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ACTIVITIES ENVM030: Wastes Management in India ACTIVITY ONE


1.1. Write down five (5) phrases outlining what waste means to you. Waste is an undesirable t ing meant !"r dis#"sal $ i% as a #"tential im#a%t "n en&ir"nment. Waste is a "ne $ i% d"esn't a&e e%"n"mi% &alue. Waste is an undesirable b( #r"du%t "! an( #r"%ess $ i% as n" e%"n"mi% &alue. Obs"lete t ings %an be %"nsidered as $aste. Als" $aste is "ne $ i% is n"t g""d !"r ealt . In br"ader $a( t e $aste %an be %lassi!ied as )e%(%lable and N"n re%(%lable and !urt er %an be %lassi!ied as Organi% and In*"rgani% $aste. 1.+ What happens to the waste produced by your family? Who collects it? Where does it go? We generate mainl( !""d $aste, #a#er $aste and at times #a%-aging $aste $e dis#"se t e $aste in t e nearb( dustbin l"%ated in "ur street. T e garbage %"lle%ti"n &e i%le %"lle%ts t e $aste !r"m t e dustbins and ta-es t" t e dis#"sal sites. 1.3 Write down a list of the sort of things that you throw away on regular basis: - at home: .""d $aste, #a#ers, #"l(t ene bags, #a%-ing materials, br"-en t"(s, /lass b"ttles, %ans et% - at work aper! card boards! tea cups! paper plates! broken pens! etc 1.0 Fuzzy regression based approach has been used for forecasting the solid waste composition of Delhi, India between years 2007 to 2024. he estimates show that the plastic content of the waste is e!pected to increase from 2.74" to #.$$". he percentages of paper and food waste are e!pected to decrease from 2%.$0" to 24.$&" and from #'.#7" to 27.$$" respecti(ely. he metals and glass has been estimated to increase to triple and double respecti(ely.
"umar #! $rivastava! %ema " # (&''()) Forecasting of solid waste composition using fuzzy regression approach) a case of Delhi) *nternational +ournal of ,nvironment and Waste -anagement! .ol &! p/5

0ist a. b. c. d.

the implications of such predictions on: waste storage waste collection recycling waste disposal

Im#li%ati"ns a. Waste st"rage: 1he capacity of storage is not planned based on long term estimation with ma2imum percentages the available storage facilities may run out of space than the estimated time. Waste %"lle%ti"n: 1he collection cost 3 storage area might increase because of significant increase in percentage of metal and during year &''45&'&6.

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c. d. )e%(%ling: 1he reduction in revenue of recycling paper and increased revenue in recycling plastic. Waste dis#"sal: 1he disposal at landfills becoming e2pensive due to increasing land cost and therefore! it is desirable that available landfill capacities should be efficiently used.

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Write down five (5) factors which might affect how much waste you and your family produces In%"me A!!"rdabilit( 2e a&i"ur 3Attitude t"$ards a$areness "! Ta4es "n $aste C"st "! ser&i%e 1hink about the ways in which waste and the way it is stored! collected! transported and disposed of could cause harm to: a. you and your family7household b. other people c. the environment in general St"rage: 1he *mproper storage of waste will lead to leaching of effluent which will lead to ground water contamination and lead to health ha8ards for all. #lso the improper storage will lead to undesirable odour and induce the growth of mos9uitoes. C"lle%ti"n "! $astes: *mproper 7 untrained ways of waste collection will harm the people involved. #lso due to improper segregation the waste can turn to ha8ardous which might affect the environment. Trans#"rtati"n: 1he improper ways of transportation! like transporting the waste without covering which will lead to spillage. #nd the personnel involved without proper skill to handle7transport are affected to harmful diseases. 6is#"sal: *mproper disposal at unauthori8ed disposal site dumping on road side which will affect the all peoples health and environment by seepage of unwanted effluent to ground water leading to contamination and fertility of land.

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$uggest reasons why solid waste generation depends on the economy of the people and per capita generation increases with the level of income of the family or individual. I! t e le&el "! in%"me is ig t e a!!"rdabilit( in%rease ultimatel( leads t" lu4ur( needs. A#art !r"m s"lid $aste dis#"sed b( t e sel! b( using t e #r"du%ts, in #r"du%ing e&er( su% #r"du%ts t ere is %"nsum#ti"n "! natural res"ur%es and undesired b(*#r"du%ts. 8en%e based "n #er %a#ita in%rease it %an be %"n%luded t at t e s"lid $aste in%reases.

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Why are strict legal definitions of waste seen as essential for the development of sustainable wastes management systems? 2e%ause "! be a&i"ur :eas( g"ing, $ ( "nl( i s "uld %are; T" im#"se res#"nsibilit( t" t e $aste generat"r T" #lan !"r alternati&e res"ur%e T" %"ntr"l t e $aste generati"n E!!e%ti&e segregati"n "! re%(%lables, et%

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What are the problems associated with the compilation of accurate wastes management data? $uggest possible solutions.

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=ns%ienti!i% $a(s "! estimati"n "! $aste generati"n: :se of scientific ways to 9uantify. Ign"ran%e: #wareness programs S "rtage "! 2udget: $ufficient importance for waste management >a%- "! man#"$er $it /"&ernment: rivati8ation would be an option which can be supervised by government! etc

1.10 #rrange the following waste disposal options in order of increasing desirability based on the waste hierarchy: a. landfill (with landfill gas collection)) b. incineration (without energy recovery)) c. sea disposal) d. composting) and e. anaerobic digestion. ;. <omposting &. #naerobic digestion =. 0andfill (with landfill gas collection) 6. $ea disposal 5. *ncineration (without energy recovery)

4 ACTIVITY TWO
&.; *dentify shortcomings in the legislative framework in *ndia for eliminating the uncontrolled open dumping of wastes. &.& T ere is n" stri%t en!"r%ement "! la$. T ere is n" m"nit"ring !"r%e !"r illeagal dum#s ?enalities are n"t stringent and n"t m"re, e&er(b"d( as an "#ti"n t" !ig t ba%- against t e %"m#laint. T ere are n"t mu% s#eed( @udgements $ i% #assi!( t e e!!e%t "! #unis ment.

>ive five (5) health impacts linked to the uncontrolled open dumping of wastes. ?or each e2ample provide an academic reference. ;. :ncontrolled open dumping of waste on land attracts rodents! insects and creates unhygenic conditions. ,2cessive dumps and land filling with land deteriorates the 9uality of land and also the ground water which inturn effects health :)e!: Ma aras tra 6e&el"#ment )e#"rt b( ?lanning C"mmissi"n, /"&ernment "! India; 1he waste pickers have high occupational health risks! including risk from contact with humanfecal matter! paper that may have become saturated with to2ic materials! bottles with chemical residues! metal containers with residue pesticides and solvents! needles and bandages (containing pathogenic organisms) from hospitals! and batteries containing heavy metals. ,2haust fumes of waste collection trucks traveling to and from disposal sites! dust from disposal operations! and open burning of waste all contribute to occupational health problems. :O%%u#ati"nal and En&ir"nmental 8ealt Issues "! S"lid Waste Management S#e%ial Em# asis "n Middle* and >"$er* In%"me C"untries b( Sandra C"intreau; @isposal of e-wastes poses a threat to both health and vital components of the ecosystem e-waste that is land filled produces contaminated leachates! which eventually pollute the groundwater #cids and sludge obtained from melting computer chips! if disposed on the ground causes acidification of soil! leading to contamination of water resources. *ncineration of e-wastes can emit to2ic fumes and gases! thereby polluting the surrounding air (http:77www.indiaenvironmentportal.org.in7files7<hemical-ewasteAinAtwoAcitiesAinAandhraApradeshAandAkarnatakaA.pdf) *ndirect health effects due to the contribution of greenhouse gases from waste disposal activities could be significant. Bising temperatures (and low level o8one levels) due to climate change would affect old people with cardiovascular problems and both old and young people with respiratory problems such as asthma ( A re&ie$ "! $aste management #ra%ti%es and t eir im#a%t "n uman ealt b( >. /iusti, .a%ult( "! 8ealt and >i!e S%ien%es, =WE 2rist"l, .ren% a( Cam#us, C"ld arb"ur >ane, 2rist"l 2S15 1AY, =nited Bingd"m) *mproper disposal of Cio-edical Wastes in open dumps increases the risk of inDury from sharps and the spread of infectious diseases to waste handlers and scavengers! and uncontrolled burning of C-Ws increases the risk of e2posure to ha8ardous emissions. (Eealth <are Waste -anagement in *ndia by C,"*B F%:B$#0! Fctober &''=)

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*dentify the maDor environmental impacts resulting from the uncontrolled dumping of wastes. ;. 0and deterioration &. >round water conamination =. Biver contamination by uncontrolled dumping of wastes 6. ?umes becuase of uncontrolled incentration $uggest simple measures which could be implemented to:

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a. phase out the uncontrolled dumping of wastes ;. *dentifying new land fills &. 1o be goverened by an independent power center =. #llotment of resources 6. #wareness campgins. 5. ,nforcing 0aw /. -onitoring of illegal dumps 4. $evere punishments progressively rehabilitate e2isting open dumps ;. $egregation during collection &. -a2imum ossibility of recycle =. <ontrolled and classified $torage of wastes 6. rocessing of wastes 5. lanning and long term estimation of waste generation

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