Você está na página 1de 33

Bourgeois Class Position and the Esthetic Representation of Class Interest: The Social Determination of Taste Author(s): Titus

Suck Source: MLN, Vol. 102, No. 5, Comparative Literature (Dec., 1987), pp. 1090-1121 Published by: The Johns Hopkins University Press Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2905313 . Accessed: 14/05/2013 11:56
Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of the Terms & Conditions of Use, available at . http://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsp

.
JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new forms of scholarship. For more information about JSTOR, please contact support@jstor.org.

The Johns Hopkins University Press is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access to MLN.

http://www.jstor.org

This content downloaded from 157.92.4.12 on Tue, 14 May 2013 11:56:46 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

andthe ClassPosition Bourgeois ofClass Esthetic Representation Interest: The SocialDetermination ofTaste
Titus Suck

Esthetizationdescribes an understandingof estheticsas interested and linked to class interests whichare, however,denied by the cultural practicesof which estheticsis a part. The followinganalyses will show how the emerging bourgeoisie represented its social interestsesthetically. It will be shown how these interests are esthetized by being expressed withinthe confinesof a culturalidentity, in France.1 determinedby Kulturin Germanyand civilisation Both practices define the social identityand self-consciousness of an upwardlymobile bourgeoisie,but theyalso erase the relation between class interest,upward mobility, and the esthetic,artistic, and philosophical articulations of the bourgeoisie. This understandingof culture as a sociallydisinterested, neutral,and unpolitical sphere of activitiesis invitedby habitus. According to Bourdieu, habitus incorporates the social, economic, educational, and culturalresources of a class and systematically externalizesthemin various practices,which in return structurethose practices.2The culturalpracticesof Kulturand civilisation functionpreciselyin this way. They are practiceswhich are structuredby a cultivatedhabitus typical of the conditions of existence of the German and French bourgeoisie in the eighteenthcentury.Both practicesare thus socially interested.They are a functionof the class position and ambitions of a bourgeoisie which is obliged to articulate its

This content downloaded from 157.92.4.12 on Tue, 14 May 2013 11:56:46 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

L N

1091

vision of the social world in cultural, philosophical, and literary terms because it does not yet control the spheres of political and economic power. Civilisation and Kulturdenote culturalpracticeswhichreflectthe differingsocial conditions under which the bourgeoisie emerged in Germany and France. The differenceconcerns the specificculand class, its institutions tural relation to the dominant aristocratic the court, and the social vision resultingfrom it. The concept of must be understood withinthe context of the French civilisation They conceived of the ecoreformist movementof the physiocrats. in whichgovernment nomic process in societyas a closed structure should not arbitrarilyintervene. The economy is seen as autonomous social sphere followingits own, natural laws (i.e., reason), related to the demographic and and its development is intimately ethical course of society.In essence, the physiocrats argue the institutionalseparation of the economic from the political sphere, and the enlightened control over the economy by specialistsfamiliar with its dynamicsand free from the whims of the political is thoughtto moment. Such a division of governmentultimately improve the common weal and to lead to a better,more efficient, more natural and hence more reasonable form of government. sectionof the French These ideas are shared by a reform-minded aristocracy and upwardly mobile bourgeois groups, especially public officialswho did not belong to the "noblesse de robe" and restrictions who recognized the negativeimpactof the mercantilist thus aims at on an expanding economy. The notion of civilisation an internal refraining of power in the 'Ancien Regime' which would preserve its institutionalstructureand better integrate a rising, modern bourgeoisie. It reflects the latter's presence and savvy in the political process as well as the continuitywith the of characteristic values of "politesse," "honnetet6,"and "civilitC" in The new element court in the century. the society seventeenth the notion of civilisation is the thoughtthatsocietyneeds to be perfected.Thus it introducesboth the concept of progressand merit. The homme civilisethus is an expression of a synthesisbetween older and new social ideals, a symbiosisbetween a new, economiwhich is cally active bourgeoisie and an enlightened aristocracy, itself characteristicof the historicallyflexible relation between in France.3 bourgeoisie and dominant aristocracy deterThe practiceof Kultur, on the otherhand, showsdifferent minations.Above all it shows no continuity witharistocratic values,

This content downloaded from 157.92.4.12 on Tue, 14 May 2013 11:56:46 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

1092

TITUS SUCK

and cultureof bourgeois sensibilities and expresses the specifically intelligentsia. a rising,by and large university-educated des 18. JahrIntelligenz Das, wodurchsich diese mittelstandische ihrenStolzbegrundet, was ihrSelbstbewusstsein, legitimiert, hunderts in dem,was man geradedesund Politik: jenseitsvon Wirtschaft liegt wegen im Deutschen"Das rein Geistige"nennt,in der Ebene des und in der inKunst,Philosophie Religion, Buches,in Wissenschaft, durch vorwiegend des Einzelnen, der "Bildung" nerenBereicherung, Dem entspricht es,dass das Mediumdes Buches,in der Personlichkeit. Intellider deutschen die Parolen,in denen dieses Selbstbewusstsein genzschichtzum Ausdruck kommt,Parolen wie "Bildung" oder auf den Leistungen eine starkeTendenz zeigen,zwischen "Kultur," alsdemeigentlich diesemreinGeistigen, zwischen Gebieten, genannten Gesellschaftlichen Wirtschaftlichen, und dem Politischen, Wertvollen, zu den Parolendes zu siehen, ganz im Gegensatz Strich einenstarken und England.4 in Frankreich Burgertums aufsteigenden The practice of Kultur,has a distinctnational as well as a class dimension. Its originscan be traced back to the language societiesof the seventeethcenturywhere noblemen cultivatedthe vernacular of the bourgeoisie while commoners played a subordinaterole in them. The emphasis on the German language and on middle class etc.,is all the more truthfulness, simplicity, values such as sincerity, strikingand indicates a transgressionof a purely feudal horizon towards a broader, national consensus. This national element becomes a constant feature in the practice of Kultur.While Kultur implies a shiftof the social ideal fromrank and privilegeto merit, intellectual and artisticachievement, it also emphasizes the nait and the arts. Furthermore, tional aspect in manners, literature, which is reflectsthe historicalisolation of a German intelligentsia not only geographically dispersed but also generally excluded fromcareers in the civilservice.The liberal professionsare stillin an embryonicstate,and heavilyregulated by the state.A career in the clergy is one of the few socially acceptable options to this no less precarious than a univerburgher class, yetis is financially public is conintelligentsia's sitycareer proper. Finally,the writing siderablysmaller than in France, and it is also wooed by the competitionfromabroad.5 Given thissocio-economicsituationand the it is nature of the German enlightenment, less than revolutionary not surprising that Kultur shapes a basically para-political consciousness and practice. It almost never implies a critique of the political privileges of the aristocracy. Instead, it criticizes its

This content downloaded from 157.92.4.12 on Tue, 14 May 2013 11:56:46 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

L N

1093

manners, conventions and seemingly superficial worldliness which, of course, tends to exclude the bourgeois from social exchanges of all kinds. While the critique of the new aristocratic French ideal of the homme civiliseis implicit in the concept of Kultur,it also rationalizesin a peculiar manner the chances of this bourgeoisie to gain social recognition.Part of this attemptis the definitionof an enlightened ideal of "Bildung" in termsof merit. Thus, Wertherasks in his diaryentryofJanuary8, 1772: "Was das fur Menschen sind, deren ganze Seele auf dem Ceremoniel ruht, deren Dichten und Trachten Jahre lang dahin geht, wie sie um einen Stuhl weiterbey Tische sich einschiebenkonnen."6 relationsof an upthus express different Kulturand civilisation wardly mobile bourgeoisie to a dominant aristocracy and its chances of attaininga dominant position. But both practicesarticulate the social aspirations of the bourgeoisie in cultural terms. bourgeois splitbetween inpart of the typically They are intrinsic the economic sphere and the non-economic terestand disinterest, sphere of the familyand culture. de l'arisl'existence, a la fawon cessant de faire de toute La bourgeoisie, l'oppositiondu tocratiede cour, une parade continue,a constitu6 sous la forme de et du desinteresse et du gratuit, de l'interesse payant le lieu de entre en propreselonWeber, l'opposition qui la characterise travail lesjours ouvreset lesjours feries, l'exet le lieu de residence, et l'interieur les affaires et le sentiment, (feminin), terieur (masculin) economique et le mondede le mondede la necessite l'industrie et l'art, aL cettenecesla liberte artistique arrache, par le pouvoireconomique site.7 MoreSuch a split separates the bourgeoisie fromthe aristocracy. is characterized in the bourgeois society over, eighteenthcentury, as a privatesphere opposed to a public sphere whichcomprehends world. the sphere of state and court,i.e., the aristocractic As Habermas shows in his model of "publicity" (Offentlichkeit), these spheres not only oppose but also communicate with each link between them is establishedthrough other.8The institutional a public which was originally literary and, later on, developed into are practices which took a political public. Kulturand civilisation shape precisely within the boundaries of this public discourse, which ultimately determinedthe formsand contentof the esthetic of those practices. articulations and literary of the priAccording to Habermas, "publicity"is an institution vate sphere in both its literaryand politicalforms.Its task was to

This content downloaded from 157.92.4.12 on Tue, 14 May 2013 11:56:46 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

1094

TITUS SUCK

of bourgeois societywith reconcile the specificneeds and interests those of the state and court. "Offentlichkeit" einbeIm privaten Bereichist auch die eigentliche des Innerhalb vonPrivatleuten. griffen; dennsie isteineOffentlichkeit wir deshalb Bereichsunterscheiden vorbehaltenen den Privatleuten umfasst die burgerDie Privatsphare und Offentlichkeit. Privatsphare im engerenSinne,also den Bereichdes Warenverliche Gesellschaft Arbeit; die FamiliemitihrerIntimskehrsund der gesellschaftlichen Offentlichkeit gehtaus der Die politische phare istdarineingebettet. durch Meinung den Staat offentliche hervor; sievermittelt literarischen der Gesellschaft.9 mitden Bedurfnissen public is not yeta trulyautonomous bourgeois public, The literary aristocsince it develops in more or less close contactwitha courtly and Sprachthe salon in France, and the Tischracy. Its institutions, in Germany,constitute a forumwhere bourgeois and geselischaften aristocratmeet in a politicallyneutral sphere.10While the salon is more open toward the political sphere than the German reading clubs, it is socially no less exclusive. The salon differsfrom the froma of the transition clubs insofar as it is clearlyan institution and bourgeois courtlyto a more urban culture where aristocratic values merge. The salon thus assumes "the earlier protectiveand authors and artists promotionalfunctionof the court,"and "offers and access to a selected public. Thus the commissions,stimulation, salons serve as a breeding ground of literarydemand, and as a clearing house and market for the products of free-lance In short,the salon is an institution of the culturalreprowriters."11 duction and consecration of what becomes later known as high culture. Contraryto the coffee-house,it is stilla veryformalinstitution to which access is gained as much through privilege and protection as through talent. The majorityof intellectuals and writerswas excluded from the salon, and "as de Tocqueville obnot the absence of served,it was the erraticopening up of mobility, it, that produced social tension."12 Ultimately,the salon is the an enlightenedbourgeoisie playing ground of a new meritocracy, and reformist which redefines the dominant cultural aristocracy, values in the sense of civilisation. The German reading clubs, on the other hand, while showinga social blend similar to the salon, remain different.Their public consistsmostlyof learned men, academicallyeducated local notabilities-the embryoof the liberal professions-, students,and oc-

This content downloaded from 157.92.4.12 on Tue, 14 May 2013 11:56:46 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

L N

1095

casionally even women. In Berlin, some of the most respected clubs play a central role in the emancipation and assimilationof the enlightened Jewish intelligentsia into society. This liberal than most Jewishbourgeoisie develops a less parochial sociability of the clubs; it is cosmopolitan and does not exclude women.13 While these clubs resemble the Frenchsalon theyare stilldistinctly different because of theiralmostcomplete isolationfromthe politcriticaldiscussionsamong ical sphere. Their functionis to further privatepersons. Before it turnsinto a politicalpublic,thispredominantlyliterarypublic is engaged in a process of self-enlightenment,in an exchange of ideas as to the meaning of privacy.'4Disforthe formation thus are catalysts cussions of and about literature In thisprocess,the ideal of a genuinelybourgeois culturalidentity. ethical society of a genuine humanity,and a rationalist, ultimately emerges. public had political As Schulte-Sassehas pointed out, the literary underpinnings from the beginning insofar as it was the forum where a small, bourgeois intellectualelite developed a systemof ethical values and beliefs which was conceived as the cornerstone of a new societyand which was to be spread by means of literaTheorie der ture.15 Sulzer, for example, declared in his Allgemeiner Schdnen is to Kinste that the ultimate purpose of the belleslettres provide sensations: "Ihre unmittelbare WiIrkung ist, Empfindungen im psychologischenSinn zu erweken; ihr Endzwek aber geht auf moralische Empfindungen,wodurch der Mensch seinen sittlichen Werthbekommt."'16 Literatureis thus a vehicleof a pedagogical program by means of which an enlightened intelligentsia sought to reach the bourgeois and to impose a new systemof ethical and cultural values. "Dichtung klart die Staatsbdrger auf, indem sie 'Liebe, Freundschaft,Dankbarkeit, Mitleiden, Gerechkurz alle die menschlichenTugenden welche ihren Sitz in tigkeit, dem Herzen haben, und nur so viel werth sind, als sie gefuhlt Verhaltensweisenfestigt."17 Love, friendwerden,' als offentliche ship, compassion, and justice are the new social virtues. These new virtues,however, have their social origin in the historically which is formed in the experience of privacyand its psychology, bourgeois nuclear family.'8 The basic self-perception of the familyis that the relationsbetween its members appear to exist outside of any social and ecochosen, nomic constraints. Familyrelationshipsappear to be freely economically disinterested,founded on love, and their only ptur-

This content downloaded from 157.92.4.12 on Tue, 14 May 2013 11:56:46 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

1096

TITUS SUCK

pose consistsin developing virtuesand abilitieswhichcharacterize der Liethe man of Kultur."Die drei Momente der Freiwilligkeit, besgemeinschaft und der Bildung schliessen sich zu einem Bewhose cell is the family. griffeder Humanitat zusammen,"19 But although the family is perceived as independent of the sphere of production and the market,in realityit depends on it. The privatestatusof the bourgeois comprehendstwo aspects: "Als Privatmannist der Burgerlichebeides in einem: Eigentiimeruiber Giter und Personen sowie Mensch unter Menschen, bourgeois und homme."20 Habermas argues the seemingly autonomous representsthe relativeeconomic autonomyof sphere of the family the bourgeois. As the economic power and influence of the bourespecially his wife and geois increase, the members of his family, children,are freed fromthe need to workfora living:"Le pouvoir 6conomique est d'abord un pouvoir de mettrela necessit6'a la disof the bourgeois as familyman tance."21The self-representation and as man in general, and the strongemphasis on the virtuesof love, compassion, and justice, are not simplyideology. They are expressions of the bourgeoisie's conditionsof existence systematic as theyare incorporatedand translatedinto practiceby habitus. The literary public remained, even where its members adquestions (cf. Gottschedand dressed economic and administrative his friends), a form of publicity "in dem sich die Subjektivitat Herkunft mit sich uber sich selbst verstanklein-familial-intimer public was not a politicalpublic because it was The literary digt."22 developed to be able to functionas an institutional not sufficiently Especially in the counterpart to the state and its administration. early phase of the Enlightenment,the activitiesof the literary process of self-enlightpublic remained limitedto an often-secret enment among the bourgeoisie. In describing the social function of the literary public, Haform,and contentof literadefinesthe function, bermas indirectly ture. Both form and content are a functionof literatureas a veThis understandingof hicle of the bourgeois self-enlightenment. literatureindicatesa change of culturalparadigm fromaristocratic to bourgeois art. Peter Burger elaborates thischange by using the categories of reception,production,and purpose of art.23 Aristocraticart, Burger shows, is to a courtlysocietywhat religious art is to the life and ceremonies of the religiouscommunity. Its ultimatepurpose consistsin celebratingthe court,the king,and Representingan exclusivecommuthe life styleof the aristocracy.

This content downloaded from 157.92.4.12 on Tue, 14 May 2013 11:56:46 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

M L N

1097

art logicallyrequires a collectiverenityand its values, aristocratic celeception. Purpose and reception thus converge in the collective aristoof a life style.Although it is no longer an exclusively bration cratic audience, the audience of the French classical theater,for example, recognizes itselfin Racine's plays. The entire apparatus and Aristotelianunities,serve only of theatricalrules, bienseances one purpose: to maintainand to assure self-recognition.24 art even though both are Bourgeois art differsfromaristocratic individuallyproduced. Literatureas a specificart formevolves in textis desthe privatesphere and is determinedby it. The literary tined to be read in private, and its contents reflect a genuinely the textarticulates bourgeois experience of the world. The literary self-consciousnessand sensibilitiesof the private individual. Its predominant literaryform in the eighteenthcenturyis therefore the bourletters, the psychologicaland epistolarynovel. In writing geois individual discovers, explores, and communicates his emois a tions and impressions. Goethe's Die Leiden desjungen Werther famous example of this genre. his feelingsand In his letters, Wertherspeaks of his impressions, bourgeois consciousness his love for Lotte. His characteristically expresses itself precisely where he emphasizes emotions and education and love for nature. This sensifeelings,his sentimental bilityis merelythe underside of Werther'soccasionallyoutspoken critique of social conventions,especially of aristocraticmanners of the bourgeois: and behavior, and of the social inferiority was man der Regelnviel sagen,ohngefahr Man kannvom Vortheile der sagenkann.Ein Mensch, zum Lobe der burgerlichen Gesellschaft und schlechtes wirdnie etwasabgeschmacktes sichnach ihnenbildet, modeln wie einerder durchGesezze und Wohistand hervorbringen, B6sewicht nie ein merkwurdiger Nachbar, nie ein unertraglicher lasst, werdenkann;dagegenwirdaber auch alle Regel,man rede was man dervon Naturund den wahrenAusdruck wolle,das wahreGeftihl selbenzerstoren.25 The genuine expression of feelingsand nature is contrastedwitha highlyregulated societywhere human relationsare not "natural," i.e., spontaneous, but rather formalized.These relationsare perceived as superficialand codified relationswhichpreventWerther is clearlya Werther'ssensibility fromsocializingwitharistocrats.26 from when evicted and of a self-consciousness, private function the Duke's dinner party,he retreatsto nature and to his reading of

This content downloaded from 157.92.4.12 on Tue, 14 May 2013 11:56:46 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

1098

TITUS SUCK

Homer: "Ich machte der vornehmen Gesellschaftmein Compliment,gieng ... fuhr nach M., um dort vom Hugel die Sonne untergehen zu sehen, und dabey in meinem Homer ... zu lesen."27 Werther's consciousness of himselfis constitutedthrough introspection and self-reflection in the private and solitaryact of reading. Nature and literarytext are refuges of privacy.To the textas an object of extentto which nature reappears in the literary contemplation,the dividing line between them is blurred: literature becomes a formalized nature. The bourgeois who perceives himselfas man is part of nature and recognizes himselfin its representations. The well-known Klopstock scene illustrates this point. Lotte and Wertherapproach a window After a thunderstorm, and, as she contemplates the landscape, Lotte expresses her Lotte's and Werther'sunderto Klopstock.28 feelingsby referring standing of both nature and themselvesdevelops throughthe literary medium. Theirs is a spiritual and genuine union of souls which contrastssharplywiththe ritualizedcommunicationand bethisreferenceto Klopstock Furthermore, havior of the aristocrats. presupposes an educated contemporaryreader, i.e., the literary public, and allows him to identify with Lotte and Werther. Goethe's novel becomes a medium foritsreaderjust as Klopstock's work did for Wertherand Lotte. The lines between physicaland represented nature, between reader and fictionalcharacter,and begin to fade. This process is further between realityand fiction, reinforcedby an authorial voice hidden behind the persona of an editor who posthumouslyarranges Werther'slettersand occasionthe relationsbetween ally intervenesin the narrative.Ultimately, author, reader, and fictionalcharacter come to constitutea psyfor a given,concrete social rechological realitywhich substitutes and the emotionswhichit stirs Through totalidentification ality.29 up, fictionconveys a sense of a societybased on values which are sofromthose underlyingthe aristocratic different fundamentally the bourgeois' perceptionof textthus objectifies ciety.The literary himselfas a privateindividual.It does so by celebratingfriendship, love, education, nature, and the family.It representsan intimate, private world seemingly detached from any economically interested reality. In Werther, nature and natural behavior describe already the vanguard point of a bourgeois consciousnesswhichbegins to experience the problematicsof the dichotomiesof the bourgeois world.

This content downloaded from 157.92.4.12 on Tue, 14 May 2013 11:56:46 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

L N

1099

Nature is not only the viewpointfromwhichthe dominantaristocracy can be criticized, but also the rapidlygrowingeconomic fractions of the bourgeoisie. Such a critique,however,impliesthatthe notion of a homogeneous bourgeois public has been abandoned. In other words, the potential conflict of interestbetween those who pursue commercial interestsin the book market and those who consider books and the book marketas simple means to reach and educate the bourgeois, had to become visible. This conflict became visible to the extent to which the book market grew and offered the possibilitiesfor a literaryproduction determined by commercialinterests, and cateringto the largestaudience. The educational interests of the enlightenedbourgeois intelligentsia thus conflictedwithbourgeois profitinterests.30 In his preface to Siebenkds, Jean Paul describesthisconflict, and characterizesthe bourgeois public as divided into three different groups: "Ich untersuchtenamlich am Ofen das Publikumund befand, dass ich solches, wie den Menschen, in drei Teile zerlegen konnte-ins Kauf-, ins Lese-und ins Kunstpublikum."3IThe first group consistsof businessmen;the second group, the reading public, consists of young or leisured people who seek to amuse themselvesand who shun difficult reading; and the third group comprises the few artistswho have taste.32 Jean Paul thus describes an institutionaland social division withinbourgeois societyat the end of the eighteenthcentury.The conflictbetween an economicallyoriented bourgeoisie and bouris grasped as a differenceof taste, and of opgeois intelligentsia and beliefs.In essence, the humanisticvalues posing value systems of familiarite which originallyexpressed the bourgeois opposition to the aristocracy, now articulatean internalclass conflict.It is the kind of conflictbetween money and love which is represented in the bourgeois Trauerspiel.33 From the beginning,the bourgeois public constitutes itselfas a reading public.34As such, it distinguishesitselffrom the aristocraticand semi-aristocratic theaterpublic such as the one analyzed by Auerbach as La cour et la ville.35 But towards the end of the eighteenthcentury,this reading public is no longer unified. It is no longer a critical, reasoning public, but largely a consumer public. This means, in turn, that the small group of intellectuals and artistsis increasingly isolated. The changing concept of taste, and its reduction to a pure esthetic judgment, representthese developmentsesthetically.

This content downloaded from 157.92.4.12 on Tue, 14 May 2013 11:56:46 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

1100

TITUS SUCK

According to Burger, bourgeois art represents a genuinely while still maintaininga certain continuity bourgeois subjectivity Originallyan aristonotions of value and taste.36 with aristocratic cratic notion, taste always implies the distinctionbetween noble and vulgar forms,manners and behavior. Before the eighteenth century, Gombrich notices, critics believed that"certain forms or modes are 'really' vulgar, because noble, because only theyplease the low, whileothersare inherently a developed taste can appreciate them."37In the eighteenthcentury,taste became one of the central issues in the debates of the literarypublic. These debates challenged the notion thattaste is a functionof one's class position,and defined taste as a propertyof human nature and the basis of a natural,civilizedand enlightened different conceptionsof tasteemerged fromthese society.Slightly discussionsin France and in Germany,and formedthe axis of the and Kultur.Taste thus came to express the practicesof civilisation and especiallythatof the bourgeois inbourgeois culturalidentity, the telligentsia. The conceptionof tastethus representsesthetically relation of the bourgeoisie to the dominant aristocracy.Taste is preciselybecause it able to articulatebourgeois self-understanding describes an ideal which is seeminglyindependent of social class Taste expresses an ethicalrelation and economicallydisinterested. to the social world and therefore becomes the perfectmeans foran ascendant bourgeoisie to express and to realize its social aspirations. This social ideal of taste is described in Gracian's El Discreto (1646). Taste distinguishesthe cultivatedand educated person: idealofsocialedupointforGracian's This ideal of gustois thestarting is that,as an cation.His ideal of the educatedman (of the discreto) all theproper ofdistance from freedom hombre en su punto,he achieves and choices he is able to makedistinctions andsociety, so that things oflife a superior position.... and from consciously in thewake everywhere This ideal of socialBildungseemsto emerge Thus of the hereditary of absolutism and its suppression aristocracy. from of absolutism the history of theidea of tastefollows the history bound up withthe anteSpain to Franceand Englandand is closely theidealcreated bythenew ofthethird estate. Tasteis notonly cedents whatwassubsebutwe see thisideal of "good taste" producing society, birth and rank Its criteria are no longer quently called "good society." torise itscapacity butsimply ofitsjudgments or,rather thesharednature to the titleof and private predilections ofinterest abovethenarrowness (emphasis added) judgment.38

This content downloaded from 157.92.4.12 on Tue, 14 May 2013 11:56:46 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

M L N

1101

This ideal of Bildung(cultivation)is the basis of the French theater public in the seventeenthcentury.It consists mainly of the and a small bourgeois faccourt, factionsof an urban aristocracy, tion characterized by a strong tendency toward "Klassenflucht und zur Stabilisierung des Verm6gens."39 A commonly shared makes possible the conideal of taste and Bildung,and of honnetete', tact and communicationbetween those two social classes; to some extent it even allowed the urban bourgeoisie to be assimilatedby aristocraticsociety.Since this bourgeoisie had achieved economic it was able to and no longer depended on its productivity, security concentrateon pursuing an ideal of social cultivation.Gadamer's freedom of "distance from all thingsof life" is above all freedom clearly homme from necessity.One's abilityto become an honne'te presupposes a high socio-economic status which is assured either royal by the bourgeoisie's acquired wealth or by the aristocracy's of looks as if it were an ideal independent soprivileges.Honne^tete' as homme rank, because it conceives the honne~te birth, and cial class, an ethical being: nurvon allem dass sie nicht furdie honn&etNt Es istsogarbezeichnend lebensvon allenjeweils gegebenen Standischen, sondernuberhaupt der auf seine sie erwerben, absieht. Jederkonnte Bindungen massigen zu verwenden innereund ausserePflegeim Geisteder Zeit Sorgfalt wareben dieses:dass der Bewillens und fahigwar,und das Resultat mehr wurde,nicht treffende vonjeder besonderen Qualitatgereinigt war, eines Standes,eines Berufes,eines Bekenntnisses Zugehoriger sondern ben honnete homme.40 between the esHonne'tete' only appears to erase the distinctions in tates. In reality,social differencesare expressed as differences taste.41 They appear to resultfroman individual'swill and effort, and are hence homme, or the lack thereof to become an honne^te the homme, perceived as ethical differences.But even as honne^te bourgeois is not equal to the aristocrat.The ethicalcode of se connaitreinscribes the social distance between them and regulates theircontact.As can be seen in Moliere's comedies, thejudgment, "il se m6connait,"always means that a bourgeois has violated the Although the bourgeois is permittedto mingle rules of honne^tete'. witharistocratic society,he must respect its code; he is allowed to criticizeit neither verballynor through his behavior. In this respect, the theater public differsfrom a genuinelyliterarypublic. The mere worldlyconversationcould not yet be replaced by cri-

This content downloaded from 157.92.4.12 on Tue, 14 May 2013 11:56:46 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

1102

TITUS SUCK

tique and discussion as in the salon of the eighteenthcentury.42 ideal of taste,and thejudgment of Honnetete defines an aristocratic but ratherspontataste is not subjective,analytical, and reflective, neous.43 Its validity is assured by the social solidarityand consensus of the aristocracy, which constitutethe "empirical universality,the complete unanimityof the judgment of others" upon which taste depends.44 which rests upon This ideal of Bildung and of cultural identity the nature of thejudgments and taste shared by a group remains importantfor the bourgeoisie in the eighteenthcentury.As its soand adcial basis broadens, the bourgeoisie gradually transforms of the justs the notion of taste so as to express its self-perception bourgeois as homme. But it does so withoutever reallybreakingits untilthe revolutionin 1789.45 social consensus withthe aristocracy is gradually transformedinto the The ideal of the honnete homme cultural ideal of the homme civilise, which is furtherdeveloped in as a social Elias characterizescivilisation the notion of civilisation. ideal which still absorbs many aristocratic courtly values. But under the influence of the social, economic,and philosophicalcriticism of an enlightened public, civilisation comes to define more than an ideal of manners and behavior. Civilisation describes the and reform of all process of an internalcolonization social, political, and economic institutions. The bottom line of this colonization is the vision of a more rational society: In den Handen des aufsteigenden im Munde der ReMittelstandes, vomdem,wasdazugesichdie Vorstellungen formbewegung erweitern hort, um eineGesellschaft zu einerzivilisierten Gesellschaft zu machen. und damit Die Zivilisierung des Staates, der Verfassung, derErziehung von alledem, was noch breiterer Schichten des Volkes,die Befreiung barbarisch Zustanden oder vernunftwidrig an den bestehenden ist,ob es nun die Gerichtsstrafen sind oder die standischen Schranken des des Burgertumsoder die Barrieren,die eine freiereEntfaltung Handels verhindern, diese Zivilisierung mussder Sitten-Verfeinerung und der Befriedung durchdie Konigefolgen.46 des LandesimInneren This model of a more civilizedand rationalsocietyexpresses the social and political ambitionsof the risingbourgeoisie. However, these class interestsare not directlyarticulatedbut rather esthetized; the need to civilize societyis couched in termswhich stress the reasonable and natural characterof such a society.A civilized societyis considered rational and natural because it claims to be a

This content downloaded from 157.92.4.12 on Tue, 14 May 2013 11:56:46 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

L N

1103

societywhere the assumption that there is a common human nature is realized in praxis. Bourgeois class intereststhus figure as of society. the universalinterests is modifiedand replaced by thatof civiAs the ideal of honne^tete' lisation, the conception of taste also changes. The synthetic judgment of taste becomes a quasi-analytical judgment whose validity no longer rests merely on the unanimous judgment of a given This community and itssavoir-vivre, but on deductive reason itself. serves to distinguishthe judgment of taste from prejudice. The Cartesians,among them Crousaz, even conceived tasteas a formof thejudgment of reason: "le bon gouct nous faitd'abord estimerpar sentimentce que la raison aurait approuv6, apres qu'elle se serait donn6 le temps de l'examiner assez pour en juger par des id6es justes."47 The principal achievement of this approach is that the judgment of taste is no longer restrictedto a privileged social Del gusto group because reason is considered a property of the human aristocrtico al cartesiano mind. The sociallyfounded, normativecharacterof tastebegins to fade. Instead, good taste is founded in nature, i.e., in universal reason. Taste thereforeis an innate capacity, next to one's reasoning capacities. Du Bos implicitly uses this assumption of an innate taste is his He argues that sentiment, an innate sensoryapcritiques. Rfflexions sensationsand feelingsof pleasure paratus, registersthe different or displeasure evoked by an estheticobject.48On the basis of these de compasensations, a judgment is formed. Furthermore,a gouit raisonenables an audience to evaluate and to compare works of art. Hence the quality of the work depends on the degree of pleasure which it evokes. The selectivedistance,which characterhomme is abandoned. Du Bos's ized the judgment of the honnete conception of tasteno longer clearlydefinesgood tasteas based on The radical social implithe social conventionsof the aristocracy. cations of Du Bos's understandingof taste could have potentially disrupted the existingsocial consensus, as can be seen in the critique by the Marquis d'Argens: Le systeme generalde M. 1'abbe du Bos souffre quelquesdifficultes. I1 pretend qu'onjuge mieuxdes ouvrages d'esprit par le sentiment, que par la raison,et par les connaissances qu'on peut avoiracquisespar 1'etude. Cetteopinionme paroitsujette atde grandsinconvenients; et c'est soumettre les tragedies de Racine,et les pieces de Molierea1la decision de tousles bourgeois les plus ignorans: c'estrendrele people maitredu sortdes meilleures pieces.L'experience nous a cependant

This content downloaded from 157.92.4.12 on Tue, 14 May 2013 11:56:46 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

1104

TITUS SUCK

montr6 que la Phedre de Racine, que le Misanthrope de Moliere ne plurent point par le sentimenta la multitude;et que ce furentles veritables connoisseurs, qui jugent des choses par la connaissance des regles; qui soutinrent ces chef-d'oeuvres contrele mauvais gouit de ceux qui ne jugent que par le sentiment.49

Sentiment is perceived as bad taste because it gives to the common man, to the people in general, the rightto judge a work of art withouthaving the necessaryknowledge to do so. Classical taste, however, although a spontaneous and pre-reflective judgment, is an informed,educated judgment.50 Only as such can it claim to rise to the status of a disinterested judgment which transcends personal predilections and interests. From this point of view, Du Bos's judgment must be an interestedjudgment, preciselybecause it evaluates a sensationof pleasure. The Marquis's criticism also shows how the classicalideal of taste homme who is intibegins to be modified. The ideal of the honne'te and and vraisemblance matelyfamiliarwithrules such as bienseance for whom "comprendre 6quivaut 'a 'bien voir'," begins to merge withan ideal of erudition.5'The Marquis's connoisseurcombinesa traditional worldliness with knowledge that has been acquired through a formal,scholarlyeducation. Cautioning against the implications of Du Bos's theory,the Marquis thus walks a fine line between including the educated bourgeois in the good society while excluding the people. This new relation between "mondain" and "docte" signifiesthe as the growing social importance of the bourgeois intelligentsia to avant-gardeof its class. Its rational,logical discourse and ability make informed,analytical judgments becomes increasingly important. "Le gouitacquiert une dimension de plus en plus rationelle'a m6sure que l'on s'6loigne du classicisme,"saysJean Pierre Dense, analyzing this trend in a text by Frain de Tremblay.52 Through a reasoning process,throughconstantdiscussionamong themselves, in the salons,the French bourand withan enlightenedaristocracy and also the political,social, and ecogeoisie develops its identity nomic visionswhich ultimately lead to the revolution.The acquisition, development, and advancement of knowledge is a major formof the bourgeoisie's investment in its own social ascent. The intellectualand analyticaldimension of taste is predominant in Diderot's articleon the "Beau."53 Contraryto the sensualist school, Diderot concentrateson the nature of the object to be evaluated and judged by standardsof taste.This object is the beautiful

This content downloaded from 157.92.4.12 on Tue, 14 May 2013 11:56:46 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

M L N

1105

object, and beauty is defined as "toutce qui contienten soi de quoi reveiller dans mon entendement l'idee de rapports."54Although Diderot goes to some length to explain his concept and theoryof the "perception des rapports,"it remains rathervague and problematic.55 It sufficesfor our purposes to point out that such "relations" describe certain qualities in nature, an object or a person, which are perceived as harmonious and ordered when compared to other objects. These qualities are real and not imaginary,although theymay be more or less clearlyperceived: "Quand je dis qu'un etre est beau par les rapportsqu'on y remarque,je ne parle point des rapports intellectuelsou fictifs que notre imaginationy transporte,mais des rapports reels qui y sont & que notre entendement y remarque par le secours de nos sens."56Differencesof taste stem fromdiffering abilitiesto discern these "relations."For Diderot, thejudgment of taste depends on knowledge and education, both social Bildung and formal instruction:"Tous conviennent qu'il y a un beau, qu'il est le resultatdes rapports apercus: mais selon qu'on a plus ou moins de connaissances,d'experience, d'habitude de juger, de mediter,de voir,plus d'etendue naturelle dans l'esprit, on dit qu'un objet est pauvre ou riche, confus ou rempli,mesquin ou charge."57 Good taste is sophisticated taste; the more knowledgeable a person is, the more complete will be his perception of the "relations" and therebyof nature,or ratherof bellenature:"Le beau qui resulte de la perception d'un seul rapport est moindre ordinairement que celui qui resulte de la perception de plusieurs rapof ports."58Like Voltaire, Diderot believes in the perfectibility taste, and such perfectionultimately is a sign of one's civilisation, i.e., one's culture. Those who cannot attainthe knowledgeand education needed to develop such complex perceptionsperceive nature imperfectly. Since their taste is not founded in nature, they but relegated to are not merelyexcluded fromthe "good society," the statusof an anti-nature;in short,theyare not part of civilized society.Their taste is not natural and thereforevulgar. According to Diderot, certainforms,expressions,colors,and attitudesare inherentlyvulgar because they are in use among the uneducated, "les paysans, ou les gens dont la profession,les emplois, le caracGood taste,the abilityto tere nous sont odieux ou meprisables."59 perceive beauty, constitutesitselfin opposition to bad taste, and expresses itselfsociallyin a life stylewhichtranscendsthe world of peasants, of labor and necessity.Furthermore, good taste is essen-

This content downloaded from 157.92.4.12 on Tue, 14 May 2013 11:56:46 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

1106

TITUS SUCK

implicitin Diderot's focus tiallytaste in the arts. This distinction, on nature as la bellenatureis made explicitby Voltaire who consequently attributesto the arts a propaedeutic functionin the civilizing process.60This conception of taste articulatesboth the priof the bourgeois as vate, economically disinterestedsubjectivity and his aristocraticpretension to a dominant social posihomme, tion: a moinsde chancesqu'aucune autre aristocratique Cette pretention "pure"et "desinde la disposition puisquela relation d'etrecontestee aux condic'est-A-dire possible, qui la rendent aux conditions teressee" les plus raresparce que les plus affrand'existences tionsmaterielles a toutesles chancesde passerinaeconomique, chies de la necessite ainsile privilege d'apparaitre ayant le plusclassant per~ue,le privilege commele plus fondeen nature.61 France reflectsthis The debate over taste in eighteenth-century pretension in that taste remains indebted to an essenaristocratic ideal of worldlinessand elegance which tiallycourtly-aristocratic merges withthe idea of natural taste.Where taste is founded on a perception of nature, as in Diderot, good taste expresses nature itself.Consequently,to show good tasteis to representnature. The bourgeois can thus claim a dominant position simplybecause of what he representsand is in his own view,pure nature in the guise of man-the bourgeois as homme. The historyof the reception of taste in Germany reveals a difand bourgeoisie. The ferentrelationof power between aristocracy on a public whichelaborates estheticdebates are carried by literary a notion of taste consistentwith its practice of Kultur.Central to this notion of taste is the attemptto determine it as a vehicle of general reason, which convertsit into an element of enlightened social utopia. Reason, Adorno argues, "als das transzendentale Uberindividuelle Ich enthalt die Idee eines freien Zusammenlebens der Menschen, in dem sie zum allgemeinen Subjekt sich organisieren."62 But this ideal of a genuine humanity founded upon reason is ambiguous. It generalizes the class-determined of the bourgeois as a private person and man. At self-perception the same time,the ideal effacesthe economic statusand power of rests. the bourgeois upon which thisvision of Humanitat The reception of taste in Germanybegins with Konig's "Untersuchungen von dem guten Geschmack" (1727). Konig conceives As of the intellect. taste as a natural,cognitiveabilityand a faculty

This content downloaded from 157.92.4.12 on Tue, 14 May 2013 11:56:46 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

M L N

1107

a functionof reason, taste is no longer bound up withsocial privileges and conventions.Judgmentsof taste are universaland their only criterion is "richtige Ubereinstimmungunserer Gedanken It deund Handlungen mit der Natur und wahren Vernunft."63 between people pends neither on time, place, nor on differences and customs. Gottsched develops the emancipatorypotential of the formula "Geschmack des Verstandes" and argues that differencesin taste are due to different processes of socializationand education. Inasmuch as social differencesbetween the estates are differencesof taste,Gottschedintends to overcome them by education: Vernunft So wenigeinemeine gesunde,dem andereneine verderbte zu verangeboren ist; so wenigistsolchesauch bei dem Geschmacke muthen. Die Fahigkeit einesneugebohrnen Kindesistzu allemgleichMan kannaus ihmmachenwas manwill.Man erziehees unter gultig. den Bauern,es wirdbaurisch denkenund reden;unterden Burgern, es wird es wird unter kriegerische Dinge burgerlich urtheilen; Soldaten, im Kopfhaben;unter LeuteverGelehrten, es wirdnachArtstudirter nunfteln und grubeln; beyHofe,es wirdsichvorlauterLustbarkeiten und Regierungssachen Chimaren erdenken.A Taste is not yet merely an estheticjudgment; its object is more than the work of art. Good taste depends on an education based upon reason and is furthered through the "Gebrauch der geGottschedperceivestaste mainlyas "undeutsunden Vernunft."65 lich urteilender Verstand"66; the judgment of taste is not yet a clear and distinct judgment, for it is based on mere sensationsand impressions. For taste to claim the status of a clear judgment, it must be informedand educated. In short,it needs to be guided by knowledge about the world and nature; it presupposes education. In fact,the judgment of taste is for Gottschedan exercise of the judgment of reason. Gottsched maintains Leibniz's theory of a preestablished harand resextensae.67Hence his notion that mony between rescogitans nature is organized according to the logical principlesof reason. Nature is thereforeidentical with reason, and representsit as an ideal of perfectionand harmony in the realm of sensual perception. Since the work of art, for example, is supposed to represent nature, thejudgment of tastebearing on the workof art is a judgand res ment of nature. Given the correlationbetween rescogitans extensae,taste must find beautiful that which the judgment of

This content downloaded from 157.92.4.12 on Tue, 14 May 2013 11:56:46 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

1108

TITUS SUCK

judgment is still reason has found to be true. Therefore, esthetic subsumed under a general judgment of reason bearing on all formsof social life: nicht aufeinemleeren Werkes, beruht eineskunstlichen Die Schonheit Grundin der und nothwendigen sie hatihrenfesten Dunkel;sondern geNatur der Dinge. Gotthat alles nach Zahl, Mass und Gewichte Dinge sind an sichselberschon:und wenn schaffen. Die natdrlichen will,so musssie dem hervorbringen also die Kunstauch was schdnes Das genaue Verhaltnis, die Ordnung Musterder Naturnachahmen. istdie allerTheile,darausein Dingbesteht, und das richtige Ebenmass der vollkommenen Natur, Die Nachahmung Quelle aller Schonheit, geben,daWerkedie Vollkommenheit kann also einem kunstlichen wird....68 und angenehm durches dem Verstande gefallig To recognize true nature, taste must be formed and educated. This is, among others, the task of the Sprach- and Tischgesellof the literarypublic. Since Gottsched's schaften, the institutions conception of taste, however, grants everyone a judgment, it thrust.As a always contains an anti-feudal and anti-aristocratic functionof reason, taste expresses the bourgeois ambitionto parthe eduticipatein politicalprocesses and exert power. Ultimately, cation of taste implies the vision of a free society,a community where everyone rises above his personal interestsin the name of reason and thus becomes man. Since thejudgment of taste implies a true perceptionof nature, the judge himself figures as nature. According to the thesis of preestablishedharmony,his taste recognizes as beautifulwhat his intellecthas found to be true. The judgment of taste thus reconciles the universaland the particular,the individualand the social. This identityis the source of the bourgeois' revolutionaryconsciousness per se. His particularclass interestis thus represented ratherthan as thatof and appears as universalinterest esthetically a class. Interest is esthetizedand no longer appears as such. The political consequences of this esthetizationhave been pointed out by Willms: des Menbegannals die Emanzipation Die burgerliche Emanzipation des Das Geheimnis wurdesie so gedacht. jedenfalls schenals solchen: war, partikular ist, dasses nicht revolutionaren Bewusstseins burgerlich der alihm ebenso die Liquidierung seine Allgemeinheit legitimierte und imperialistischen kolonialistischen ternFeudalitat wieden spateren
Ausgriff.69

This content downloaded from 157.92.4.12 on Tue, 14 May 2013 11:56:46 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

M L N

1109

In the course of the estheticdebate of the 1740s and 1750s, the transsocial implicationsof tasteare revoked. Taste is increasingly formedinto a merelyestheticcategory,and it definesa feelingfor art or Kunstgefiihl.The artist'sand art critic's judgment thus come to replace that of the layman. Criticalobjectionsare raised against the layman'sjudgment and taste. Georg Friedrich Meier, for example, argues that poetry is simplynot made for the common man, whose taste is mediocre at best: "Der gemeine Mann besitzt so wenige Krafte, Geschmack poeund Einsicht,dass er kaum vermogendist,die mittelmassigen tischenGedanken zu schmecken."70 To allow everylayman an esinfluencethe developthetic judgment would thereforenegatively ment of taste and the arts. A feeling for art is not identical with outside the realm common sense. The estheticobject is constituted of normal experience and thereforeneeds to be judged according to a different, higher standard: "Die hochste Poesie ist eine Sprache der Gotter,und schwingetsich so hoch uber die gewdhnlichen Begriffe, dass sie uber den Horizont der meisten Leute geht."7' Furthermore,Meier argues, it is almost a sign of good but requires a rigorousintelpoetrythatit is not readilyintelligible lectual effortto be understood. Taste as a feeling for art is opposed not only to the worldlyideal of taste that is associated with the aristocracy,but also opposes any kind of carnal or physical pleasure and the experience of the common man. Good taste is anti-hedonistic and asceticbecause art,the object of taste,is constituted in a sphere whichtranscendsany economic, physical,or material reality.The world of art is accessible only to those who know how to establishan ascetic relationto the world: Dichter sindgarzu bequem.Wennsie ein Gedicht lesen Vieledeutsche Tobak zundeneine Pfeife lassensie sicheinenCoffeekochen, wollen, sichvomDencken Indemsie nuneinvortrefausruhen. an, und wollen in diesemZustande fliches lesenwollen, so muissten sie,wenn Gedicht ihrenCoffeeerkalten, und ihrePfeifen aussie es verstehen wolten, wollenausgegeben gehen lassen.Da sie aber ihr Geld nichtumsonst und opfern dieKiutzelung haben,so verachten sie dergleichen Gedichte, ihres demGefihle deskorperlichen auf,und verggeistlichen Geschmacks und mittelmassigen die sie Gedancken, nugensichblossan schlechten einsehen ohne dass es ihnenMuhekostet.72 konnen, de la reflexion"as opposed to Good taste is determinedas "goutt a "goutt des sens," and its principle "n'est autre chose qu'un refus

This content downloaded from 157.92.4.12 on Tue, 14 May 2013 11:56:46 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

1110

TITUSSUCK

des objets imposant a la jouissance ou, mieux, un degoutt, degoutt et dego ut du gout grossier et vulgaire qui se complait dans cette jouissance imposee."73This antagonismcharacterizesLessing's notion of art criticism.Lessing repudiates the spontaneous esthetic judgment based on mere impressionsand sensations. He argues that deductive reasoning ought to be the basis of estheticjudgments: "Schluisse,die er [der Kunstrichter]aus seinen Empfindungen, . . . gezogen und auf die Grundbegriffedes Vollkomhat."74The judgment of taste menen und Schdnen zuruckgefuhrt is reflective and purifies the immediate sensual impulses and pleasure provided by sensation. Reflection seemingly erases all estraces of man's biological nature in hisjudgment. It constitutes theticpleasure and taste as ascetic. Taste becomes the emblem of one's abilityto maintain an ethical relationwiththe world, i.e., to control one's biological nature, needs, and sensations.Taste thus appears not only as pure but also as a standard of moral excellence and virtuewhich in turn projectsan image of freedom.The bourgeois who is able to dominate his biological nature appears as free and autonomous: hence the status of his judgment is a disinterested one. Mendelssohn already foreshadowed this notion of taste as a to ground it in "idealischer judgment by trying pure, disinterested Schonheit." He argues that nature is not beautifulin all its aspects but only as a whole. Unable to perceive it as a whole, the artistis to onlynature'sbeautifulaspects so as to limithimselfto representing In order to repgive an impressionof its"idealischerSchonheit."75 resent this ideal, which is the source of taste, he is therefore obliged to transcendnature in its commoner aspects: "Der Kuinstler Natur erheben, und weil die Nachbildie gemeine musssichalso uiber dung der Schonheit sein einziger Endzweck ist, so steht es ihm frey, dieselbe allenthalben in seinen Werken zu concentriren, riihre" damit sie uns starker (emphasis added).76 The artistis held to representan ideal of beauty whichis found in nature. But his representationmustdistance and prohibitany naive perceptionof naits function:to touch an audience ture and realitylest it not fulfill and awaken its emotions and feelings.In Mendelssohn's theoryof a certain emotionalizationof an audience is affects(Affektenlehre), to rise above to catharsis.The ability necessaryand leads ultimately the naive perception of nature and to perceive the ideal of beauty is experienced as an ethical act. Taste which is rooted in "idealischer Sch6nheit" thus becomes ideal taste and a propaedeutic of

This content downloaded from 157.92.4.12 on Tue, 14 May 2013 11:56:46 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

M L N

1111

virtue.Art is its vehicle and the artistits agent. In short,art is not but rathereducational. The idea of educasimplyrepresentational the basis for Lessing's theory of became catharsis through tion between Lessing, correspondence from the which evolved drama Mendelssohn, and Nicolai.77 Mendelssohn's conception of ideal taste anticipates Kant's forjudgment. Accordingto Kant, malizationof tasteas a pure esthetic thejudgment of taste is a subjectiveone withoutany epistemologIt is a pure estheticjudgment because it abical significance.78 and formof the completelyfromempiricalnature,function stracts "In it nothing is known of objects which it considers beautiful.79 the objects which are judged beautiful,but it is stated only that a there is a feelingof pleasure connected withthem in the subpriori jective consciousness."80Given Kant's definitionof the beautiful "als eines Gegenstandes des Wohlgefallensohne alles Interesse," thejudgment of taste must be universal: an ist,dass das Wohlgefallen Denn das, wovonJemandsichbewusst sei, das kannderselbe bei ihm selbstohne alles Interesse demselben dass es einen Grunddes Wohlgenichtanders,also so beurtheilen, auf irmusse.Denn da es sichnicht enthalten furJedermann fallens sondernda der Urtheigend eine Neigungdes Subjects... grundet, welcheser dem Gegenlende sich in Ansehungdes Wohlgefallens, als so kanner keinePrivatbedingungen fuhit; vollig frei standewidmet, ... und muss es daher als in auffinden Grunde des Wohlgefallens ansehen,was er auch beijeden Anderenvorbegrundet demjenigen Jedermann musser glaubenGrundzu haben, kann;folglich aussetzen zuzumuthen.8' ein ahnliches Wohlgefallen formaland ascetic. It But such disinterestedpleasure is inevitably reis pleasure purged of subjectivesensual, physical,and affective flexes. The pure estheticjudgment of taste is reflective,though not logical. sensual pleasure and ascetic, This opposition between affective, intellectualpleasure contains a social distinction.The distinction des sens (Bourdieu) expresses and gou't between gou'tde la reflexion the opposition between the cultivated bourgeois, the man of Kultur,and the common man: "Der Geschmack istjederzeit noch zum barbarisch wo er der Beimischung der Reize und Riihrungen Wohlgefallenbedarf,ja wohl diese gar zum Maasstabe seines Beifalls macht."82 The conception of pure taste as a disinterested

This content downloaded from 157.92.4.12 on Tue, 14 May 2013 11:56:46 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

1112

TITUS SUCK

judgment is itselfinterested.Admittingonly highlyformal,sublimated and basically empty forms of pleasure, taste negates all physicaland sensual pleasure. By denying the instincts and physical, biological nature,tasteendorses an image of man as an ethical being. In fact,the bourgeois as man and ethical being constitutes himself preciselyby claiming this differencefrom nature. Bourdieu explains this ethical asceticismas a functionof the bourgeois pretensionto a dominant social position. Plaisir ascetique, plaisir vainqui enferme en lui-meme le renoncement au plaisir, plaisir epuredu plaisir, le plaisir purestpredispose a devenir d'artun testde superiorite un symbole moraleet l'oeuvre d'excellence de sublimation une mesureindiscutable de la capacite 6thique, qui d&finit l'homme vraiment humain: l'enjeudu discours esthetique, etde l'imde l'humanite ... L'opposition autrechoseen definitive que le monopole introduit une relation entreles goutsde natureet les goutsde liberte ceux qui ne sontque nature et qui estcelledu corpset de l'ame,entre ceux qui affirment dans leur capacitede dominer leur proprenature la nature a dominer biologique leurpretention sociale.83 legitime The abilityto make a disinterested,estheticjudgment distinguishes the cultivatedbourgeois not only fromthe common man, but also fromthe nobleman's self-indulgent life-style. Taste, Kant argues, is a function of Kultur: "Da aber der Geschmack im Grunde ein Beurteilungsvermogender Versinnlichungsittlicher Ideen ... [ist] so leuchtet ein, das die wahre Propadeutik zur Ideen und Grundung des Geschmacksdie Entwickelungsittlicher die Kultur des moralischenGefuhls sei."84 Where ethicalideas-in Kant's terms,the sociability appropriate to humanity-and the cultivation of moral sensibilityare combined, Kultur becomes the basis of a cultural identity.The pure and therebythe esthetic judgment of taste expresses this identity, bourgeoisie's opposition to the aristocracy.The ascetic nature of this identityis to be explained by the socio-economicsituationof the German bourgeoisie as a dominated class withlimitedpossibilities of attainingdominant social positions. Due to the absence of a nation state,among other factors,the economic developmentin Germanylags behind thatof France and were largelyunderdeveloped, which England. Trade and industry meant that the German bourgeoisie acquired little wealth. Furthermore,the barriers between aristocracyand bourgeoisie were
humainqu'il vise a realizer, n'est du proprement position d'une definition

This content downloaded from 157.92.4.12 on Tue, 14 May 2013 11:56:46 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

M L N

1113

no chance for an virtuallyinsurmountable.There was practically upwardly mobile bourgeois to become assimilatedby the aristocracy and to rise to a position of political influence.85Given the the bourgeoisie political stability of the existingpower structures, had to accept the "antinomischeScheidung von Besonderheitund und Menschlich-PriAllgemeinheit, von Politisch-Offentlichem Zugehdrigheit."86 vatem, von Beruf und geistig-weltanschaulicher the bourgeoisie Unable to turn its politicaljudgments into reality, rationalizesits social ambitionsby elaboratingan asceticethicsand esthetics: d'unethos;aussiOoign6 Cetteesthetique pureestbienla rationalisation consumption, le plaisirpur, de la concupiscence que de la conspicuous sensibleou sensuelen c'est-A-dire totalement epure de toutinteret de toutinteret socialet monmemetemps que parfaitement affranchie et altruiste de l'homme dain,s'opposeaussibiena lajouissanceraffinee du peuple.87 de courqu'a lajouissancebruteet grossieere Since it lacks the capital,both economic and social, the bourgeoisie is incapable of any formof conspicuous consumption.Virtue is its itself.It justifiesitssocial pretensions only means of distinguishing by projecting an image of ethical superiority:a pure estheticsin work ethicin the sphere of cultural production and a "protestant" the sphere of economic production. Led by its intellectualfaction, the bourgeoisie, which is excluded from the realm of social and politicalpower, turnsto cultureand develops itsself-consciousness wrote and ethicsin the practiceof Kultur: "Die Idee der Moralitat," This idea of morality is Kant in 1784, "geh6rt noch zur Kultur."88 judgment contained and representedpreciselyin the pure esthetic of taste. Kant's radical formalization of the judgment of taste corresponds to the political and social isolation of the emerging bourgeoisie in Germany. Independent of "all such subjective,private and emotion" and "the result of the conditions as attractiveness tasteis a universaland, as free play of all our cognitivepowers,"89 it were, autonomous judgment. In its universality,the esthetic of the judgment represents the radically private self-perception bourgeois; it is a functionof his social positionand the aspirations associated withit. This autonomization of taste,which reduces it firstto a feeling for art and then formalizesit as a pure esthetic judgment, thereby

This content downloaded from 157.92.4.12 on Tue, 14 May 2013 11:56:46 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

1114

TITUS SUCK

shifting the emphasis froman enjoymentof the senses to a moral feeling,anticipatesthe thesisof the autonomyof art. Schilleradvances thisthesisin his letterUberdieaesthetische ErziehungdesMenschen. In his tenthletter,he pointsout thatthere is no In order betweenestheticand politicalculture.90 necessaryidentity to transcend this gap, Schiller "transformedthe transcendental idea of taste into a moral demand and formulatedit as an imperative: adopt an estheticattitudeto things."9'This estheticattitude resultsfromcultivating a play impulse which establishesharmony between a formand matterimpulse: "nur die Einheit der Realitat des Leidens mitder Notwendigkeit, mitder Form, der Zufalligkeit The mit der Freiheit (vollendet) den Begriffder Menschheit."92 goal of estheticcultivationis thus to realize the goal of humanity. But in his sixteenthletter,Schiller argues that this harmonybetween realityand formremains an idea.93 In other words,a genuinely esthetic attitude constitutesitselfas differentfrom reality. but rather"in dem The ideal of humanityis realized not in reality, Reiche asthetischenScheins, wird das Ideal der Gleichheiterftllt, ... welches der Schwarmer so gern dem Wesen nach realisiert As estheticappearance, art contrastswithreality sehen m6chte."94 and it becomes its transfiguration.This is a new development which,as Gadamer points out, has importantconsequences: For now art,as the art of beautiful appearance, was contrasted with practical reality and understood in terms of this contrast. Insteadofart and nature complementing each other, as had always seemedto be the case,they werecontrasted as appearanceand reality. Traditionally itis the purposeof "art," which embraces all theconscious transformation of natureforuse by humans, to complete itssupplementing and fulfilling activity within theareas givenand leftfreebynature. And "les beaux arts," as longas they are seenin thisframework, are a perfecting of reality and notan external masking, veiling or transfiguration of it. But ifthecontrast between reality and appearance determines theconceptofart,this breaks up theinclusive framework ofnature. Art becomes
a standpoint ofitsownand establishes itsownautonomous claimtosupremacy.95

(emphasis added)

This thesis of the autonomy for art also reflects an extra-esthetic,social development,and redefinesthe relationof the artist to society.The political and social isolation of the German bourIt geoisie in the eighteenthcenturyalso isolated its intelligentsia. was not only geographicallydispersed and set apart, but the rigid

This content downloaded from 157.92.4.12 on Tue, 14 May 2013 11:56:46 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

M L N

1115

separation between public and private spheres, aristocracyand bourgeoisie, also minimizedits social function.96 Unlike its French counterpart,the German bourgeoisie was as a whole politically inexperienced and thereforenot predisposed to develop a strong political consciousness. Finally,as the bourgeoisie grew economically strongerand as the eighteenth-century social model of publicity began to disintegrate, the bourgeois intelligentsia found itself in a situationof social decline. The growingbook marketand its division into spheres of serious literaryand merelyentertaining, trivialand consumer-orientedproduction deprived the bourgeois intelligentsia of its readership. Furthermore,it also had to compete with foreign intellectualsin a market which was ten times smaller than in France. Lacking an audience and declasse by university education, ill-adjustedto the manners of High Society,excluded from the more prestigiousposts in the civil service,faced with severe restrictionsin the only embryonallyexistent liberal professions,an objective shortage of jobs and a growing population, a young, upwardly mobile intellectualelite responds to this crisiswiththe autonomizationof art.97 This estheticresponse goes togetherwithsharp criticism of the mercantileand positivist spirit of the times which indicates a class-conflict inside the bourgeoisie between its established, economically oriented fractions and a large segmentof its intellectuals: und alle Idol derZeit, fronen Der Nutzenistdas grosse demalle Krafte VerTalentehuldigen sollen. Aufdiesergroben Waagehatdas geistige dienstder Kunst kein Gewicht, und, aller Aufmunterung beraubt, Markt des Jahrhunderts. Selbst verschwindet sie von dem larmenden der philosophische Untersuchungsgeist entreisst der Einbildungskraft nach der anderen, und die Grenzen der Kunstverengen eine Provinz ihreSchranken erweitert.98 sich, je mehrdie Wissenschaft Schiller's remark is by no means original or new. Similar criticism had been voiced throughout the preceding decades. Rousseau in Discourssur les sciences et les arts(1750), Adam Ferguson in Essay on theHistory of Civil Society (1767), Adam Smith in his The in the preface to Wealth ofNations(1776), and notablyWordsworth the Lyrical Ballads (1798) tend to findthoroughgoingfaultwiththe contemporaryworld,and share a visionof a simpler,quasi pre-social state of nature. The esthetic trend is toward the pure, the simple and even the journey into the remote and eventuallythe constitutethe fantastic.This and the autonomy of art ultimately

This content downloaded from 157.92.4.12 on Tue, 14 May 2013 11:56:46 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

1116

TITUS SUCK

core of German esthetic Romanticism much more so than in France where intellectuals and artists appear less isolated; the relationto his class and society pathological element in the writer's does not fullycome into view until the Empire.But romanticinteis not so much the overcomingof classicismas is oftensaid, riority characteristic but ratherthe dialecticcounterpartof the sociability of enlightened culture. While the classicistand neo-classicistestheticsof most of the 18th centuryalwayshas the public, the audience in mind, the new emergingestheticdoctrinesare tendentially solipsisticand hermetic. Furthermore,the political events of the 1790s profoundlychanged the image of the public into "the prime can be seen as the object of fear, the people."Indeed, romanticism the arts withoutthe people . . . in collectiveeffortto "reconstitute decade."99 The romanticemphasis on the the post-revolutionary and particularcreativeimagination, writer,on his self-expression an ideological representationof this as well as of the is ultimately positionallyantagonisticrelationto the bourgeois.
Santa Cruz of California, University NOTES Soziogenetischeund Psychogene1 Norbert Elias, UberdenProzessderZivilisation, Suhrkamp, 1981). tische Untersuchungen,vol. 1, 8th ed. (Frankfurt/M.: (Paris: Editions du Social du jugement Critique 2 Pierre Bourdieu, La Distinction: Minuit, 1979), 190 ff. 3 On this complex adaption of nobilityand bourgeoisie, see Guy ChaussinandtoEnlightenFromFeudalism in the Century: Nobility Eighteenth Nogaret, TheFrench trans. William Doyle (Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1985), pp. 11-22. ment, 4 Chaussinand-Nogaret,32. in Eighteenth-Century and Romanticism 5 Cf. Henri Brunschwig, Enlightenment Prussia,trans. FrankJellinek(London, Chicago: Chicago UP, 1974), chs. 7-10. der Werke, vol. 4, Gedenkausgabe 6 Johann Wolfgang Goethe, Der junge Goethe, ed. Ernst Beutler (Zurich: Artemis,1953), 328. und Gesprdche, Briefe 58. 7 Bourdieu, La Distinction, Untersuchungeneiner Kateder6ffentlichkeit, 8 Jurgen Habermas, Strukturwandel gorie der burgerlichen Gesellschaft,12th ed. (Darmstadt/Neuwied:Luchterhand, 1981). 9 Habermas, 45-46. than in France if it existed at 10 In Germany,thiscontractis much more restricted of publicityoften had the all. As Habermas points out, the early institutions character of secret associations. The members of the public remained among themselves.Lessing refersto thissituationwhen sayingin "Ernstund Falk" that bourgeois societyoriginatedfromFree Masonry. (Habermas, 48-53, n. 18).

This content downloaded from 157.92.4.12 on Tue, 14 May 2013 11:56:46 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

M L N

1117

2nd ed. (London: Routledge of Culture, 11 Karl Mannheim, Essayson theSociology and Kegan, 1962), p. 137. of theOld Regime(Cambridge: HarUnderground 12 Robert Darnton, The Literary vard UP, 1982), p. 22. 13 Brunschwig,38-40, 262-265. 14 Habermas, 44. und Offentlichkeit 15 Jochen Schulte-Sasse,"Das Konzept burgerlichliterarischer Offentlichund literarische die historischen Grunde seines Zerfalls,"in Aufkldrung keit, ed. Christa Burger, Peter Burger, and Jochen Schulte-Sasse(Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp, 1980), p. 95 and passim. 16 Johann Georg Sulzer, AllgemeineTheorieder sch6nenKiunste(Leipzig: n.p., 1792-1794), 2:54. und literarischeOffent17 Jochen Schulte-Sasse, "Einleitung: Kritische-rationale p. 20. Offentlichkeit, und literarische lichkeit,"in Aufkldrung 18 Habermas, 60-66. 19 Habermas, 64. 20 Habermas, 74. 58. 21 Bourdieu, La Distinction, 22 Habermas, 69. and trans.Michael Shaw, vol. 4 of Theory 23 Peter Burger, Theory Avant-Garde, ofthe of Minnesota Press, 1984), 47-49 (Minneapolis: University History ofLiterature the'trale 24 Anne Ubersfeld, "Le Jeu des Classiques," in Les Voiesde la creation (Paris: CNRS, 1978), 6:179-192. 25 Goethe, Derjunge Goethe, 277. these social relations. However, 26 Werther'sletterof March 15, 1772, illustrates Werther is clearly not in favor of abolishing all social barriersbetween the estates: "Was mich am meistenneckt,sind die fatalenburgerlichenVerhaltnisse. Zwar weiss ich so gut als einer, wie nothig der Unterschied zwieschen dan nur soll er mirnichteben Standen ist,wie viel Vortheileer mirselbstverschafft, 327). grad im Wege stehen." (Goethe, Derjunge Goethe, 333. 27 Goethe, Derjunge Goethe, 28 Goethe, Derjunge Goethe, 284. 29 Habermas, 68. 30 Schulte-Sasse,"Das Konzept," 99. Schulte-Sasseargues: Bemuhungen der Aufklarung sind zu Die literarisch-volkspadagogischen einem kaum uberschatzenden Teil Voraussetzung der raschen Kapitaliihren eigenen Zersierung des Buchmarktes,so dass die Bewegung letztlich fall herbeigefuhrt hat. Denn die Aufklarunghat den latentenWiderspruch Interund ihren wirtschaftlichen zwischen ihren idealistisch-padagogischen essen nicht wahrgenommen; sie hat in der Doppelexistenz des Buches als Ware und als Geist kein Problem gesehen. In dem Masse, in dem der Markt mussten burgerlicheInteressen als unterdiesen Widerspruch verscharfte, schiedlich und konfliktauslosenderfahrenwerden. Dies aber bedeutete a) den Zerfall ... der homogenen burgerlichen Offentlichkeit sowie, b) den nunmehr naheliegenden Missbrauch der neuen literarischen Wirkungsmittel... im Sinne kommerziellerInteressen und damit ein Ende der Kopdurch LiVerhaltensweisen pelung unbewussterBeeinflussung offentlicher Offentlichteraturan eine diesen Vorgang uberwachende kritisch-rationale keitund an eine Lektureweise,in die das Gesprach uber Literatureerlebnisse war. integriert

This content downloaded from 157.92.4.12 on Tue, 14 May 2013 11:56:46 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

1118

TITUS SUCK

im F. St. Siebenkds 31 Jean Paul, Ehestand,Tod und Hochzeitdes Armenadvokaten ed. Paul vol. 131.1 of DeutschNationalliteratur, Kuhschnappel, Reichsmarktflecken Speeman, n.d.), p. 192. Herrlich (Berlin, Stuttgart: 32 Paul, 193. privatesphere is a as a quasi-autonomous and intimately 33 The ideal of the family perception imposed by habitus. Relations in the bourgeois family remain collide a factwhich becomes evident when economic interests power-relations, withsentimentalinterests(Schiller'sKabale und Liebe representsthisconflictas class conflict).In fact,marriageswere largelydeterminedby economic interests, and the woman and her childrenwere alwaysdependent on the earning power private of the man in the family.The entirestatusof the familyas an intimate, sphere is a fiction.But thisfictionis well-foundedin the economic power of the bourgeoisie; cf. Habermas, 64-65. 34 Habermas, ch. 2, pp. 55-69. der zur Geschichte 35 Erich Auerbach, "La Cour et la Ville," in VierUntersuchunger Bildung(Bern: Franke, 1951), pp. 12-48. franzbsischen 36 Burger, 48. on a Hobby-Horse (New York: Phaidon Pub37 Ernst H. Gombrich, Meditations lishers, 1963), p. 18. 38 Hans Georg Gadamer, Truthand Method,trans, and ed. GarrettBarden and John Cummings (New York: Crossroad, 1982), p. 34. 39 Auerbach, "La Cour et la Ville," 44. 40 Auerbach, 44. 41 Bourdieu, La Distinction, 73. 42 Habermas, 46. 43 Bohours' definitionof taste explicates these aspects: Le gofitest un sentimentnaturelqui tienta lame, et qui est independant de toutes les sciences qu'on peut acquerir; le gofitn'est autre chose qu'un certain rapport qui se trouveentre l'espritet les objets qu'on lui presente;enfin, le bon gouitest le premier mouvement,ou pour ainsi dire, une espee distinctde la droite raison qui l'entraine avec rapidite et qui la conduit plus sfirement que tous les raisonnementsqu'on pourraitfaire. dans le ouvrages d'esprit (Paris: n.p., penser Cominique Bohours, La Manierede bien 1687), pp. 446-467. 44 Gadamer, 34. That the judgment,of taste is indeed based upon rather strict social conventionsdemonstratesLaurent Bordelon's explanation of the foundation of taste: La coutfimefaitles bienseances et les bienseances fontce qui plait; et ainsi notre gofit qui trouve bon ce qui est,selon la bienseance, et qui trouve mauvais ce qui est contre,se regle donc par la coutume. Laurent Bordelon, Remarques ou reflexions morales et historiques (Paris: critiques, n.p., 1690), p. 60. 45 Elias, 43-44. 46 Elias, 60f. 47 J. P. Crousaz, Traitedu Beau (Amsterdam: n.p., 1724), p. 170. 48 Since sentiment is for Dubos the sense which is touched by the work of art, it is the sense which can judge the work of art; reason "dois se soumettreau jugement que le sentimentprononce." Sentimentis a sixthsense which is innate:

This content downloaded from 157.92.4.12 on Tue, 14 May 2013 11:56:46 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

M L N

1119

49 50

51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60

61 62 63 64 65 66

C'est ce sixieme sens qui est en nous, sans que nous voyonsses organes. C'est la portionde nous memes quijuge sur l'impressionqu'elle ressent,et qui ... prononce, sans consulterla regle et le compas. C'est enfince qu'on appelle le sentiment.Le coeur s'agite de lui meme et par un mouvementqui precede toute deliberation ... Le coeur est fait,il est organise pour cela. Son operation previentdonc tous les raisonnements. vol. II (Utrecht:n.p., Critiques sur la poesieet la peinture, Jean Baptiste,Rfflexions 1932), pp 178-179. "Memoires secretsde la Republique des lettresMDCCXLVIV", vol. VII, p. 156, (Munchen: Fink, Aufklarung in Herbert Dieckmann, Studienzur Europaischen 1974), p. 301. Jean Pierre Dens characterizes classical taste in the followingway: "pour les classiques le gouitne peut d'aucune maniere se reduire a la sensation qui l'a provoquee ni etre concu comme un simple instinct;il exige en plus une faculte capable de le diriger en lui imposant un ordre de valeurs. Le gofitconsisteen un sentimenteduquq par la raison." Jean Pierre Dens, L'HonneteHommeet la au XVIIe siecle(Lexington,KY: French Forum, etsociete Esthetique critique du gouit: 1981), p. 98. Dens, 99. Dens, 100. ed. J. Lought and II of Oeuvres Completes, Denis Diderot, "Beau," in Encyclope'die J. Proust (Paris: Hermann, 1976), pp. 135-171. Diderot, 156. des ide'es On Diderot's notion of "rapports,"see Jacques Chouillet,La Formation de Diderot1 745-63 (Paris: Armand Colin, 1973), ch. V:2, pp. 289-323. esthetiques Diderot, 162. Diderot, 165. Diderot. Diderot, 170. thatbad tastein the arts Voltaire writesin his articleon taste in the Encyclopedie and claims that"Man molds and educates to la bellenature," is "to be insensitive his taste in art much more than his sensual taste." Sensual taste is considered lesser because itcannot be improved.Good tastein the arts,however,is a matter of "practice and reflection,"and bad taste can be correctedbecause it is often due to a "flaw of the mind." And "Good taste develops gradually in a nation men come under the influence thathas hithertolacked itbecause, littleby little, of good artists."(Diderot, d'Alembert,Encyclope'ia-Selections,trans. Nelly S. Hoyt and Thomas Cassirer (New York: Bob Merrill,1965), pp. 337-39. 59. Bourdieu, La Distinction, in Adorno: derAufklarung, Theodor W. Adorno and Max Horkheimer,Dialektik Suhrkamp, 1981) Gesammelte Schriften III, ed. Rolf Tiedemann (Frankfurt/M.: 102. Johann Ulrich Konig, "Untersuchungen von dem guten Geschmack in der ed. Alexander von zumKunstgefihl, Dicht- und Redekunst," in VomLaienurteil Bormann (Tubingen: Niemeyer, 1974), p. 21. Johann ChristophGottsched,"Vom guten Geschmackeines Poeten," in Versuch 4th ed. (1751; rpt., Darmstadt: Wissenschafliche einer Critischen Dichtkunst, Buchgemeinschaft,1962), ?13. Gottsched,?15. Gottsched,?9.

This content downloaded from 157.92.4.12 on Tue, 14 May 2013 11:56:46 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

1120

TITUS SUCK

67 GottfriedWilhelm Leibniz, "Principes de la Nature et de la Grace Fondes en vol. 6, ed. C. J. Schriften, Raison: Essais de Theodicee," in Die philosophischen Gerhardt (1885; rpt. Hildesheim: Olms, 1978). 68 Gottsched,?20. SuboderGlanz undElend des biurgerlichen und Protest 69 Bernard Willms,Revolution jekts(Stuttgart:Kohlhammer, 1979), p. 9 f. 70 George FriedrichMeier, "Von einigen Ursachen des verdorbenenGeschmacks ed. Alexander von BorzumKunstgefihl, bei den Deutschen," in VomLaienurteil mann (Tubingen: Niemeyer, 1974), p. 97. 71 Meier, 98. 72 Meier, 98. 569. 73 Bourdieu, La Distinction, 74 Gotthold Ephraim Lessing, "Der Rezensent braucht nicht besser machen zu p. 137. konnen, was er tadelt,"in VomLaienurteil, 75 Moses Mendelssohn, "Betrachtungenuber die Quellen und die Verbindungen in VomLaienurteil, pp. 140-142. der schonen Kunste und Wissenschaften," 76 Mendelssohn, 142. 77 On Mendelssohn's "Affektenlehre" and the theory of drama, see Jochen das Trauerspiel" uiber zum "Briefwechsel und Analysen Schulte-Sasse, Kommentare Nicolai) Munich: Winkler,1972). Mendelssohn, (Lessing, ed. G. HartenWerke, vol. 7 of Samtliche der Urteilskraft, 78 Immanuel Kant, Kritik stein (Leipzig: Voss, 1867), ?1. 79 Kant, ?14. 80 Gadamer, 40. ?6. 81 Kant, Kritik der Urteilkraft, 82 Kant, ?13. 573. 83 Bourdieu, La Distinction, ?60. Kant expresses the same idea in the preceding 84 Kant, Kritik der Urteilskraft, passage where he says, Die Propadeutik zu aller schonen Kunst, sofern es auf den hochsten Grad sondern in ihrerVollkommenheitangelegt ist,scheintnichtin Vorschriften, durch diejenigen Vorkenntnissezu liegen, der Cultur der Gemuthskrafte einerseitsdas allweil Humanitat nennt; vermuthlich welche man humaniora andereseits das Vermogen, sich innigstund gemeine Theilnehmungsgefthl, zu konnen bedeutet. allgemein mittheilen cf. Elias, 85 On the situationof the German bourgeoisie in the eighteenthcentury, emphasis,cf. Hans J. Haferkorn,"Zur Entstehung 24, 31-35; or, fora different und literarische Biirgertum der burgerlich-literarischen Intelligenz," in Deutsches 3, ed. Bernd und Sozialwissenschaft 1750-1800, Literaturwissenschaft Intelligenz Lutz (Stuttgart:Metzler, 1974), pp. 176-190. 86 Haferkorn, 182. 87 Bourdieu, La Distinction, 576. Ab88 Immanuel Kant, "Idee zu einer allgemeinenGeschichtein weltburgerlicher Werke (Leipzig: (pp. 222-240), vol. 1 of Gesammelte Schriften sicht,"in Vermischte Insel, 1921), p. 234. 89 See Gadamer, 41. in einerReihe von Erziehung des Menschen 90 Friedrich Schiller, Uberdie dsthetische ed. Wolfgang Dusing (Munchen: Briefen,in Text, Materialien,Kommentar, Hanser, 1981), pp. 38-39.

This content downloaded from 157.92.4.12 on Tue, 14 May 2013 11:56:46 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

M L N
91 92 93 94 95 96

1121

Gadamer, 73. Schiller,55. Schiller,59. Schiller, 109. Gadamer, 74. On the effectof the geographical isolation of the German bourgeois intelligentsia, cf. Goethe's letterto Eckermann of 5 May 1827, in Johann Wolfgang der Werke, in vol. 14 of Gedenkausgabe mitEckermann, Gesprache Goethe, Goethes ed. Ernst Beutler (Zurich: Artemis,1953), 14:12. Briefe und Gesprache, 97 Brunschwigextensively documents the social crisisof the Prussian bourgeoisie has its avantgarde,and argues thatRomanticism and especiallyof itsintellectual sociological origins in thiscrisis. 98 Schiller, 12. and itsBackEnglishLiterature 99 MarilynButler, Romantics, Rebels& Reactionaries: ground1760-1830 (London: Oxford Univ. Press, 1981), p. 38.

This content downloaded from 157.92.4.12 on Tue, 14 May 2013 11:56:46 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions