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Primary Sources:

Brophy, Leo P., and George J. B. Fisher.The Chemical Warfare Service: From Laboratory to Field. Washington: Office of the Chief of Military History, ept. of the !r"y, #$%$. Print.
We used this book mostly as it applies to the development of defense technology against chemical weapons and to analyze the failings of chemical defense technology that made it necessary to eliminate chemical weapons to sufficiently protect soldiers and civilians

Ha&er, Frit'. ()he *ynthesis of !""onia fro" +ts ,le"ents.( -o&el Lect.re. / J.ne #$/0. Lect.re.1http:22333.no&elpri'e.org2no&el4pri'es2che"istry2la.reates2#$#52ha&er6 lect.re.pdf7
This speech e!plains "aber#s revolutionary process of binding nitrogen into ammonia which proved crucial to the development of modern fertilizer but also could easily be converted to nitrates that were used in e!plosives This process lead to his later appointment to the head of $ermany#s chemical warfare division

(La3s of War 6 eclaration on the 8se of Pro9ectiles the O&9ect of Which is the iff.sion of !sphy:iating or eleterio.s Gases; J.ly /$, #5$$.( The %valon &ro'ect. -.p., n.d. We&. / Mar. /0#<. 1http:22a=alon.la3.yale.ed.2#$th4cent.ry2dec$$60/.asp7.
This transcript of part of the "ague Convention of ()** regarding the ban on weapons designed to use chemical gasses represents one of the more concrete first steps in discouraging nations from using chemical weapons even though the wording e!pressed here contained obvious loopholes that could be and were e!ploited

Organi'ation for the Prohi&ition of Che"ical Weapons. Chemical Weapons Convention. Paris: n.p., #$$>. We&. /0 ec. /0#>. 1http:22333.opc3.org2che"ical63eapons6 con=ention2articles27.
The articles of the Chemical Weapons Convention demonstrate the latest evolution of chemical weapon bans We used these articles to analyze the increased severity and effectiveness of chemical weapon bans on the international level as an indication of the evolving concepts about the rights of participants in war and the international responsibility that has been assumed in regards to limiting the ability to wage chemical warfare

(Peace )reaty of ?ersailles.( #$#$. )*. Bir"ingha" @o.ng 8ni=ersity, ?ersailles. We&. #5 Fe&. /0#<. 1http:22net.li&.&y..ed.2ArdhB233i2=ersa2=ersa<.ht"l7.
This document is a transcript of the Treaty of +ersailles, article (-( of which we used as it applies to the banning of chemical weapons in $ermany after WW. We /uoted this treaty as a limited

however also new type of ban that was intended to prevent possession of chemical weapons for the first time

*anders, Gold ?. (!r"y G.ards !gainst Poison Gas.( &opular Science Fe&. #$<%: #0C6 ##.$oogle 0ooks. Pop.lar *cience. We&. #C Jan. /0#<. 1http:22&ooDs.google.co"2&ooDsE idF!y, !!!!MB!JGpgFP!#0CH=Ft3opageGIGfFtr.e7
This Popular Science magazine from (*12 reflects how commonplace thoughts on chemical weapons and defense against them has been during times of war even after the $eneva &rotocol but before the CWC in (**3 These type of publications are important to note as they reflect the desire of both soldier and civilian to be protected from such chemical weapons

)he Leag.e of -ations. The $eneva &rotocol of (*42. Gene=a, *3it'erland: n.p., #$/%. Print. <http://www.un.org/disarmament/WMD/Bio/pdf/Status_Protocol.pdf
This is a transcript of a portion of the $eneva &rotocol of (*-2 that applies to the banning of chemical weapons in war, as defined as 5asphy!iating, poisonous, or other gasses6 We used this document to analyze the effectiveness of this ban in limiting the use of different varieties of chemical weapons after (*42 and also its failures in not preventing the production and stockpiling of chemical weapons %dditionally it fails to recognize the use of herbicides in warfare

The 7yklon80 Case: Trial of 0runo Tesch and Two 9thers * *38(:3 0ritish ;ilitary Court ) ;ar (*1< &rint
This is the court record of a trial for war crimes committed by 0runo Tesch and some of his business affiliates including the distribution of their product, 7yklon80, to be used by the =azis to murder >ewish people in various concentration camps This source provides insight into another terrible side of the chemical weapon issue, where civilians are killed by governments using these methods

Secondary Sources:
(Basic Facts on Che"ical isar"a"ent.( "istory of the Chemical Weapons Convention. -.p., n.d. We&. / Mar. /0#<. 1http:22333.opc3.org2ne3s6 p.&lications2p.&lications2history6of6the6che"ical63eapons6con=ention27.
This source gives a very thorough e!planation of the development and historical uses of chemical weapons and how they influenced the Chemical Weapons Convention to eliminate the loopholes of previous conventions The CWC is summarized here along with several figures that demonstrate its effectiveness

BBC. (Gas Warfare in the First World War.( ?ouTube. ,d. John Jerry. @o.).&e, #/ Oct.

/0#>. We&. /0 !pr. /0#<. 1https:22333.yo.t.&e.co"23atchE=F4K:tBCs6<oM7.


This documentary and interviews were used in our website to offer another medium to portray the physical and especially the psychological damage that chemical weapons cause that resulted in them re/uiring special attention The horrific nature of these weapons is crucial to understanding why it is a nation#s responsibility to prevent their use

(Che"ical and Biological Weapons.( .C@C. +nternational Co""ittee of the Led Cross, n.d. We&. /5 Fe&. /0#<. 1http:22333.icrc.org2eng23ar6and6 la323eapons2che"ical6&iological63eapons2o=er=ie36che"ical6&iological6 3eapons.ht"7.
This website offered good background information on the $eneva &rotocol of (*42 and how it influenced and was supplemented by the Chemical Weapons Convention of (**3, however this source also discusses how both weapon bans did not limit use of domestic use of riot control agents

(Che"ical Warfare.( =ational Library of ;edicine. -.p., n.d. We&. / Mar. /0#<. 1http:22sis.nl".nih.go=2en=iro2che"ical3arfare.ht"l7.
This source breaks down all the different types of chemical weapons by category and effect .t was useful in demonstrating the severity of many agents that makes them so inhumane

Craggs, Lyan. (What +s *arinE ! Lethal -er=e Gas )hat Jills +n Min.tes.( The "uffington &ost. )heH.ffingtonPost.co", # *ept. /0#>. We&. / Mar. /0#<. 1http:22333.h.ffingtonpost.co"2/0#>20$20#23hat6is6sarin4n4>5%>0<<.ht"l7.
This article gives some historical details about various chemical weapons attacks using Sarin gas and also e!plains the effects and danger associated with this particular chemical agent

Croddy, ,ric; Pere'6!r"endari', Clarissa; Hart, John M/00/N. Chemical and 0iological Warfare: % Comprehensive Survey for the Concerned Citizen . Copernic.s BooDs
This book furnished e!cellent information on everything from descriptions of the different varieties of chemical weapons and their /ualities, the history of development and use of these weapons, and the paralleling history of chemical weapon bans and attempted bans along with an analysis of the individual bans effectiveness and significance

Fit'gerald, Gerard. (Che"ical Warfare and Medical Lesponse .ring World War +.( AS =ational Library of ;edicine =ational .nstitutes of "ealth . -.p., n.d. We&. / Mar. /0#<. 1http:22333.nc&i.nl".nih.go=2p"c2articles2PMC/>BC$5%27.
This article gives a history of chemical weapon and defense development along with accounts of many gas attack survivors that gives an e!cellent view into the horrific casualties that resulted

from gas attacks throughout World War . along with a uni/ue perspective into the logistical issues that plagued development and production of chemical weapons and often caused industrial worker casualties

(Frit' Ha&erOs ,:peri"ents in Life and eath.( Smithsonian. -.p., n.d. We&. /$ ec. /0#>. 1http:22333.s"ithsonian"ag.co"2history2frit'6ha&ers6e:peri"ents6in6life6 and6death6##<#C#>0#2Eno6ist7.iraI
This website e!plains some of Fritz "aber#s contributions to both the scientific community and the $erman war effort as the head of its efforts to use chemical weapons in WW. .t also gives accounts to the very first use of chlorine gas at the 0attle of ?pres in WW.

(History of +ran: Che"ical Warfare +n )he +ran6+raI War #$506#$55.( .ran Chamber Society. -.p., n.d. We&. 0/ Mar. /0#<.
1http:22333.irancha"&er.co"2history2articles2che"ical43arfare4iran4iraI43ar.php7.
This source was helpful in analyzing the use of chemical weapons in the .ran8.ra/ war and had supplemental information with background to the types of weapon and the investigation surrounding the confirmation of these attacks

(+ntrod.ction to Che"ical Weapons .( Federation of %merican Scientists. -.p., n.d. We&. / Mar. /0#<. 1http:22333.fas.org2progra"s2&io2che"3eapons2introd.ction.ht"l7.
This website was useful in its information regarding historical uses of various chemical weapons throughout the 4:th century including between the two World Wars The production and development of different varieties of chemical agents was described including how these activities changed in response to chemical weapon banning treaties after wars concluded

(+ran6+raI6War6#$506to6#$556Hala&cheh Che"ical Bo"&ing."p<.( ?ouTube. @o.).&e, 0/ Fe&. /0#/. We&. /# !pr. /0#<. 1https:22333.yo.t.&e.co"23atchE =F0K./el d0l,7.
This video was used in the historical uses section of the website as it offers first hand accounts of one of the chemical weapon massacres that have occurred more recently and offered stimuli to the movement to ban and destroy chemical stockpiles

Jones, *i"on. (@ello3 Cross: )he !d=ent of M.stard Gas in #$#B.( Simon >ones "istorian. -.p., n.d. We&. 0< Mar. /0#<. 1http:22si"on9oneshistorian.3ordpress.co"2/0#<20/20<2yello36cross6the6ad=ent6 of6".stard6gas6in6#$#B27.
This source gives crucial insight into the significance of ;ustard $as in the history of chemical weapons and also evaluates the central role Fritz "aber played in bringing about the height of

chemical warfare in WW.

Ja.f"an, Lo&ert G. %rms Control during the &renuclear Bra: The Anited States and =aval Limitation between the Two World Wars. -.p.: Col."&ia 8., #$$0. Print.
This book discusses a variety of attempts at arms control including the Washington %rms Conference and the latest Chemical Weapons Convention, this source was of some use as it included chemical weapons in its discussion of various weapon bans, and e!plained some of the intentions of these conventions along with their ultimate successes or failures

(Protocol for the Prohi&ition of the 8se in War of !sphy:iating, Poisono.s or Other Gases, and of Bacteriological Methods of Warfare MGene=a ProtocolN.( A S Cepartment of State. 8.*. epart"ent of *tate, n.d. We&. # Mar. /0#<. 1http:22333.state.go=2t2isn2<B5<.ht"7.
This source contains primary source information regarding a transcript of the $eneva &rotocol of (*42 along with information as to the background for this protocol including its influences from previous treaties such as the Washington %rms Conference This source also gives accounts of failings of the protocol including the use of non8lethal chemical agents in +ietnam

Leagan, Lonald. (!pril <, #$5<: Che"ical Weapon Ban.( %0C =ews. !BC -e3s, #0 Fe&. /0#0. We&. // !pr. /0#<. 1http:22a&cne3s.go.co"2!rchi=es2=ideo2april6 #$5<6&an6che"ical63eapons6$B$B0%/7.
This video of @onald @eagan announcing the beginning of the Chemical Weapons Convention demonstrates the e!pectations many had for the convention and gives some of the reasoning behind the realized need for such a weapons ban This video was used as part of the CWC section of the website

()he !.stralia Gro.p.( The %ustralia $roup. -.p., n.d. We&. / Mar. /0#<. 1http:22333.a.straliagro.p.net2en2inde:.ht"l7.
This website e!plains the purpose for The %ustralia $roup and also elaborates on how this group influenced the terms of the Chemical Weapons Convention regarding limiting the trading of chemical precursors to weapons in effort to reduce the spread and ease of production of these weapons

PThe ;ilitarily Critical Technologies List &art ..: Weapons of ;ass Cestruction Technologies6 M! ! >>0#0/N, (Che"ical Weapons )echnology( 6 A S Cepartment of Cefense, 9ffice of the Ander Secretary of Cefense for %c/uisition and Technology Fe&. #$$5. Print. #B Fe&. /0#<.
This article had several very useful charts and graphics that demonstrated the history of chemical weapon technology, both offensive and defensive This source also provided a history of

chemical weapon uses and detailed reports on what countries possess chemical weapons and the different types there are

(8-O ! 6 Che"ical Weapons.( Anited =ations 9ffice of Cisarmament %ffairs. 8-, n.d. We&. / Fe&. /0#<. 1http:22333..n.org2disar"a"ent2WM 2Che"ical27.
The A=#s website analyzes the effectiveness of the $eneva &rotocol and the Chemical Weapons Convention in limiting both the use and stockpiling of chemical weapons throughout the 4:th century .t was useful in comparing the two treaties

(OWar of -er=esO: ! History of Che"ical Weapons.( +nter=ie3. =ational &ublic @adio. -PL, 5 May /00C. Ladio.
This interview offers insight into some of the issues that confront chemical weapon bans and their enforcement We used this source in analyzing some of the chemical weapons bans and also in giving background to specific chemical weapons

!mages:
!llied *oldiers -ear a First !id Post, Blinded &y Gas .ring WW+. igital i"age. .C@C org. +nternational Co""ittee of the Led Cross, n.d. We&. /5 Fe&. /0#<. 1http:22333.icrc.org2eng23ar6and6la323eapons2che"ical6&iological63eapons2=6p6 hist600>/#6'.9pg7.
This picture was used to demonstrate the terrible effects chemical weapons signature to WW. could have on people that were often very disabling Scenes like this proved to be powerful motivators to limit chemical weapons

ChildQs WW++ Gas MasD. igital i"age. -.p., n.d. We&. 0/ Mar. /0#<. 1http:22i.daily"ail.co..D2i2pi:2/0#>20C2//2article6/><CC%%6#!B%C$<$00000% C6 B$B4C><:B<>.9pg7.
This image demonstrates many issues associated with chemical weapons including their potential to affect civilians including children and the psychological stress and fear they bring even in 'ust having to be prepared for the possibility of a gas attack

Frit' Ha&er. igital i"age. -.p., n.d. We&. #/ Fe&. /0#<. 1http:22333.r.g.sa=ay.co"23p6content2.ploads2/0#>20#2Frit'6Ha&er6B.9pg7.
This image of Fritz "aber was used to identify him in the informational section about him

Prod.ction of )a&.n -er=e !gent.

igital i"age. -.p., n.d. We&. < Mar. /0#<.

1http:22333.en=ironet.e.2to:2ar&eiter.9pg7.
This image is of $erman chemists working of Tabun, the deadly nerve agent While never used in WW.. it still has posed a threat since its development even though more to!ic nerve agents have since been developed

La&&it Being 8sed to )est for *arin Gas. igital i"age. -.p., n.d. We&. < Mar. /0#<. 1http:22staticC.&.sinessinsider.co"2i"age2%/#fC$d<ecad0<#d>cff%><>6#/006 $/<2sarintestra&&it.9pg7.
This image show a rabbit being used to test for sarin gas leaks at a Colorado facility in (*-:, reflecting the e!treme danger that even possessing weapons like this presents

L.ssian Che"ical Weapon Board Ga"e. igital i"age. -.p., n.d. We&. ## Jan. /0#<. 1http:22/.&p.&logspot.co"24)*6 :'&#/a*g2*5)h:MD <<+2!!!!!!!! ><2!L<hcGL8/5+2s#C00204/B5B<4>%&/> cBd4L.9pg7.
This image is of a board game that was made by % + Dulkin during the Soviet period of (*42 .t was made to teach the kids that chemical weapons during WW. were disastrous

L.ssian Officers Leleasing )ear Gas .ring )raining Manoe.=res on -e3"arDet Heath, #$#$. igital i"age. -.p., n.d. We&. > Jan. /0#<. 1http:22333.ne3"arDetlhs.org..D2L.ssianR/0Officers.JPG7.
This picture was used as part of the section on the various types of chemical weapons to give a visual for the category of weapons commonly known as 5Tear $as6

*anders, Gold ?. (!r"y G.ards !gainst Poison Gas.( &opular Science Fe&. #$<%: #0C6 ##.$oogle 0ooks. Pop.lar *cience. We&. #C Jan. /0#<. 1http:22&ooDs.google.co"2&ooDsE idF!y, !!!!MB!JGpgFP!#0CH=Ft3opageGIGfFtr.e7
This source, while also used for its primary source information had several photographs we used to reflect the relative defense technology during the period around (*12 including many early warning detection mechanisms

*argent, John *inger. $assed. -.d. We&. 0> Mar. /0#<. 1http:22.pload.3iDi"edia.org23iDipedia2co""ons2525$2*argent,4John4*inger4ML !N464Gassed464Google4!rt4Pro9ect.9pg7.
This painting was used because it captures much of the brutality of chemical weapons that makes them so uni/ue and necessary to control in order to respect the rights of all people caught up in the conflict

*oldier Wearing Gas Protection Gear. igital i"age. -.p., n.d. We&. // Jan. /0#<. 1http:22333.history.ar"y."il2photos2WW++2Preps2*C#50B$5.9pg7.
This image was used to demonstrate some of the measure that had to be taken to protect people from chemical weapons, and was used in the banner on many of our pages

*y"&ol of the OPCW. igital i"age. Wikipedia. -.p., n.d. We&. # Mar. /0#<. 1http:22.pload.3iDi"edia.org23iDipedia2en2525d2OPCW4logo.gif7.
This logo was used on the Chemical Weapons Conference page because the 9&CW was a crucial accomplishment of the CWC that made it a much more effective and meaningful ban than previous ones

)he Hag.e Con=ention of #5$$. igital i"age. Wikipedia. -.p., n.d. We&. # Mar. /0#<. 1http:22.pload.3iDi"edia.org23iDipedia2co""ons2&2&%2)he4First4+nternational4P eace4Conference,4the4Hag.e,4May464J.ne4#5$$4H8CB//<.9pg7.
This picture is of the delegates of the "ague Convention of ()** and was used in the section for the history of chemical weapon bans because this convention was one of the most important steps taken to eliminating chemical weapons

PThe ;ilitarily Critical Technologies List &art ..: Weapons of ;ass Cestruction Technologies6 M! ! >>0#0/N, (Che"ical Weapons )echnology( 6 A S Cepartment of Cefense, 9ffice of the Ander Secretary of Cefense for %c/uisition and Technology Fe&. #$$5. Print. #B Fe&. /0#<.
We used a chart of relative development of defense and offensive chemical weapon technology along with a comparison to what the latest bans on these weapons were and any violations of these bans that occurred This worked as an e!cellent summary to our development section

)he *igning of the CWC in #$$>. igital i"age. A= org. )he 8nited -ations, n.d. We&. /B Fe&. /0#<. 1http:22legal..n.org2a=l2i"ages2ha2cpdps.c320$6l.9pg7.
This image was used on our home page banner because the signing of this convention signified the culmination of all previous treaties into the most effective ban to date

)he *igning of the )reaty of ?ersailles. igital i"age. -.p., #/ Fe&. /0#<. We&. 1http:22333.historyplace.co"23orld3ar/233/6pi:2=ersailles.9pg7.
This image was used as part of the history of chemical weapon bans because the signing of the treaty of versailles marked the first attempt at limiting possession of chemical weapons by a state

)he Washington !r"s Conference. igital i"age. -.p., n.d. We&. #/ Jan. /0#<. 1http:22333.cityofart.net2&ship23ash4treaty.9pg7.
This image was used in the section of the Washington %rms Conference because this convention had important influence in the following $eneva &rotocol

Treaty of +ersailles (*(*. igital i"age. Cocumenting a Cemocracy. -.p., n.d. We&. /0 Fe&. /0#<. 1http:22fo.ndingdocs.go=.a.2ite"6did6/>.ht"l7.
This is a scan of one of the original copies of the Treaty of +ersailles between the %llies and $ermany at the conclusion of WW. We are using this as one of the e!amples of preliminary bans on chemical weapons before the $eneva &rotocol or CWC

)sar -icholas ++. igital i"age. The "istory 0log. -.p., n.d. We&. /> Fe&. /0#<. 1http:22333.thehistory&log.co"23p6content2.ploads2/0#>20/2)sar6-icholas6 ++.9pg7.
This picture was used to identify Tsar =icholas .. for his role in beginning the "ague Conventions

8.*. !irforce *praying !gent Orange O=er ?ietna". igital i"age. The $uardian. -.p., n.d. We&. < Mar. /0#<. 1https:22static6sec.re.g.i".co..D2sys6 i"ages2G.ardian2Pi:2pict.res2/0##2>2##2#/$$5C5$%C55B2!gent6Orange6 spraying6in6600C.9pg7.
This image captures the indiscriminate spraying of chemical herbicide Eagent orangeF that was a crucial part of A S +ietnam war strategy Chemicals used in this manner had a tragic backlash on the health of +ietnamese citizens which demonstrates how even non8lethal use of chemicals in war is not an acceptable position

World War ++ Le3isite Poster. igital i"age. Wikipedia. -.p., n.d. We&. < Mar. /0#<. 1http:22.pload.3iDi"edia.org23iDipedia2co""ons2C2C52Le3isite4poster433/.9pg7.
This poster gives e!cellent information on Lewisite along with a good representation of the kinds of campaigns undertaken to educate vulnerable people about the dangers of different chemical weapons

World War ++ M.stard Gas Poster. igital i"age. Wikipedia. -.p., n.d. We&. /B Fe&. /0#<. 1http:22.pload.3iDi"edia.org23iDipedia2co""ons2<2</2M.stard4gas433/4poster. 9pg7
This poster was used for the section on ;ustard $as because, like the &hosgene poster, it offered a good representation of the period in terms of the necessity to educate people on the danger of such gases but also not terrify them unnecessarily

World War ++ Phosgene Poster. igital i"age. Wikipedia. -.p., n.d. We&. /B Fe&. /0#<. 1http:22.pload.3iDi"edia.org23iDipedia2co""ons2$2$d2Phosgene4poster433/.9pg 7
This poster was used for the section on &hosgene because it offered a period accurate representation of both an e!planation of the gas and attempts to make it less terrifying and psychologically damaging

SyDlon6B at Ma9daneD. igital i"age. )he History Place. -.p., n.d. We&. < Mar. /0#<. 1http:22333.historyplace.co"23orld3ar/2holoca.st2hol6pi:2'yDlon#.9pg7.
This image of 7yklon80 pellets at a $erman death camp emphasizes very clearly the opportunities that e!ist for chemicals to be horribly misused by a government This misuse then highlights the need for regulation of to!ic chemicals that can be easily abused