individuals and companies, this document is available for free download on the CTBUH website at: www.ctbuh.org/roadmap In addition, a physical copy of the Roadmap will be mailed to the following: All CTBUH organizational members Key public and private research funding bodies

Selected city authorities Selected universities Other organizations with a high interest in research in these fields

If you would like to suggest a party who you believe would nd benet in receiving a physical copy of this publication, or if you would like tor be involved in the next steps of this initiative, please contact: research@ctbuh.org The next steps of the Roadmap will be developed through the CTBUH Research Academic and Postgraduate Working Group, with the ongoing activities of the group published regularly on the CTBUH website: www.ctbuh.org/research-academic

Next Steps |103

This Roadmap aims to identify priority research topics and research gaps in the eld of tall buildings. In doing so, it acts as a guide to assist all those involved with the typology in the necessary planning of future research and the pursuit of research funding in order to advance tall buildings to their optimum level in the coming years. The Roadmap has been created as a joint venture between the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat (CTBUH), the International Council for Research and Innovation in Building and Construction (CIB) and the United Nations Educational, Scientic and Cultural Organization (UNESCO).

ISBN 978-0-939493-36-4