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J

UN

MEMOfUAM

Edward Bright

M a t hema t i c s De p t

OF

NEWTON S

PRINCIPIA,

NEWTON S PRINCIPIA
FIRST BOOK SECTIONS
I.

11.

III.

VTITH

NOTES AND ILLUSTBATIONS


AND A

COLLECTION OF PROBLEMS
PRINCIPALLY INTENDED AS EXAMPLES OF NEWTON
S

METHODS

BY

PERCIVAL FROST

D.Sc.

F. R. S.

FELLOW AXD MATHEMATICAL LECTURER OF KING S COLLEGE} FORMERLY FELLOW OF ST. JOHN S COLLEGE.

Fifth

Edition

Principals enlm

coffnitis,

multo facUius e&trema

intelliyetis.

ClCEHO.

MACMILLAN AND
NEW YORK
:

CO.

LIMITED,

THE MACMILLAN COMPANY

1900
[All rights reserved]

HOG
W\od&
x

CAMBRIDGE
1900.

PRINTED (FROM PLATES) BY MBTCALFK & co LTD., TRINITY STREET AND ROSE CRESCENT.

PEEFACE.

IN publishing the following work


intention
is

my

principal

to

explain

difficulties

which

may
of

be

encountered by the
Principia,

student

on
the

first

reading the
a

and

to

illustrate

advantages

careful study of the

by shewing
applied
in

the

methods employed by Newton, extent to which they may be


of problems.
to

the

solution

I have also

endeavoured to give assistance


is

the student

who

engaged in the study of the higher branches of Mathematics, by representing in a geometrical form

several of the processes

employed in the Differential and Integral Calculus, and in the analytical investi
gations of Dynamics.

In

my

version of the

first

section

and the begin


in the
cases

ning of the second I have adhered as closely as


I
in

could to

the original form;

and,

have been interpolated, or the form of demonstration changed, I have indicated such

which sections

changes and interpolations by brackets.

781458

VI

PREFACE.
It
is

generally

advisable
in

not

to

deviate
of

from
the

Newton

s
;

words
but in

the

demonstrations

Lemmas
lie

many

cases, I

suppose purposely,

expressed himself very concisely, as in

Lemmas

iv.

and

x.,

and he was contented with simply giving

the enunciation of

Lemma

v.

therefore in these cases

interpolations have been


in

made which, I believe, are accordance with Newton s plan of demonstration.


Throughout the Problems and Theorems which

depend upon the sixth proposition, the variations are By this method of treating replaced by equations.
the
subject
I

conceive that

clearer

ideas

of

the

meaning of each step are obtained by the student. In this edition I have introduced some notes on
the geometrical solution of some
to

maxima and minima, and


are

problems relating I have placed the

investigations of the properties of the curves, which,


after the conic sections,

the best examples for

illustrating

geometrical

methods, in

more pro

minent position, at the end of the first section. I have derived great assistance in the preparationof

my

notes from

the

study of

W he well

Method

of Limits, and from several early editions of Newton,


especially that of Carr.

With

respect to the three


I

Laws

of Motion, I

may

remark that
enunciating
partly

have not commenced the work by and making observations upon them,
been repeating

because I should only have

PREFACE.

vil

what has been

said

so

well

by Thompson,

Tait,

and Maxwell, whose works are in everybody s hands, and partly because in the course of reading recom

mended

to

students,

for

whose benefit
will

my

work

was especially intended, those laws


already
discussed
in

have been

the

elementary

treatises

on

Dynamics. The Problems are principally selected from the papers set in the Mathematical Tripos, and in the
course of the

College

Examinations,
into

and

have
the

generally
first

divided

them

two

portions,

of which

contains

those

problems which are


direct applications
illustrate,

capable of solution
the
propositions

by more
they

of
are

which

and

within the powers of a larger number of students

In both portions I have been careful to introduce very few problems which are not capable of solution

by methods given in the work. At the end of the work I have given
the solution, and in
of the problems
;

hints for

many

cases complete solutions,


I

and in doing so

am

acting in

direct opposition to

my

previously expressed opinion,

but additional experience of fifteen years has shewn me that it a satisfaction to a student who has not

been able
it;

to

solve a problem to see a solution of

and,

even
his

when

lie

has

been

successful,

to

compare

solution with

that of an older hand.

The

principal objection to the publication of solutions

viii

PREFACE.

is

that they are frequently referred to prematurely;

but a wise student will treat them only as a dernier


ressort.

In solving the Problems I have noticed two errors

which should be corrected as follows


XIII. 13
half the chord.
.
.

.is

the harmonic mean, &c.

XXVIII. 6 velocity in a circle of the unstretched string, &c.

whose radius

is

the length

Two
Solutions.
I
to

sets

of

Problems
is

have

been

numbered
in the

XXVII., the second


take this

written

XXVII. Ms

opportunity to express
s

my
for

thanks

Mr. Stearn, of King

College,

for his

kindness

in correcting the errors of the press

and

many

valuable suggestions.

PERCIVAL FROST.
CAMBRIDGE,
February, 1878.

CONTENTS.

SECTION L
ON THE METHOD OF PRIME ASD ULTIMATE RATIOS.
./

LEMMA
Continuity

I.

Variable quantities

Equality Notes on the

Lemma

Limits of variable quantities . Ultimate ratios of vanishing quantities Orders of vanishing quantities .

....... ...... .2 ....... ...... ....


PAGE.

1
1

3 4
6 7 8
9

Prime

ratios

Investigation of certain limits

PROBLEMS
LEMMA
Kbtes on the

..... .8
. .

L, II.
II., III.

...
.

14, 15

17,
.

18

Lemmas
.

.
.

. .

Volumes

of revolution
.

.
.

.
.

Sectorial areas

Surfaces of revolution

.
. ,
.

.
.

. . .

Centres of gravity General extension

,
.
.

Kotes on corollaries

Investigation of certain areas, volumes, Parabolic area . Parabolid, volume of

....
.

.19 ,20 .22


21

19

22 23

c.
.

.
.
. .
.

. .

Spherical segment, volume of . Cone, surface of

.
,

.
.

Rod

of variable density, mass of Hemisphere, centre of gravity of


III.,

.23 .26 .27


25 26

28
r
.

PROBLEMS

IV.

29,

50

X
LEMMA
Notes on the

CC^TEXT S.
IV.

...
.

PAGE.

32
.

Application of

Lemma Lemma IV

.33
.
,

to find
. * .

Elliptic area

.
. . .

Parabolic area

. Paraboloid, volume of centre of of Paraboloid, gravity

Rod

of variable density, centre of gravity

Circular arc, centre of gravity of Surface of spherical segment

Centre of gravity of spherical belt

Volume

of spherical sector Centre of gravity of spherical sector Attraction of uniform rod .

....
.

...
.
.

and mass of

.
. .

.34 .36 .37 38 .39 .39


35

34

36

39
39

PROBLEMS

V., VI.

Notes on the

LEMMA V. Lemma

Criteria of similarity

Centres of similitude

Similar continuous arcs, having coincident chords, have a Centres of similitude of two circles . .

Conditions of similarity of two conic sections Instruments for drawing on altered scales

Volume

of conical figure, base of

PROBLEMS
LEMMA

VII.

VI.

Tangents to curves Notes on the Lemma


Subtangents Polar subtangent

Inclination of tangent to radius vector

...... ...... ... ...... ...... ....... ......


* .

41, 42

43

common
.

tangent
.

.44 44 .46 46 ,47 .48


47

any form

49 49
51

,51
.54 .55
56

52 53 54

Subtangent of semi-cubical parabola

Cardioid, inclination of tangent to radius vector

LEMMA

VII.

Notes on the Lemma Subtense vanishes compared with the arc Exterior curve greater than interior

...... ....
.
.

...
.

.57 .59
58

59

LEMMA
Notes on the

VIII.

.61
.
.

Lemma

LEMMA IX. Notes on the Lemma

PROBLEMS

VIII., IX.

....... ......
.

61

63

64

.65, 66

LEMMA X.
Finite force

Notes on the

Lemma

Space described under action of constant force


Geometrical representations of

...... .,,.... ......


.
.

CONTENTS.

XI
PAGE.

67

69
69

.71

Space in given time, velocity variable

71

Momentum in given time, force variable and depending on


Kinetic energy, force depending on the position Motion of a particle under various circumstances Space when velocity varies as square of time Space when force varies as wth power of time Velocity from rest, force varying as distance
: .

the time
.

73

74
75
.

. ,

76
77
77

Time

of describing given space, force varying as the distance

. . . . Simple harmonic motion Path of particle acted on by a force tending to a point and varying as the

distance

Motion in a

resisting

medium
.

...,.
.

78 78
79

PROBLEMS
LEMMA

X., XI.

80,81

XI.

Scholium Curvature of curves Curvature of circle constant

Curvatures of different circles vary inversely as the radii Measure of curvature


Circle of curvature has closer contact than other circles Circle of curvature generally cuts the curve , Properties of evolute of a curve
.

Involute

Diameters and chords of curvature


ParabolaEllipse

Hyperbola

Relation between radius of curvature and normal in any conic section Common chord of conic section and circle of curvature ^

.,,.... ...... ... ....... ...... .,,.,. ......


.
:

.82
84
87

89 89
89
91

.91

..

92
93

.94
94
95

96

97

,
.

Radius and chord of curvature of a curve referred to a pole Notes on the Lemma and Scholium Relation between sagitta and subtense Tangents to a curve, from the same point, ultimately equal

98 98 99
100
101

, ,

Example

of false reasoning Parabola of curvature .

..
.

.
.

Cardoid, chord of curvature through the focus

PROBLEMS

XII.,

XIH., XIY.
.

....
.

.103
104
105

105, 107, 108

NOTE ON MAXIMA AND MINIMA PROBLEMS XV. .


.

,
,

.110
.

112

CYCLOID

Tangent Length of

arc, relation

......
.
.

.114
114
114, 115

with abscissa

Xli

CONTEiNTS.
PAGE.

Evolute

Area

..
.
.
.

All cycloids similar

Time

of oscillation in

.
.

Pendulum, to count a large number of oscillations of Pendulum, force of gravity determined by means of Pendulum, height of mountains determined by

EPICYCLOID AND HYPOCYCLOID


Evolute
.

Length of arc Radius of curvature Area

EQUIANGULAR SPIRAL
of arc

Length Area Radius and chord of curvature

CATENARY

Tension at any point

Length of arc

Tangent, construction for

Radius and vertical chord of curvature

LEMNISCATE

Inclination of curve to radius Relation between radius and perpendicular on tangent . Chord of curvature through centre
.

Radius of curvature
Poles
.

PROBLEMS

XVI., XY1I.

...... .... ..... ...... ...... .... ....... ..... ..... .... ....... .... ..... ....
. .

...
. .
.
. t

120

.122
.

125 126

127
127

130 130
131 131 131

132 132
133 133

133. 134

SECTION

II.

PROP.

I.

THEOR.

. Notes on the proposition Force in parallel lines Effect of sudden change of force

Apses, apsidal angle

Apsidal line divides a central orbit symmetrically

Only two

different apsidal distances, apsidal angles

Illustrations

Velocity in ellipse about focus

PROBLEMS
PROP.

XVIII., XIX.

II.

THEOR. H.

Notes on the proposition

Possibility of description of a curve, force tending to

..... ...... ..... ....... ..... ..... ......


CENTRIPETAL FORCES.
-

I.

136
1

39

143

144
145
145

all

equal

146
146
147

compounded

of

two constant

velocities

148, 149

151

153 155
156

any point

PROBLEMS XX.

CONTENTS.

Xlii
PAGE.

PEOP.
Illustration

III.

THEOR. in.
s

from moon

motion

.....
.
.

.157
158
.

PROP. IY.

THEOR. IT.

V
.
. . .

.
.

.
, .
.

160
165

Symbolical representation of areas, lines, &c.

Notes on the proposition


Centrifugal force
.

.166
.

.
t

167 168

Examples of circular motion Conical pendulum

170

PROBLEMS XXI.
PROP. Y.

.170

PROB.

I.

.172
.

PROBLEMS XXn.
PROP. VI.

THEOR. Y.

. Notes on the proposition Dimensions of symbols, homogeneity Tangential and normal forces Velocity in an orbit, any forces acting Radial and transversal forces

..... ....
.

.173
174
.

176 177

. Angular velocity in a central orbit on of tangent perpendicular Angular velocity . Examples of constrained motion
.

.... ....
.
.

.178
178
180
181 181

.179

PROBLEMS XXILL, XXIV.


PROP. VII.
Absolute force

PROB.

II.
.

.....
.
.

185, 186

188

Notes on the proposition


.

. .

.190
193

Law

of force in circular orbit


.

.
.
.

.193
.

Velocity in circular orbit . Periodic time

PROBLEMS XXV.
PROP. VIII.

Scholium . Notes on the proposition Extension of scholium to any curve


Application to the case of

....... .. .... ....


.

193

194
195

PEOB. IH.

..

..

197

199

. Cycloid, force parallel to the axis Catenary, force perpendicular to the directrix

PROBLEMS XXVI.
PROP. IX.

PROB. IV.

Velocity in the equiangular spiral Time of describing a given arc

PROBLEMS XXVII.
PROP. X.
Velocity in

..... .... .....


.
.
.

...
.

200
.

200 201 202

203

PROB. V.
ellipse

an

about the centre

....

XIV

CONTENTS.
PAGE.

Hyperbola, repulsive force from the centre . Time in an elliptic arc . . Orbit described under given circumstance of projection, force tending to a point, and varying as the distance from it . Geometrical construction of the orbit . .
.

206 206

206
207

Equations for determining the position and magnitude of the


Attractive force
.
.

orbit,

208
.

Eepulsive force

209 209
. .

PROBLEMS XXVII.

Resultant of forces tending to different centres . orbits described under various circumstances Variation of elements for a given small change of

Examples of

211

velocity
.

214
.

bis,

XXVIII.

215, 2 17

SECTION
ON THE MOTION OF BODIES

III.

IN CONIC SECTIONS,

FORCES TENDING TO A FOCDS.


PROP. XI.
PROP. XII.

PROS. VI. PHOB. VII.

.....
.

UNDER THE ACTION OF

220
2 2l

PROP. XIII.

Notes on the propositions

PROP. XIV. PROP. XV.

Notes on the propositions Periodic time in an ellipse

Time
Time

in

an

elliptic arc

Eccentric, true, and

in a parabolic arc

Kepler s laws Deductions from Kepler s laws

Law of

gravitation

PROP. XVI.

Velocity in the different conic sections

Hodograph Hodograph

of a conic section, force tending to a focus General properties of the hodograph of a central orbit

.... .... .... ....... ..... .... ....


.

PROB. VIII.

222 224

THEOR. VI.

225

THEOR. VII.
.

225 226
226

226
227

mean anomalies

228 228
229

229
230 233

THEOR. VIII.

234
234
235

. . .

PROP. XVII.

PROB. IX.
. .

237
o.jg

Notes on the proposition

CONTENTS.

XV
PAGE.

Direct investigation for the orbit described under given circumstances of projection, force tending to a point and varying inversely as the square
of the distance from
it
.
. .

241
.

Geometrical construction for the orbit

242
242

Equations for determining the elements of the orbit

hyperbolic under repulsive force Examples of orbits described under various circumstances Variation of elements for given changes of direction of motion
.

when when when

elliptic or hyperbolic,

parabolic.

, .
.

. . ;

Change

of eccentricity

velocity

PROBLEMS XXIX., XXX.

....... .....
.
.

244 244 244


246
247

and position of apsidal

line for

a given small change of


218, 250

APPENDIX.
SECTION
VII.

ON RECTILINEAR MOTION.
PROP.
Notes

XXXH.
N ,

and

XXXVI.
.

,
.

,253
.

254

PROP. XXXVIII.

255

SECTION
PROP. XL.

VIII.
256

THEOR. XIII.
.

.
.

PROBLEMS XXXI. GENERAL PROBLEMS XXXIL,


Solutions of Problems

.257
,

XXXIII., XXXIV.,
,
t

XXXV.
e

259, 261, 263, 265

268

NEWTON S FIRST BOOK


CONCERNING THE MOTION OF BODIES,
SECTION

I.

ON THE METHOD OF PRIME AND ULTIMATE RATIOS

LEMMA
Quantities,

I.

and

the ratio

of quantities, which, in any


to equality,

finite

time, tend constantly

and

zvhich, before the

end of that time, approach nearer to each other than by any assigned difference, become ultimately equal.
If not, let tlieni become ultimately unequal, and let their ultimate difference be D. Hence [since, throughout

the time, they tend constantly to equality], they cannot approach nearer to each other than by the difference D, contrary to the hypothesis [that they approach nearer than by any assigned difference. Therefore, they do not become ultimately unequal,
that
is,

they become ultimately equal].


Variable Quantities.

1.

The

Quantities, of

which Newton treats

in this

Lemma,

are variable magnitudes, described by a supposed law of con struction, the variation of these magnitudes being due to the*
arbitrary progressive change of some element of the construc tion employed in the statement of the law.

When,
hypothesis

in the progressive
is

change of
it

this element,

it

receives

the last value which


is

assigned to
at
its

in

any proposition, the


form, or to

said to

arrive

ultimate

be

indefinitely extended.

<

J
:

NEWTON.
be a semicircle, CB its diameter, any ordinate as the arc to arc, perpendicular ACB, then, is a variable gradually diminishes, magnitude, con

Thus,

let

ABP

BP

PM the

BP

AM
is

tinually increasing, and

BP

the element of the construction,

to the arbitrary

and

if

BP

change of which the variation of may be made as small as we please,

AM due AM may be
is
;

made

to approach to nearer than by any difference that can be named, and the hypothesis approaches its ultimate form. be divided into a be a triangle, and Again, if

AB

ABC

AB

number
grams

of equal portions, Act, ab, 6c, ..., and a series of parallelo be inscribed upon those bases, whose sides a, b/3, cy, .,.

are parallel to

BC and

terminated

in

(7,

the

sum

of the areas

of the parallelograms will be a variable magnitude, defined by that construction, and changing in a progressive manner, if the

number

of parts into which is divided be continually In this case the number of parts is the variable increased. element of the construction. In the ultimate form of the

AB

hypothesis,

it

will

parallelograms is is increased indefinitely.


2.

be shewn, Lemma II., that the sum of the the area of the triangle when the number

variation of a magnitude is continuous, when in tho from any one value to any other, throughout its change, passage

The

LEMMA
it

I.

receives every intermediate value, without becoming infinite. "When this is not the case, the variation is discontinuous.

According to the hypothesis number of parts into which

in
is

the

last

illustration,

the
N

AB

magnitude varies discontinuously, i.e. not pass through all the intermediate values
states of the progress.

divided being exact, the the sum of the areas does

between any two

If the hypothesis be changed, equal portions being set off

remaining over and above after ba, the last of the portions for which there is room, these equal portions could be made to diminish gradually, and the sum of

commencing from B, and

Aa

the areas would in that case vary continuously.

Tendency
3.

to

Equality.

Quantities are. ultimately equal, in a ratio of equality.


4.

when they

are ultimately

Quantities, which always remain finite, throughout- the. change of the hypothesis by which they are described, tend continually to equality, when their difference continually dimi-,
rushes..

ratio to

BP

be an arc, always in a given be the QJ$ corresponding ordinate ; as remain finite, and, continually diminishes, AM, and since their difference continually diminishes, they tend con-r_

Thus,

in fig. 1,

page
let

2, let

BQ

BP, and

AN

tinually to equality.

Quantities, which may become indefinitely small, or.- in-^ as the hypothesis is indefinitely extended, tend definitely great,
5.

continually to equality, when the ratio of their difference to, either of them continually diminishes. To illustrate this test of a tendency to equality^ let us

suppose, in

fig.

1,

page

2, that

the arc

BP is
2

double of the arc

BQ

then, since

(MBPf = AB.BlI,
2
:

and

2 (cMBQ) = AB.BN,

.-.

Bll

BN:: (chdP)
:

(chd#,
2
(arc#<?)

2
:

(arc#P)

ultimately,

,-.

JI/JV:

BN::

ultimately;

NEWTON^

and have a difference, which hence, we observe that tends continually to become SEN, the ratio of which to either
is

BM

BN

BN

although both tend to become indefinitely small as the hypothesis tends to its ultimate form, and do not satisfy the condition requisite for a tendency to
finite,

so

that,

BM

equality.

Observations on the
6.

Lemma.

proceed to examine the force of the other important terms employed in the statement of the first Lemma. The expression in any finite time (tempore quovis finito),
will
"
"

We

now

signifies

what has been called the indefinite extension of the hypothesis from some definite state to its ultimate form.* The law of the variation of the magnitudes under considera
is

tion

obtained by the examination of their construction while the element, to which the change is due, is at a finite distance from its final value, and the finite time is the supposed time

occupied in the passage from this definite to the ultimate state. In the first illustration, Art. 1, it denotes the progressive diminution of J5P, from being a finite magnitude to the point
of evanescence.

In the second, the progress from any portions to an indefinite number.


7.

finite

number of equal

The

expression

tendunt) signifies that, time to the limit of the extension of the hypothesis, the dif ferences continually diminish.

which constantly tend (quae constanter from the commencement of the finite
"

To

illustrate this

mode

of expression, let

BC

be a quadrant

Whe well s

Doctrine of Limits.

LEMMA

I.

of a circle whose bounding radii are be a straight line cutting the arc

OB,

0(7,

and

let

BDA
00
in

BDG

and the radius

OC to OB, and A, and let OP of bisection of tne the arc BD. in IM and cutting Q, point OP and OQ twice tend to equality, viz. from OG to OD and from 0^ to OB^ and once y/w?z equality from OD to OE to OJ? that OP" and OQ" tend to it is only from and it is from some equality constantly during the progress,
be a radius revolving from

0;

position between sidered to commence.

OE and OB

that the finite time

must be con

8.

"

Before the end of that time

"

(ante finem temporis)


be, a less

implies that, difference than that difference

however small the given difference may


is

from the ultimate


state
it

state is

still

arrived at, while the distance finite, however near to the final

may

be 60, the Tims, if, difference and the or f radius one inch, given T ott^ Toot^o" will be less difference than the the an inch, PQ given difference,
if

be necessary to proceed. in the last figure, the angle

BOD

the revolving radius be 2 or 1 , respectively, from the ultimate however small we choose the difference. position ; and so on,

In the proof of the Lemma, if the ultimate difference be cannot approach nearer than by that given J), the quantities difference otherwise, they would, in one part of the pro gression, have been tending from equality in order to arrive
9.
;

ultimately at that difference, contrary to the statement of the ad tequalitatem constanter tendunt." proposition in the words The nature of the proof, which is more difficult than may at
"

sight appear, can be illustrated as follows, by examining the effect of the omission of some of the points in the statement
first

of the

Lemma. Draw Oy, Ox


in

at right angles,

MQPP
As

in and meeting Oy A, CED a curve touching another touching a straight line parallel to (7, CD a common ordinate.

AB any straight AB E
becomes

line

meeting

AB

Oy
in

in
(7,

OM

diminishes
to

until

it

indefinitely

small,

MQPP

moves up

Oy.

NEWTON.
In both curves, the ordinates

MQ

and

MP

or

MP

have an

ultimate difference

CA,

equal to

D suppose.

c
JL

o
Omit
the

word

"

constanter,"

and the curve

CED

is

admissi

ble in a representation of the approach of the quantities ; because the ordinates approach^ before the end of the time, nearer than
difference, as at E, although the condition of continual tendency to equality is not satisfied.

by any assignable

Omit
ficient
;

the words

"

ante finem

temporis,"

and

CD

will

be suf

they tend continually to equality, but before the end of the time they do not approach nearer than by
for, in this case,

any assignable

difference,

and they are ultimately unequal.


line

In the case of the dotted


the conditions are satisfied.
equality, and
their difference

QM
may

at A, all touching and tend continually to be made less than any given,

AEF

AB

RM

difference before

OM vanishes.

Limit of a Variable Quantity.

When a variable quantity tends continually to equality a with certain fixed quantity, and approaches nearer to this quantity than by any assignable difference, as the hypothesis
10.

determining

its

variation

fixed quantity is The tests are

approaching its ultimate form, called the Limit of the variable quantity.
is

this

that there should be a tendency to equality

that

tendency should be continued from some finite condition and that the approach should, during the progres sion to the ultimate form, be nearer than by any assignable
this
;

difference.

Thus, as

is

mentioned

in the

Scholium

a.t

the end of the

LEMMA

I.

section, the variable quantity does not become equal to, or surpass the limit, before the arrival at the ultimate form.

Limiting Ratio of Variable Quantities.


If two quantities continually diminish or increase, and the ratio of these quantities tends continually to equality with a certain fixed ratio, and may be made to differ from that ratio
11.

by less than any assignable difference, as the hypothesis deter mining their variation is indefinitely extended, this fixed ratio
is

called the limiting ratio of the varying quantities.

Ultimate Ratio of Vanishing Quantities.


the ultimate form of the hypothesis brings the a state of evanescence, they are called vanishing quantities to and the limiting ratio, or the limit of the ratio, is quantities;
12.

When

the ultimate ratio of the vanishing quantities.

does not imply that expression vanishing quantities the quantities are indefinitely small while under examination, but only that they will be so in the ultimate form which observa
"

The

"

tion implies that the ratio

of

the

vanishing quantities
"

is

not an

equivalent expression with the ultimate ratio of the vanishing ante finem temporis." quantities, the former being taken
"

Ultimas rationes

illae

vera non sunt rationes quantitatum


at the

quibuscum quantitates evanescunt, reultiniarum." See Scholium,

end of the section.

Thus, let GO, FG be two straight lines intersecting F, and draw ADE, MPQ, perpendicular to AB.

AB in

Let

a, /3

be the areas

AMPD, AMQE, then

it is

easily found

JP

8
that a
:

NEWTON.
/3 ::

AD + MP AE+MQ;
:

now,

then, in hypothesis, a and (B vanish, and are called vanishing quantities from this circumstance.

posed to

move up

to

ADE,

be sup the ultimate form of the


let

MPQ

Also,

the

ultimate

ratio

of

the

vanishing

quantities

is

AD
ratio
is

AE.
this case,

Jn

since

MP MQ
: :

Is

not equal to

vanishing quantities, viz. different from AE, the ultimate ratio.

of the

AD

AD AE, the AD + MP AE-\- MQ,


:

Orders of Vanishing Quantities.


13.

When we

have to consider various kinds of vanishing

quantities, it is necessary to consider their relative magnitudes, and for this purpose if one of them be selected as a standard of small quantities, this quantity, and all the vanishing quan
tities

of which

the

ultimate

ratio

to

it

is

finite,

are called

vanishing quantities of the first order. If a, /3 be any two vanishing quantities, and
in the limit, fi
is

/3

a vanish

said to be a vanishing quantity of a higher

order than

a.
first

If a be of the
is

order,

and

j3

be ultimately

finite,

called a vanishing quantity of the second order^ /9 for higher orders.

and

so

on

Trigonometrical functions give familiar illustrations of these orders; let 6 be taken as the standard of vanishing quantities;
sin# tan20, sinifl are
to
all

of the

first
;

6 are ultimately 1, 2 and -J 2 2sin A0 is of the second order, tan#- 6 and


the third order.

order, since their ratios vers0, which is equal to

0-sm0

are/of

Quantities which
also classified in

become infinite in the ultimate a similar manner according to orders.


Prime Ratios.

state

are

If the order of the change in the form of the hypo thesis be reversed, or the varying quantities be tending from
14.
equality, having started into existence from the commencement of the time, the quantities are called nascent quantities / and the

LEMMA
ratio with

I.

9is

which they commence existence

called the

prime

ratio of the nascent quantities,

Application of Lemma
\-\-x
(1)

I
,

to the

investigation

of certain Limits.

Limit of &

~~

as

x gradually

diminishes ,

and

ulti-

mately vanishes.
Since the difference between 2

and 2

is

2(2
less

1
,

this

x)

difference continually diminishes as

by diminishing x
1
-4- x --

sufficiently,

x gradually may be made

diminishes, and,

than any

assignable difference.
will tend continually to equality with J, if we x commence from some value of x less than 2, and the difference may be made less than any assignable quantity ante finem tern-

Hence,

_.

satisfies all the conditions of being the required poris, therefore J

limit.

(2) v

Limit of J

--

3x
-

ichen

increases indefinitely.

Since the difference

--- 3

-r-

3u;

3 (o

which continu-

and may be made less than any ally diminishes as x increases, assignable difference ; therefore, as before, J satisfies all the con2
ditions of being a limit of
-

-f

x3x

4-

(3)

Tangents are drawn

and

at its extremities.

a circular arc, at its middle point ^ Shew that^ when the arc diminishes, the
to

area of the triangle

fanned by

the

chord of the arc, and the

twa*

tangents at the extremities, is ultimately triangle formed by the three tangents.

four

times that of th6

Let

FB,

DCE

the chord, FA, be the middle point of the arc, the centre of the circle, the three tangents, and

AB

FDE

FAB

.FC*

FG\

Now
/

10

FC vanishes in = FG and 2FC, ultimately


therefore, since
;

the limit,

FG FG
:

::

CO

CO

/.

&FDE-. A FAE\\
1
,
j.

4.

(4)

m x Limit of x ~~

when x

differs

from

by an indefinitely

small quantity,
tive or negative.

being

any number, integral or fractional, posi

First,

where

m
**-

is

a positive whole number,


1 -!
% i
>i

X-i
which

1,

may

be made to

differ

from

by

less

than any assignable

difference

by taking x
let

sufficiently

near to unity.

Next,

m=^
let

2?

Q
,

p,

q,

and r being

positive

whole

numbers, and

x = yr

,7

/-I

p
7/

//

"~

ry
-

This
less

may

be made to

differ

from

*-

or

by

a qnantity

than any assignable quantity by taking x, and therefore y, sufficiently near to unity; hence, whether it be integral or

fractional, positive or negative,

is

the limit required.

When we
y
is

divide the numerator and denominator


1,

by?/-

1,

not equal to

the time chosen being ante finein temporis

LEMMA
while the difference
referred to
is finite.
"

I.

^1
in the

See the direction


intelligas

Scholium

above

Cave

quantitates magnitudine
limite."

deterniinatas, sed cogita


/K\

(5)

T * * Limit of

-- --1
P

semper diminuendas sine


3"-f...-f tt
.

2p

p+l

when n

is

indefinitely in

jLfi,,!

creased,

being any positive number. Since this sum is the arithmetic mean, of the n fractions

/*

UJ
therefore, for all positive values of j?, integral or fractional,
?>

it

lies

between (-] and

/1\

fn\ [

or

1.

therefore

its

ultimate value

lies

between

and

1.

This being an important limit, we will investigate it first for the particular case in which p is integral and positive, and then
generally

when p

is

any

positive quantity.
?i
;

then

#n =l"-f2 p +...+ p Su+l = l p + 2 + ...+ np + (n+l) P i S +1 -Sn =(n+l) Pv


Let,
p

If therefore

we assume

that
.

then
/.

(n

8U = An^ + Bn* +. .-f Ln + M, Sn+l = ^ + 1) + B (n + 1) +...+ (* + !)+ Jf + I/ = .4 {( + l)^ - n^} + 5 {(re + 1)* - np -f ...
(
1 ]

=^
we
obtain,

{(^

-f 1

i (p

-f

l)^?i

+...}

+ 5 {^^ -f

^ (^ -

p -a

1}

-f ...)

+...
1

by equating the

coefficients,

p+

equations for

determining the values of the p + 1 constants A, reduce the equation to a a identity.

...

L, which

The

first

of these equations

is 1

= p+
(

1)

Sn

M
"

12
hence,
i

NEWTON*.
if

n be

increased, since the

number of the terms following


^
1
"

p+1

is finite,

we may make
it

the difference between - p+ and

p+l
;

diminish until

becomes

less

than any assignable quantity


is

therefore
>

the limit required.


let I

Next,

let^>

be any positive quantity, and

be the limit of

,,.

i"

+ 2P -K..+ np = ln^ + Bif + On7 +.,.


.

in which ^? +

1,

p, 7... are in descending order, and


is

vanishes,

when n
p

made

infinitely large

(n

l)

= Z {(n +

If"
*"}

+ B \(n

-i-

1)^

- nP} +

..

ft>

n
therefore, observing that,

n
is

when n

increased indefinitely,

iY-l

* imit of

where

e, s

...

quantities
ft

s,

vanish ultimately, Let s t be the greatest of the and let all the terms be positive, then ...,
is less

(14

e)

/+...

than
o

(1

|,WB^+|

<7*

+...)

*y

and, since

-^

-5 ...

are each less than 1,

&)Brf+... i-

is less

than

,f

(1

+ 8,)^

_ x jB/

LEMMA
which vanishes
in the limit,

I.

13
1

hence
is

= (p -f

1)

ultimately;

therefore

v+l P

the limit required.

COR.
p

---

is

p+
p

evidently also the limit of the

sum
.

(w-l)*
,

n*
!

..

since

vanishes in the limit.

of constant length slide with its ex tremities in two straight lines^ which intersect at a given angle A, and BCj be be two positions of the line intersecting in P, which become ultimately coincident find ike limits of the ratios Cc Bb
(6)

If a straight

line

and

PC PR
:

but

By BC =
Z

and

+ CA* - 2BA CA 2 ie = bA* -f cA - 2bA.cA cos A


BA<
.

.%

Cc

Bb

BA + b A - 2cA cos A CA + cA- 2BA cos A n BA - CA CQsA CA - BA cos A ultimately.


:

Draw CNj
of the ratio Cc

BM perpendicular to AB, A C, therefore the limit


:

Bb

is

BN

CM.

14
Again,
let

NEWTON.

BQ, drawn parallel to AC, meet then PC \PB\\ Cc :BQ;


also

be in $,

Cc

Bb ::BN:
:

CM ultimately,
Ac;

and
.-.

Bb:BQ:: Ab
:
: :

BN.AB CM. AC ultimately. Biaw AR perpendicular to BC, then BN.AB=BR.BC and CM.AC=CE.BC; ,% PC:PB::BE: CE; PC = Bit and PB=Cfi.
Cc
:

BQ

.-.

I.
1.

ARE

the limits of the ratios y


2

2
:

# equal in any of the three


(3)

equations

when,

a:

is

(2) y ^ax-W, ? diminished indefinitely


(1)
</

<wr,

y=*

$-,

2.

Find the

limit of

i
is

(1)
(2)
3.

when a; when x

indefinitely diminished,

is indefinitely

increased.
bx*,

Ix +

ax*,

Find the ultimate ratio of the vanishing quantities ax + when x is made indefinitely small.

4.

to zero,

Prove that a - Ix and I ax tend to equality as x diminishes and yet have not their limits equal.

5. BAC, lAc are two triangles, in which AS, Ab and AC, Ac are coincident in direction, and BC, be intersect in P; prove that, if the areas of the triangles be equal, as B, C and j, c approach, each to each, will be ultimately in the point of bisection of C.

are two straight lines which are intersected by moves up to ABC, fixed lines BP, CQ, prove that, as and QB intersect in a point whose ultimate position divides in the ratio of : C.
6.

P APQ, ABC

two

PC

APQ

AB A

BC

7.

and

at its extremities,

Tangents are drawn to a circular arc at its middle point, and the three chords are drawn. Prove

that the triangle contained by the three tangents is ultimately one-half of that contained by the three chords, when the arc is indefinitely diminished.

LEMMA

I.

15

a chord near AP, find is a chord of a given circle, 8. the position of the point of ultimate intersection of circles described as diameters, when on AP, approaches to and ultimately

AP

AQ

AQ

AQ

coincides with

AP.

circle passes through a fixed point, and cuts off from a 9. of constant length, prove that the chord fixed line a chord of ultimate intersection of two consecutive circles bisects PQ.

PQ

10.

PN
P

is

an ordinate, and

and the axis-major in that as approaches A,


"

NT

a tangent to an ellipse, cutting being the vertex, shew respectively is ultimately bisected in A.
;

PT

ordinates to the axis AMN, 11. APQ is a parabola, PIT, two circles are drawn with centres Jf and .A and radii PM, when approaches indefinitely near to JU, if the two prove that, circles intersect, the distance of their point of intersection from PJl
7

QN

QN

ultimately equal to the semi-latus rectum. that the circles may intersect ?
is

What

is

the condition

n.
If two quantities 1. What is the test of tendency to equality ? diminish so that their difference diminishes, prove that they will tend to or from equality according as the ratio of their rates of decrease is greater or less than the ratio of the greater to the less.
2.

ABC

is

an

isosceles triangle,

the straight lines CA,

prove that,

if

PQ

position of R,

when

AB intersect in It, R AP is indefinitely diminished, R B AC:: AC 1BC ~ AC.


and
: .

CB

base such that

AP

BC]
is

P,

are points on

always twice BQ\ and be the ultimate

3.

P3IP

is

R is the point of ultimate intersection of the circles described on PP and the next consecutive double ordinate respectively, and R T Shew that TM CJf: BC is the ordinate of JR. AC\ What
2
:

a double ordinate of an ellipse, whose centre

is

C;

is

the condition that these circles

may

intersect ?

4. Two concentric and coaxial ellipses have the sum of the if the curves approach to coincidence squares of their axes equal with each other, shew that the ratio of the distances of any one of their points of intersection from the axes will be ultimately equal to the inverse ratio of the squares of the axes.
;

If a triangle be inscribed in a given circle, prove that the algebraic sum of the small variations of its sides, each divided by the cosine of the angle opposite to it, will be equal to zero.
5.

16
6.

NEWTON.

point

ABC, APQ are drawn to cut a circle from an A] BU, CT are tangents at B and C to the circle,
in
U,

external

APQ moves up to ABC, is AB* AC\ 7. BCRA is a diameter of a circle whose centre is C, and PRQ PR is bisected in S, and is a chord in it perpendicular to BA. If tangents at P and 8 meet BA in T CS meets the circle in 8
:
.

APQ,

T;

shew that the ultimate

ratio of

PU

meeting QT, when

and

T
8.

shew that when

P moves up to ^4,
ABCD

^4T=

4AT

ultimately.

be slightly displaced in its own If the quadrilateral the to as so position ah CD, and O be the point of occupy plane, intersection of D A, CB, prove that the point of ultimate inter will be the foot of the perpendicular from O section of ab and

AB

upon AB.
PSp, QSq are focal chords of a parabola^ prove mately, when P moves up to Q,
9.

that, ulti

PQipq:: SP*
10.

Sp*.

extremities of a straight line slide upon two given the three straight lines, so that the area of the triangle formed by of the chord find the is constant lines limiting position straight of intersection of two consecutive positions of the circle described about that triangle,

The

LEMMA

II.

17

LEMMA
If, in

II.

any figure AacE, bounded by the straight lines Act, and the curve acE, any number of parallelograms Ab, Be, Cd, fyc. be inscribed upon equal bases AB, BO, CD, fyc., and having sides Bb, Cc, Dd, fyc. parallel to the side Aa of the figure ; and the parallelograms aKbl, bLcm, cMdn, be completed ; then, if the breadth of these parallelo ffc. grams be diminished, and the number increased indefi nitely, the ultimate ratios which the inscribed figure

AE

AKbLcMdD,

the circumscribed figure

AalbmcndoE, and
one another, will

the curvilinear figure be ratios of equality.

AabcdE

have

to

J5

A.

IB

3>

-E

For the

difference of the inscribed and circumscribed figures is the sum of the parallelograms Kl, Lm, Mn, Do, that is (since the bases of all are equal) a paral

lelogram whose base


altitude the

is Kb, that of one of them, and of their altitudes, that is, the paral But this parallelogram, since its lelogram ABla. breadth is diminished indefinitely [as the number of parallelograms is increased indefinitely] becomes less than any assignable parallelogram ; therefore, by Lemma I., the inscribed and circumscribed figures, and, a fortiori, the curvilinear figure, which is inter

sum

mediate, become ultimately equal.

NEWTON.

LEMMA
The same ultimate

III.

ratios are aiso ratios

of equality

when
>

the breadths of the parallelograms AB, C, and all are diminished unequal, indefinitely.
t

CD,

are

TV

be equal to the greatest breadth, and the For, let This parallelo parallelogram FAafbe completed. gram will be greater than the difference between the inscribed and circumscribed figures. But, when its

AF

breadth is diminished indefinitely, it will become less than any assignable parallelogram. [Therefore,
a fortiori, the difference between the inscribed

and

circumscribed figures will become less than any assignable areas. Hence, by Lemma I., the ultimate Ratios of the inscribed and circumscribed and the
curvilinear figure, which ratios of equality.]
is

intermediate, will be

COR.

of the vanishing paral lelograms coincides [as to area] with the curvilinear
1.

Hence the ultimate sum

figure.

COR.

And, a fortiori, the rectilinear figure which is bounded by the chords of the vanishing arcs ah, be,
2.

cd,

&c., ultimately coincides with the curvilinear


3.

figure.

COR.

As

which
of the

also the rectilinear circumscribed figure, is bounded by the tangents at the extremities
arcs.

same

COR.

these ultimate figures, with respect to their perimeters acE, are not rectilinear figures, but curvilinear limits of rectilinear figures.
4.

And

LEMMA
Observations on the
15.

II.,

Ill,

10
tt\

Lemmas

and

III:

statements of the propositions concerning limits of contain quantities and their ratios
:

The

I.

The

hypothesis by which the quantities are defined.


in

II.

The manner
The

which the hypothesis approaches

its

ultimate form. ultimate property Indefinitely extended.


III.

when

the

hypothesis

is

thus

strength of the proofs lies in the examination of the is in a finite state, before arrival quantities while the hypothesis at the ultimate form, and the deduction of properties by which the relations of the quantities can be pursued accurately to the

The

ultimate state.
If in this

and

III.,

manner we analyse the statement of Lemmas II. the hypothetical constructions are given in the manner

of describing the parallelograms; the extension of the hypo thesis towards its ultimate form is the continual increase of the
of parallelograms ad infinitum ; the ultimate property is the equality of the ratio of the sums of the parallelograms and the curvilinear area.

number

In the proof of the Lemmas, the continual decrease of the parallelograms Al or Af shews that the conditions of ultimate
equality of two quantities are all satisfied, viz., that the sums of the two series of parallelograms, since they are finite, tend
continually to equality, and that they approach, nearer to each ante finem temporis," other than by any assignable difference while the number of, the parallelograms still remains finite. i.e.,
"

Volumes of Revolution.
16.

In a manner exactly

similar to

Lemma

II. it

may

be

that, if Aa be perpendicular to AE, and the whole as an axis, the ultimate ratios, which round revolve figure the sums of the volumes of the cylinders, generated respectively. by the rectangles Ab, Be, ... and aB, bC, ... and the volume

shewn

AE

of revolution generated

by the

curvilinear area

AEa

will

have

to each other, will be ratios of equality.

20

NEWTON,
by the
in

The figure represents the cylinders generated scribed rectangles.

the difference of the cylinders generated by Ab and annulus generated by the rectangle a&, and the difference of the two series of cylinders, which have all equal heights AB, BC, .., is the sum of such annuli, and is easily

Thus
is

aB

the

seen to be the cylinder generated by aB^ which, since the height continually diminishes, may be made less than any assignable volume, hence the conditions that the two series may have the

and hence also the volume of revolution, which is greater than one sum and less than the other, is ultimately in a ratio of equality to either sum. The same argument applies when the revolution is only through a certain angle instead of being complete, in which

same

limit are satisfied,

case the cylinders are replaced

by

sectors of cylindrical volumes.

Sectoricd Areas,

17,

The Lemmas may be extended


-A.

to

sectorial

areas.

LEMMA
Thus,
let

IT.,

III.

21
let

SABCFbe
,

a sectorlal area, and

be divided into equal portions A SB, BSO, ... arcs Ab aBc, bCd ... be drawn with centre S] then, since
j

the angle and the circular

ASF
sum

the difference of the two series of circular sectors

is

the

equal to the difference of the therefore the ; greatest and least of the sectors, viz. two areas SAb Bc ... and SaBbC... tend continually to equality

of the areas ab

be,

...,

it

is

AGHV
and

their magnitudes which these areas have to each other ratios and the diminished, and to the area SABF are ultimately ratios of equality. Similarly, as in Lemma III., if ASB, BSC, ... be unequal.

as the

number of angles

is

increased

Surfaces of Revolution.
following proposition is the extension of the prin of a method for ciples of the Lemmas to the determination finding the area of a surface of a solid of revolution.
18.

The

be a plane curve which generates a surface of revo lution by its revolution round AB, a line in its plane.

Let

CD
is

is divided into portions, of which one, PJ/, drawn are are perpendicular to parallel to AB, and Pp, Qq in length ; pm, qn are perpendicular to AB. each equal to

CD

PQ

QN

AB

PQ

shall be the limit of the sum of surface generated by the cylindrical surfaces generated by such portions as Pp or Qq. For, the cylindrical surfaces generated by Pp and Qq are

The

CD

one

less

and the other greater than the surface generated by

PQ^

since every portion of Qq is at a greater, and every portion of Pp at a less, distance from the axis than the corresponding

portions of

PQ.

22

NEWTON.
But

these surfaces are respectively and their difference is 2-rr ( PM)

QN

%7rPM.Pp and PQ, and the ratio


is

of this

difference to the surfaces themselves

QNPM: PM or
ratio.

QN,

which

ratio is ultimately less

than any given

the sums of the surfaces generated by the lines corre sponding to Pp and Qq have the ratio of their difference to either sum less than the greatest value of the ratio PM^

Hence

QNPM:

which

may

be made

less

than any

finite ratio.

Therefore the

cylindrical surfaces and the curved surface, which is intermediate in magnitude to these sums, are ultimately in

sums of the

a ratio of equality.
Centre of Gravity.

same methods are applicable to the determination of the position of the centre of gravity of any body, since it is known that, if a body be divided into any
19.
Tt is easily seen that the

number of
body from

portions, the distance of the centre of gravity of the any plane is equal to the sum of the moments of all

the portions divided by the

sum

of

all

the portions.

General Extension.
general extension may be stated as follows: be divided into a series of magnitudes If any magnitude ...A n each of which, when their number is increased indefi
20,

The most

AA
a a*
i

nitely,
"

becomes

indefinitely small,
"A.

and two

series of quantities

a an ^ ^A*

can be found such that

>A>

and also such that each of the ratios a, & t : # a2 - b 2 a^ ... becomes less than any finite ratio when the number is increased ; b + b z +...+ b n and A will be ultimately then a 4 aa +...+
t ,

in a ratio of equality. For, let of the ratios a l b l : a^ &c. ;


/.
is

1:1 be equal
+...

to the greatest

-b -\-a^b
l

al

+a

+...

a ratio less than

1,

and

may

therefore be

made

less

than

LEMMA

II.,

III.

23

any assignable ratio by increasing the number. Therefore the two series + a 2 4... and 5 + 5 2 +... tend continually to equality, and the difference may be made, before the end of the time, less
1

than any assignable magnitude therefore the three magnitudes are ultimately in a ratio of equality.
;

21.

COR.

1.

"Omni

ex parte

"

the

of Newton, because it perimeters do not ultimately coincide with the perimeter of the curvilinear area.
text

has not been adopted from requires limitation, for the

In the figure for

Lemma

II. the

perimeter of the inscribed

series of parallelograms is

perimeter is 2Aa + 2AE. The perimeter of the other series of parallelograms, being 2Aa + 2AE is constant throughout the change, and has properly

and the limit of

this

no

limit.

of the figure bounded by the chords ab, be, ... ultimately coincides with that of the curvilinear figure. This coincidence will be discussed under Lemma V.

Cos.

2.

The perimeter

COR.
tangents.

3.

The same

is

true for

the

figure

formed by the

COR.

4.

Instead of

"propterea,"

as in

Newton,

it is

advisable

s Doctrine of Limits, that, if a finite be taken, and many successive points in the portion of a curve curve be joined so as to form a polygon, the sides of which, taken in order, are chords of portions of the curves, when the

to state, as in

Whewell

number

of those points is increased indefinitely, the curve will be the limit of the polygon.

Application
(1)

to the

Determination of certain Areas, Volumes, &c.


ordinate.

Area of a parabola bounded by a diameter and an

Let AB,
Let

BC

be the bounding abscissa and ordinate.

Com

plete the parallelogram

ABCD.

AM

be divided into n equal portions, of which suppose to contain r, and to be the (r+ l) th ; draw HP,

AD

MN

NQ

NEWTON.
parallel to
\

the curve in P, Q, and Pn parallel to the curvilinear area is the limit of the sum of the

AB, meeting

A CD

JL

33

series

of parallelograms constructed, as PiY, on

the

portions

corresponding to

MN.

But parallelogram

PN
::

parallelogram

ABCD

PM.MNiCD.AD,
: :

and, by

the properties of the parabola,

PMiCD
also
/.

AM AD
2
:

::r
:

2
:

n\
3

MN-.

AD

:: 1

j
-

PM.MN:CD.AD::r*:n

therefore, parallelogram

PN=

-$

x parallelogram

ABCD;

hence, the

sum
l

of the series of parallelograms


2
2

=
and,

+ ...4 (n-

1)"

x parallelogram
is

AB CD,

when

the

number

of parallelograms
3

increased indefinitely,

therefore, proceeding to the ultimate

form of the hypothesis, the

curvilinear area
respectively,

and the parabolic area ABC will be, one-third and two-thirds of the parallelogram

A CD

ABCD.
Note
1.

ABC,

AB

inscribed the series of parallelograms in being divided into n portions, we should have arrived
If

we had

at the result

LEMMA

II.,

III.

25

for the ratio of the series of parallelograms to the parallelogram

which might thus have been directly shewn to be but the former method is p-eferable, since the ultimately f

ABO),

proof of the value of the limit depends

upon simpler

principles.

Note

2.

If

BC

had been divided into n equal portions, the

ratio of the parallelogram corresponding to

PN

gram

ABCD

would have been

a
7i

-r :wV, and

to the parallelo that of area

ABO

to parallelogram

ABCD the
n

limit of

(2)

Volume of a paraboloid.

Let

A KB.

be the area of a parabola, cut off by the axis

AH

-A

3C

;ar

JC
revolution found the axis

and an ordinate

///i,

which by

its

generates a paraboloid* Let be divided into n equal portions, and on th inscribed. (r-f l) , as base, let the rectangle

AH

MN the

PENMbe

Cylinder generated by

PN

cylinder by

AHKL
: :

::PM\MN:HK\AH.
But

PM* HK*
:

AM AH
:

n,

and MN-.
/.

AH::

n;
r
:

PM\MN: HK\AH::
by

n\

Hence

cylinder generated

PN= -3

x cylinder by
is

AHKL

therefore the

sum

of the cylinders inscribed


1)
1

1+24...+ (ftn
and the paraboloid
is

x circumscribed

cylinder,

the limit of the series of inscribed cylinders

hence the volume of the paraboloid is half that of the cylinder on the same base and of the same altitude.

26
(3)

NEW TON.
Volume of a spherical segment.

Let

AHK generate, by

its

revolution round the diameter


is

the spherical segment whose height

AH.

A MJf
Divide
then

S
and make the same construction
;

A H,
PM*

as before,
=--

AM. (AB- AM] =

AH. AB - ~ AH*.
n

Volume of

cylinder generated by

PN=irPM^.MN

AH
n
whence, as before, the limit of the sum

= TT AH* (\AB-l AH})


which
is

the volume proposed.

a hemisphere whose volume is irAC* (AC- %AC) = ^irAC*, which is two-thirds of the cylinder on the same base and of the same altitude.

COR. If

AH=^AB=A 0,

the segment

is

(4)

Area of

the surface

of a riyht

cone.

As an

illustration

of the
to

method of finding

above, suppose revolves round

AHK
AH,

surfaces given

be a right-angled

triangle,

which

the hypotheriuse be the Let

AK

MN

a side containing the right angle, then generates a conical surface.


th

(r+l)

portion of

AH,

after division into

ordinates parallel to n equal portions; 3/P, and parallel to AH. each equal to

NQ

HK;

Pp,

Qc[

PQ

LEMMA
The
areas generated by

II.,

III.

27

Pp and Qq

respectively are

ZirPM.Pp and 2-jrQN.Qq,


and

PM :HK:: AM: AH::

QN: UK:: AN: AH:: r + 1 PQ: AK::MN: AH:: 1 n


:

w,

therefore the areas are


respectively

.^lirHK.AK and
is

and the conical surface

intermediate in magni

tude between

n
and
each of which has for
its

2-f...+
1

ri

limit

TrHK.AK^ which

is

therefore

the area of the conical surface*


notice the following method of the conical surface obtaining by development, although it is not related to the method of limits.

Note.

The reader may

If a circular sector

bounding boundary

radii

KLK

AK,
will

AK

KAK\

traced on paper, be cut out, the can be placed in contact, so that the
circle.

form a

will be the slant figure so formed will be conical, in the last figure will be the radius of the circular side, and . base, whose length will be the arc of the sector

The

AK

HK
1

KAK

Hence, the area of the conical surface is equal to that = AK. 27rHK= TrHK.AK. sector

o.f

the

KAK

(5)

the

Mass of a rod whose density distance from one extremity.

varies as th ?H th

power of

Let
its

AB be the rod,

and

let

MNbe

the (r4l) th portion,

when
m

length has been divided into n equal parts; and let p.AM be the density at or the quantity of matter contained in. an

unit of length of the rod supposed of the rod at the point M.

same substance as the

The

quantity of matter in m

MN

is

intermediate between

p.AM .HN

and f,,AN

28
and the

NEWTON.
ratio of the difference of these to either of
is

them

is less

than any assignable ratio when n


r

indefinitely increased.

Therefore,

since
is

AM= AB, n
the limit of

and

MN
I

AB.

the

mass

of the whole rod


l

n -

l"

+2

+...+

fo-ir

nm+i _ -

/
[

\m +

-I

\tb
)

of the mass of a rod of length

AS

and of uniform

lj

density equal to that of the rod


(6)

AB

at

B.

Centre of gravity of the volume of a hemisphere.

Let
radiqa

CAB
QA

be a quadrant, which by generates the hemisphere.

its

revolution round the

Let

MR

cylinder, so that

be the rectangle which generates the rth inscribed 1 r -

CM = x CA n

and

MN=

x CA.

If the mass of a unit of volume be chosen as the unit of

mass, the mass of the cylinder generated by

MR
2

will be
ri

A
i

(?<. ]

l-~ n )7rCA

2
.

hence, the mass of the series of inscribed cylinders will be

7r^ 3

l2+2 +
;"

2
"

and the mass of the hemisphere

= TT CA - JTT CA = f TT CA
9
3

3
.

Again, the moment of the mass of the cylinder generated by MR, with respect to the base of the hemisphere, will be

irPM\MN4

(CM-}-

CN],

LEMMA
which
differs

II.,

III.

29

from
it.

wPM*.MN.CM
and
is

by a quantity which vanishes


/
3
7*
.

compared with
therefore the
base,
is

?*

moment

n ) \n of the hemisphere, with respect to


or 1-rrCA*

therefore ultimately

TrCA*
its

(\-l}irCA\

hence the distance of the centre of gravity of the volume of the hemisphere from (7, which is the moment with respect to the
base divided by the mass,
is

in.
1. Illustrate the terms tendunt ad aequalitatem

"tempore quovis-finito"

"

case of

Lemma

III. as

employed an example.

in

Lemma

I.

and "constanter by taking the

2. Shew, from the course of the proof of Lemma II., that the ultimate ratio of vanishing quantities may be indefinitely small or

great.
3.

Shew

that the ratio of the area of the parabolic curve, in


:

which P3I 3 oc AM, to the area of the circumscribing parallelogram, of which one side is a tangent to the curve at A, is 3 4.
that the volume of a right cone is one-third of the same base and of the same altitude. the on cylinder
4.

Shew

a parabolic area, the axis, and an ordinate 5. the circumscribing rectangle. perpendicular to the axis, round Shew that the volumes generated by the revolution of are and and of the -~. AH, KL, AL, respectively i, |, |, the rectangle. cylinder generated by
\s>

AHK

AHKL

AH

UK

UK AUK

6.

The volume

of a spheroid

is

two-thirds of the circumscribing

cylinder.
7.

by

Find the centre of gravity of the volume of a right cone the method of Lemma II.

8.
is

Shew

that the centre of gravity of a paraboloid of revolution


axis.

distant
9.

from the vertex two-thirds of the length of the

Find the mass of a rod whose density varies as the distance Find also its centre of gravity, and shew that an from extremity. it is in one of the points of trisection of the rod.

30

NEWTON.

10. The limiting ratio of an hyperboloid of revolution, whose axis is the transverse axis, to the circumscribing cylinder is 1 : 2 when the altitude is indefinitely diminished, and 1 3 when it is indefinitely increased.
:

IY.
1. Prove that the areas of parabolic segments, cut off by focal chords, vary as the cubes of the greatest breadths of the segments.

Find the mass of a circle whose density varies as the power of the distance from the centre.
2.

mih

3. Shew that the abscissa and ordinate of the centre of gravity of a parabolic area, contained between a diameter and ordinate BC, are \AB and \B C respectively.

AB

4. number of equal squares in one plane with their centres coincident are arranged consecutively, their sides making equal small angles, each with the adjacent ones prove that the limit of the length of the serrated edge, when the number of squares is indefinitely increased, is equal to the circumference of a circle whose radius is a side of the square.
;

5. By supposing the axis of a parabola portioned off into suc cessive lengths in the ratio 1:3:5, &c., apply Lemma III. to find the area contained by the curve and a double ordinate. 6.

disc about

Find the volume generated by the revolution of an elliptic an axis parallel to its major axis, and at such a given

distance as not to intersect the disc.


7.

In the curve
is

A CD, BE is

an ordinate perpendicular
7?

and

FC

the greatest value of

= sin(-j n BE, and -=~ \ ^JL-U fV

lie

AH
-

to

) * I

Shew that the area varies as HG, where ordinate equal to of the circle CH, whose centre radius FC.

BE

ABE

GE
is

is

the

and

LEMMA
8.

II.,

III.

31

area

AT,
9.

DT at the extremities,
In the curve APC,
ordinate

A CD

In the curve of the


to the triangle

last

problem shew that the ratio of the whose sides are AD, and the tangents
is 8
:

TT.

in

which the

relation

between any

rectangular

PM

and abscissa

Olf

is

OA

OA

prove that the area contained between the curve, the abscissa OB,

and ordinate BC,

is

OA(BC-AO).

32

NEWTON.

LEMMA
If in two figures AacE, Lemmas II., III.) tivo

IV.

ihere be inscribed (as in series ofparallelograms, the num

PprT

ber in each series being the same,

and

are diminished indefinitely , parallelograms in one figure

the

if, when the breadths ultimate ratios of the

to the

parallelograms in the

other be the same, each to each, then the tivo figures will be to one another in that same ratio. AacE,

PprT

T E P [Since the ratio, whose antecedent is the sum of the antecedents, and whose consequent is the sum of the consequents of any number of given ratios, is inter mediate in magnitude between the greatest and least of the given ratios, it follows that the sum of the parallelograms described in AacE is to the sum in PprT in a ratio intermediate between the greatest and least of the ratios of the corresponding inscribed parallelograms; but the ratios of these parallelograms are ultimately the same, each to each, therefore the sums of all the parallelograms described in AacE, PprT are ultimately in the same ratio, and so the for, figures AacE, PprT are in that same ratio is to former the the former Lemma III., figure by sum and the latter figure to the latter sum in a ratio of equality.] Q. E. D. A
;

COR. Hence, if two quantities of any kind whatever be divided into any, the same, number of parts, and those parts, when their number is increased and magnitude diminished indefinitely, assume the same given ratio each to each, viz. the first to the first.

LEMMA

IV.

33

the second to the second, and so on in order, the whole quantities will be to one another in the same given ratio. For if, in the figures of this Lemma, the parallelograms be taken each to each in the same ratio as the parts, the sums of the parts will be always as the sums of the parallelograms and, therefore, when the number of the parts and parallelograms is increased and their magnitude diminished indefi nitely, the two quantities will be in the ultimate ratio of parallelogram to parallelogram, that is, (by hypothesis) in the ultimate ratio of part to part.
;

Observations on the
22.

Lemma.

proposition contained in the Corollary may be proved independently in the following manner: be two quantities of any kind, which can bo Let A,

The general

divided into the same

number n

of parts, viz.

1?

#2

a 3 ...an

6 t , & 2 , b s --.b n respectively, such that, when their number is increased and their magnitudes diminished indefinitely, they

and

have a constant

ratio

each to each, so that

where a l5 a 2

...
,

vanish

when n

+ a2 +.,.: & t + Then, mediate between the greatest and


1

increased indefinitely. 5 8 +... being a ratio which


is

is

inter

least of these ratios,

each of

which

is

ultimately

1,

we

have, proceeding to the limit,

A:BnLil\
that
is,

and

are in the ultimate ratio of the parts.


"

in the Principia is as follows : For, as the parallelograms are each to each, so, componendo, is the sum of all to the sum of all, and so the figure to the figure III., the former figure is to the former sum PprT, for, by

23.

The proof given

AacE

Lemma

and the

latter figure to the latter

sum
is

in a ratio of

equality."

The proof given

in the text

the demonstration breaks

down

substituted for this, because for any finite distance from the

ultimate form of the hypothesis.

34
Application
(1)
to the

NEWTON.
determination of certain Areas, Volumes,
ellipse.
<&c.

Area of an

Let
axis,

auxiliary circle, parallelograms be in scribed, whose sides are common ordinates to the two curves.
let

ACa be ADa the

the major axis of an ellipse,

BG

the semi-minor

and

Let PMNJRj
grams.

The

be any two corresponding parallelo ratio of these parallelograms is PM: or

QMNU

QM

BC:AC.
a

ft

~JT

jic
: :

Hence, area of ellipse : area of circle of circle = IT A C* therefore area of ellipse


;

BC

AC,

but area

= trA C.BC.
be joined,
:

(2)

Area of a

sector

of an

ellipse,

pole in the focus.

If

&

be a focus of the

ellipse,
:

and SP,
: :

SQ

&SPM ASQM BC A C, and area APM area A QM BC A C, BC AC, hence, area ASP: area ASQ = but area ASQ &SCQ + sector ACQ
:
: : : :

(3)

Area of a parabolic curve


to

cut off by a diameter

and

an ordinate

the diameter.

In the following investigation it Is asserted that when a chord PQ is drawn to a curve from a point P, as Q moves up to P, PQ assumes as its limiting position that of the tangent at P, which is deducible from the idea of a tangent being in the
direction of the curve at the point of contact. Let AB, be the diameter and ordinate

BC

AD the tangent

at

A;

CD

parallel

to

AB;

P,

points near each other;

and AB. PJ/, QN and Pm, Qn parallel respectively to Let QP produced meet BA in T, and complete the parallelo grams TAmS, TAnU.

AD

LEMMA

IV.

35

Then, since QP is ultimately a tangent at P, is ultimately double of ultimately, and the parallelogram

AT=AM

PU

JJ

T
the parallelogram.
P/?,

-A.

M
tlie

.2IT

and

complements

PA

7
",

PU are equal

therefore the parallelograms

PN, Pn

are ultimately in the ratio

two sets of Hence, in the curvilinear areas ABC, are ultimately in the ratio parallelograms can be inscribed which

ACD

2:1, each
area

to each

therefore area

ABC

is

ultimately double of

ACD,

and

is

therefore two-thirds of

ABCD.

Volume of a paraboloid of revolution. the be the axis of the parabola APK, Let Also let PoV, Pn be rectangles in circumscribing rectangle.
(4)

AH

AHKL

scribed in the portions

AHK, AKL.

Volume generated by PN= TrPM\ZIN=ir.PM.PN. Volume generated by Pn = irQN \AM-TrPM\AH


===

IT

AM. QN+ PM] mn = TT QN+ PM] Pn


.

.-.

vol.

by

PN:

but
vol.

QN+ PJ/=

PM.PN: (QN+PM}.Pn r vol by Pn 2PJ/ and PxV=2P?z, as in (3), and therefore


:
:

by PoV=vol. by Pn ultimately; hence, by Cor., the volume of the paraboloid generated by volume of the circumscribing cylinder generated by

Lemma
is

AEK

IV., half the

AHJL.

36
(5)

NEWTON.
Centre of gravity of a paraboloid of revolution.

Since the volumes generated by


equal, the moment of the to the tangent plane at
:

PN

and Pn are ultimately

volume generated by
:

PN with
:

respect

moment

of that generated by
i.e.
:
:

Pn

AM

\Pm

ultimately,

hence the moment of volume generated by is twice that of the volume generated by AKL, and the moment of the
paraboloid

AHK

= J moment

of the cylinder

=|

volume of cylinder x
is

\AH= f

volume of paraboloid x

AH;

hence the distance of the centre of gravity of the paraboloid from


the vertex
(6)

two-thirds of the height of the paraboloid,

Centre,

of gravity and mass of a rod whose density varies

as the distance from an extremity.

Let

AB

be the rod,

MN

a small portion of
ffl

it,

then the

density at If GO

AM.

Construct on

AB

as axis

an isosceles triangle

CAD, whose

base

then PR, parallel to ; and B\ are proportional to the densities at M, QS, is therefore the mass of proportional to a rectangle inter
is

CD, and draw PMR,

QNS

CD

CD

MN

mediate to the rectangles PR,


ultimately in a ratio of equality.

MN

and QS,

MN,

which are

Hence

the mass of

MN

of the rectangle PR, MN, moment of MN, with respect to the line

ultimately proportional to the mass supposed of uniform density, and the


is

proportional to the moment of the same rectangle, since their distance is the same; hence, by the Lemma, the moment of the whole rod

CD,

is

the

moment

of the triangle with respect to


:

CD
;

: :

the mass of the rod

the mass of the triangle

LEMMA

IV.

37

therefore, the distances of the centres of gravity of the rod and being the same, the centre of gravity of the triangle from from B. rod is at a distance

CD

\AB

Also, the mass of the mass of the rod

A CD,
at B,

proportional to the area PEN, is proportional to the area of the triangle and the mass of a rod of uniform density equal to that

MN being
being

and of length

AB,

rectangle
(7)

AB, CD,

is

same proportion therefore double of the mass of the


in the

to the

rod.

Centre of gravity of a circular arc.

Let

be the centre of an uniform circular arc

ABC, OB

the bisecting radius, aBc a tangent at B,

OD

parallel to ac,

and Aa, Cc parallel to OB. Let QR be the side of a regular polygon described about the

the point of contact, Qq, Er perpendicular to ac, and are perpendicular to QR, qr, to OB. Then, since OP,
arc,

PM

OB

qr
but, since

QR::

OM

OP::

OM

OB;

OM,

OB are

and qr from OD, and qr with respect to OD are in a ratio of equality, and the same is true of every side of the circumscribing polygon ; therefore, by Cor., Lemma IV., the moment of the arc, which is
ultimately that of the polygon,
.

QR QR

the distances of the centres of gravity of and QR.OM=qr.OB, the moments of

is

equal to the

moment

of ac

= ac OB = chord A C. radius OB,

38

NEWTON.
Hence, the distance of the centre of gravity of the arc from
radius x chord

arc

(8)

Surface of a segment of a sphere.

be the portion of a circle which generates by the spherical segment, revolution round the centre of the circle, PQ the chord of a small arc, PM, perpendicular

Let

AKH

AH

QN

to

AH.
Let

AOCD

be the rectangle circumscribing the quadrant

and generating the circumscribing cylinder. Produce IfP, NQ, to meet CD in p,

HK

q,

Since

PQ

is limiting position a tangent at P, ultimately to is the radius OP, also pq perpendicular perpendicular to

is

in

its

PQ

MP;

.-.

PQ

:pq

OP

PM ultimately,
is

and the surface generated by


Art. 18,
2ir .

OP.pq = thQ

ultimately surface generated

PQ

NTW

JL

O
when

The same
the
is

is

surface generated by AK, or the surface of the the circumscribed spherical segment, is equal to the surface of cylinder cut off by the plane of the base of the segment.

number Hence the

true for each side of the inscribed polygon indefinitely increased.

Con. Hence, also, the surface of any belt of a sphere cut off by two parallel planes is equal to the corresponding belt of the
cylindrical surface.

LEMMA
(9)

IV.

39

Centre of gravity of a belt of the surface of a sphere con tained between parallel planes.

The moment

of the belt generated

by
;

PQ
is

with respect to the

to AH, plane through A, perpendicular equal to that of the belt generated by pq

evidently ultimately therefore the moment

of any belt generated by

KK
that

is

equal to that of the cor

responding belt generated by k k. Hence, the centres of gravity of the two belts are coincident,
viz. in the bisection of

HIl

is,

the distance of the centre of


is

contained between parallel planes, gravity of a spherical belt, half-way between the two planes.
(10)

Volume of a spherical
about

sector.

Let the spherical sector be generated by the revolution of the


sector

A OP

AO.
the limit of the
(9,

The volume of the spherical sector is equal to sum of a series of pyramids whose vertices are in
is

and the sum

of whose bases ultimately the area of the surface of the seg ment ; also the volume of each pyramid is -J base x altitude.

Hence, the volume of the spherical sector is one-third of the area of the surface of the spherical segment x radius = J 27rAD. Dp.AO = 1>*AM.. A 0* = O 5 versP6L4.
.

^A

(11)

Centre of gravity of a splierical sector.

If

we

suppose each of the pyramids on equal bases, they

may

be supposed collected at their centres of gravity, whose distances are \AO from ultimately, and they form a mass which may be distributed uniformly over the surface of a spherical segment

whose radius
to

is

%AO,

viz. that

generated by
a???,

r,

whose centre
perpendicular

of gravity will be in the bisection of

if

rm be

AH.

Therefore the distance of the centre of gravity of the spherical = \ ( Oa + Om) = %OA. cos^POA. sector from

become a right angle, the distance of the If the angle centre of gravity of the corresponding sector, which in this case will become the hemisphere, will be %OA, as in page 20.
(12)

POA

To find

the direction

and magnitude of

the

resultant
the

attraction of a

uniform rod upon a particle^ every particle of

40
rod being supposed
to

NEWTON.
attract with

a force which varies inversely

as the square of its distance from the attracted particle.

be the attracting rod, Let the particle attracted by the rod; draw OC perpendicular to AB, join OA, OB, and let a circle be described with centre O and radius OC meeting OA, OB in a, b. Let OpP, OqQ be drawn cutting off the small
portions pq,

AB

PQ

from the arc aCb and the rod, respectively,


Q.

and draw

PR

perpendicular to

Then
and
.%

PR PQ pq PR
:
:

OC OP Op OP
:
:

ultimately,
.............
;

pq

:PQ::Op

2
:

OP*

.............

and,

if

aCb be

of the same density as the rod and

attract

according to the
attraction of pq

same law,
on
:

attraction of

PQ

ultimately.

Therefore the portions PQ, pq of the rod and arc attract in the same direction with forces which are ultimately equal.

Hence, by Cor.,
rod
is
is

the

same

IV., the resultant attraction of the as that of the arc a Cb, which, by symmetry,

Lemma

in the direction

OD,

bisecting the angle

A OB.

Again, draw qn perpendicular to OD, pr


similar triangles, pqr,

to

qn

then,

by

qOn,

pq
*

qr

::

Oq
==

On
qr

pq
~0?
that
is,

On
~0q

2
"OC"

the resultant attraction of pq in the direction

OD

is

the

LEMMA
same

IV.

41
0(7; hence the whole re

as that of qr at the distance

sultant attraction of

AB

ia

fi.ab

or

where

* is

the attraction of a unit of mass at the unit distance.

Y.
1. Shew that the area of the sector of an ellipse contained between the curve and two central distances varies as the angle

of the corresponding sector of the auxiliary circle.


2. Prove that the volumes of two pyramids will be equal if they stand on the same base, and have their vertices in the same plane parallel to the base. 3. Find the volume of a paraboloid by comparison with the area of a triangle whose vertex and base are those of the generating parabola. 4.

to the
5.

Find the centre of gravity of the paraboloid by reference same triangle.

Find the mass of a straight rod, whose density varies as the square of the distance from one extremity, by comparison with a cone whose axis is the rod.
6.

Shew

another plane

that the orthogonal projection of any plane area on is the given area x the cosine of the inclination of

the two planes.

As a first step, prove that, pqsr being the projection of the inscribed parallelogram PQSR, cosJLC 1. pqsr 7. Find the volume of a hemisphere by comparing the volumes the generated by quadrantal sector and the portion of the circum which is the difference between the square and the scribing square
:

PQS

quadrantal sector.

42

NEWTON.
VI.

1. Find the volume of a paraboloid generated by the revolution 3 of a semi-cubical parabola, ia which PM" , by means of a cone on the same axia.
<x

AM

belt of a sphere cut off two parallel planes varies as the perpendicular distance between them, find by the aid of Lemma IV. the area of any portion of the curve
2.
"by

Assuming that the area of a

of sines.

PQ be a small arc of an ellipse, and CD be the limit of the sum of all the ratios PQ CP, conjugate CD, taken over the whole perimeter of the ellipse) will be 2-rr.
3.

Prove
to

that, if

any point of a curve OP; OX, any lines drawn at right angles through 0, PM, perpendicular to OX, respec Prove that, if area area m : I always, and tively. the whole system revolve about OX, volumes generated by 0PM, 2. will be as m
4.
is

PN

OF
: :

0PM

OPN

OF

OPN
5.

Prove that the surface generated by the revolution of a round its bounding diameter is to the curved surface generated by the revolution of the same semi-circle round the
semi-circle

tangent at the extremity of the diameter in the ratio of the length of the diameter to the length of the arc of the semi-circle.
are drawn to two ellipses the and outer of which touches axis, the directrices of the inner; shew that the area of the surface generated by the revolution of PQ about the major axis bears a constant ratio to the area MP Q N.
6.

Common

ordinates

which have a common minor

MPP NQQ
,

7. Prove that the area included between an hyperbola and the tangents at the vertices of the conjugate hyperbola is equal to the area included between the conjugate hyperbola and the tangents at the vertices of the hyperbola.

LEMMA

V.

43

LEMMA

V.

All the homologous sides of similar figures are proportional, whether curvilinear or rectilinear, and their areas are in
the duplicate ratio

of the homologous

sides.

[[Similar curvilinear figures are figures whose curved boundaries are curvilinear limits of corresponding portions of similar polygons.

Let jSABCD,.., salcd... be two similar polygons, of which SA, AB, BC, .... are homologous to sa} ab,
Ic,
...

respectively.

<f

Then
Similarly,

AB

ab

SA

sa,

BO: be :: AB CD: cd::BC:

ab
be

::
::

SA: SA
:

say
sa>

therefore,

componendo,
-f
...
:

AB
Now

-f

BC + CD
and

cd

+ ...::SA:

sa.

this, being true for all similar polygons, will be true in the limit, when the number of the sides AB,

increased, and their lengths diminished indefinitely; if, therefore, AE, ae be curves which pass through the angular points A, B, ... and 0, b, ... of the polygons, these curves will be curvilinear limits of be -^ BC-\-... and ab ...^
-Z?6^.. ;
ab, be,
...

is

AB

44

NEWTON.
will

be the boundaries of similar curvilinear figures; therefore the curved line AE the curved line ae

and

8A

sa
.

::
.

SE

se.

Again, polygon

SABC.

polygon
;
:

sale..

: :

SA*

sa* t

and

this is true in the limit

Cor. 2, curvilinear area


;
;

SAE

hence, by Lemma III. curvilinear area sae


;
:

SA*

scf

AE

ae*

SE*

se*.

Q.E.D.]
Observations on the
24.

Lemma.

is

In order to deduce the properties of similar curves, it premised, as before mentioned under Cor. 4, Lemma III.,

that, if a finite portion of a curve be taken, and if a polygon be inscribed in the curve, the sides of which are chords taken

and the number of sides of the polygons be increased indefinitely, and the magnitudes a the same time diminished indefinitely, the curve will be the limit
in order of portions of the curve,

of the perimeter of the polygon .* It is not assumed that each chord


this sponding arc ultimately tinuous curve in Lemma VII.
;

is

equal to the corre afterwards proved for a con


is

Criteria of Similarity.

the definition of similar curve lines, that they are curvilinear limits of homologous portions of similar polygons,
25.

From

the following criteria of similarity can be deduced, are very convenient in practice ; namely
:

all

of which

another when, if any polygon be inscribed in one, a similar polygon can be inscribed in the other.
(1)

One

curve

line

is

similar

to

be taken (2) If two curves be similar, and any point in the plane of one curve, another point s can be found in the plane of the other, such that, any radii SP, being drawn in

SQ

the

first, radii sp, sq

can be drawn in the second, inclined at


s

* Wliewell

Doctrine of Limits,

LEMMA
the

V.

45

same angle

as

the former,

and such that the following

proportion will hold,


sp
(3)
:

sq

SP

SQ.

two curves be similar, and in the plane of one curve any two lines OX, O Y be drawn, two other lines ox, oy can be drawn in the plane of the other curve, inclined at the same angle, having the property that the abscissa and ordinate
If
in the first being taken, the abscissa of any point and ordinate om, mp of a corresponding point p in the second will be proportional to the former, viz.,

OM, AfP

om

mp

: :

OM

MP.
i

the converse propositions can also be deduced, that these proportions hold, the curves will be similar.
26.

And

In order to

illustrate

test

(1),

let

the arcs

AB,

ab of

two

circles

have the same centre 0, and


in direction.

let

the bounding radii

be coincident

Let

A DEB

be any polygon inscribed in


;

AB, and
:

let

CD,

CE
DE,
adeb

cut ab in d, e

join ad, de, eb,


: :

these are parallel to

EB
is

respectively, similar to

and ad de eb :: ADEB; and therefore the arcs

AD DE

AD,
are

EB;
ab,

hence

AB

similar.

27.

Test

(2)

may

be deduced as follows: be corresponding portions ab, be, ... being homologous

If

ABCD...,

abed..., fig. p. 43,

of similar polygons,

AB, EC,
...

...

be drawn to any point S, construct the sides, triangle sab equiangular with SAB, and join sc, sd, ....

and AS, US,

Then

sb

SB ::

ab

AB

be

BO, and L

46
therefore

NEWTON.

SBC,
sc
:

sbc are similar triangles


: :

hence

SC

sb

SB ::

sa

SA

and similarly Hence,


if

for

set,

se,

<tc.

two polygons be

similar,

and any point be taken

can be found in the other, such that the radii drawn to corresponding angular points will be propor tional and include the same angles.
in one, another point

If

we now

increase

diminish their

number of sides indefinitely and magnitude, the same property will hold with
the
test (1) in a similar

respect to the curvilinear limit of the polygon.

Test

(3)

can be deduced from

manner.

Centres of Similitude.
so situated that a point can be found, such that the radii drawn from that point, either in the same or opposite directions, are in a constant such
ratio,

28.

When

two similar curves are

a point

direction, the point will be a centre of direct similitude, and of inverse similitude if they be measured in opposite directions.
It
is

called a centre of similitude. If the radii be measured in the same


is

easily

shewn that there can be only one centre of

similitude of one kind.

Properties

of similar curves and application of


Similarity.

tests

of

Similar conterminous arcs, which have their chords coincidentj have a common tangent.
(1)

.A

JB

&

Let

APB,

Ap~b be similar conterminous arcs,

ABb

the line

of their chords, AQq, curves in Q^ q and P,

APp any straight lines meeting the p respectively then A will evidently
;

be a centre of direct similitude for the two curves; therefore A Q A% AP Ap hence AP, Ap are similar portions of
:
: :

LEMMA

V.

47
:

the curves, and arcAP : arcAp :: : Ab there Ap :: fore the arcs AP, Ap vanish simultaneously, or, when assumes its limiting position for the curve APB, this is

AP

AB

AP
is,

AD

the limiting position of Ap for the curve Apb, that the curves have a common tangent.
also
(2)

To find

the centres

of direct and inverse similitude of any

two

circles.

If one of the circles do not


let

lie

entirely

be

the

intersection
intersect
in

of

two common

within the other, tangents to the

circles

the produced line Cc joining their centres, and let CQ, cq be radii to the points of contact. Draw SpP through S cutting the circles in p, 1 then cq

which

is parallel

to

CQ, and
.

CP

cp

CQ

:cq::

CS

cS~,

CS: CP::cS:cp;

also

CPSj cpS

and

CSP

is

are each greater or each less than a right angle, common to the triagles CPS7 cpS 7 therefore the

triangles

angle

therefore

CSP S is

are similar, Euclid VI. 7, and are proportional, that is,

the

sides
:

about the
.

SP

Sp

SC

Sc

the centre of direct similitude.

Similarly, the intersection of two common tangents which cross between two circles is the centre of inverse similitude.
(3)

To find

the condition

of similarity of two conic

sections.

Let the conic sections be placed so that their

directrices

48

NEWTON.
let

are parallel and foci coincident, and through the focus meeting them in perpendicular to the directrix

SpP

be

any

line

/>,

PQ

DQ

P; draw SaAD and of AP, and join SQ,


and draw qd per

and

let

pq, parallel to

P$, meet
:
:

it

in q 7

pendicular to SD.

Then Sd

be similar, Sp is a constant

*,

SD i: Sq SQ Sp SP; and, if the curves SP will be a constant ratio therefore Sd SD


:
:

ratio,

and dq

is

fixed

straight

line

for

all

: since pq : Sp : : P, pq ; Sp is a positions of p ; also, constant ratio ; therefore qd is the directrix of ap, and, the constant ratio being the same in both, the eccentricities are

PQ

the same.

Instruments, like the Pantograph and the Eidograph^ for copying plans on an enlarged or reduced scale are founded upon
(4)

the properties of similar figures ; as are also other methods of copying, such as by dividing plans or pictures into squares. The Pantagraph is an instrument for drawing a figure
similar to a given figure on a smaller or larger scale ; one of and AE, DO, its forms is as in the figure. AD, EF,

GO
at

FG
by

are

two

sets

of parallel

bars,

joined

all

the

angles

is a point, which serves to fix the compass-joints ; at is a instrument to the drawing board at point which is made to pass round the figure to be reduced or enlarged ; at
;

a hole for a pencil pressed down by a weight, and the pencil traces the similar figure, altered in dimensions in the
is

ratio of

BO: AB

or

EF AD.
:

The

similarity of the figure traced

by the pencil

is

a con

sequence of continual similarity of the triangles

ABD, BFC.

LEMMA

V.
at

49

By

changing the positions of the pegs

F and G the figure

described

of the required dimensions. For a description of the Eidograph, invented by Professor Wallace, see the Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh^

by

C may

be

made

vol. XIII.

(5)

Volume of a cone whose base

is

a plane closed figure of

any form. the base, VII perpendicular to the Let V be the vertex, base from V, let VH be divided into n equal portions, of

AB

2
which

MN
PQ

is

the (r

-f l)

th
;

and

let

PQ be

the section through

parallel to

AB.

Take
section

VPA

any generating

and the base

AB

of the cone meeting the in PA respectively, then


line

PM-.AH-. VM:
therefore

VH-,

PQ

is

similar to

AB, M,
:

H
: :

being similarly situated


r
:

points

and, by

Lemma
area

V.,
2
:

PQ area AB also MNi VH\:


AB. VH,

a
,

w;
is

therefore the volume of the cylinder

whose base

PQ
is

and

height

MN = r

-3

x area

and the volume of the cone,

by

Lemma

II., is

one-third of the cylinder whose base

AB

and height VH.


VII.
1.

circles

Apply a criterion of similarity to shew that segments of which contain equal angles are similar.

2. From the definition of an ellipse, as the locus of a point the sum of whose distances from two fixed points is constant, shew that ellipses are similar when the eccentricities are equal.

50
3.

NEWTON.
Prove
tliat the centre of an ellipse is a centre of inverse two opposite equal portions of the circumference of

similitude of

the ellipse.
4. Employ the properties of similar figures to inscribe a square in a given semicircle.
5. Construct, by means of similar figures, two circles, each of which shall touch two given straight lines and pass through a

given point.
6.

sector

Deduce the position of the centre of gravity of a circular from that of a circular arc; shew that the distance from
2
is

the centre

radius x chord
.

arc

be the vertex of a conical surface, G the centre of that of the volume of the conical figure* the of base, gravity = IAG. shew that
7.

If

AH

Find the centre of gravity of the surface of a right cone on a circular base. Does the method apply to the surface of an oblique cone?
8.

LEMMA

VI.

51

LEMMA
If any
arc

VI.

given in position be subtended ly a chord AB, and if at any point A, in the middle of continuous produced curvature, it be touched by the straight line in both directions, then, if the points A, approach one

A CB

another and ultimately coincide,


ultimately vanish.

AD B the angle BAD contained

by the chord and tangent will diminish indefinitely and

For, if that angle do not vanish, the arc ACB will an angle equal to a contain with the tangent

AD

rectilineal angle, and therefore the curvature at the will not be continuous, which is contrary to point

the hypothesis, that tinuous curvature.

was in the middle of con

Definitions of a

Tangent

to

a Curve.

29.

(1)

and

if

If a straight line meet a curve in two points A, B^ move up to A, and ultimately coincide with A,

AB

in its limiting position, will

be a tangent to the curve at

the point A. If two portions of a curve

and cut one another at a finite angle in A, there will be two tangents AD, , which will be the limiting positions of straight lines AB and move up to A along the different portions AE, when B and

EA

AB

AD

BA

of the curve respectively. And, similarly, if there in which several branches of the cnrve be a multiple point in

and

EA

cut one another at finite angles.


(2)

The tangent

is

of which the curve

is

the direction of the side of the polygon, the curvilinear limit, when the number

of sides are increased indefinitely.

52
This
tion
(1).
is

NEWTON,
founded on the same idea of a tangent as
to a curve at
defini

(3)

The tangent

any point

is

the direction of

the curve at that point. In order to apply geometrical reasoning to the tangent by employing this definition, we are obliged to explain the notion of

the direction of a curve, by taking two points very near to one another, and asserting that the direction of the curve is the
limiting position of the line joining these points when the distance becomes indefinitely small, a statement which reduces this definition to the preceding,

Observations on the
30.
"

Lemma.
consider

Gurvatura

Continua,"

if

we

curves as the

curvilinear limits of polygons, requires the curves to be limits of polygons whose angles continually increase as the number of

the sides increase, and may be made to differ from two right angles by less than any assignable angle before the assumption of the ultimate form of the hypothesis.

however, as we increase the number of sides and diminish their magnitude, one of the angles remains less than two right
If,

angles by any
limit
is

finite difference,

the curvature of the curvilinear

discontinuous, and the form is that of a pointed arch, in which the two portions cut one another at a finite angle.

A
w
per

curve

may

between two
Thus,
if

be of continued curvature for one portion points, while for another its curvature changes

saltum."

ABC

be a curve forming at

a pointed arch,

it

may be

of continued curvature from

to

and from

to

B,
all

though not from C to A. In this case the tangents in passing from

to

assume

LEMMA
positions

VI.

53
,

pass

intermediate to CT, Bt, and Bt TA, but at they from Bt to Bt without assuming the intermediate positions.
"

31.

la medio curvaturae

continue,"

A
of

in the enunciation of the

Lemma
side, the

is

implies that the point not such a point as

in the last figure, but that, in passing

from a point on one side


tangents pass through
all

to another

on the other

the intermediate positions. The curvature is supposed to be in the same direction in the figure of the Lemma, which in all curves of continuous be taken sufficiently near to at curvature is possible, if the commencement of the change in the construction.

medio curvaturse continuae," two may be drawn at A to the two parts of the tangents AD, curve, and the curve BCA will make a finite angle with one of
If the point

be not

"

in

AD
.

the tangents

AD

But, even in this case, the angle

between the chord and


con

that tangent which belongs to the portion of the curve sidered continually diminishes and ultimately vanishes.

The Subtangent.

DEF. The part of the line of abscissae intercepted be tween the tangent at any point and the foot of the ordinate
32.

of that point
33.

is

called the subtangent.

The subtangent may be employed

as follows, to find a

tangent at any point of a curve. be the abscissa and ordinate of a point Let 9

OM HP

in

TO
a curve, and and ordinate.
let

ja:

be a point near P,

OJV,

NQ

its

abscissa

54
Let

NEWTON.

QPV meet OX
Q

the line of -abscissae in

parallel to

OM meet QN in R,
:

U]

then, if

PR

PMi MU:: QR PR
Now
as

::

QN-PM ON:

OM.

approaches to P, the limiting position of

that of the tangent at P, viz. tPT, and ratio of OM.

PM M T
:

QPUis

is

the limiting

QN-PM: ON-

The Polar Subtangent and the Inclination of the Tangent the Radius Vector^ at any Point of a Spiral.
34.

to

DEF. Let S be the


let

pole,

PT the

tangent to the curve at

any point P, and


then

S T is

perpendicular to $P, meet called the polar subtangent at the point P.


the

S T,

PT in

T\

35.

To find
to

inclination of the tangent at

any point of

a curve

the

radius vector.
>SP,

Let Q be a point near P, QM perpendicular to pro duced if necessary, QR the circular arc, centre $, meeting

BP

in

E.

Let (JPmeet

BT m

U, then

SU: SP:: QM-.PM,


and

ME QM QM 8M+ BE,
:

::

but,

when Q approaches

indefinitely near to P,
;

compared with 8M+ SR therefore with QM or PJf; therefore SUiSP::


therefore

MR vanishes compared QM PR, ultimately;


:

QM
:

vanishes

ST SP QR: SQ^ SP.


:

is

the

limiting

ratio

of

QR PR

or

LEMMA
Hence ST, and

VI.

55

SP T

tangent of the angle between the tangent and the radius vector can be found.
also the trigonometrical
Illustrations.

SY be the perpendicular on the tangent PY at P in Y will trace out a curve, called the pedal of the original a curve, curve; to shew that if YZ be a tangent to the locus of Y, SZ SY = SP. SZ. perpendicular to Let P be a point near P, SY perpendicular on P P, SZ perpendicular on Y Y. Since angles SYP, SY P are right angles, a semicircle on SP will pass through Y, F therefore the angles SF F, SPY the right angles SZY in the same segment will be equal SYP also are equal; therefore the triangles SPY, SY Z are similar, and SZ SY :: SY SP but, ultimately, as P moves
(1)

If

it,

up

to P,

FPT
To find

becomes the tangent

at P,

and

Y YZ

that at

to its locus, also

SY = SY;
sz.sp=sr*.
the.

Y^

(2)

subtangent in the semi-cubical parabola.

In the semi-cubical parabola ON* - PJIT PJr .-.


:
/

PM*
:

cc
3

OM*
3

;
:

.-.

OX - OM OM*. but QN+PM=2PM, and ON + ON. OM+ OM* = 3 OM\ ultimately; QJV- PMi |PJ/r: ON- OM %OM ultimately,^ and QN-PM: PJT:: ON- OM1MT;
:

04

li

therefore

HT

is

two-thirds of

OM.

56
(3)

NEWTON.
To find
to
the,

inclination

of

the

tangent at any point of

a cardioid

the

radius vector.

DEF. If Bqp C be a circle, whose centre is S and diameter BC, and pm be drawn perpendicular to BG\ then, if Sp be produced to P, making SP=Bm^ P will trace out a cardioid

APS.

JL

Making
Let
to

the same construction as before, in Art. 35 r

8T: SP:: QR

SP- SQ
in
,

ultimately.

SQ

meet the
then
also
..

circle

and draw qn perpendicular


ultimately,
,

BC,

QR pq
:

pq

SP Sp mn :: Sp pm
::
\

QR mn
: :

SP: pm
:

.-.

but mn = Bm-Bn=SP- SQ] QR SP- SQ SP pm ultimately 8T: SP-.iBmipm; hence LPTS= LpBm = \LPSA;
:
:

.-.

and

it

follows that the cardioid cuts the

axis

SCA

at right

at $, and that angles, that it touches at an angle equal to half a right angle.

SB

it

cuts the circle

BDO

LEMMA

vir.

If any

and at

arc, given in position , be subtended ly the chord AB, the point A, in the middle of continuous

approac/ies ultimately coincides with it, the ulimate ratio of the arc, the chord, and the tangent to one another, is a ratio of equality t
to

a tangent

AD le drawn, and the subtense BD,


A
and

curvature,
then,

when

For whilst the point

AB, AD be supposed always to be produced to points

approaches to the point A,

let

b and d at a finite distance, and Id be drawn parallel to the subtense BD, and let the arc Acb be always similar to the arc A CB, and have, therefore, for its tangent at A.
T)

ADd

But, when the points B, A coincide, the angle I Ad, by the preceding Lemma, will vanish, and therefore the straight lines Ah, Ad, w hich are always finite, and the arc Acb, which lies between them [and is of con tinuous curvature in one direction, if the change is near enough to A~\, will coin commence when cide ultimately, and therefore will be equal.
r

Hence, also, the straight lines AB, AD and the inter mediate arc A CB, which are always proportional to them, will vanish together, and have an ultimate ratio of equality to one another.
be drawn through COR. 1. Hence if parallel to the tangent, always cutting any straight line will have ulti passing through A in F, then A a ratio of equality, arc OB mately to the vanishing

BF

AF

BF

NEVfTON.

be completed, it since, if the parallelogram always have a ratio of equality to AD,


3*

A FDD

COR.

2.

And

if

through

B
;

and

be drawn

cutting the tangent and BF, parallel to it the ultimate ratios of all the abscissae AD, AE, BF, and of the chord and to one another will be ratios of equality, arc

AD

straight lines

BE, BD, AF,

AG

many

BG

AB

COR.

3.

ment

therefore, all these lines in every argu concerning ultimate ratios may be used indif

And,

ferently one for the other*


Observations on the
36.

Lemma.

DEF. The subtmse of the angle of contact of an arc is a straight line drawn from one extremity of the arc to meet, at
a
finite

angle, the tangent to the arc at the other extremity. This subtense is the secant which defines the limited line

called, in the

Lemma,
is

"

the tangent.

The chord

called

by Newton the subtense of the

arc, see

Lemma
37.

XI.
In
the construction for this
i.e.

subtense,
finite

must be a inclined throughout the change of position at a

Lemma,

BD

angle to the tangent, for, otherwise, the

angles

BAD

LEMMA VH.
and

50

being then both small, the ultimate ratio of the chord to the tangent might be any finite ratio instead of

ADB

being one of equality. This is the only limitation of the motion of

BD

the figure

representing changes which may take place in the approach towards the ultimate state of the hypothesis. Here b % d are the. distant points, that is, points at a finite are consecutive positions distance from A; BD, ^

BD

B"D"

of the subtense, when approaches towards A, and db, db are parallel to these, Acb , Ac are the forms of Acb changed so as to be always similar to the corresponding portion of
db"

b"

ACB

cut off by the chord. It should be remarked that the

curve Acb

is

not inter

mediate in magnitude to the two lines Ab, Ad, but only in make position / for example, Ab may be equal to Ad, if equal angles with the two lines, and the curve line will then

BD

be greater than either


less

bent, until

it

is

becomes in all cases ultimately rectilinear; hence the three


or

Ab

Ad\

but

it

Acb, Ab,

be ultimately equal, the only alternative being that the curve may become doubled up, as in the figure,
will

Ad

which
is

precluded by the supposition that the curvature near continued in the same direction throughout the passage from
is

to

A.

The subtense ultimately vanishes, compared with the arc. For BD :: bd Acb, and, since bd vanishes and Acb remains finite in the limit, the ratio BD ACB ultimately
38.
:

ACB

vanishes.

It will

be afterwards seen that in curves of

finite

varies as the square of ultimately. ultimate equality of the lines AD, with the chord or arc, whatever be the direction of the subtense, is due to the vanishing of BD, and therefore of with respect to AD.

curvature

BD

The

ACB AE

DE

39.
sect

If two curves of continuous curvature ivhich do not interhave a common chord, the length of the exterior curve will be

60

NEWTON-

greater than that of the interior, provided that the curvature of the interior be always in the same direction.

Let AcdeB, A CDEFB any two polygons, having a common side ABj be such that the first lies entirely within the second

A
is less

It

and that neither has internal angles, the perimeter of the


than that of the second.

first

For, produce Ac, cd, de to meet the perimeter of the exterior C + Cc Ac ; .-. CDEFB Ac in c , d j e ; then ;

>

A
>

>

DEFB

similarly
,-.

Ac DEFB
same

>

Acd EFB, and on


AcdeB.

on;

a fortiori,
is

A CDEFB

And,
of sides

since the
is

true in the limit, when the number increased indefinitely, the curvilinear limits of the
is

polygons have the same property and the proposition

proved.

LEMMA

VIII.

Gl

LEMMA
If
ftvo

VIII.
maize with the arc

straight lines Alt,

BR

ACB,

the

chord

RACB, RAB
of equality.

AB, and

the

tangent

AD,

the

three

and RAD, and

the points

A,

triangles

approach

one another ; then the ultimate form of the vanishing triangles is one of similitude, and the ultimate ratio one
is approaching the point A, let For, whilst the point be always produced to points b, d, r at AB, AD, a finite distance, and rbd be always drawn parallel to RD, and let the arc Acb be always similar to the arc and therefore have Dd for the tangent at A. ,

AR

Then, when the points B, A coincide, the angle b Ad will vanish, and therefore the three triangles rAb, rAcb, rAd will coincide, and will therefore in that case be similar and equal. Hence also RAB, RA CB, RAD, which are always similar and proportional to these, will be ultimately similar and equal to one another.
COR.
hence, in every argument concerning ulti mate ratios, these triangles can be used indifferently for one another.
Observations on the

And

Lemma.

40.
finite

If

RB throughout
RA,

angle with

the change in the hypothesis make a the three triangles rAb, rAcb, rAd will

62
remain always
finite,

NEWTON.
and
will

be ultimately identical and equal.


if
...

But, if the angle ARB be ultimately not finite, for example, RB revolve round a fixed point R, the three triangles rAb,
will

become

infinite, since r will

move

to r

and so on

to

an

infinite distance,

and there

will

be the same kind of objection

2*,

dealing with these infinite triangles, as to reasoning im-= in mediately upon the relation of the triangles RAB,
to

RAD

the former case,

In

this case

we can

at

once deduce the equality of the

tri-<

to a point angles without producing For, the ratio of the difference of

AD
and

at a finite distance.

RAD
and

and
also

BD
this

RB, which
case
;

vanishes ultimately,

since

RAB to RAB ia RB finite in


is

hence
is

RAB

RAD

the

curvilinear

triangle,

intermediate in magnitude to them, will be ultimately in a ratio of equality.

which

LEMMA

IX.

G3

LEMMA
If a

IX.

and curve ABC, given in position, cut straight line in a bs one another finite angle A, and ordinates BD, drawn, inclined at another finite angle to that straight

AE

CE

and meeting the curve B, C move up together lo


line,

in

B,

C;

the

curvilinear triangles

ABD, ACE will be ultimately to one


C

point

then, if the pointe A, the areas of the

another in the duplicate ratio of the sides.

For, as the points B,

are approaching the point A, be always produced to the points d, e at let AD, a finite distance, such that Ad Ae AE] and

AE

AD

let the ordinates db,

ec

EC meeting

the chords
:

be drawn parallel to AB, A C produced in I,


: : :
:

DB,
c.
:

Then

Ac be supposed to be drawn always similar to ABC, while B and C move up to A. Let the straight line Ag be drawn touching both curves at A, and cutting the ordinates DB, EC, db, ec in
: :

[since Ab and therefore

AB

Ad
:

Ab

AD Ae AE Ac AC, AB AC~] a curve Abe can


: : :

F, G, f, g. [Now areas ABD, Aid, by Lemma V., are always in the duplicate ratio of AD, Ad, and areas ACE, Ace in the Ae ; Ad duplicate ratio of AE, Ae, and

AD
:

AE

If,

ABD Aid ACE Ace, and ABD ACE AM then, the points B and C move up to A and ultimately
therefore
:

Ace."]

coincide with

it,

the angle

cAg will ultimately

vanish,

64

NEWTON.

will coincide with the rectilinear triangles Afd, Age, and therefore will be ultimately in the duplicate ratio Ad, Ae. But ABD, are proportional to Aid, Ace always, are also, AD, proportional to Ad, Ae therefore also areas ABD, are ultimately in the duplicate ratio of AD, AE.

and the curvilinear areas Abd, Ace

ACE AE

ACE

Observations on the

Lemma.

a finite angle is to be understood an angle less than two right angles, and neither indefinitely small nor indefinitely
41.

By

near to two right angles.

and the curve and between Al) angles between are different finite angles, because otherwise produced and

The

AD

BD

BD

would not meet the curve.


If the angle

42.
figure

DAF be

may assume a form in which AD will lie below ABC; in this case DB, EC, ... must be produced to meet the tangent, and the argument may proceed in the same manner as before.
not necessary that d and e be fixed, but only that they remain at a finite distance from A, and that the proportion bb retained and the first part of this observation applies to
43.
It
is
;

greater than a right angle, the

in the

previous

Lemmas.

The student, by reference to Arts. 37 and 40, will be able to exhibit the change in the figure which will correspond to a and C in the progress towards the change of the position of

ultimate position.
the angle vanishes, the curvilinear areas Abd, Ace coincide with the rectilinear triangles Afd, Age, and : Ae. But if the angle so are in the duplicate ratio of

44.

When

CAG

Ad

those triangles will not themselves be finite, and the object aimed at by producing to a finite distance will not be attained.

DAF

be not

finite,

The

fact

4df and

that the triangle Adb is made up of the triangle the curvilinear triangle Afb, of which the latter is
is,

indefinitely small ultimately,

and the former

is

finite

therefore,

LEMMA
in the

IX.

65

Lemma, Afb
it*

not be so

AFB,
it

AGO

vanishes compared with AJf" but this will Adf be indefinitely small, the ratio of the triangles must, therefore, be found by another process, and

by referring to Lemma XL, that the ratio will that of the cubes of the arcs if the curvature of be ultimately be finite. the curve at
will be found,

YIIL
1. RQq is a common subtense to two curves PQ, Pq, which When RQq approaches to P, have a common tangent PR at P. RQ and Rq ultimately vanish ; will the ratio RQ, Rq be ulti mately a ratio of equality ?
:

2.

If

PY,

in Y,

and

ST

a tangent to an ellipse at P, meet the auxiliary circle be perpendicular to the tangent at Y, ST will vary

inversely as
3.

HP.

finite

DB BC

BD be drawn to meet the tangent at A at which remains constant as B moves up to A, and angle a, meet the normal at A in C, shew that the ultimate ratio of to AB will be sec a.
If a subtense

4. In the curve in which the abscissa varies as the cube of the ordinate, shew that the subtangent is three times the abscissa. 5. Prove that the extremity of the polar subtangent from the focus of a conic section is always in a fixed straight line. 6.

AB

is

a diameter of a circle,
at

and the tangent


1.

meets

mately the difference of

BA,

BA produced in BP will be equal

a point contiguous to T prove that ulti to one-half of TA.


7
;

A>

In any curve, if Q be the intersection of perpendiculars to radii vectores through their extremities, and consecutive two be the perpendicular from the pole S on the tangent at P, prove that ultimately SP- = SY.SQ.
are parallel chords of an ellipse whose centre is C; shew that, if p move up to -P, the areas CPp, CQq will be ultimately equal.
8.

SY

PQ, pq

9.

From a

point in the circumference of a vertical circle a chord


;

and tangent are drawn, the one terminating at the lowest point, and the other in the vertical diameter produced compare the velocities acquired by a heavy body in falling down the chord and tangent when they are indefinitely diminished.

moves so that the product of its distances from two constant shew that the normal to its path divides the angle between the two radii into two whose sines are pro portional to the radii.
10.

A point
is

fixed points

66

NEWTON.
IX.
1.

On
;

the radii veetores of a curve as diameters circles are


find their envelope.

described

2. If the intercept between two curves of their radius vector OPQ be constant, and the normals at intersect in JV, will be at right angles to OPQ.

PQ

common
and

ON

right angle slides on any oval curve, so that the sides containing the right angle always touch the curve; shew that the angle one tangent makes with the tangent to the locus of the vertex is equal to that which the other tangent makes with the chord of contact. Hence shew that, if the oval be an ellipse, the locus of the vertex will be a circle concentric with the ellipse.
3.

point moves so that the rectangle, whose sides are equal distances of the point from a given point and a given straight line, is equal to the square described on the perpendicular from the given point on the given line. Find the position of the point at which the tangent to the curve passes through the fixed point.
4.

to the

Two points A, B describe two curves according to any and continuous law. If A B be the consecutive positions of A, B, and ABC, A B C bo similar triangles, then the corre sponding sides of the two triangles will ultimately intersect in the
5.

finite

points Pj Q,
6.

p n

T>

It)

u *u * such that

AA .BC = BB .CA
QjT~
ft

CC .AB

is perpendicular to a fixed that the locus of the centre of the circle cir prove cumscribing the triangle formed by the tangent, the radius vector, and the polar subtangent, will be a straight line.

If

SP

= AB.PM, where

PM

straight line,

7.

In the figure on page 30

let

FB

be taken equal

to
;

the corresponding ordinate to the curve be that the subtangent at varies inversely as that at
let

and

BE

AB,

prove

8. In the hyperbolic spiral, in which the radius vector varies inversely as the spiral angle, prove that the subtangent is constant.

9. In the spiral of Archimedes, in varies directly as the angle, prove that of which a radius is the radius vector subtangent will be equal to the arc of

which the radius vector if a circle be described,


of the s^ir.d, the polar the circle subtended by

the spiral angle.

LEMMA

X.

67

LE^DIA X,
The spaces
action of
tvhich

a bod/ describes \_from resf] under the


ivhethcr that force be constant

any

finite force,

or else continually increase or continually diminish, are in the very beginning of the motion in the duplicate ratio

of the times.

[Let the times be represented by lines measured from A, along AK, and the velocities generated at the end of those times by lines drawn perpendicular to AK. to be divided Suppose the time represented by

AK

into a

number

of equal intervals, represented

by AB,

A.

2>

Bb, Cc, Dd, ...Kk represent the ve locities generated in the times AB, AC, ...^irrespec which always tively, and let Abed be the curve line passes through the extremities of these ordinates. Complete the parallelograms Ab, Be, Cd, In the interval of time denoted CD, the velocity con

BO, CD,

...,

let

by

to that tinually changes from that represented by Cc represented by Dl, and therefore CD being taken small enough, the spice described in that time is

intermediate between the spaces represented by the parallelograms DC and Cd\ therefore the spaces are represented by described in the times AD, areas which are intermediate between the sums of the parallelograms inscribed in, and circumscribed about, the curvilinear areas ADd AKk respectively.

AK

68

NEWTON.

Therefore, by Lemma II., the number of intervals being increased, and their magnitudes diminished indefi nitely, the spaces described in the times AD, are proportional to the curvilinear areas ADd, AK/c. Now the force being finite, the ratio of the velocity to the time is finite therefore Kk is a finite ratio, however small the time is taken; hence, if be the tangent to the curve line at A, meeting Kk in T, will be a finite ratio therefore the angle will be finite, or will meet the curve at a
:

AK

AK

AT

KT AK TAK
:

AK
if
:

finite angle.

Hence, by

Lemma

area ADd area AKk :: AK*; therefore, in the beginning of the motion, the spaces described are proportional to the squares of the times of describing them. Q. E. D.]

IX.,

AD,

AK

be indefinitely

diminished,

AD

COR. 1. And hence it is easily deduced that the errors of bodies describing similar parts of similar figures in proportional times, which are generated by any equal forces acting similarly upon the bodies, and which are measured by the distances of the bodies from those points of the similar figures, to which the same bodies would have arrived in the same propor tional times without the action of the disturbing forces, are approximately as the squares of the times in which they are generated,

COR.

2,

But the

errors

which are generated by pro

portional forces, acting similarly at similar portions of similar figures, are approximately as the forces and the square of the times conjointly.

COR

to be understood of the spaces which bodies describe under the action of different These are, in the beginning of the motion, forces. conjointly, as the forces and the squares of the times.
3.
is

The same

COR. 4. Consequently, in the beginning of the motion the forces are as the spaces described directly, and the squares of the times inversely.

LEMMA

X.

69

COR. 5. And the squares of the times are as the spaces described directly and the forces inversely.

The

proof given in the original Latin

is

as follows:

Exponantur tempora per lineas AD, AE,

et veloci-

tates genitffi per ordinatas DB, EC] et spatia, his his velocitatibus descripta, erunt ut areae ABD, initio motus hoc ordinatis descriptoe, est, ipso (per Lemma IX.) in duplicata ratione temporum AD, AE.

ACE

Q.E.D.
45.

This proof has been amplified


areas,

in

order to exhibit in
ordi-

what manner the description of by the ordiuates


of the ninth
;

by the flux of the

nates, corresponds to that of spaces

by the velocities represented also to shew the propriety of the application


by reference
to the definition of finite force

Lemma

which

may

be stated as follows:

A force

is finite

ichen the ratio


it

of

the velocity

generated,

is finite,

generated in any time to the time in which however small the time be taken.

is

Observations on the
46.

Lemma.
time
is

represented by the length of a straight line, and a distance traversed by a body is represented by an area.
this

In the proof of

Lemma,

If the length of a straight line be always proportional to the period of time elapsed, the straight line will be a proper repre Thus a length of n inches has the same sentation of the time.
ratio to

one inch which an interval of n seconds has to one

second

and on

this scale the

length n inches

is

a proper repre

sentation of n seconds.

If an area be always in the same ratio to the unit of area that the length of a straight line is to the unit of length, the area
will be a proper representation of the length of the straight line.
if

Thus,
t

Ab

be one

foot,

AB,

feet,

Ac

one inch, and

AC^
Z>c,

inches:

then
If

ABCD
now

complete the parallelograms ABDC, Abdc, and will contain nt such areas as Abdc.
a particle

move with
t

a second, and

A C represent

a uniform velocity of n feet seconds, on the scale of one inch to

70

NEWTON.

a second, the parallelogram Be will represent the space travelled over in the first second, since it contains n times the parallelo-

gram Abdc, and


in
t

ABDG

will represent the space travelled over

seconds.
will

be no difficulty in the representation of a period of time by a line, or of a distance by an area, if the student bear in mind that periods of time and lengths of lines, although

There

by their ratios to certain standard periods, and standard lengths, and they are therefore determined whenever these ratios are given, either directly in numbers or by the comparison of any magnitudes whatever of the same kind.
COR. 1,2. If bodies describe orbits under the action of certain forces, and small forces, extraneous to those under the action of which the orbits are described, be supposed to act upon the bodies, the orbits will be disturbed slightly, and the errors47.

existing absolutely, are only estimated

spoken of are the linear disturbances of the bodies, at any time, from the positions which they would have occupied at that time, if the extraneous forces had not acted.
Thus, in calculating the motion of the Moon considered as moving under the attraction of the Sun and Earth, it is conve
nient to estimate the motion which she would have, if subjected to the attraction of the Earth alone, and then to calculate what

would be the disturbing


48.
If

effect of the

Sun upon

this orbit.

AB be a portion of an orbit described by a body in any time, AC the portion of the orbit described when a disturb the space which quam ing force introduced, BC
"

is

is

proxime"

would have been described

in the

same time from

rest
is

bv the w
taken

action of the disturbing force alone.

When

the time

small, but not indefinitely small, the expression in the statement

LEMMA

X.

71

of the corollaries, "approximately," is necessary for two reasons; for, in the first place, the position of the body in space is not the same at the end of any interval in the lapse of the time as if the body had moved from rest under the action of the disturbing force alone, and therefore the magnitude of the force not generally the same either in direction or magnitude ; and, in the second place, since the force is not generally uniform, the
is

variation according to the duplicate ratio of the times exact, except in the limit.

is

not

the times are taken very small, the variation of direction and magnitude of the force may be neglected, as an

But,

when

approximation to the true state of the case.


49.

Application of the method of

Lemma
l>y

to

determine

the space described in

the action

a Jinite time from rest a particle, under a constant force. of Let f be the measure of the acceleration caused by the

constant force, so that at the time t the velocity V=ft. Since the velocity varies as the time, the curve Ak in the figure of the Lemma is a straight line, dD : being constant.

AD

Therefore the space which


presented by

is

described in the time

?,

re

AK, is represented by the AKk or \Kk.AK. The space described is therefore %Vt = ft\
50.

area of the triangle


in time
t

from rest

General geometrical representation of the space described by a body when it moves with a variable velocity for a Jinite
time.

PROP. If a curve be found, such that the ordinate

at each

point represents the velocity corresponding to a time represented by the abscissa, then the space described by the body will be

represented by the area bounded by the curve, the line of abscissa?, and the ordinates corresponding to the commencement

and end of the time of motion. Let OAj OB represent the times at the commencement and end of the interval during which the motion of the body is to be examined. Let be any other time, and let AC, MP, BD

OM

perpendicular to

OAB,

represent the velocities at the ends of

72

NEWTON.

the times represented by OA, OM, OB- CPD the curve which passes through the extremities of all such ordinates as MP.

be divided into any number of small portions, such be the ordinate corresponding to ON. as MN\ and let Complete the parallelograms PMNq, QNMp, and suppose cor responding parallelograms ta be constructed on all the bases-

Let

AB

NQ

corresponding to

MN.

The body during

a velocity, which, if mediate in magnitude between the velocities represented by and QNj and the space described during that time will be
intermediate in magnitude between the spaces which would have and been described with uniform velocity represented by the areas the or between PN, QM. QN, spaces represented by

MN

the time represented by moves with be taken small enough, will be inter

MN

PM

PM

Hence the whole space described represented by AB is greater than

in the

interval

of time

that represented by the inscribed series and less than that by the circumscribed series of parallelograms, and each of these is y by Lemma II., ulti
to the area
is

mately equal into which

AB
1.

A CDB,
is

when

the

number
is

of portions

divided
;

indefinitely increased,

and their

magnitudes diminished
51.

therefore the proposition

proved.

COR.

Since the area

PMNQ
it.

is

ultimately equal to

the rectangle PM.MN, it follows that the measure of the velocity at any time is the limit of the quotient of the space described after
that time
l>y

the tim,e
2.

of describing

represent the unit of time, and com PMRr ; then the area PMRr represents plete the parallelogram
52.

COR.

Let

MR

LEMMA

X.

73

the space which would be described in an unit of time with a velocity represented by PM; whence it follows that the velocity

of a body at any instant

may

would describe if
unit of time.

it

moved

be /measured by the space which it with that velocity unchanged for an

Measures of Variable Force, Kinetic Energy, Work of a Force.


a particle of mass is moving in a straight line under the action of an uniform force F, if F, v be the velocities
53.
at the beginning

When

and end of the interval of time

t,

and

be

the space described in that time, the following equations will 2 hold : (v-V) = Ft and \m (v* - F ) = Fa.

These equations represent respectively that


(1)

The

increase of

momentum

in a

given time

is

equal to the

whole force which has acted during that time.


(2)

Half

the increase

of vis viva, or the increase of


is

the kinetic

energy in a given space


space. If

equal to the work of the force in that

a variable force, and F^ be its least and greatest z values during the time t, m(v will be V) greater than Ft and less than Fj, each of which will become Ft ultimately when t
is

F be

and similarly for -|? (y a Hence we obtain two measures of variable force of the two limits
indefinitely diminished;
:

F ).
2

in the

form

(1)

The quotient of
the time is

the increase

of

the

momentum by

the time^

when
(2)

diminished

indefinitely.

The quotient of the increase of the kinetic energy by the space through which the force has acted, when that space is
diminished indefinitely.

In the velocity curve, Art. 50, the velocity Qq is added in the time MN, the measure of the acceleration at the time
54.
is

OM

therefore the limit of the ratio

Qq

tangent of the angle which the tangent at makes with the line of abscissae.
55.

Pq, or the trigonometrical to the velocity curve

Geometrical representation

of

the

momentum generated
L

74
by a
finite

NEWTON.

and

variable force acting

particle

moving

in the direction of the action


p. 72, let

for a finite time upon a of the force.

In the figure of
the
action of the force
is

OA,

commencement and end


Let

of

represent the times at the interval during which the


portions, such

OB

considered.

AB be
and

divided into any

number of small

PM, QN, perpendiculars to AB, represent the on the forces acting particle at the times OM, respectively, and let parallelograms be constructed and the curve drawn as

as

MNj

let

ON
if

in Art. 50.

The momentum gener ited

in the

time

MN,

MN be taken

small enough, will be intermediate between the momenta re and QM; therefore, by presented by the parallelograms Lemma II., the whole increase of momentum is represented

PN

by the area A CDB bounded by the curve, the line of abscissae, and the ordinates at the commencement and end of the finite
interval of time represented

by AB.
measure of force given
at
in
(1)

56.

As

in Arts. 51, 52, the


;

Art. 53 can be deduced

also that the force

any

instant

may
if

be measured by the momentum which would be generated the force were to continue unchanged for an unit of time.
57.

Geometrical representation of the kinetic energy generated by a force which acts upon a particle moving in the direction oj the force s action through a finite space.

Let
it

OAB
let

arrives at

force,

and

perpendicular to the construction be made as before.


let

be the line of motion of the particle, and when

PM

OAB

represent the

The

is

increase of kinetic energy in the passage from to intermediate between the work done by the forces re

and QN, i.e. presented by which is intermediate between

PM

it

is

PN

represented by an area

and

QM;

therefore,

by

II, the increase of kinetic energy or the work of the to is force during the motion from represented by the

Lemma

58.

The measure

ns before, since

PM. AW = area PMNq

of force given in (2), Art. 53 7


ultimately.

is

deducible

LEMMA
59.

X.

75

In

rectilinear motion

any

variable force, the

sum of

of a particle under the action of the kinetic and potential energies

is constant.

limits

If the motion of the particle be considered only within the A, B) the area represents the whole work which

PMBD

the particle moves from to the end of its path ; this work is called the Potential Energy, and since the kinetic energy at is represented by the area the force will be able to do as

M
of

CAMP,

it

follows

that

throughout the motion the


is

sum

the kinetic and potential energies


to the

constant.

Application

determination of the motion of a particle under various circumstances.

To find the space travelled over in a given time by a body moving with a velocity which varies as the square of the, time from the beginning of the motion. Let AB represent the time, and let BC perpendicular to AB represent the velocity at the end of that time.
(l)

Let which

AB

one, and let J/P, the ends of the times represented


is

MN

be divided into any number of equal portions of

NQ
by

represent the velocities at

Then, since
can be

MP NQ BC AM AN AB\ a described touching AB and passing through


2
:
:

AM, AN.
:

::

parabola

and the extremities of

ail

P, Q, G ordinates by which velocities are

represented. Hence the space described in the time represented by or \AB.BG. is represented by the parabolic area And ifp be the velocity at end of pt* will be that a*

AB

ABC

1",

76
the end of
t"

NEWTON.
;

therefore ^pf. t

= \p?

will

be the space described

in the time

t.

NOTE. The following method of representing the space


serves to illustrate Art. 46.

Join

AC, and

let

pM, qN

the figure to revolve round AB\ 2 area cc pM* oc therefore this ;

AM

be the ordinates, and suppose generates a circle whose

pM

circle

may

be taken to

represent the velocity at the time corresponding to AM, and the solid generated by represents the space described in time MN. The whole space is therefore represented by the

pqNM
or

cone generated by
result as before.
(2)

ABC^

^AB.TrJBC
from

which gives the same


rest at

To find
under

the space

described

any time

a
l>y

particle,

the
th

action

of a force whose accelerating

effect

varies as the

power of the time. This problem is more simply solved by applying directly the method of summation, since in order to find the area of
the curve, constructed as in Lemma X., we should eventually be obliged to have recourse to that method.

be divided into n equal intervals, and let the m acceleration by the force at the time t be pt ; hence, at the com-

Let the time

mencemeut
and,
if

of the (r+l) th interval, the acceleration will be p

frt\
(

\n/

the force be continued uniform during this interval, the


,>

velocity generated

will

be p

rt\
(

and

if

the

same arrange

ment be made during each interval, the whole velocity generated m .+ (n - 1) 4. 2 -f m* hence, when the number of will be pt n
1
>H

I"

. . "

intervals

is

increased indefinitely,

it

follows,

by the reasoning

of

Lemma

II., that the velocity at the time

t^

vt

ni+1

-.

In the same manner, if the velocity at the commencement of each interval were continued uniform during the interval, the space described could be shewn to be

LEMMA
whence, proceeding to the
time
t

X.
the

77
space
described
in

=
(m
-t-

/rj/

m+2

limit,

the

1)

(m

2)

To find acted on by an
(3)

the velocity

acquired from rest, when a body is attractive force whose accelerating effect varies

as the distance from a fixed point.

Let

S be

the fixed point,


let

the point from which the motion


$<4,

commences, and

AB,

accelerating effect of the force at

perpendicular to represent the A. Join /B, and let J/P, per-

s
pendicular to

.zr

PM represents the accelerating effect of the force at M,


square of the velocity acquired at twice the area or

SA, meet

SB in P;

then, since PJ/:

BA

::

SM: SA,
and the

is

BAMP
S

8A.AB- SM.MP.
SA

represented, Art. 57,

by

With
let

centre

and radius

describe a circle

ordinates at Q, R then, if pD of the accelerating effect of the force at a distance


at

MPQ, NR be
Z

and be the measure


a
Z>,

A QE,

M=[JL(SA -

SM

) ;

therefore the velocity at

M= ^(p)

(vel.)

QM.

Time of describing a given space from rest under the (4) action of a force varying as the distance from a fixed point.

The time
j

of describing

MN MN
v

is

ultimately,

when

MN
x

is

in-

indefinitely

diminished,

OR y
vO) SQ

circular
to
J/,

vU*j

v(/*J

measure of
*

Let SA = a, then the distance from 5 at the time t-a cos[t and the velocity = a V(yu) sin{* V(/*)} when *
5

VM

therefore, if t be the time will be the circular measure of ASQ.

QSR;

from

V (/it)},

hence,

78

NEWTON.

the particle will come to rest at the point on the opposite = SA, and, the time of oscillation from side of Sj where

SA
\

TT

rest to rest,

being -j~l/*J

will

be independent of the distance

from which the motion commences.


Simple harmonic motion. DEF. The motion of a particle oscillating under the action of a force tending to a fixed point, and varying as the distance from it, is called simple harmonic motion.
(5)

From
definition,

the preceding propositions the following construction

for simple

harmonic motion, which


is

may

also be

taken as a

obtained.

When

a point

Q moves
its

uniformly in a

circle,

and an ordinate

QM
A A\

is

drawn from
the motion

of

position at any instant to any diameter M, the foot of the ordinate, is simple

harmonic motion.*

DEF. The amplitude of a simple harmonic motion


range
the

is

the

SA

or

SA
is

on each side of the centre.

The period
moving

the time which elapses from any instant until point again moves in the same direction through

the same position.


(6)

A particle is subject to
effect

the action

of a force, whose

accele
the

rating

varies as the distance


it

from a fixed

point, in

direction

of which

acts,

the particle is projected from

a given

point in a direction perpendicular to the direction that point, to find the path described by the particle.

of

the force at

Let the force tend

to

(7,

and

let

P the

be the point of projection,

position of the particle at any time. Let CB, perpendicular to CA, be the distance in which a

to rest, if projected from C with the of so that if be the velocity of projec velocity projection; be the accelerating effect of the force at P, tion, and particle

would be reduced

pCP
\>j

(3).

Thomson s and

Tail

Natural Philosophy, Art, 53.

LEMMA
Describe circles Bb,

X.

79

having the common centre C, and draw CpP cutting the circles in p and P and dra\v^? perpen dicular to CB, tmdpm, P J/to CA.
,

Aa

Referring to

(4) supra, it will

be seen that two particles

start

and the other with the ing respectively one from rest at velocity of projection at C, under the action of the same force,

would arrive simultaneously


cases
is

at

M and
P

n,

since the time in both

P by whose effect accelerating represented by PC, is and PJ/, there and CB to represented by parallel fore the acceleration in A C is the same as that of the particle supposed to move in A C from rest, and the retardation parallel to BC the same as that of the particle in CB, projected from C, therefore P is in the intersection of np and MP, and
is

CA. proportional to the angle in the But the particle proposed problem
is

acted on at

a force which

AC

MC

PM PM pm P M
: : : :

: :

Cp

CP
is

::

CB CA
:

therefore the re

quired path of the particle

an

ellipse

whose semi-axes are

CA

and CB.

COR. 1. Area ACPx area ACP cc LACP & time from A to P, hence the area swept out by the radius vector is propor
tional to the time.

of the velocity at is the sum of the squares the velocities of the particles at J/and n=f.t,.PM *+p.pi? ^ fji. CD 2 , where is the semi-diameter conjugate to CP.

COR.

2.

The square

CD

The space described by a body moving in a medium, in which the resistance varies as the velocity, when no other force
(7)

acts on the body, varies as the velocity destroyed.

80

NEWTON.

be divided into equal intervals AB, J5(7, Let the time and let ... be the velocities at the Bb Aa\ CD, ...; beginning
,

AK

of the intervals, the space in time . area a

AK

is

AKk

represented by the

Suppose the force of resistance to be constant throughout the AB, BG, ..., and equal to the amount at the commencement of each, and let Aa, Bb, ... be the measures of
intervals of time

the retarding effect of those forces, then the velocity destroyed s represented by the limit of the sum of the parallelograms

hence the space described and the velocity destroyed vary respectively as the areas a AKk and aAKk and, since the resistance varies as the velocity, the

aB, bG,

...

or the area a-AKk\

ratios

Aa Aa^ Bb Bb^ &c., are all equal Lemma IV., the areas a AKk, aAKk are in a
:

therefore,

by
;

constant ratio

hence the space described varies as the velocity destroyed.

X.
If the square of the velocity of a body be proportional to the space described from rest, prove that the accelerating force is
1.

constant.
2. At what point of the proof of that the body starts from rest ?

Lemma X.

is

it

assumed

State the proposition by which Lemma X. is replaced, when the body, instead of starting from rest, commences its motion with
3.

a given velocity.
4. If a body move from rest under the action of a force which varies as the square of the time from the beginning of the motion, shew that the velocity at any time will vary as the cube of the time, and the space described as the fourth power of the time.

LEMMA
5.

X.

81

If the velocity after a time t from rest be equal to a (2t + *), be the shape of the curve in the figure, and the space described in any time ?

what

will

If the square of the velocity of a moving point vary as the the space which will be described in a given time; and find time, shew that the acceleration will vary inversely as the velocity.
6. 7. If the curve employed in the proof of the Lemma be an arc of a parabola, the axis of which is perpendicular to the straight line on which the time is measured, prove that the accelerating effect of the force will vary as the distance from the axis of the

parabola.

XI.
If in the velocity curve of Lemma X. there should occur point where the two parts of the curve cut one another at a finite angle, what would be the interpretation of this singularity ? Explain also what a point of inflexion would imply.
1.

is placed in the line joining two centres of the accelerating effect of each of which varies as attracting force, the distance, find the time in which the particle oscillates. 2.

particle

3. When a body moves from rest at A under the action of a force 2 which varies as the square of the distance from S (= p. SIT at Jf), 3 3 the square of the velocity at 21= f p (SA - J/ ).
.

4. If a body be acted on from rest by a repulsive force which varies as the distance from a fixed point, find the velocity when the body arrives at any position.
5. Two points move from rest in such a manner that the ratio of the times in which the same uniform acceleration would generate Shew that their respective velocities at those times is constant. their respective accelerations, at any time bearing that ratio, are

equal.

Two forces reside at S, one attractive and whose accelerating on a particle varies as the distance from S, and the other constant and repulsive prove that, if a particle be placed at S, it will move until it be brought to rest at a point which is double the distance from S at which it would rest in equilibrium under the
6.

effect

action of the forces.

moves from rest at A under the action of a force and varying as the distance from $, and in its path towards S it strikes another particle of equal mass at rest at B prove that, if the particles be perfectly elastic, they will meet again on the opposite side of S at a distance equal to SB, and continue to impinge at B and B for ever.
7.

A particle

tending to S,

82

NEWTON.

LEMMA XL
The vanishing
which have
of the angle of contact, in all curves at the point of contact, are curvature finite ultimately in the duplicate ratio of the chords of the con terminous arcs.
siibtcnses
1.

Case A,

Let
}

BD i\\Q subtense of the angle of contact


AB
AGr,

AB be the arc of a curve, AD its tangent at


BAD,peTthe chord of the arc.

pendicular to the tangent,

Draw
the

EG perpendicular to the tangent AD and chord AB respectively, meeting in G then let


;

JL

a,

ID

the points D, B, G move towards the points d, 3, g y and let / be the point of ultimate intersection of the lines BG, AG, when the points B, move up to A.

It is evident that the distance

be made than any assigned distance by diminishing AB.

GI may

less

and GAB are equal, and But, since the angles also the right angles BDA, ABG, the triangles ABD, GAB are similar therefore A G, or BD.AG = AB*, and, similarly, Id.Ag = Ah*-,
;

ABD

BD AB
:

AB

.-.

AB* AV =
:

BD.AG
:

Id.Ag

therefore the ratio of the ratios of

AB
:

BD

a ratio compounded Id and A G Ay.


is
:

Atf

LEMMA

XI.

83

But, since GI may be made less than any assigned length, the ratio A G Ay may be made to differ from a ratio of equality less than by any assigned dif ference therefore the ratio AB* Atf may be made to differ from the ratio bd less than by any
: :

BD

assigned difference.

Hence, by
Case
2.

the ultimate ratio same as the ultimate ratio of bd.

Lemma I.,
now
the

Let

BD subtenses BD
AB
,

AB

1
:

Ab*

is

the

Q. E. D.

bd be inclined at

any given an^le


triangles

to the tangent;

BD :bd
Case
3.

mately

BD
::

DBD,
:

d bd
::
:

BD
:

bd
;

BD

then,
:

by

similar
ulti

bd,

but

bd

Atf

therefore ultimately

AB*

Ab\

Q.E.D.

be not a given O if a to or be drawn given converge point, angle, according to any other [fixed] law [by which the remains finite, since BD is a subtense], still angle d constructed by this law common the angles

And. although the ano O le O

BD

to both, will continually approach to equality and become nearer than by any assigned difference, and will be therefore ultimately equal, by Lemma I., and hence BD, bd will be ultimately in the same
ratio as before.

Q.E.D.

COR.

1.

Hence, since the tangents


their sines

AD,

Ad, the arcs

AB, Ab and

BC,

be

become ultimately

equal to the chords AB, Ab, their squares also will be ultimately as the subtenses BD, bd.

COR. 2. The squares of the same lines also will be ultimatelv as the sagittal of the arcs, which bisect the chords, and converge to a given point; for those sagittse are as the subtenses BD, bd.
/
c_?

COR.

therefore the sagittse will be ultimately in the duplicate ratio of the times in which a body describes the arcs with a given velocity.
3.

And

COR.

rectilinear triangles ADB, Adb are ulti in the triplicate ratio of the sides AD, Ad, mately
4.

The

84

NEWTON.
in the sesqui plicate ratio of the sides DB, db ; since these triangles are in the ratio compounded of Ad and Id, So also the triangles ABC, Abe will be ultimately in the triplicate ratio of the sides BO, be. The sesquiplicate ratio may be re garded as the subduplicate of the triplicate, or as

and

AD

BD

compounded of the simple and the subduplicate


ratios.

COR.

5.

in the duplicate ratio of AD, Ad [therefore, this being a property of a parabola,] at every point at which a curve has finite curvature an arc of a parabola can be drawn which will ultimately coincide with the curve and the curvilinear areas ADB, Adb will be ultimately two-thirds of the rectilinear triangles ADB, Adb and the segments AB, Ab the third And hence these areas parts of the same triangles. and these segments will be in the triplicate ratio as well of the tangents AD, Ad as of the chords and arcs AB, Ab.
;
,

And, since DB, db are ultimately

parallel

and

the angle of But, in all these contact to be neither infinitely greater nor infinitely less than the angles of contact which circles have with their tangents that is, that the curvature at the point A is neither infinitely great nor infinitely small; in other words, that the distance AI is of
;

SCHOLIUM. propositions, we suppose

magnitude. For might be taken proportional to AD*, in which case no circle could be drawn through the point A and the curve AB, and the between the tangent angle of contact would be infinitely less than that

finite

DB

AD

of

any

circle.

And,

DB

drawn in which similarly, if different curves be 6 5 varies successively as AD*, &c., a series of angles of contact will be presented which may be continued to an infinite number, of which each will

AD AD
,

LEMMA

XI.

85

be infinitely less than the preceding. And if curves varies as AD*, AD*, AD\ be drawn in which AD*, AD*, &G., another infinite series of angles of contact will be obtained, of which the first will be of the same kind as in the circle, the second infinitely greater, and each infinitely greater than the pre But, moreover, between any two of these ceding. an infinite series of other angles of contact angles can be inserted, of which each may be infinitely greater or infinitely less than any preceding; for 2 example, if between the limits AD and AD* there be inserted ADV,ADV,AD*, AD\ AD$, AD^AD^, A D J, A D^ &c. And, again, between any two angles of this series there can be inserted a new series of intermediate angles differing from one another by

DB

infinite intervals.

Nor does

the nature of the case

admit any

limit.

The

propositions which have been demonstrated con cerning curved lines and the included areas are easily applied to curved surfaces and solid contents.

These Lemmas have been premised for the sake of escaping from the tedious demonstrations by the method of reductio ad absurdum, employed by the old

The demonstrations are certainly ren geometers. dered more concise by the method of indivisibles but, as there is a harshness in the hypothesis of indi visibles, and on that account it is considered to be an imperfect geometrical method, it has been pre ferred to make the demonstrations of the following propositions depend on the ultimate sums and ratios of vanishing quantities and on the prime sums and ratios of nascent quantities, i. e. on the limits of sums and ratios and therefore to premise demonstrations of those limits as concise as possible. By these demonstrations the same results are deducible as by the method of indivisibles and we may employ the
;
; ;

principles which have been established with greater safety. Consequently, if, in what follows, quantities

86

NEWTON.

should be treated of as if they consisted of particles [indefinitely small parts], or small curve lines should be employed as straight lines, it would not be in tended to convey the idea of indivisible, but of vanishing divisible quantities, not that of sums and ratios of determinate parts, but of the limits of sums and ratios and it must be remembered that the force of such demonstrations rests on the method exhibited in the preceding Lemmas.
;

An

made, that there can be no ultimate of inasmuch as vanishing quantities proportion before they have vanished the proportion is not
objection
is
;

and when they have vanished it does not But exist. by the same argument it could be main tained that there could be no ultimate velocity of a body arriving at a certain position at which its motion ceases for that this velocity, before the body
ultimate,
;

arrives at that position, is not the ultimate velocity ; and that, when it arrives there, there is no velocity. And the answer is easy that, by the ultimate velo
:

city

is

to be understood that,

when

the

body

is

moving, neither before it reaches the last position and the motion ceases nor after it has reached it, but at the instant at which it arrives i. e. the very
;

velocity with which it arrives at the last position with which the motion ceases.

and

And,

similarly, by the ultimate ratio of vanishing quantities is to be understood the ratio of the quan tities, not before they vanish nor after, but with which

they vanish.

Likewise, also, the prime ratio of nas cent quantities is the ratio with which they begin to And a prime or uRimate sum is that with which exist. it begins to be increased or ceases to be diminished.
attain at the

There is a limit which the velocity can end of the motion, but cannot surpass.

And ultimate velocity. the limit of all quantities and


mencing or ceasing
to exist.

the like

This is the can be stated of

proportions

com

And, since

this limit

LEMMA
is

XI.

87
it

certain

and

definite, to

determine

is

all geometrical geometrical problem. propo be may legitimately employed in determining and demonstrating other propositions which are themselves geometrical. It may also be argued that, if the ultimate ratios of

And

strictly a

sitions

vanishing quantities be given, the ultimate magni tudes will also be given, and thus every quantity will consist of indivisibles, contrary to what Euclid has demonstrated of incommensurable quantities, in his tenth book of the Elements.

But

this objection rests on a false Those hypothesis. ultimate ratios with which vanish are not quantities actually ratios of ultimate quantities, but limits to which the ratios of quantities without

decreasing
;

and which they can approach nearer than by any given difference, but which they can never surpass, nor reach before the quantities are indefinitely diminished The argument will be understood more in the
clearly case of infinitely great quantities. If two quantities, of which the difference is given, be increased infi nitely, their ultimate ratio will be given, namely, a ratio of equality, yet in this case the ultimate or greatest quantities of which that is the ratio will

limit are continually approaching

not be given.

In what follows, therefore,

if at any time, for the sake of facility of the conception, expressions indefinitely smatt, or vanishing, or ultimate be used concerning quantities, care must be taken not to understand

thereby quantities determinate in magnitude, but to conceive them in all cases quantities to be diminished without limit.
Curvature of Curves.
curvature of a curve at any point is greater or less as the amount of deflection from the at that point, in tangent the immediate neighbourhood of the is point, greater or less.
60.

The

88

NEWTON.

curves will have the same curvature at two points, taken one in each, if at equal distances from the points of contact, in
the immediate neighbourhood of the points, they have the deflection from the tangents at those points.

Two

same

61

An

exact geometrical test of equality of curvature


:

may

be obtained as follows
If

AB,

ab be two curves which have the same curvature at

A, a

respectively,

draw the tangents

AG

ac and take

AC= ac.

Draw
If

subtenses

BG and

be inclined at equal angles to the tangents. be were equal, for all equal values of -4(7, ac, the

BC,

If lie be ultimately curves would be equal and similar. ac are taken a ratio of equality, when AG, indefinitely small,

BG

the curves will have the same deflection from the tangents in the or the curves will have the immediate neighbourhood of } a,

same curvature
If the chords

at those points.

ab be drawn, it will be an immediate con lac will be (?, sequence that the ultimate ratio of the angles a ratio of equality. These angles are called the angles of contact.

AB,

BA

Hence, curves
one in each,

will

have the same curvature

at

two

points,

tangents being drawn at those points, if, equal and subtenses inclined at any equal angles to the tangents, the
limiting ratio of the subtenses be a ratio of equality, or if the limiting ratio of the angles of contact be a ratio of equality.

of one curve will be infinitely greater or infinitely less than that of another if the limiting ratio of the subtense of the first to that of the second be infinitely great
62.

The curvature

or infinitely small.
63.

The

ratio

of the

curvature ot

one curve to that of

another at two points, or of the curvature of the same curve at two different points, is the limiting ratio of the subtenses drawn

from the extremities of equal tangents and inclined at equal


angles to the tangents.

LEMMA
64.
point,

XI.
to

89
be
finite,

The curvature of a curve is said when the ratio of the curvature at


whose radius
is

at

any

that point to that of

any

circle

finite, is

a finite ratio.

65.

The curvature of a circle is the same at every point. Let A, a be any two points on a circle, A (7, ac equal tan

gents at A, a, CBj cb subtenses perpendicular to the tangents, Od perpendicular to the subtenses produced; therefore
cd^

each being equal to the radius, and

BD = bd]
;

hence

BC = bc

always, and therefore ultimately, when be is a ratio of equality indefinitely diminished,

the arcs are


therefore

BG

the circle has the same curvature at any two points.


66.
radii.

In

the curvatures different circles

vary inversely as

the

In the

Then, and

AC*=CB. CE; also, if AC be a tangent to another circle, A C be taken equal to A C, and the same construction be therefore CB.CE=C B .C E and made, A C = C B C E CB .C B :: C E CE; and when AC, AC are indefinitely therefore CB C B :: A AO, ulti diminished, CE=2AO
2
1

last figure,

produce

CB

to the

circumference in E.

to the mately, or the curvatures are inversely proportional

radii.

Measure of Curvature. 67. The curvature of a circle is the same at every point
the curvatures of different circles

vary inversely as the diameters

90
of the circles
finite
;

NLVTON.
and a
circle

can be constructed of any degree

curvature by varying the magnitude of the diameter. Hence, a circle can always be found whose curvature at
is

any

point

The

equal to that of a curve at a fixed point. curvature of a curve at any point is therefore
circle is found,

determined when the diameter of the

completely which has

the same curvature as the curve at the given point. The diameter of the circle, which has the same curvature as the curve at a given point, the curve at that point.
is

called the diameter

of curvature of
is

of the circle, drawn in chord of curvature in that direction.

The chord
The

any

direction,

called the

circle

of curvature, and is the which has the same tangent as the curve at any point, and
circle itself is called the circle

also the

same curvature.

other curve might have been chosen to establish a standard measure of finite curvature but, since no curve but
68.

Any

the circle has the same curvature at every point, it would then have been necessary, after selecting the curve, to specify the
point, the curvature at

which might be made the measure of

curvature.

the standard curve were a parabola, we must choose the curvature of the parabola at the vertex or at the extremity

Thus,

if

of the latus rectum or at

some determinate

point,

by which

to

obtain the measure.

The inconvenience

is

obvious.
the

General Properties of
69.

Circle of Curvature.
at a

If a circle be
it

drawn touching a curve

given point, approaches

and cutting

at a second point, as the second point

indefinitely near the point of contact, the

circle will

assume a

limiting magnitude, and will evidently satisfy the condition of having the same curvature as the curve at that point.

Since a tangent at any point is the limiting position of a side, terminated in that point, of a polygon inscribed in
70.

the curve,

when

the

number of

sides

is

increased indefinitely,

LEMMA
so

XI.

91

the circle of curvature at any point is the limiting circle which passes through three consecutive angular points of the polygon, one of which coincides with the point.
71.

No

circle
its

can be drawn whose circumference


circle

lies

between

curve

and

of curvature^ of curvature

in the neighbourhood
is

of

the

point at which the circle


For, let curvature ; and
the arc
fore the

drawn.

AQ

AS

lies

be the arc of the curve, Aq of the circle of let, if possible, another circle be drawn, of which between the curve and circle, and having there

same tangent

AR

at

and

let

RQ,

the subtense per


q.

pendicular to the tangent, cut the circles in $,

be ultimately in the inverse ratio of the diameters of the circles; therefore SR will be ultimately unequal
:

Then SR

qR

will

are ultimately in a ratio of in magnitude, will be ulti intermediate equality, SB, which mately equal to either, which is absurd ; therefore no circle, &c. This proposition corresponds to Euclid III., Prop. xvi.
to

qR

but,

since

qR and QR
is

72.

The

circle

of curvature generally

cuts the curve.

of the curve at different points taken along the curve continually increases or continually diminishes, until
it

For the curvature

arrives at a

maximum

or

minimum

value.

any point, on the side on which the curvature is increasing, as we proceed from the point, the curve will lie within the circle, and on the other side, on which the curvature is diminishing, the curve will which proves the proposition for the lie without the circle
;

If therefore the circle of curvature be

drawn

at

general position of the point. For the particular case, in which the point is at a position of maximum or minimum curvature, as at the extremities of the

axes of an

ellipse, if

the curvature be a

maximum

the curvature

at adjacent points on either side will be less than that of the

92
circle of

NEWTON.

curvature at the point under consideration ; therefore the circle will lie entirely within the curve on both sides near
the point of maximum curvature and, similarly, of minimum curvature. without the curve at points
;

it

will lie

We can illustrate this


in the curve
If, in
;

by reference

to the

polygon inscribed

see the figure in the following page.

the curve, equal chords AB, BC, CD, r .. be placed in order, generally the angles ABC, BCD, CDE,... will increase or decrease, commencing from any point, which property of the

DE

polygon

will

have

in the curvilinear limit,

when

the chords are

diminished indefinitely, the corresponding property, that the curvature decreases or increases continually. Suppose the angles are increasing from B; make the angles
equal to the angle BCD, and BA, equal to will pass also through BC, CD...] then a circle through B, C, will be on and these and opposite sides of the points ,

CBA, CDE

DE

perimeter of the polygon, whence, if we proceed to the limit, the circle of curvature at a point in the middle of increasing curvature will cut the curve.
If the angles

ABC
lie

and

DEF be

each

less

than the angles

BCD, CDE,
and BA,

supposed equal, the curvature will decrease and will pass through E, then increase, and the circle about

BCD

EF will

within the

circle,

lie limit, the circle of curvature will

and, proceeding to the without the curve, near

the point of

minimum

curvature.

Evolute of a Curve.
of curvature be drawn at every of those circles will lie in a curve point of a curve, the centres which is called the evolute of the proposed curve.
73.

DEF. If the

circles

Properties of the Evolute.


74.

The extremity of a string unwrapped from


traces out the curve,

the evolute

of

a curve
Let

da, b b, c c d d be drawn perpendicular to the sides from the middle points

ABCDE be

any

equilateral polygon,

and

let

LEMMA
,

XI.

9.3

&

in the angular points abed... of another &c., these intersect

polygon. If a string were wrapped round a abed... the extremity a

would as the string was unwrapped pass through the points


ab
c

Let now the number of

sides of the

polygon be increased and

the magnitude diminished indefinitely.


points a b c ... will be ultimately in the curve which is the limit of the polygon, and since a, 5, c... are the centres

The

of the circles described about

ABC,

BCD,...

a,

>,

c,...

will
,

be

ultimately the centres of the circles of curvature at a b c...

and

the curve, which is the limit of the polygon abed..., will be the evolute of the curve a b c... , and the property proved for the polygons will be true for the limits of the polygons, therefore

the extremity of the string unwrapped from the evolute will trace the curve of which it is the evolute. This property gives
rise to the

name

of evolute.
string

DEF. The curves formed by the unwrapping of a


from a curve are called
75.
curve.
involutes.

The tangent
is

to the

evolute

of a curve

is

a normal

to

the

ultimately the tangent to the evolute and is perpendicular to BC, which is ultimately the tangent to the curve a b c ... , therefore the tangent to the evolute is a normal

Since b b

to the curve.

94

NEWTON.
Propositions on Diameters
76.

and Chords
the
the

of Curvature.

If a subtense
to

be

drawn from

of

finite

parallel

curvature, any direction, that direction will be the limit


to

in

extremity of an arc chord of curvature

of

the

third pro

portional

the subtense

and

the arc.
its

Let PQ, Pq be arcs of a curve and


at P, let

circle of

curvature

tangent, and RQq the direction of a common subtense, meeting the circle in U. Draw the chord since parallel toRQ.

PR

be the

common

PV

RU

Then,

Rq.RU=PR\

is

the third proportional to

Rq and PR.

If

But, ultimately, when

and

PR = PQ,

PQ is indefinitely diminished, RU=PV,


also,

by

Lemma VIL
is

Rq = RQ by

the property

of the circle of curvature.

Therefore

PV

the limit of the third proportional to

RQ

and PQ.
COR.
portional
77.

The diameter of curvature


to the

is fhe limit

of

the third pro

subtense perpendicular to the tangent

and

the arc.

TJie

drawn through
each equal

two cJwrds of curvature at any point of a parabola the focus, and in the direction of the diameter, are
times the focal distance of that point.

to four

Let

AP

be a parabola,

any

point,

RQ QM
^

to the diameter

PMx,

QM

the ordinate at

a subtense parallel Q, 8 the focus.

Then, by a property of the parabola, fore is a third proportional to

4P

PM and

^SP.PM; QM, i.e.

there
to

RQ

and PR.
Hence,

4$P

is

the limit of the third proportional to the

LEMMA
subtense

XI.
is

95
therefore equal to the

QE

and the arc PQ, and

chord of curvature at

P in

direction of the diameter.

And,

since

PS,

PM are equally inclined to the tangent at P,

the chords in those directions are equal ; therefore the chord of curvature through S is four times the focal distance SP.
78.

One-fourth of the diameter of curvature at any point

of a parabola is a third proportional to the perpendicular from the focus on the tangent at that point^ and the focal distance of
that point.

For, draw SY, perpendicular to diameter of curvature at P.

QR

PR, and

let

PI
;

be the

Then PI.
.-.

since

the

QR = PQ* = PR* ultimately, = 4P. QR P/:4P:: QR QR SP SY; triangles SYP, QRR are similar; therefore ^PI
:
:
: :

is

a third proportional to
79.

SY

and

JSP.

The chord of curvature at any point of an ellipse drawn through the centre of the ellipse is a third proportional to the diameter through that point and the diameter conjugate to it. Let
to

be any point in an

ellipse,

PCG
QR

Q any point near P, it, an ordinate CP, parallel to DC, ture drawn through C.
conjugate to

the diameter, a subtense parallel

DCD

QM

PV the

chord of curva^

.-.

QR = PQ* = Q3P ultimately, and QM* PM.MG CD CP PV. QR QR.MG CD CP* ultimately;
Then PV.
1

96
.-.

NEWTON.

PV-.2CP:: CD*: CPZ


/.

ultimately;

PV.CPi CP*::2CD*i GP\ and PV.CP=2CD*;

J)

or

PV
80.

is

a third proportional to

PG and BCD
}

The chord of curvature at any point through tne j ocus is a third proportional to the major axis and the diameter parallel
to the

tangent at that point.

Draw
let

the focal distance

PV

SP cutting

the diameter

DCD

in

E,

be the chord of curvature through $, and draw the

subtense

QR

parallel to

SP.
:

Then

PV iPV::
: :

.-.

QR QR ultimately CP PE by similar triangles PV.PE=PV.CP=2CD*


:
,

.-.

PV

is

a third proportional to

2PE

and

DCD

and

equal to the major axis. Similarly for the other focus H.

2PE is

81.

The diameter of curvature at any point


to

is

a third pro

twice the perpendicular from the point on the diameter portional parallel to the tangent and that diameter.

Draw
dicular to

QR"

DCD
PI

perpendicular to the tangent, and perpen and let PI be the diameter of curvature. ,

PF

PI .PV-.
.-.

/.

is

QR: ::CP:PF; P1.PF=PV.CP=2CD*; third proportional to 2PFand DCD.


.

QR"

LEMMA XL
82.

97

Since the chord of curvature in any direction varies inversely as the subtense QR drawn in that direction, it is easily
seen that,
will
if

PL
j

P and DCD
83.

be the portion of the chord intercepted between the chord of curvature at in the direction PL

be the third proportional to

2PL

P and BCD

propositions concerning the chords and diameter of curvature of an ellipse may be proved in the same words for

The

the hyperbola, employing the following figure.

C
84.
is to the

A.

The radius of curvature at any point of a conic section normal in the duplicate ratio of the normal to the semi"

latus rectum.

be the normal, the semi-latus rectum.


(i)

Let

PK

PO

the radius of curvature at P,

For

the parabola,
: :

but

PO 2SP :: SP: SY:: SY SA PO: 2SY:: SP SA::SP.SA Z PK* = SP.SA; PO PK PK=2SY;


.-.
:
:

2
;
: :

.-.

PK* L\
:

(ii)

For the

ellipse or

hyperbola,

PO.PF= CD
.-.
:

and
:

PK.PF=BC*;
2

but

PO PK:: CD* EC* :: AC PF AC: PF:: PK PF.PK=BC =--L.AC;


2
:

.-.

L-

.-.

PO PK PK
:

2
:

::

L\

98
85.
circle

NEWTON.
To find the chord common of curvature at any point.
to

a conic section and the

If a circle intersect a conic section in four points, as and these points be joined in pairs by two lines, these lines will

PQUR

be equally inclined to the axis of the conic section.


the conic section,

Thus, in
axis.

PQ,

RU are equally inclined to the

For, if UR, QP intersect in 0, OE.OU= OP.OQ, hence the diameters of the ellipse parallel to UR, QP will be equal,

and therefore equally inclined to the axis. Let Q and R move up to and ultimately coincide with P, then the intersecting circle becomes the circle of curvature at P, and PQ is in the direction PT of the tangent, ultimately, and assumes the position of the chord common to the conic section and the circle of curvature at P. Hence, if PV be drawn at an equal inclination with PT to the axis, PV will be

RU
the

common
And,
if

chord required. VI be drawn perpendicular to

PF",

meeting the

normal
86.

at

P in /, PI will
the

be the diameter of curvature at P.

radius of curvature of a curve defined by the relation between the radius vector and the perpendicular from

To find

the pole on the tangent.

Let PY, PP Y* be the directions of consecutive sides of a polygon inscribed in a curve, SY, SY perpendiculars on these

LEMMA
sides;

XI.

99

draw

P0 P O
}

perpendicular to the same sides, inter

secting in 0, and
intersect in

PU

perpendicular to SP, and

let

SY,

PY
;

W.

A semicircle on SP as diameter passes through Y and Y L YPW=L YSY = LPOP, and L WYP=L OP P] WPY are similar therefore the triangles POP
.-.
,

by
.-.

PO .PP ::PW: YW, SP::PU:PY also PP similar triangles PUP, SY P, and PW=PY PO SP:: PU: YW:: SP SP SY ~ SY
.-.
1

ultimately;
ultimately.

-<

Also,

if

PV

be the chord of curvature through $,

.-.

PV-.2PO:: SY: SP] PV: 2SY:: SP SP SY~ SY


->

ultimately.

Observations on the
87.

Lemma.

In the proof of

Lemma

third proportional to

BD

XI., AI is the limit of the and AB, hence it is the diameter of

curvature of the curve at A.


88.

For an example of a law according

to which, in

Case

3,

the directions of the subtenses

may

be determined,

we may

suppose that they always pass through a point given in position at a finite distance from A, or that they always touch a given curve; but it must be observed that the case in which they

100

NEWTON.

is excluded, at touch a curve which has the same tangent d do not in the limit remain since in this case the angles

AD

finite,

a property required in the

name

subtense.

be drawn from the middle point of an arc of a curve, making a finite angle with the chord, the part intercepted between the chord and the arc is called the sagitta
89.

DEF. If a

line

of the arc.
90.
subtense

The sagitta of an arc

drawn

ultimately one quarter of the at the extremity of the arc parallel to the sagitta.
is

Let the sagitta FE bisect the arc AB duced to the tangent at A in 6r, and let
parallel to

in

E, and be pro BD be a subtense

FE.

Then

/.

EG BD AE* AB* ultimately / FG AD AG AB AE ultimately; also BD BD = 2FG = EG hence FE=EG = BD ultimately.


:

::

::

::

91.

COR.

5.

The parabola mentioned


;

parabola of curvature at that point any given direction, the proportion


that the curve
is

in this corollary is a is taken in for, since


:

BD

bd

: :

DB AD Ad* proves
Z
:

ultimately in the form of a parabola, and that, drawn in the given direction is tho therefore, the line through corresponding diameter of the parabola of curvature.

Hence

the axis of the parabola

may

be taken in any as

signed direction. If the subtenses be perpendicular to the tangent, the parabola of curvature will be the parabola whose curvature at the vertex
will determine the curvature of the curve, since the axis will be 44 ?7, in the figure page 104, perpendicular to the tangent, and if

be the third proportional


position of

to the subtense

and

arc, the limiting

U will be

By means Lemma IX., Art.

the focus of the parabola. of this corollary the proposition alluded to under
44,
is

established

viz. that the ratio of tho

LEMMA

XI.

101

areas which takes place of the duplicate ratio, obtained in that the line, Lemma, is the triplicate ratio of the same lines, when coincides AE, instead of cutting the tangent at a finite angle, with the tangent.
92.

Scholium.

Let

AB,

AC
let

be two
subtenses

curves,

having a
the

common

tangent

AD at

A, and

DB,

DBC of

angles of contact be drawn from in the same direction, and let

D at any point in the BD oc AD m CD cc


,

tangent
in the

AD"

curves

AB,

AC

respectively.
d, parallel to

Draw

dbc a

common

ordinate

from a fixed point

DBG.
::
:

Then

and

if

be

Ad BD bd, n Ad n CD cd, and = n + r suppose, greater than n, AD\AD Ad\Ad \\BD\ld\ CD.AD cd .Ad r.BD-.ld :: BD .AD Id .AD CD BD cd .Ad
:
:

AD AD

::

.-.

-.ld.AD
r
,

::

::

and
fore

since b,

c,

are fixed, and

AD vanishes in
BD
;

CD

is

indefinitely greater than

the limit, there also, since the angles

are ultimately proportional to BD, CD, if in curves the subtenses vary according two follows it that, to different powers of the arcs or tangents, the angle of contact

of contact

BAD, CAD

of that curve in which the index of the power is the least will be infinitely greater than the angle of contact of the other.
Illustrations.
(1)

an arc

Two tangents AT, BT AB, to prove that AT is


diminished.

are

drawn

at the extremities of
to

ultimately equal

BT, when

AB

is indefinitely

102

NEWTON.

Draw

TCUV in

any direction making a

finite

angle with the

the circles of curvature at tangents, and meeting

and

B mUV.

Then

since the circle of curvature at

is

the limit of the circle

which passes through


similarly for that at

and has the tangent B, we have ultimately


:

AT

at

A, and

TA*
and

TB*

::

TU=TV ultimately;
BD be

TC.TU: TO. TV, /. TA = TB ultimately.


;

COR. If

any subtense of the arc AB,

AT+TB = AB = AD ultimately
therefore

AD will be ultimately bisected by the tangent BT. BT be a tangent at B, AB, BC equal chords of a (2) If curve of finite curvature, drawn from B, and AB be produced to making Bc=-AB, and Cc be joined meeting BT in T, cT
c,

will ultimately be equal to

CT, when

the

arcs

AB, CB

are

diminished

indefinitely.

Let A U be drawn parallel to C T, meeting the tangent at in U, and let two circles touch UBT at B and pass one through

and the other through C, and let BV, or CT, then circles drawn parallel to

BV be chords

of these

AU

AU.BV=AB*,

and

LEMMA

XI.

103

CT.BV = BC

Z
;

but

BV=BV ultimately, since the two circles


B
and

are each ultimately the circle of curvature at therefore ultimately.

A U= CT Through B draw RBR parallel to A C, meeting A U in R and Cc in R, then RU=RT, therefore 2RT is the difference
between

AB = BC,

AU and
,

CT, hence

RT ultimately
therefore

with CT, and since


(3)

CR = Re,

vanishes compared

CT=

Tc ultimately.
1

of contact of a curve loith its tangent * equal distances be measured along the curve and tangent, the line extremities will ultimately be parallel to the normal joining their

If from

the point

at the point of contact.

In the

last figure, let,

BC,

BT
;

be equal distances, measured

along the arc and the tangent

meet

BTm D, produce BT to ^making DF=DC,


BC, and join

join

CT,

let

the tangent at take

BE=

the chord

EC
is

and FC.

Since the arc

BC

BD + DC and BC, therefore, BT being equal to arc BC, the But the triangles BCE, point T lies always between E and F. DCF being both isosceles, each of the angles BEG, BFC will
ultimately be a right angle, therefore the angle
less

intermediate in magnitude between

BTC, which

is

than BEG

and greater than

BFC,

will also

ultimately be

a right angle.

Hence

CT will

ultimately be parallel to the normal at B.


to

NOTE. In order

by a
first

careless

shew the danger of falling into an error employment of the propositions proved in the

section, the following fallacious proof may be noticed of above the proposition. In the figure page 102, join BC, then BT: CB will be

ultimately a ratio of equality, by


to

Lemma VII

therefore

GET

being an isosceles triangle ultimately,


the
line

CT will

be perpendicular

tangent

BT,

bisecting and. since

the

angle

BT

CBT, and therefore to the


ultimately coincide with the

BC will

bisecting line.

The

fact is that

Lemma

BT and the

chord

BC

VII. only allows us to assert that differ by a quantity Tt, which vanishes
:

compared with either of them, and therefore but, by Lemma XI, CT & BC*; hence Tt

may cc BC CT may possibly


Tt
2
]

04
finite ratio, or

NEWTON.

be a

C T may

be ultimately inclined at any

finite

angle to

B T,

at least as far as the reasoning

given in the above

proof
(4)

is

concerned.

construct for the focus of the parabola of curvature whose axis is in a given direction.

To

A.

<l

J)

AB be a curve of finite curvature, BD, bd subtenses Draw A U perpendicular to parallel to AE the given direction. AD, and AS making angle UAS UAE; then since AE a diameter of the parabola by Art. 91, AS in the direction of
Let
is is

the focus.
Also,
if

4:AS be taken a third proportional

to

BD

and

AD,

the limiting position of


(5)

will

be the focus of the parabola.

To find

the locus

of

the focus

of

the

parabola of curvature,

when

its

axis changes

its direction.

Let

BG be perpendicular to AD,

4AU.BC =

then the limiting , the parabola whose curvature at the vertex is the same as that of the curve at also, if 8 be the focus of the parabola whose axis is parallel to DB, 4.AS.DB = AD* = AC*, ultimately;

AC

AUbe chosen so that position of U is the focus of


and

therefore
if

AU: AS

::

BD

BC, and
angle
;

SAU = L DBG
will

hence

ASU = L BCD = a right a circle on A U as diameter.


L
(6)
:

we join SU,

the triangles

8AU, CBD

be similar, and

therefore the locus of

is

ABC is an arc offinite curvature, and is divided so that AB BC m n, a constant ratio join AB, AC, BC, and shew that, ultimately, &ABC segment ABOi: 6mn (m + n]*.
::
:

LEMMA
For, by Cor.
:

XI.

105

XL ABO m* (m + n} seg AB seg ABC:: AB n (m + nf seg BC seg ABC m + n (m /. seg AB + seg BC seg ABC and A ABC = seg ABC - seg AB - seg BC; A ABC seg ^(7 3 (m n + win (m + n}
5,

Lemma

::

::

S
,

::

-f TZ)

.-.

::

::

3mn

(m + w)

2
.

(7)

To find

the

chord of curvature, at any point of the cardioid,

through the focus.


It to
is

easily seen

from

p.

56

(3),

that

SY being

perpendicular

PTj

the triangles

PSY,pBm,

and

CBp

are similar;

.-.

8Y: SP:: Bm Bp :: Bp BC; SY SP :: SP BC, since m = SP, ^P and (SY - SY BC = SP - SP SP-SP 8Y~SY 2SY.BC: 3SP* ultimately;
.-.
:

.-.

3
;

::

.-.

by Art.

86, chord of curvature

2SY:: 2SP: SSY;

therefore the chord of curvature through

S=

xn.
1.

which

focal distance of the point in the parabola at the curvature is one-eighth of that at the vertex is equal to

Prove that the

the latus rectum.

106

NEWTON.

2. Prove that the diameter of curvature at the vertex of the major axis of an ellipse is equal to the latus rectum and shew
:

that the ratio of the curvature at the extremities of the axes of the cubes of the axes.

is

that

3. Shew that at no point of an ellipse will the circle of curvature pass through the centre, if the eccentricity be less

than Vi

Find for what point of an ellipse the circle of curvature passes through the other extremity of the diameter at that point, shew that the distance of this point from the centre is the side of the square of which AB is the diagonal.
4.
5.

point, in geometrical progression.


6.

In a rectangular hyperbola, the diameter of curvature at any and the chords of curvature through the focus and centre are

Prove that

axis is a

mean

the normal,

PC = A C B 0.

P in an ellipse for which the minor between the radius of curvature and proportional
at a point

Shew

that this is impossible unless

If the radius of curvature for an ellipse at normal, prove that CP = CS. If moreover prove that CP - 3PM.
7.

P be

twice the

AC=2C,

of a parabola pass If the circle of curvature at a point chord of the focal the other extremity through P, and the through T the the in that at P meet axis prove triangle PS T will tangent
8.
}

be equilateral.

Prove that the distance of the centre of curvature, at any of a parabola, from the directrix is three times that of the point
9.

point.
10. If trie circle of curvature at a point on a parabola touch the directrix, the focal distance of the point will be of the latus rectum.

&

is a normal at a point of a rectangular hyperbola, the curve in Q, prove that PQ, is equal to the meeting again diameter of curvature at P.

11.

PQ

12. Prove that the portion of the normal intercepted between the line joining the extremities of the two chords of curvature through

tke foci of an ellipse, and the point of contact

is

LEMMA

XI.

107

If fixed hyperbola is touched by a concentric ellipse. 13. the curvatures at the point of contact be equal, the area of the
ellipse will

be constant.

of finite

that the directrices of all parabolas touching a curve curvature at any given point, and having the same curvature at that point as the curve, pass through a fixed point.
14.

Shew

XIII.
1. Prove that the chord of curvature through the vertex 2PY T being the intersection of the of a parabola 2PY at and A. P tangents
: : : :

AP

2. Apply the property that the radius of curvature at any point of an ellipse is to the normal in the duplicate ratio of the normal to the semi-latus rectum, to shew that the radius of curvature at the extremity of the major axis is equal to the semi-latus-rectum. 3. Assuming only that a curve has a subnormal of constant length, prove geometrically that its radius of curvature varies as the cube of its normal. 4. If Pp be any chord of an and p, shew that the curvatures at and PT.

ellipse,

P and p

PT,

tangents at P are as the cubes of p

pT

5. Shew that the sum of the chords of curvature through a focus of an ellipse at the extremities of conjugate diameters is constant. Also, if p, a be the radii of curvature at those points, 3 3 that prove p + a is constant.
6.

Prove that the chords of curvature through any two points


ellipse in the direction of the line joining them are in the ratio as the squares on the diameters parallel to the tangents

on an

same

at the points.
7. Prove that the distances of the centre of curvature at any point of an ellipse and of that point from the minor axis are in the duplicate ratio of the distances of the point and the directrix from the same axis. 8. An hyperbola touches an ellipse, having a pair of conjugate diameters of the ellipse for its asymptotes. Prove that the curves have the same curvature at the point of contact.

J) sin 2.

9. Shew that, if be the diameter of an ellipse parallel to the the length of the tangent at a point P, whose eccentric angle is chord common to the ellipse and circle of curvature at will be
<f>,

108
10.

NEWTON.
Determine a parabola of curvature in magnitude and position
circle,

any point in a the tangent.


for
11.

when

the subtenses are inclined at 45 to

#, y be the coordinates of a point P of a curve OP, the origin 0, the diameter of curvature at will through passing x* + 1/* a the inclination of the tangent be x sm a y cos a ultimately, being Hence shew that, if the equation of to the line of abscissae. at a curve, referred to rectangular areas, be y + 2ay - 2ax = 0, the radius of curvature at the origin will be 2 ^2 a.

If

<-

12. circle is a circle of curvature, at a fixed point in the circumference, to an ellipse, one focus of which lies on the circle, phew that the locus of the other focus is also a circle.

Prove that the chord of curvature at any point P of an any direction PQ is half the harmonic mean between the two tangents drawn from P to the confocal conic that touches PQ, the tangents being reckoned positive when drawn towards the
13.
ellipse in

interior of the ellipse.

XIV.

AEB be the chord, AD tangent, and BD the subtense, ACB of finite curvature at A, find the limit of the ratio area ACBE area ACBD as B approaches A. 2. An arc of continuous curvature PQR is bisected in Q, PT is the tangent at P prove that, ultimately, as R approaches P, the is bisected by PQ. RPT angle 3. If AB be an arc of finite curvature bisected in C, and T be
1.

If

tl>e

for

an arc

a point in the tangent at A, at a finite distance from A, prove that the angle B TC will be ultimately three times the angle CTA, when
J?

moves up
4.

to

A.

curves touch one another, and both are on the same common tangent. If in the plane of the curves this tangent revolve about the point of contact, or if it move parallel to itself, the prime ratio of the nascent chords in the former case will be the duplicate of their prime ratio in the latter case.
Bide of the
5. CB is a small arc of finite curvature prove that the mean of the distances of every point of the arc from the chord is equal to f of the distance of the middle point of the arc from the chord, and that the mean of the distances of every point of the arc from the tangent at either extremity of the arc is equal to f of the distance of the middle point of the arc from the same tangent.
;

Two

AB

LEMMA

XI.

109

6. When on an arc of continuous curvature there is no point where the curvature is a maximum or minimum, the circles of

curvature at the extremities of the arc cannot intersect.


7. If S be any point in the plane of a curve, any point on the corresponding point on the pedal for which S is the curve, the pole, the point where PS cuts the circle of curvature at P, the corresponding point for the pedal, then 4SP.SF =PV. YV.

its

in a curve increases uniformly with Prove that the area between the the of curvature of lengths a, b, and radii its two evolute, curve, is i (a~ + ab + which contain an angle 0.
8.

The radius of curvature

inclination to a fixed radius.

<p,

b"}

such that the radius vector makes half the angle with the normal that it does with a fixed line find the chord of curvature through the pole.
9.
is
;

A curve

10. In a segment of an arc of finite curvature a pentagon is inscribed, one side of which is the chord of the arc, and the remaining Shew that the limiting ratio of the areas of the sides are equal.

pentagon and segment, when the chord moves up towards the tangent at one extremity, is 15 16.
:

and Q is a curve of continued and finite curvature, 11. are are two points in it, whose abscissae along the normal at the in from in the and two ratio m normal, 1, B, C, points always Pb, CPc, BQb CQc are drawn to meet the tangen* straight lines and Q move up to A, the areas 01 at A. Shew that, when

APQ

the triangles bPc, b Qc are ultimately in the ratio m*


12.

1.

AB

is

an arc of
:

finite

Tangents and B intersect the tangent at P in T and R, and AB is Prove that the ultimate ratio of the area ATRB to the joined. 2 2 z as B moves up to A, is 3 (m + mn + w ) 2 (m + w) APJB, segment
:

taken such that

AP PB is in the constant ratio of m

curvature at A, and a point


n.

is

at

meets the normal at a point the centre of curvature at A, and when moves to in on the limit, A, the up prove that, the ratio OC OA. difference of OA and OB bears to
13.

a point

AC
14.

The tangent
in T,

to a curve at a point

is

AT

is

curve,

QPQ!

QP = PQ
trace out

= PO; prove that, as P moves round the curve, Q, Q two closed loops, the sum of whose areas is twice the area

a point within a closed oval curve, any point on the a straight line drawn in a given direction, such that

of the original curve.

110

NEWTON.

NOTE ON MAXIMA AND MINIMA.


93.

When

a variable magnitude changes

its

value in con

sequence of the change of some element of its construction, the law of its variation can be graphically represented by the form of a curve in which the ordinate and abscissa of every
point represent respectively the corresponding values of the variable magnitude and of the element on which it depends.
of representation have been given in Arts. 55 and 57, in which the time or space is the element upon which depends the velocity or kinetic energy, which are

Examples

of this

mode

the variable magnitudes respectively considered.


94.

This

graphic representation

enables us

to

obtain

property of any

maximum
is

or

minimum
to

value of a variable
variety

magnitude which
of problems.

applicable

the solution of a

For,

let

Ox be

the line of abscissa and

auxiliary curve at which the tangent parallel to Ox, and let the abscissa

RBS OA represent

a point in the to the curve is


the corre

sponding value of the element, then the ordinate

AB

is

maximum

or

minimum

PBQ

in

the

according as the portion of the curve is concave or convex to neighbourhood of

the line

Ox.

PQ be drawn parallel to the tangent RBS, the two points P and Q one on each side of B have equal ordinates MP, NQ, which, as PQ moves up to and continues
Let a chord
the tangent, become nearer and nearer and are ultimately equal to the maximum or minimum value, while the difference between the corresponding abscissae ultimately vanishes.
parallel to

derived the following theorem : If a variable magnitude have a maximum or minimum value there will be two values of the element of construction, one greater

Hence

is

and

the other less than the critical value,

which will give equal

values of the variable magnitude.

LEMMA XL
95.

111

Stationary value of a magnitude. be produced to meet the Let the equal ordinates MP, and $, then by Lemma XL, and QS vanish tangent in

NQ

PR

compared with

AM

or

AN, and

the

ratio

of the rates

of

increase of the ordinate to that of the abscissa, which is gene rally finite, vanishes for the critical case of a maximum or

minimum

on this account the magnitude

is

said to

have a

stationary value. One or two examples are sufficient to

shew the application

of this method.

To find at what point on the bank of an oval pond a person must land in order to pass from a given point on the
96.

pond

to

a given point on

the batik in the shortest possible time^

having given the ratio of his rates by land and by water. Let A, be the two given points, the point at which he

must land, and


the bank.

let ??y,

v be the velocities

On
he

which
take

if

opposite sides of land the time to

P B

by water and along there are two points R at


,

will

AM= A $,
<

then

MR

in

water

be the same, in and QR on land are


.

AR

same time, therefore n QR = MR which is = ??, true, however near Q and R may be to P; therefore cos where is the angle between AP and the tangent at P; whence,
described in the
9
<

when

the exact form of the oval

is

given, the position of

can be found.
chord of an oval^ which, drawn through a given point, cuts off a maximum or minimum segment. it is Through the fixed point possible to draw two chords and one PA Q on each side of the required chord, for pAq,
97.
the

To find

which the areas cut off are exactly equal; take away the common part, and the remainders PAp, QAq are equal there when the angle between them vanishes, fore, ultimately, = PA.pA QA.qAj and the chord which cuts off a maximum or minimum area must be bisected by the fixed point.
;

98.

If a

triangle

triangle^ prove that

of constant shape be described about a given when the area is a maximum the normals to

112
the sides

NEWTON.

of the circumscribed triangle at the angular points of the given triangle will meet in a point. Let be the given triangle, a/ity, od/S y two positions

ABC

of the circumscribing triangle whose areas are equal, the triangle of maximum area being intermediate in position. Since the angles at a, a are equal, the points a, a lie in
the same segment of a circle whose base in BC, and the angles a(7a , aBa are equal. Hence the triangles a(7a , /3(7/3 , /3-4/S ,

yAy\

&c., are ultimately proportional to (7a , (7/3 , .... But the sum of the areas cc(7a , /3Aj3 , yBy are ultimately

equal to the
. .

sum

of /3Q3

yAy

a.Ba!,

Let the

aC*-&G* + {3A*- yA* + yB* normals at A and C meet in N

= 0.

- yB* = cuV - yN =
2

2
aZ>

- 7 Z) 2

if

ND be

perpendicular to ay

which proves the proposition.

XV.
1. In an arc of continuous curvature w points . v 2 are taken so that the polygon AP^PZ has a maximum area; is indefinitely diminished, the arcs prove that, when the arc are all equal. y
,

AB

P P

AB

Find the greatest rectangle which can be inscribed in a triangle, one side of which is on a side of the triangle.
2.
3. Prove that the diagonals of the greatest rectangle which can be inscribed in an ellipse, having its sides parallel to the axes, are

the equi-conjugate diameters.


4. Prove that the parallelograms of smallest area which can be described about a given ellipse are those which have their sides parallel to conjugate diameters. 5.

A point
.

produced, and a points P and P

line is

APP A

taken on the major axis AA of an ellipse drawn through cutting the ellipse in the Prove that when the area of the quadrilateral
is

is

maximum

the projection of

PP

upon

AA

is

equal to

the semi- axis-major.

LEMMA

XT.

113

6. Prove that the quadrilateral of maximum area that can be formed with four straight lines AJ3, jBC, CD, DA, of given lengths Hence prove that is such that a circle can be described about it. the curve of given length which on a given chord encloses a maximum area is an arc of a circle.

a point on the exterior of two oval curves tangents are drawn to the inner; shew that, when the arc is a minimum or maximum, the radii of curvature at and Q are in the ratio TP sec a TQ sec/3, where a, /3 are the angles which TP, TQ respectively make with the normal at T.
7.

From

TP, TQ

PQ

8.

ellipse

Find the ultimate intersection of the chords common to an and two consecutive circles of curvature, and shew that when
:

the
it

common chord attains its maximum length for a given ellipse, cuts the ellipse at angles whose tangents are as 1 3.
9

triangle inscribed in a closed oval curve moves so that two Prove that when the area cut sides cut off constant areas. off by the third side is stationary the three lines formed by joining each angular point of the triangle to the intersection of tangents

of

its

at the other

two points are concurrent.

10. Any two normal chords of an ellipse at right angles to each other cut off equal areas from the curve. Hence find the position of the normal chord which cuts off the minimum area.

11. An endless string just reaches round the circumference of an oval, and when it is cut at any point it is unwrapped until it becomes a tangent at the point of section shew that the involute BO formed will have a maximum or minimum length if the point of section be chosen so that the length of the oval shall be equal
;

to the circumference of the circle of curvature at that point.

114

NEWTON.

DIGRESSION

ON THE PROPERTIES OF CEHTAIN CURVES.

THE CYCLOID.
99.
line,

one plane, a circle roll along a straight any point on its circumference will describe a curve called
If,

DEF.

in

a Cycloid.

Let C,
from CD,

straight line,

be the points where the tracing point on which it rolls A the point where
;

P
it

meets the
is

furthest

AB being

The

rolling circle is called the generating circle,

the corresponding diameter of the circle. is called

AB

the axis,
100.

the vertex,

CD

the base, and C,

the cusps.

the generating circle in any position, then, since the points of the base and circle come successively in are each contact without slipping, CS=arc PS, CB and

Let

EPS be

BD

half of the circumference of the circle,

and J5$= arc HP.

101.

To draw a tangent
circle

to

then, con sidering a circle as the limit of a regular polygon of a large number of sides, it will roll by turning about the point of con

Let the generating

a cycloid. be in the position

EPS,

tact,

be at rest for an instant, being an angular point therefore for an instant will move per of the polygon

which

will

pendicular to SP,
chord, which
If

A QB

PR of the supplemental be the tangent to the cycloid at P. as diameter, be the circle on an ordior in the direction
will therefore

AB

PQM

nate perpendicular to the chord QA.


102.

AB,

the tangent at

will be parallel to

To find

the length

of the arc of a cycloid.


circle

Let
at P.

EPS

be the position of the generating

corre

sponding

to the point

in the cycloid,

PR

being the tangent

THE CYCLOID.

115

When
centre

the circle has turned

through any angle

POp

the

will have moved through a distance equal to Pp, and the motion of the generating point will be the resultant

of

Pp due

due

to the rotation, and to the translation of the centre

pP

Pp

parallel

to the base
;

of the

circle

and

PP

will ultimately coincide with

PR.

Draw pn

perpendicular to

since ultimately. arc of the cycloid measured from the vertex increases twice as fast as the chord of the generating circle, which is a

P#, then, Hence the

Pp = P p, PP = 2Pn = 2 (RP- Rp]

tangent to the cycloid, and they vanish simultaneously, therefore the arc of the cycloid is double of the chord of the generating
or referring to the circle on the axis the arc is double of the corresponding chord
circle,

AB

AP

as diameter,

A Q.
abscissa.

103.

To find

the relation between the arc

and

Let A31 be the abscissa of the point P, then

AM: AQi: AQ AB;


:

104.
cycloid,

To shew that the evolate of a given cycloid and that the radius of curvature of a cycloid

is
is

an equal
twice the

normal.
the axis, A the APC be half the given cycloid, and the base. to BC Produce making BC equal vertex, and let the semito AB, and complete the rectangle BOB C be generated by a circle, whose diameter is equal cycloid C to that of the generating circle of the given cycloid, rolling on

Let

AB
,

AB

6",

the axis of this cycloid. Let SPR, SP be two positions of the respective gene rating circles, having their diameters RS^ SR in the same the vertex,

CB

C being

CB

116
straight
line,

NEWTON.
P,

being the

corresponding

cycloids; join /SP,

PR

and SP,

PR

points

of the

By

the

mode

of generation, arc

SP=SC,
is

and arc

SPR-BC\
line.

.-.

L PSR = L

F8R

and
.%

PSF

a straight
r

Also,

arcP/S^arcPS;
.-.

chd.P/S =chd.P/S

P#P=2P=P Cthe cycloidal arc;


P /SP
touches the cycloid
C",

also

CP OatP

and wrapped over the arc of the semicycloid, will, when unwrapped, have its extremity in the arc of the given cycloid hence, the evolute of a semicycloid is an equal semicycloid, and the radius of curvature at
therefore, a string fixed at
;

If another equal semicycloid be described by the circle rolling on C produced, the extremity of the string wrapped on this curve will trace out the remainder
is

2P$ or

twice the normal.

of the given cycloid.

Thus a pendulum may be made


cycloid.

to

oscillate

in

a given

105.

To find

the area

of the, cycloid.
in a cycloid,

Let P,

be two points very near each other

THE CYCLOID.
(),

117

corresponding points in the generating circle, p, p in the the intersections of the base with normals Pp, evolute, Rj

Pp, T, 8 the intersections of BQ and Fp with PQ. Then pR = PR = BQ, and bp P8=*p RR ultimately = &BQT;
therefore trapezium ultimately, and the same being true for all the inscribed triangles and trapeziums, whose sums are ultimately the areas of the semicircle and semicycloid,
therefore, by Cor., IV., the area of the cycloid times that of the generating circle.

PRR S=3&BQT

Lemma

is

three

is

following method of finding the area of a cycloid independent of the properties of the evolute.
106.

The

In the figure of Art. 104 let P be any point in the cycloid the chord of the generating circle which touches j the cycloid, and let Q be a point in the cycloid near P then

CPG PS

Let Q Q , ultimately coincides with PS. be the complements of the parallelogram whose diagonal is PS) and sides parallel and perpendicular to the base, these are
the arc

PQ

equal ultimately

therefore,

CNF = circular
The

segment

is exterior portion equal and the whole semicircle, parallelogram

SP N CB BC

by

Lemma
.

IV., the cycloidal area


to

the
is

area

of the

BOB C

the rectangle

118

NEWTON.

under the diameter and semi-circumference of the generating circle, and is equal to four times the area of the semicircle ;
therefore the cycloidal area
semicircle.

CC B

is

three times the area of the

107.

All cycloids are similar.

Let two cycloids APG, Ape be placed so that their vertices are the same, and their axes coincident in direction, and describe

on the axes AB, Ab as diameters. Draw Ag_Q cutting the circles in q, Q. are Then, since the segments Aq, arc :: if be similar, Aq arcAQ Aq AQ; and, mqp,
circles
:

AQ MQP

ordinates to the cycloids, arcs Aq, therefore qp : Aq Q, and


:

AQ = qp, QP
ApP
is

respectively
straight

QP

line.

Also
the

Ap AP:: Aq
:

AQ

::

Ab

AB,

a constant ratio; hence

cycloids satisfy the position of the cycloids


similitude.

condition the

of similarity, and in this is a centre of direct point

To construct a cycloid which shall have its vertex at a given point, its base parallel to a given straight line, and which
108.
shall pass through a given point.

Let
line,

be the given vertex, In the given point.

AB perpendicular AB take any point


is

to the given
b,

and with

the generating circle, whose diameter

Ab, describe a cycloid

Ape, join AP intersecting this cycloid in p. Take AB a fourth proportional to Ap, AP, and Ab then AB will be the diameter of the generating circle of the required Ab AB, and cycloid; for, since Ap AP cycloids are P axis a point in the cycloid whose is AB. similar,
;
:

::

all

is

THE CYCLOID.
109.

119
cycloid,
the time

particle slides
is

whose

ax-is

vertical,

down the smooth arc of a and vertex downwards^ to find

of an oscillation. Let be the vertical axis of the cycloidal arc APL, L the point from \\ hich the particle begins to move, PQ a small arc of

AB

its

path, Lit, PM, Aq on the tangent at

QN perpendicular to AB]
A
respectively equal to

and take Al,

Suppose a point to
the particle

move from

to

A
L

AL, AP,

A Q.

in the

same time as

to A, their velocities cycloid from being always equal at equal distances from A. Let v be the velocity at or p, and the time of falling from to J, so that v* = and <2AB = gT* , therefore

moves on the

vT = AB.BM= 1AB.AR - AB.AM= AU- AP\ Art. 103,


Describe a circle with centre
ordinates pt, qu, then AT the time from to Q,
i

ZgBM
A

and radius Al, and draw the -Ap =pt^ audpt = vTj and if T be PQ =pq = vr ultimately, hence
z

tu

Al

pq pt
:

7 ;

therefore,

if

a point
,

move

in

the circle from


in

with uniform

Al
velocity

-=

the point

moving

IA

will

always be in the

foot of the ordinate

and the motion in IA or LA will therefore be a simple harmonic motion, by (5) page 78. The time from L to A is the time of describing the quadrant
with velocity

~ =^T=\
,

120

NEWTON.

length of the string which, by the contrivance of Art. 104, makes a particle oscillate in this cycloid is 2AB=l suppose; therefore the time of the oscillation of a cycloidal pendulum
of length Zfrom rest to rest

The

=
to

TT

NOTE. The time from


110.

9 V/P V/
.

is

1
cos"

AP.
is
;

9
a
for,
is is

can shew that the motion on the cycloid simple harmonic motion by the first definition, (5) page 78
referring to the figure, page 115, since the tangent at parallel to AQ, the acceleration along the curve at

We

P P

AO

g.

-j-p=#

time from
111.

AP w h lca varies as L to A obtained.


6~2~z?
J

AP,

and,

by

(4)

page

77, the

is

of a very small oscillation of a simple pendulum suspended from a point. A simple pendulum is an imaginary pendulum consisting of a heavy particle called the bob, suspended from & point by means

To find

the time

of a rod or string without weight. In this case the pendulum describes the small arc of a circle

which may be considered the same as a cycloidal arc, the axis of which is half the length I of the pendulum, therefore the
1

time of oscillation from rest to rest

is

TT

I 9
made by a given

112.

To count

the

number of
time.

oscillations

pendulum in any long

counting a very great number of oscillations, since in the case of a seconds pen dulum there would be 3600 oscillations for each hour, it becomes

In consequence of the

liability to error in

necessary to adopt some contrivance for diminishing the labour. For this purpose the pendulum is made to oscillate nearly in the same time as that of a clock; it is then placed in front of
that of the clock, so that when they are simultaneously near their lowest positions the bob of the pendulum and a cross

marked on

the

pendulum of the clock may be

in the field of

view of a fixed telescope.

THE CYCLOID.
Suppose that
after

121
of the

oscillations

given pendulum

they are again in coincidence close to the same position ; if there be such coincidences in the whole time of observation, the number of oscillations in that time will be mn ; thus the

only labour has been to count the n oscillations, and to estimate the number of the coincidences before the last one observed.
113.

To measure

the accelerating effect

of gravity by means

of a pendulum. Let g be the measure of

this effect or the velocity

generated

by

the force of gravity in a second. Let I be the length of a simple

pendulum which makes n

oscillations in

m
/

hours, then -------

= number
^
,

of seconds in one
in

oscillation

= TT
I is

v/

/g

therefore

j-^oGOOj in

whatever unit

of length

estimated.

This would be a very exact method of determining g, if we but it is impossible to do this, could form a simple pendulum
;

too difficult to be only by explained here that it can be shewn how to deduce the length of the simple pendulum, which would oscillate in the same time as

and

it

is

calculations of a nature

a pendulum of a more complicated structure.

The seconds pendulum dulum which at the mean level


114.
oscillate in

at

the simple pen of the sea at that place would

any place

is

one second.
I

If

L
TT

be the length of the seconds pendulum,

the length

of a pendulum
,

making n
3600>?i

oscillations in
,

m
J

hours,

--

g
115.

,
,

and
iiiiv*

TT
"

Y \

= !, /g 9
~~

IL

.-. *

L= /P/V* m
[pv]

To determine

the height

of a mountain by means of a

seconds pendulum, the force of gravity at any point being supposed to vary inversely as the square of the distance from the centre of
the earth.

Let L be the length of a seconds pendulum, x the height of the mountain above the mean level of the sea, a the radius R

122
of the earth,
all

NEWTON.
expressed in feet; and let n be the number of in 24 hours by the pendulum at the top of the

seconds

lost

mountain.
If g be the measure of the accelerating effect of gravity at

the

mean

level

of the sea, then

-.-

(a

+ xy

will

be

its

value at

the top of the mountain, and the time of oscillation at the top
...

will

be

TT

Y
.

I(L (a + x\ z \ M<

-a

or -

+x -a

IL
TT

seconds, since
n)
ct

{g

V9
.

hence,

writing

for

24x60x60, (N n*

^^-11 *
rl
;

= N,

and
bllt

a = 4000 x 1760 x 3 and JV= 24 x 60 x 60, therefore the height 2 == of the mountain will be 244 4/i + 0027;* thus, if n 10, the height will be 2444 7 feet.

NOTE. The

attraction of the

mountain would make a sensible

variation from the law of the inverse square, this law being true only if the earth consisted of homogeneous spherical strata.

To find the number of seconds lost in a day, in con the length of the seconds pendulum ; sequence of a slight error in
116.

and

conversely.

the length of of seconds in a day, the seconds pendulum, L + \ that of the incorrect pendulum, the number of its oscillations in a day;

Let

N be the

number

Nn

THE EPICYCLOID AND IIYPOCYCLOID.


DEF. The curve traced out by a point on the cir cumference of a circle, which rolls upon that of a fixed circle, if the concavities of the two circles be is called an
117.

Epicycloid
directions,

in

opposite

a llijpocycloid

if

the

concavities be

in

the same direction.

THE EPICYCLOID AND IIYPOCYCLOID.


118.

123
is

To shew that

the evolute

of an epicycloid

a similar

epicycloid.

Let

FA

be the fixed

circle,

position,

the generating

APE the rolling circle in any point, CAE a line drawn through

the point of contact, meeting the rolling circle in A, E; and and will be a be the epicycloid, of which let

GPF

PA

PE

normal and tangent.

Draw

the chord
in 0.

EQ

parallel to

PA
:

and join

CQ

meeting

PA

produced

Since

EQ

is

parallel to

A 0,

CO: CQ:: CA
therefore

CE;

But $, being the describe similar figures. other extremity of the diameter through P, will describe an epicycloid similar and equal to GPF, being at its cusp when
and

P is at G the
Draw Oa
meeting

greatest distance from C. parallel to QA and therefore perpendicular to


in a, then

PO,

CA

rolling of a circle
circle of radius Ca.

AOa,

generates an epicycloid fF by the whose diameter is Aa, on a fixed

124
Also

NEWTON.

perpendicular to aO and is therefore a tangent tofF, \\encefF is the evolute of the given epicycloid and is a similar epicycloid.
the normal to
is

PO

GF

be the radii of the fixed and rolling given epicycloid, then


a, b
: : : : :

Let

circles for the

Aa CA:: OQ: CQ:: AE CE 21 a + 2b-, a a + 2&, and if a = GO Aa = AE, therefore Aa AE


:
:

AFj af become straight is an equal cycloid.


119.

lines,

and whence the evolute of a cycloid


,

Since

AO PA
:

EQ

CA

CE,
the

therefore

PO:PA::2(a + b):a +
curvature at

2J,

which gives

PO

radius

of

of the given epicycloid ; this will independently of the evolute in Art. 121 below.

be found

120.

To find

the length

of any arc of

the epicycloid.

By

the properties of the evolute, see the evolute

the

last

figure, the

arcO^of
epicycloid
point,

=OP=2AP. ^77, -f 26

and the arc of the

= OF

generated by Q, measured from a

to

the highest

=2AP. ^i^; a

therefore the arc

GP

from

the highest point

of the epicycloid

GPF=ZEP.

121.

To find

the

radius of curvature at any point of an

epicycloid,

THE EPICYCLOID AND HYPOCYCLOID.


Let AB^
of

125

BC be
AB, Be

sides,

consecutive sides of a fixed regular polygon sides of another regular polygon of n sides
it

equal to those of the former, on the outside of which


in a position in

rolls,

which two sides are coincident.

Let
as

P be
,

generate

PP P

will any angular point of the rolling polygon ; a figure composed of a series of circular arcs such when Be coincides with BC. being the position of

Produce PA,

P B to

meet

in 0.

Then LAPB=", and n

LPBP = L cBC =
n

m
/.

\m
sinTr

n
.

PO PB
:

sin27r

+ -}: (\m nj

(- + -} \m nj

number of sides is polygons ultimately become circles,


the

When

indefinitely

increased, the

the curve traced out

by

becomes an epicycloid, and

PO

the radius of curvature at P.

If a, b be the radii of the fixed and rolling circles m.AB=27ra and n.AB=27rbj ultimately ; therefore n a : b]

PO PA::
:

2(a + b) (- + -}: m + -:: n \7?i nj


,7
is

25;

therefore the radius of curvature


is

2PA

+ Vb*

where

PA

the part of the normal intercepted between the generating point and the point of contact. If a = GO , or the fixed circle become a straight line, the
epicycloid will
will

become a

cycloid,
in

and the radius of curvature


Art. 104.

be twice the normal, as

122.

To find

the

area of an epicycloid.
area
2?r

In the
sector

last figure,

APP B= A PAB+ sector PBP


/ 1
\-

now
TT

PBP =

iPS".

\m
.-.

-} and n) gj
y? *

]\

kPAB = \PB

sin

area^PP

P= &PAB |l +
[

+ MK
j

ultimately;

hence, by

Lemma

IV. Cor., the area of the segment of the

120

NEWTON.
two normals and the fixed
circle
circle.

epicycloid included between


is

(3H \

the corresponding segment of the rolling & I)x


105.

Compare Art.
123.

properties of the hypocycloid may be proved in a similar manner; and the results obtained will be the same as for the epicycloid, if in the latter the sign

The corresponding

of b be changed. Thus, if the diameter of the fixed be double that of the rolling will become a straight line, which agrees circle, the u/pocycloid

with the result of Art. 121, since a + 26 radius of curvature at every point will be

= 0,

and therefore the

infinite.

124.
all

DEF. The equiangular spiral the radii drawn from, a fixed point
If a series of radii

is

a curve which cuts

at a constant angle.

125.

at equal angles,
...
)

SA, SB, SO, ... be drawn inclined and AB, BC, CD, ... make equal angles SAB,
limit

with these radii respectively, the curvilinear

35-

JD

of

the

polygon
...

ABCD

...,

when

the
will

equal

angles

A SB,

BSC,
spiral.

are indefinitely diminished,

be an equiangular

length of contained between two radii.


tlie,

126.

To find

an arc of an equiangular spiral


let

Let a be the constant angle SAB, and

SL

be the n th

THE EQUIANGULAR
radius from
similar,

SPIRAL.

127

SA
:

then, since the triangles


.

A SB,
1

BSC,

...

are

/.

SB: SC ... n Let SB=\.SA, then BC=\.AB, CD=V.AB...FL=\ -\AB; AB + BC+...+ FL-.AB:: I -f X+...+ V - 1 :: 1 -Xn 1 --X

8A

SB:-.

SA-\*.SA SA-SB:: SA-SL: SA- SB, # cosASB = SA - SB ultimately, and cosa = &4 but .4 AB+BC + ... is ultimately the arc of the spiral therefore &rcAL= (SA - SL) seca.
::
:

127.

To find

the

area of an equiangular spiral bounded by

two radii.

.Employing the same construction as above,

&ASB+ &BSC+ &CSD+... &ASB:: +X ...+ X l-X :: SA* - SL* SA* - SB*, :: i_x
2
:

""

2
:

but
/.

SA* .%

cot a, ultimately

area
the

ASL = J

- SL 2 (SA*

tana.

radius and chord of curvature through the an equiangular spiral. pole at any point of Let SP, SQ be radii drawn to two points P and Q, near to
128.

To find

one another,
intersect
in

let
7?,

PR, QR, tangents


and
let

to the

spiral at

and

(?,

the normals

PO,

QO

intersect in

Oj

join

OR, SR.

128

NEWTON.

Then, since angles SQR, SPR are equal to two right angles, and each of the angles OQR, OPR is a right angle, the circle which passes through P, R^ and Q will also pass through S therefore L OSR is a and (9, and OR will be its diameter
;

Hence, right angle. of the circle of curvature at

proceeding to the limit,

is

the centre

P, and OSP is a right angle. SP coseca will Therefore if a be the angle of the spiral, be the radius of curvature, and 2/SP the chord of curvature

OP=

through the pole.


129.
If

The

PV

following is an illustration of Art. 86. be the chord of curvature through $,

but

.-.

SY -SY: SP -SP:: 2SF:PF; in the equiangular spiral SY SY :: SP: SP 8Y -SY: SP -SP ::SY: SP] whence PV=- 2SP.
:

THE CATENARY.
130.

DEF. The Catenary

is

the curve in which a uniform

and perfectly flexible string, of which the extremities are sus pended at two points, would hang under the action of gravity,
supposed to be a constant force acting in parallel
lines.

The

directrix

is

the lowest point is equal to the tension at the lowest point. The axis is the vertical through the lowest point. 131.

a horizontal straight line whose depth below equal to the length of string whose weight is

The

tension at

any point of

the catenary is equal to the

weight of the string which^ if suspended extend to the directrix.

from

that point^

would

be the lowest point of a uniform and perfectly flexible string hanging from two points under the action of gravity, the length of string whose weight is any other point,

Let

AO

equal to the tension of the string at A.

Take a

point

in

and

let

M and

03/,
C.

BC

drawn horizontally meet a

vertical

PM in

OA,

If a string pass round smooth pegs at APCB, it is evident that there will be a position of equilibrium whatever be the

THE CATENARY.

129

length of the string, or the position of BC, and for some length and some position of the tangent at will be horizontal.

BC

Also, since

T O BDG will

hang symmetrically, the


be equal, and

tensions of

the string at

B and C will

BO, CM of the string, without disturbing the equilibrium of AP, therefore the tension of the catenary at P is equal to the weight of a string of length PM.
and replaced by equal lengths
132.
proposition of the preceding article may be proved considering the catenary as the limit of the polygon formed
series of equal rods of the

BDG may

be removed

The

by by a
at

same substance jointed freely the extremities and suspended from two fixed points, when
is

the length of the rods

indefinitely diminished.

equilibrium will be undisturbed if each rod be replaced by two weights at the extremities, each equal to half that of the rod, connected by a rod without weight.

The

Let

ABj

BC

be two

consecutive

positions

of the
s

rods,

130

NEWTON.

AM AM in D
The

weights equal to those of the rods being placed at A, B, C , let be vertical and horizontal, and produce CB to meet

BM

draw

DN perpendicular to
B

AB.

forces

which keep

in equilibrium act in the directions

of the sides of the triangle ABD, and are proportional to them. Therefore the difference of the tensions of and is
to the weight of the rod or mately, as

AN: AD

AB BG AB as AB- BD AD, that ulti AM: AB-, hence the difference of the
:

is,

tensions

the weight of a rod of length AM. Therefore, proceeding to the limit, the difference of tensions
is

any two points of the catenary is equal to the weight of string, which is equal in length to the vertical depth of one point below the other, whence the truth of the proposition.
at

P is a point in a catenary, PM perpendicular to the directrix, PT a tangent at P, MU perpendicular to PT ; to shew that PU is equal to the arc measured from the lowest point
133.

and

that

MU

is

constant.

Let PT, fig. for Art. 131, meet the directrix in T, and be the axis, then since the arc let A supposed to become rigid is in equilibrium under the action of the tensions at A and P and the weight, and these forces are in the directions

OM

AP

of the sides of the triangle


.-.

TPM^
: :

AP: AO: PM::PM: MT: TP


TPM, MPU;
,-.

PU

MU

PM,

by

similar triangles

PU=AP

and

MU=AO.

To draw a tangent to a catenary at any point. and radius equal to A describe a circle, and With centre draw touching this circle in U; then, since MU, which is
134.

PU

perpendicular to at P.
135.

PU,

is

equal to

A 0, PU will

be the tangent

If a rectangular hyperbola be described, having


the

centre

and semi-transverse axis OA,


For,
2

ordinate of the hyperbola


.

will be equal to the arc of the catenary,


let

APi be the hyperbola, therefore


2

= ON

OA = PM 2 9

UiM* = PU* ;

/.

RN= PU= AP.

THE LEMNISCATE.
136.

131
of
at

To find

the radius

and

vertical chord of curvature

a catenary.
Let

PQ

be a small arc of a catenary, ItSPT,

P and

Qj PJ/,

Q2? ordinates,

TOM the

QS tangents

directrix.

Since

QES is
:

a triangle of the forces acting upon P(?,

tension at
.
.

PM PQ

P weight of PQ ES QR %PQ
:

PS
QR,

QR,
;

: :

ultimately

2PJ/ is the vertical chord of curvature, and P6r, the and the of the normal intercepted between the point part directrix is equal to the radius of curvature at P.
therefore

PG PM:: PT TM:: tension at P tension at A PM A 0, therefore the radius of curvature is a third pro and PM. portional to A
Also
: : : :

THE LEMNISCATE.
DEF. The Lemniscate is the locus of the feet of the perpendiculars drawn from the centre of a rectangular hyperbola
137.

upon the tangent.


138.

To find

the radius

from

inclination to the tangent at the centre of the lemniscate.


the

any point of

Let

CY

be perpendicular on

PT

the tangent at the p^int

132

NEWTON.

in the hyperbola, then CY. PF. in the and rectangular hyperbola.

CP=

CD = A C\

since

AC=BG

CP= CD

Draw

the ordinate
.-.

PM,

then

CT.

CM=AC* = CY.CP;

CY: CT:: CM: CP;


right angles; therefore on the tangent at

and CMP,
then

OFT are

LPCM=L
Yio
page 55
;

TCY.

Draw GZ perpendicular

the lemniscate;

ZCY and YCP are


.-.

similar triangles, see

/.ZYC=LCPY= complement
To find
the

of twice

LYCA.

139.

perpendicular on the tangent at any point

of

the lemniscate.

CZ.CP=CY\
.-.

and

CY.CP=AC*}
:

CZ: CY:: CY*

AC*;

140.

To find

the

chord of curvature through

the centre,

and

the

radius of curvature at any point of the lemniscate. be the chord of curvature ; Let

YV

.-.

YV: 2CZ:: CY- CY


and
/.

CZ-CZ\

ultimately, Art. 86,

CY-CY CZ-CZ
:

::AC*:3CY*:: CY-.3CZ;

/.
is

YV=$CY,

or the chord of curvature through the centre

two-thirds of the radius vector.

THE LEMXISCATE.
Also, the radius of curvature
::
:

133

^ YV

CY: CZ::AC*: CY*::CP:CY,


is

hence the radius of curvature

^CP,

or J of the radius at

the corresponding point of the hyperbola.


141.
Poles of the lemniscate.

Let S, of CS and

H be the
CH\
s,

foci of the

hyperbola,

s,

h the middle points

k are called the poles of the lemniscate.

Draw
and join
therefore

SY HZ
,

bola at P, and
,

let
,

SY

to the hyper perpendicular to the tangent circle meet the auxiliary , again in

sY sZ
= sS, sY = s

sY,

JiY,

and

liZ.

Since Cs

Y",

the perpendicular from s on liZ sZ . similarly h

YY

bisects it;

Y=

Now
therefore a circle can be
fore

LY sZ = LY CZ

drawn circumscribing also A Y sZ = JA Y

CsY Z

there

CZ

since

the

altitude of

Y CZ

is

double of that of

Y sZ

therefore

sY.hY=%CA*,
proof I

which

is

the property of the poles of

the lemniscate.

For

this

am

indebted to Prof. Tait.

XVI.
If a line move parallel to the base of a cycloid, find the limit of the ratio of the segment of the cycloid to the corresponding segment of the generating circle, when the line becomes indefinitely near to the tangent at the vertex.
1.

134

NEWTON.

2. A balloon was found to be sailing steadily before the wind an invariable elevation above the earth. A seconds pendulum suspended to the car was observed to make 2997 oscillations in 50 minutes shew that the height of the balloon was 4 miles and 7 yards nearly, the radius of the earth being 4000 miles.

at

3. If a particle be made to oscillate in a cycloid on a smooth inclined plane, whose inclination to. the horizon is 30, and the base of the cycloid be horizontal, find the radius of the generating circle in order that the particle may perform a complete oscillation in n seconds.

the corresponding position 4. If be a point in a cycloid, and of the centre of the generating circle, shew that PO will touch another cycloid of half the dimensions.
that the limit of the whole length of an epicycloid hypocycloid, corresponding to a complete revolution of the generating round the fixed circle, is eight times the radius of the latter, when that of the former is indefinitely diminished.
5. is

Shew

or

6. Prove that the epicycloid of one cusp referred to a point in its circumference.
7.

the pedal of a circle

Shew

spiral,

that the evolute of an equiangular spiral is a similar and that the extremities of the diameters of curvature lie

in a similar spiral.
8.

An

equiangular spiral

rolls

along a straight

line,

shew that

its

pole describes a straight line.

9. Prove that, if a catenary roll on a fixed straight line, its directrix will always pass through a fixed point.

be drawn perpendicular to the tangent to a lemniscate 10. If S at a point P, and SA be the greatest value of SP, prove that SP*=SA 2 SY-, S being the centre.
.

XVII.
the consideration that the diameter of curvature is the third the limit of proportional to the subtense perpendicular to the the and arc, prove that the radius of curvature of a cycloid tangent at any point is twice the normal cut off by the base.
1.

From

2. On the normal to a cycloid a constant length is measured both inwards and outwards; find the area included between the

loci of

the points so obtained.

THE LEMNISCATE.
3.

135

are consecutive points on an epicycloid of two cusps; the corresponding points of contact of the rolling with g, the fixed circle, pm, qn are drawn perpendicular to the cusp-line ; prove that the elementary area PQj)q is twice the elementary area Hence find the area of the epicycloid and of its evolute. pmng?.

P,

from p,

4. Prove that the diimeter through the point of a rolling circle which generates an epicycloid always touches another epicycloid generated by a circle oi half the dimensions.

hypocycloid of n cusps has at any point a tangent drawn, that the length of the tangent, intercepted between the gene prove rating circle and the \ oint of contact, is to the arc measured from the point to the vertex of the branch in which the point is taken, as n 2(n- 1).
5.
:

6. A bead slides on a hypocycloid being acted on by a force which varies as the distance from the centre of the hypocycloid and tending to it prove that the time of oscillation will be independent
;

of the arc of oscillation.


7. If, along the several normals to an epicycloid, a system of particles move from the curve under the action of a force, tending to the centre of the fixed circle, and varying as the distance, prove that they will all arrive at the fixed circle at the same instant.
8. plane curve rolls along a straight line, shew that the radius of curvature of the path of any point, fixed with respect to
IT"

the curve,

is

r -p

-.

r being the distance of the fixed point

from

sm<j>

the angle between this line and the fixed the point of contact, curvature of the curve at the point of and the radius of line, p
contact.
9. In an equiangular spiral, which is its own evolute, the area included between the curve and PQ, the radius of curvature at touching the evolute in Q, is %PQ tana, where a is the angle of the spiral, and is supposed not to cut the curve between

PQ

and

Q.

10. Prove, by the method of Lemma IV., that the area included between a catenaiy, the axis, the directrix, and the ordinate at any point P is twice the area of the triangle formed by the axis, the tangent at the vertex, and the straight line drawn perpendicular to the tangent at P from the point of intersection of the axis and

directrix.

SECTION

II.

CENTRIPETAL FORCES.

PEOP.
When a

I.

THEOREM
an
orbit,

I.

bod// revolves in

forces tending to a fixed point, scribes by radii drawn to the fixed centre of force, are in one fixed plane, and are proportional to the times of
describing them.

subject to the action of the areas which it de

Let the time be divided into equal parts, and in the first interval let the body describe the straight line

AB

with uniform velocity, being acted on by no force. In the second interval it would, if no force
acted, proceed to c in produced, describing Be so that the equal areas ASB, BSc de equal to scribed by radii AS, BS, cS drawn to the centre $, would be completed in equal intervals.

AB

AB

But,

when

the

body

force tending to

arrives at B, let a centripetal act upon it by a single instanta-

PROP.

I.

THEOREM

T.

137

neous impulse, and cause the body to deviate from the direction Be, and to proceed in the direction BC. Let cCbe drawn parallel to BS, meeting J^in C, then, at the end of the second interval, the body will be found at C, in the same plane with the triangle ASB, in which Be and cC are drawn. Join SO;

and the triangle SBC, between parallels SB, Cc will be equal to the triangle SBc, and therefore
y

also to the triangle

SAB.

In like manner,

the centripetal force act upon the body successively at C, D, E, &c., causing the body to describe in the successive intervals of time the straight lines CD, DE, EF, &c., these will all lie in the same plane and the triangle SCD will be to SCD, and equal to the triangle SBC, and
if
;

SDE

SEF to SDE.

Therefore equal areas are described in the same fixed and, componendo, the plane in equal intervals
;

sums of any number of areas SADS, SAFS, are

to

each other as the times of describing them. Let now the number of these triangles be increased, and their breadth diminished indefinitely then their will be ultimately a curved line and perimeter the instantaneous forces will become ultimately a

ADF

centripetal force, by the action of which the body is continually deflected from the tangent to this curve, and which will act continuously and the areas
;

SADS, SAFS, being always


COR.
.

proportional to the times of describing them, will be so in this case. Q.E.D.

1 The velocity of a body attracted towards a fixed centre in a non-resisting medium is recipro cally proportional to the perpendicular dropped from that centre upon the tangent to the orbit.

For the

velocities at the points A,

the bases

AB, BC, CD, DE,

EF of equal

B,

C,

D,

are as

triangles,

and, since the triangles are equal, these bases are reciprocally proportional to the perpendiculars from T

138
jS let fall

NEWTON.

limit, in

upon them. [And the same is true in tlie which case the bases are in the direction

of tangents to the curvilinear limit, therefore the

COR.

velocity, &c.] 2. If on chords

AB,

B C of two

arcs described in

equal successive times in a non-resisting medium by be com the same body the parallelogram of and the this diagonal parallelogram pleted, be produced in both directions in that position which it assumes ultimately when those arcs are diminished indefinitely, it will pass through the centre of force.

BV

ABCV

chords of arcs COR. 3. If, on AB, JBCanA on DE, described in a non-resisting medium in equal times, be completed, the parallelograms CV, and will be to one another in the the forces at ultimate ratio of the diagonals when the F, arcs are indefinitely diminished.

EF

AB E

DEFZ

EZ

For the

body represented by BC, EF in the polygon are compounded of the velocities represented by Be, I?Fand E/, EZ\ and those re presented by .Z?F, EZ, which are equal to cC,fF, in
velocities of the

the demonstration of the proposition were generated and E, by the impulses of the centripetal force at and are thus proportional to those impulses. [And the same is true in the limit, in which case the ulti mate ratio of the impulses at any two points is the ratio of the continuous forces at those points].

COR.

4.

The

forces

by which any bodies moving

in

non-resisting media are deflected from rectilinear motion into curved orbits, are to one another as those sagittse of arcs described in equal times, which converge to the centre of force and bisect the chords, when those arcs are indefinitely diminished.

For the diagonals of the parallelograms ABCV, DEFZ bisect each other, and these sagittse are halves of the

when the arcs are indefinitely diagonals BV, diminished. [And the same will be true whether and DEF\>Q parts of the same or of different

EZ

AUC

PliOP.

I.

THEOKEM

I.

139

orbits described by bodies of equal mass, if the arcs be described in equal times].

COR.

And therefore the accelerating effects of the forces are to that of the force of gravity as same those sagittse are to vertical sagittse of the parabolic arcs which projectiles describe in the same time.
5.

COR.

All the same conclusions are true by the Second Law of Motion, when the planes, in which the bodies move together with the centres of force which are situated in those planes, are not at rest, but are moving uniformly and parallel to themselves.
6.

The statement
"

of the proposition in the original Latin

is,

Areas, quas corpora in gyros acta radiis ad immobile centrum viriuni ductis describunt, et in planis immobilibus consistere, et esse temporibus proportionates,"
Observations on the Proposition.

of great importance for the student to distinguish between the forces themselves under the action of which the bodies may be moving, and the

142.

In

all

cases of motion of bodies

it is

which these forces produce. It is only by an examination of the motion of a body that we are able to infer that it is, or is not, acted on by any force ;
effects

velocity in a straight line, we infer that it is, during such motion, acted upon by no force, or that the forces which are acting upon it are in
if

we

find that the

body

is

moving with uniform

any change of direction or velocity, gradual or abrupt, we infer that the body is moving under the action of some force or forces; if the change be gradual, we infer that such forces are finite, by which we mean that the forces require a finite time to produce a finite change whether of direction or velocity if, on the contrary, the change be abrupt, we infer that the forces are what are called impulsive,
equilibrium
;

if

we

find that there

is

that

such as produce a finite change in an instant. Since then, in order to make any inference with respect to the forces supposed to act, a clear conception of the motion of
is,

140

NEWTON.

a body must be first attained, it becomes necessary for the student to be able to describe the motion of a particle of matter
as he

would
.

that of a point, independently of the causes of such

motion.

he must give a geometrical description of the line traced by the point either in a plane or in space, and then he must describe the rate, uniform or variable, with which this

In doing

this

line is traversed.

then proceed to attribute any change of direction or velocity to the action of forces upon the particle whose motion he has been examining.
143.

He may

In accordance with

this

method of separating the geo


:

metry of the motion from the causes of the deviations, the tirst proposition would be stated in such a manner as the following When a point moves in a curve, in such a manner that the
"

accelerations at every point are in the direction of a fixed point, the areas, which it describes by radii drawn to the fixed point to

which the accelerations tend, are

in

one fixed plane, and are

proportional to the times of describing them." And, generally, if the words force and body, employed by Newton, be replaced by acceleration and point, the resulting

statements will be in accordance with this geometrical method It will then be easy to use such terms in the of description.
proofs as will not imply, in the manner of expression, the action of force ; thus, instead of saying u let a centripetal force tending

upon the body by a single instantaneous impulse," we may use the words let a finite velocity be communicated
to
act
"

to the point in the direction of

S."

144.
to

It should

be carefully observed

that, before

proceeding

the limit, it is proved that any polygonal areas SADS, SAFS, are proportional to the times of description of their
;

perimeters

so that ultimately these areas

become

finite curvi

linear areas, described infinite times.

145.
it

is

In proceeding to the ultimate state of the hypothesis? concluded readily from Lemmas II. and III. that the
;

curvilinear areas are the limits of the polygons

but a greater

PROP.

I.

THEOREM

I.

141

difficulty arises in the transition from the discontinuous motion under the action of instantaneous impulsive forces to the con tinuous motion under the action of a continuous force tending

to S.

For, in the curvilinear path of the body which is the limit of the perimeter of the polygon, the direction of the motion
at the angular points of the polygon is different, and also the deflection from the direction of motion is twice as great in the polygon as it is in the curve.

Now, although we may assume

that the curvilinear limit of

the perimeter of the polygon may be described under the action of some force, is that force the same which is the limit of the
series of impulses ?

The

centripetal

force
"

supposed to act with a simple


et
magno,"

in

stantaneous impulse,

impulsu unico

is

supposed

to generate a finite velocity at once,

which

effect

finite force

cannot produce.
instead of this imaginary impulse, we suppose a force finite, but very great, and acting for a very short time, the effect upon the figure would be to round off the angular points
If,

of the polygon.

from the impulses to the continuous force, in the ultimate form of the hypothesis, must be considered as
transition

The

axiomatic, like the ultimate equality of the ratio of the finite arc to the perimeter of the inscribed polygon.
can, however, shew that if the curvilinear limit of the polygon be described under the action of some continuous force tending to $, the effect of this force, estimated by the

146.

We

quantity of motion generated in the interval between the im pulses, will be ultimately the same as that generated by the
impulse.

the geometrical properties of the limit of the Let BT, be tangents at B, C to the polygonal perimeter. curvilinear limit, and let Cc intersect T, fig. page 136.
first

Consider

CU

BT m

Now, since Cc ultimately and Be or AB and BC are


and Cc
is

vanishes compared with Be, ultimately in a ratio of equality,


also,

BC

ultimately bisected

CU=BU= UT

by BI\ by (2) page 102 ultimately, by (1) page 102,

142

NEWTON.

Consider next the effects produced by the different kinds of


force

which act

in the

two

cases.

In the polygonal path, the impulsive force at B generates a velocity with which the body describes Cc in the time t in

which

AB
is

or

BC

is

described, the measure of the effect of the

impulse

therefore the velocity

In the curvilinear path, the deflection from the direction BI is T(7, at B) in the same time by means of the continuous action of finite forces, and if we suppose the force ultimately
,

uniform in magnitude and direction, the measure of the ac2

celerating effect of the force will be


2

TC
^
V
,

and the velocity

generated in that time will be

TO
s c

Co
.t
L
.

Hence the
by

effects of the finite

and impulsive

forces,

measured

the quantity of motion produced, are the same.

can also shew that a continuous force, which gene in the rates the same quantity of motion as the impulse at
147.

We

time from

to

(7,

would cause the body on arriving

at

to

move

in the direction of the tangent to the curvilinear limit of

the perimeter. For the velocity due to the action of the finite force at the
2

end of time

TC

being ultimately

in the direction

TC^ and
TC,
is

that in the direction

BT

being

BT = 2TU
;

therefore

UT
the

represent the velocities in those directions direction of motion at (7, that is, the body

therefore

UC

moves

in the direction

of the tangent at

(7.

148.

COR.

1.

The

corollary

may

be proved directly from

the proposition, for the proportionality of the areas to the times of describing them will be true if the force suddenly cease to act,
in

which case the body will proceed in the direction of the tangent. Let V be the velocity at the point A, A SB the curvilinear

area described in any time T, Join if the force cease to act.

AT=V. T the space described ST and draw SY perpendicular

PROP.
to

T.

THEOREM
triangle

I.

AT,

then

area

^B =

SAT=V. Tx
SY.

area

ASBcc
if

T\ therefore

V varies

F,

also

inversely as

Again,

h be twice the area described


.B

in the unit of

time

employed in estimating the accelerating ing to S and the velocity of the body,

effect of the force

tend

2.are&SAB=hT
By
quent propositions by Newton
If bodies

.-.

h=V.SY.

the use of this area the proportions employed in subse

may

be converted into equations,

for the convenience of calculation.

move

in curves for

which the areas, described in

the same time, are not equal, Foe

^. oY

statement in this corollary requires modi unless the forces be considered only with reference fication, for, to their accelerating effects, or unless the bodies be supposed of
4.

149.

COR.

The

equal mass, the forces will not be proportional to the sagittae.


150. COR. 5. The object of this corollary is to determine the numerical measure of the central force which governs the

motion of a body, when the circumstances of the motion are known for it supplies us with the ratio of this force to the force of gravity on the same the measure of which body at any
;

place,

can be determined by experiment.


Applications of the Proposition.
151.

PROP.

When

the force, instead

of tending
the

pointy acts in parallel lines, the property

of

a fixed motion enunciated


to

144
in
the proposition

NEWTON.

replaced by the property that the resolved part of the space described perpendicular to the direc

may

be

of the force is proportional to the times. This is immediately deducible from the second law of motion, since there is no force in the direction perpendicular to that of
tion

the forces, and the velocity in that direction is uniform. That this is the result of the properties in the proposition may be shewn by removing the centre of force to an infinite
distance.

s
Let
area

S be

the centre of force,


is

AMN

proportional to the time of describing A C, and the areas and are ultimately equal when 8 is removed to an infinite distance in BMS, hence the triangle

ABCS

perpendicular to SB, the

AMNS

ABCS

ASN

proportional to the time, varies as the triangle


is

and therefore the base


is

AN,

which

ASN,
is

and therefore, since


the proposition
is

CN

also proportional to the time, ultimately perpendicular to ANj

proved.
orbit about

152.

PROP. If a body describe a curvilinear


to

force tending constantly given time will be unaltered, if the force be suddenly increased or diminished, or if the body be acted on at any moment by an

a fixed point,

the area described in

a a

impulsive force tending

to

that point.

be in For, if in the polygon the impulse at any point creased or diminished by any force tending to or from S, the
only effect will be to remove the vertex

C of the

triangle

SBC to

PROP.

I.

THEOREM

I.

145

some other point


will

in the line

cC

parallel to

US, hence

the area

be unaltered,

and the argument which

establishes

the

equality before.

Hence

of polygonal areas in a given time will proceed as in the limit the curvilinear areas described in

a given time will be unaltered. If the new force introduced at

ABC will remain


Hence,
in

be impulsive, the angle

less

to the limit, and the at a finite angle.

than two right angles when we proceed two parts of the curve will cut one another

any calculation made upon supposition of such changes of force, the value of h, Art. 148, will be the same before and after the change of the force.
Apses.
153.

DEF. In any

orbit

described

under the action of a

force tending to a fixed centre, a point at which the direction of the motion is perpendicular to the central distance is called

an apse,
distance,
is called

the

distance

from the centre

is

called

an apsidal

and the angle between consecutive apsidal distances an apsidal angle. Thus, in the ellipse about the centre, the four extremities of the axes are apses there are two different apsidal distances,
;

and every apsidal angle


In the

is

a right angle.
is

ellipse least distances, and the apsidal angle

about a focus, the apses are at the greatest and

two right angles.

In a central orbit described under the action of forces tending to a fixed point, each apsidal distance will divide the orbit
154.
symmetrically, if the forces be always equal at equal distances.
It
is

easily

shewn

that, in

any

orbit described

by a body

under the action of forces tending to a fixed point, the forces depending only upon the distance, if a second body be projected at any point with the velocity of the first in the opposite direc
tion,
it

will proceed to describe the

direction,

same orbit under the action of the same forces.

in the reverse

be a portion of the polygon whose limit is the curvilinear path of the body, and produce to c, and
For,
let

ABC

AB

CB

to a,

making Bc = AB, and Ba =

CB

146

NEWTON.
at

The impulse
scribes
at

would cause the body to move in since aA = cC. which it had in

ABC,

and

if

measured by cC when the body de the motion be reversed, the same impulse
is

AB

BA, And

with the velocity


the

same

is

true

throughout the polygonal path, hence the assertion is true for the whole path, described under the action of impulses which
are always the same at the same points, and therefore, proceed ing to the limit, the statement made for any orbit is proved. Hence, since the forces are equal at equal distances on

both sides of the an apse apse, the path of the body from being similar and equal to the path which would be described if the velocity were reversed at the apse, is similar to the path
described in approaching the apse; whence the proposition
established.
is

155.

There are only

two

different

apsidal

distances,

and

all apsidal angles are equal.

For, after passing a second apse, the curve being symme trical on both a position that sides, a third apse will be in such the apsidal distance is the same as for the first apse, and all the
apsidal angles are

shewn

similarly to be equal.

156.

COR.

Hence

a central orbit can never re-enter itself

unless the ratio of the apsidal angle to a right angle be mensurable,, and if it be so, the curve will always re-enter.

com

Illustrations.
(1)

If a
to

Itody describe

an

ellipse

under

the

action

of a force

tending

one of the foci, the square of the velocity varies inversely

PliOP.

I.

THEOREM
and

I.

147

as

the distance

from

that focus,

directly as the distance from

the other.

For BC*:
/.
r

SY*::EZ: SY::HP: SP;


(vel.)

in oc

HP
body
focus
is to

(2)

77*

velocity is greatest ivhen the


is

at the extremity

of

the

major axis which

nearer

to

the

which

the

force

tends,

and

least at the other extremity.

For SYis the


position.
(-3)

least in the

first

and greatest

in the second

The

velocity

at an

extremity of the minor

axis

is

geoanetric

mean between

the greatest

and

least velocities.

For
major
(4)

at this point

axis the values of

HZ= BC, and at the extremities of the HZ are Sa and SA, and BC* = SA.Sa.
^

In the equiangular spiral described under the action of a


to Hie focus

force tending

the velocity oc

For,
(5)

SYac SP.
centre

If the force tend

to the

of

the elliptic orbit described

by a body,

the time between the extremities

of conjugate diameters

will be constant.

For the area


(6)

PCD

is

constant.

ing

to

The velocity at any point of an ellipse about a force tend a focus is compounded of two uniform velocities, one
to the

perpendicular

radius vector , and the other perpendicular

to the

major Let

axis.

S be

the centre of force,

tangent at P, join SP, CZ.

SY, EZ perpendiculars on the Then EZ, ZC parallel to PS, and

u:

148

NEWTON.
;

CII are perpendicular to the three directions therefore the velocity represented by HZ in magnitude is the resultant of the two represented by CZ and HG\ but the velocity perpen
dicular to

HZ=

-~-y,

= ^ HZ.

therefore the velocities perpen

dicular to

HC and CZ are ^ ae

and

-$

a.

XYIII.
1. If different bodies be projected with the same velocity from a given point, all being attracted by forces tending to one fixed point, shew that the areas described by the lines drawn from the fixed point to the bodies will be proportional to the bines of the

angles of projection.
2. "When a body describes a curvilinear orbit under the action of a force tending to a fixed point, will the direction of motion or the curvature of the orbit at any point be changed, if the force at the point receive a finite change ?
3. body moves in a parabola about a centre of force in the vertex, shew that the time of moving from any point to the vertex varies as the cube of the distance of the point from the axis of the

parabola.
4.

focus,

In a parabolic orbit described round a force tending to the shew that the velocity varies inversely as the normal at any

Shew also that the sum of the squares of the velocities ta point. the extremities of a focal chord is constant.
5. If the velocity at any point of an ellipse described about the centre can be equal to the difference of the greatest and least velocities, the major axis cannot be less than double of the minor.

to the

If an ellipse be described under the action of a force tending centre, shew that the velocity will vary directly as the diameter conjugate to that which passes through the body; also that the sum of the squares of the velocities at the extremities of conjugate diameters will be constant.
6.

In an ellipse described round a force tending to the focus, compare the intervals of time between the extremities of the same
7.

latus rectum,
8.

when AC=2CS.

In the

ellipse described

major axis, time in

AB

about the focus $, time in ir-2e IT +

BA

ASHA being the


2e.

PROP.

I.

THEOREM

I.

149

9. If the velocities at three points in an ellipse described by a particle, the acceleration of which tends to either of the foci, be in arithmetical progression, prove that the velocities at the opposite extremities of the diameters passing through these points will be in harmonical progression.

10. If t? u v 2 be the velocities at the extremities of a diameter of an ellipse described about the focus, and u the velocity at either of those points when it is described about the centre, prove that u (v + r2 ) will be constant.
l

11. In a central orbit, the velocity of the foot of the perpen dicular from the centre of force on the tangent varies inversely as the length of the chord of curvature through the centre of force.

describing a parabola about its focus S; if its path, shew that its velocity at Q will and Q and a velocity which will be be compounded of the velocity at constant if the angle PSQ be constant.
12.
is

A particle

be two points of

XIX.
describes a parabola about a centre of force in the its velocity at any point may be resolved into two equal constant velocities, respectively perpendicular to the axis and to the focal distance of the point.
1.
;

A body

focus

shew that

2. body describes an ellipse under the action of a central shew that the sum of the velocities force tending to one of the foci at the extremities of any chord parallel to the major axis varies inversely as the diameter parallel to the direction of motion at
;

those points.

an ellipse under the action of a force shew that the component of the velocity at any point perpendicular to either focal distance is constant and
3.

body moves
;

in

tending to the centre

that the sum. of the squares of the velocities, at the extremities of any pair of semi-conjugate diameters, resolved in any given direction is constant.
4. In an ellipse described about a focus, the time of moving from the greatest focal distance to the extremity of the minor axis is m times that from the extremity of the minor axis to the least find the eccentricity, and shew that, if there be focal distance
;

a small error in m, the corresponding error in the eccentricity will z vary inversely as (1 + m)
.

5. If the velocity of a body in a given elliptic orbit be the same at a certain point, whether it describe the orbit in a time t about

150
one focus, or in a time
t
t.

NEWTON.
about the other, prove
that,
~

2a being the

major

*v * i A-11 axis, the local distances will

v be

77

A and
v

6. A body describes a parabola about the focus; if the seg ments PS, Sp of the focal chord PSp be in the ratio n 1, prove that the time in pA time in AP 3n + I n~ (n + 3).
:

7.

P and
to

perpendicular to the tangent to a curve at P, and as if under the action of a central force tending will vary as SY. prove that the radius of curvature at
F"both

If

$Fbo

move

Q be any two points in an ellipse described by a the action of a force tending to the centre, prove under particle that tl;e velocity acquired in passing from P to Q will be in the direction QP where P is the other extremity of the diameter P. through
8.

If P,

9.

Two

points P,

are

moving

in the

same

ellipse,

in the

same

directions, with accelerations tending to the centre C; shew that the relative velocity of one with regard to the other is parallel and proportional to CT, where is the point of intersection of the

and If the points tangents at what will be their relative velocity ?


.

move

in opposite directions,

orbit

Two particles revolve in the same direction in an oval round a centre of force S, which divides the axis unequally, starting simultaneously from the extremities of a chord PQ, drawn through S. Prove that, when they first arrive in positions R, T respectively, such that the angle RST is a minimum, the time from R to the next apse will be an arithmetic mean between the times from P to the next apse and to Q from the last apse.
10.

Two equal particles are attached to the extremities of a of string length 2/, and lie in a smooth horizontal plane with the if the middle point of the string be drawn with string stretched uniform velocity v in a direction perpendicular to the nitial direc tion of the string, shew that the path of each particle will be a
11.
;

lir

cycloid,

and that the

particles will

meet

after a time

12. If the velocity in a central orbit can be resolved into two constant components, one perpendicular to the radius vector, and the other to a fixed straight line, shew that the curve must be

conic.

13. The velocity in a cardioid described about a force tending to the pole varies in the inverse sesquiplicate ratio of the distance.
14. The velocity in the lemniscate varies inversely as the cube of the central distance, when a particle moves in the curve round a force tending to the centre.

PROP.

II.

THEOREM

II.

151

PROP.
Every
"body,

II.

THEOREM

II.

which moves in any curve line described in a plane, and describes areas proportional to the times of describing them about a point either fixed or moving uniformly in a straight line, by ra Hi drawn to that point, is acted on by a centripetal force tending to the

same point.

Case

1.

Let the time be divided into equal intervals,

and

in the first interval let the

body describe

AB
;

with uniform velocity, being acted on by no force in the second interval it would, if no force acted, pro ceed to c in produced, describing Be equal to AB\ and the triangles ASB, BSc would be equal. But

AB

<L

BSc

in the second interval of time, so that the tri is equal to the angle triangle ASB, and there and fore also to the triangle BSc therefore

BC

when the body arrives at B, let a force, acting upon it by a single impulse, cause the body to describe

BSC

BSC

are between the

same

parallels,

hence 2?$

is

152

NEWTON.

parallel to cC, and therefore the impulse at B.

US was the direction of

Similarly, if at (7, Z), ... the body be acted on by im pulses causing it to move in the sides CD, DE, ... of a polygon, in the successive intervals, making the and BSC, the triangles CSD, DSE, ... equal to to can be have been in shewn the directions impulses Hence, if any polygonal areas be de OS, DS, .... scribed proportional to the times of describing them, the impulses at the angular points will all tend to &.

ASB

The same

if the number of intervals be their increased and length diminished indefinitely, in which case the series of impulses will approximate to a continuous force tending to $, and the polygons to curvilinear areas, as their limits. Hence the pro

will

be true

position

is

true for a fixed centre.

Case

proposition will also be true if S be a point which moves uniformly in a straight line, for, by the second law of motion, the relative motion will be the same, whether we suppose the plane to be at rest, or that it moves together with the body which revolves and the point $, uniformly in one direction.
2.

The

Cc-R. 1.

In non-resisting media, if the areas be not proportional to the times, the forces will not tend to the point to which the radii are drawn, but w ill deviate in consequential, i.e. in that direction towards which the motion takes place, if the description of but if it be retarded, the devi areas be accelerated ation will be in antecedent-id.
r

COR.

also in resisting media, if the description of areas be accelerated, the directions of the forces will deviate from the point to which the radii are
2.

And

di awn in that direction

towards which the motion

takes place.

SCHOLIUM.

body may be acted on by a centripetal force com pounded of several forces In this case, the meaning

PROP.

II.

THEOREM

II.

153

of the proposition is, that that force, which is the resultant of all, tends to S. Moreover, if any force act continually in a line perpendicular to the plane of the areas described, this force will cause the body to deviate from the plane of its motion, but will neither increase nor diminish the amount of area described, and therefore must be neglected in the composition of the forces.
Observations on the Proposition.
description of an area round a point in motion may be explained by the following construction for the relative orbit, in the case of motion about a point which is itself moving

157.

The

uniformly in a straight line. Let SS be the line in which

S moves

uniformly, and

let

the

body move from


to

A
cr

to

B in

the

same time that

S moves

from

and

let

P,

be simultaneous positions of the body and of S.

or

a"

$
cr$,

If

PP

be drawn equal and parallel to

and the same

construction be

made
,

for
is

every

point in the

the curve

AP B

which

the locus of

path of the body, will be the orbit which

the body would appear to describe to an observer at $, who referred all the motion to the body ; for will be equal and

SP

parallel to crP, and therefore the distance of the body, and the direction in which it is seen, will be the same in the two cases. If , Q be corresponding points near and and the force ,

at

cr

will be unaltered if

be supposed to act impulsively, the relative motion round cr we apply to both P and a velocities equal to

154
that of
CF

NEWTON
and

be

in a contrary direction, but in this case a- will will be the reduced to rest and the velocity of velocity

relative to a.

same time,
relative to

to

which are described in the represent the velocities of P and cr, and let Qq be
act
,

Take

PQ
cr,

and

equal and parallel to

cr

then

Pq

represents the velocity of


o- a = P P, P Q

is and, since equal therefore the in and the orbit and parallel to Pq, velocity about S at rest is equal to the relative velocity about S in
;

Q q = Sa

AB

motion.
158.

CoR.

1.

Reverting to the polygonal

area,, if

the

tri-

angle SBC be greater than the triangle SAB^ the Impulse at will not be in the direction BS, but BU, parallel to cC", that is r if the areas be not proportional to the times but be in an
increasing ratio, the direction of the force will deviate towards the direction in which the description of areas is accelerated

5.

and

vice versd^

when

the description
effect

is

retarded.

159.

COR.

2.

The

the motion, or, supposing it must conceive an impulse at


direction

of a resisting medium is to retard the limit of a series of impulses, we


J5,

in the case of the polygon, in the

therefore the description of areas be accelerated, must act still in the direction the impulse applied at further til consequentid than that in BU, in order that, with the
;

BA

if

BU

impulse corresponding to the resistance of the medium,

it

may

produce a resultant impulse in the direction of BU. The effect of the resistance alone is to retard the description of areas. If the force act in consequent id, the resultant of this force

PROP.

IT.

THEOREM

II.

and the resistance of the medium may act in the direction BS, and the proportionality of the areas to the times be preserved,
160.

in the plane,

PROP. Let ABCDE be any plane curve, to shew that, generally, the curve can
of a force tending
to

any point

be described

under

the action

or from S, with finite velo

city, the velocity at

For

arcs

any given point being any given velocity. AB, BC, ... can be measured from any point A,

along the curve, such that the areas

SAB,

SBC,.,, are

all

equal,

and of any magnitude. Also a body can be made, by some force


to

move along

arcs

the arcs, as

pass through S, in which case, if the arcs be will not be finite ultimately. indefinitely diminished, Hence by Prop. II. a body can move with finite velocity

AB, BC, DE,

the curve with finite velocity, so as to describe the ... iq equal times, unless the tangent to one of

DE:AB

under the action of some force tending


161.

to or

from S, generally.

Since in making the motion of the body such that it shall describe equal areas in equal times we are only con cerned with the ratio of the velocities, the at any
1.

NOTE

velocity

point

may
162.

be any given velocity.

NOTE

2.

Or

if

we
;

please

we may suppose

the force at

any point any given force for, in the case of the polygon, the velocity generated by the impulse at B is to the velocity in AB as c C to Be, hence the impulse at B may be of any magnitude
if

we

choose the velocity in

AB properly.

163.

NOTE

3.

The

ratio

of the velocities will be the

same

at two given points, for all forces tending to a given centre, ynder the action of which the curve can be described.

156
164.
ellipse

NEWTON.

NOTE

4.

Hence a body can move throughout any

under the action of a centripetal force tending to the centre or focus, the force depending only on the distance, since
in these cases the curve
;

symmetrical on opposite sides of any the ellipse, if the forces do not within apse any point depend only on the distance, since no point within an ellipse lies
is

or about

on any tangent.
In the case of an oval, S being an external under the action of point, a body can move with finite velocity a force tending to the point $, in the portion which is concave to
165.

NOTE

5.

$, and from #, in that which portion to the other.

is

convex

to $, but not

from one

XX.
If an ellipse be described so that the sum of the areas swept out by radii drawn to the vertices is proportional to the times of describing them, prove that the resultant acceleration will tend to the centre.
1.

2. body is moving in a parabola, and the time from the shew that vertex to any point varies as the cube of the ordinate this motion could be caused by the action of a central force.
;

was moving in a circle, and it was observed that the time of describing any arc from a fixed point varied as the sum of the arc and the perpendicular distance from one extremity of the arc on the diameter through the other shew that the body was acted on by a central force.
3.
;

A body

heavy particle falls from the cusp to the vertex of a whose axis is vertical shew that a particle could describe cycloid, the cycloid in the same manner under the action of a constant force directed to a certain moving point.
4.
;

5. From the centre of a planet a perpendicular is let fall upon the plane of the ecliptic prove that the foot of this perpendicular will move as if it were a particle acted on by a force tending to the
;

sun

s centre,

PROP.

III.

THEOREM

III.

157

PROP. TIL
Every body, which

THEOREM

III.

describes areas proportional to the times of describing them by radii draivn to the centre of another body which is moving in any manner whatever , is acted on

by a force compounded of a centripetal force tending to that other body, and of the ivhole accelerating force which acts upon that other body.

Let the

body be Z, the second T, T moves under the action of some force P, L under the action of
first

another force F. bodies the force


in

At every

instant apply to both


^/

in the contrary direction to that

which

it acts,

as represented

by the dotted arrows.

will continue to describe about T, as before, areas proportional to the times of describing them, and since there is now no force acting on T, is at rest

moves uniformly in a straight line. Therefore, by Theorem II., the resultant of the force F and the force P applied to L tends to T. Hence Pis compounded of a centripetal force tending to T, and of a force equal to that which acts on T. Q.E.D.
or

COR

1.

Hence,

if

body

L describe areas proportional


them by
radii

to the times of describing

drawn

to

another body T]

and from the whole force which

acts upon Z, whether a single force or compounded of several forces, be taken away the whole accelerating

force

which

acts

upon the other body T] the whole

158

NEWTON.
force,

remaining
COR.
2.

which

acts

other body

T as
if

upon Z,

will tend to the

a centre.

these areas be very nearly proportional to the times of describing them, the remaining force will tend to the other body very nearly.

And

COR.

the remaining force tend very nearly to the other body T, the areas will be very nearly proportional to the times.
3.

And, conversely,

if

COR.

describe areas which are very from being proportional to the times of describing them, by radii drawn to another body T, and that other body T be at rest, or move uniformly in a straight line, then either there will be no centripetal force tending to that other body T, or such centri petal force will be compounded with the action of other very powerful forces, and the whole force com pounded of all the forces, if there be many, may be directed towards some other centre fixed or moving.
4.

If the

body

far

The same

the other body moves in any manner whatever, if the centripetal force spoken of be understood to be that which remains after taking away the whole force acting upon the other body T.
will hold,

when

SCHOLIUM.
Since the equable description of areas is a guide to the centre to which that force tends, by which a body is principally acted on, and by which it is deflected

from rectilinear motion, and retained in its orbit, we may, in what follows, employ the equable description of areas as a guide to the centre, about which all curvilinear motion in free space takes place.
Illustration.

As an illustration of the last propositions and their facts in the corollaries, we may state some of the observed motion of the Moon, Earth, and Sun, and make the deductions
166.

corresponding to them.

PROP.

Ill

THEOREM

III.

159
to

Suppose the Moon s orbit relative to the Earth the Earth. circular, and let ABCD be this orbit,

be nearly

(1)

The

areas described

by the

radii

drawn from the Moon


;

to the

Earth are nearly proportional to the times of describing hence the resultant force on the Moon tends nearly to E.
(2)

If

ES the
s

line joining the centres of the

meet the Moon

relative orbit about the

Earth

Earth and Sun in A, C, and

DEB

be perpendicular to

accelerated as the

Moon

CS, the description of areas will be moves from to and from to (7,

A
;

and retarded from


J/3

A
to

to

B and

from

C to
in

hence the direction


JJ/
1?

of the resultant force on the


,

Moon

the positions

J/2

M^

will

be

in the directions of the

arrows slightly inclined

to the radii

drawn

E.

these observed facts, we see that when the force, under the action of which moves, is applied to the Moon in the

From

contrary direction, the remaining force tends in the directions of the arrows.
the supposition that the Earth and Moon are acted on by forces tending to the sun, whose distance compared with is very great, and that the differences of the forces on these

By

EM

bodies are not very great, the accelerating effect of the force on the Moon in being greater than that on the Earth, and in

DAB

BCD

the circumstances of the description of areas in the motion of the Moon are accounted for.
less,

160

NEWTON.

PROP.
The

IV.

THEOREM

IV.

centripetal forces on equal bodies, which describe dif ferent circles with uniform velocity, tend 1o the centres of
the circles, and are to each other as the squares of arcs described in the same time, divided by the radii of the
circles.

The bodies move uniformly,

therefore the arcs described are proportional to the times of describing them and the sectors of circles are proportional to the arcs on which they stand, therefore the areas described by radii drawn to the centres are proportional to the times of describing them ; hence, by Prop. II., the forces tend to the centres of the circles.
;

Again,

let

AB,

ab be small arcs described in equal times,

tangents at A, a-, ACSG-, acsg diameters through A, a. Join AB, ab, arid draw BC, be per pendicular to ACr, ag. When the arcs AB, ab are indefinitely diminished, since A C, ac are sagittse of the double of arcs AB, ab described in equal times, they are ultimately, by Prop. I., Cor. 4, as the forces at A and a.

AD, ad

But

AC.AG =

(chdAZ?/ and ac.ag

PROP. IV.
.*.

THEOREM
::

IV.

force at
m

force at a
.

AC
.

II

(chd AEJ
r~7v

-Ad
tiriies,
.*.

ac ultimately,
j

(didab)*

(arcABJ*

(arcafl)

ag
ae

AG
4

rv

T -L*em.

VTT V -L-L.

ag

Take AE,

two arcs described

then

AE:

ae::

AB

uniformly, and this


force at

is

in any equal finite ab, since the bodies move also true in the limit 5
:

f
:

AE*
::
-

a<?

force at a
\

AS

r~

as

Q.E.D.

COR.

Since these arcs are proportional to the velo the bodies, the centripetal forces will be in of cities the ratio compounded of the duplicate ratio of the velocities directly, and the simple ratio of the radii
1.

inversely.

That

is, if

V, v

be the velocities in the two


centripetal forces,

circles,

R, f
:

the radii,

^,/the
.
.

AE:

ae::

V
F:/::-^ R

-.
r

v*

COR. 2. And since the circumferences of the circles are described in their periodic times, the velocities are in the ratio compounded of the ratio of the radii directly and the ratio of the periodic times inversely hence the centripetal forces are in the ratio compounded of the ratio of the radii directly, and of the ratio of the squares of the periodic times inversely.
;

If Pj

p be the periodic times in the two


27rR
:

circles re

spectively,
ZTTT
:

R
::

r
:

v::

~~p
-L

~^

p
*

T~* R

P p
TV.i

COR.

periodic times be equal, and there fore the velocities proportional to the radii, the cen radii ; and conversely. tripetal forces will be as the
3.

Hence,

if the

62

NEWTON,

If

P = p,

then F: v
/.

::

r;
2
?;
:

F*

^:/::

-_,-

r.

if the periodic times be in the subduplicate the ratio of radii, the centripetal forces will be equal. 2 That is, if r, then JP=/, by Cor. 2.

COR.

4.

Also

P /
:

COR.

If the periodic times be as the radii, and therefore the velocities equal, the centripetal forces and conversely. will be reciprocally as the radii
5.
;

COR.

If the periodic times be in the sesquiplicate ratio of the radii, and therefore the velocities recipro cally in the subduplicate ratio of the radii, the cen tripetal forces will be reciprocally as the squares of
6.
;

the radii

and conversely.
2
:

That

is,

ifP :/:: /f
then V
:

r\

R* : :

r*
:

I
:

\
:

P p
T -^
2

n E

r
I

**

F ____///^
v*

"

ft

?*

And, generally, if the periodic times vary as n the velo any power E of the radius R, and, therefore, n~ E as the the power city vary inversely centripetal in force will vary inversely as and conversely. COR. 8. All the same proportions can be proved con cerning the times, velocities, and forces, by which
COR.
7.
l

"

bodies describe similar parts of any figures whatever,

which are similar and have centres of force similarly situated, if the demonstrations be applied to those
cases, uniform description of areas being substituted for uniform velocity, and distances of the bodies from the
centres of force for radii of the circles.

Let AE,

be similar arcs of similar curves described by bodies about forces tending to similarly situated and let AB, ab be small arcs described points $, s
ae
]

PKOP.

IV.

THEOREM

IV.

1G3

In equal times ; BD, subtenses parallel to SA, sa] AV, av chords of curvature at A, a, so that

AV

av

::

AS

as*

y
Then,
force at

A
2

force at

: :

DB
,

db, ultimately,

AB
if F,

AV

-^f=

atf

AB*
-7^-7-

aV
sa

av

&A

ultimately:

v be tire velocities at A, -a since AB, ab are ab :: V: v, ultimately ; described in equal times,

AB

force at
if

force

ata::-

v*
r
:

SA

*a

as Cor. 1,

Again,
Tj
tt

and
arcs

ab be small similar arcs described in times instead of being- arcs described in equal times, P, p be the times of describing similar finite
j

A B,

ae,
:

T:

::

area A SB

area

ASEr. vreaasb

aveaase \\t\p\

therefore,

when AB, Titr.P-.f.


,
:

ab are indefinitely diminished,


v*
AB"

Hence, F:f::

V -^
5 7a
e

atf
:

::

-^sa
~~2

ultimately,

^4
~7p^

^^4

~p?

COR.

9. It follows also from the same proposition, that the arc which a body, moving with uniform velocity ina circle under the action of a given centripetal force, describes in any time, is a mean proportional be tween the diameter of the circle, and the space through which the body would fall from rest under the action of the same force and in the same time.

164

NEWTOS.

For, let ALlne the space described from vest in the same time as the arc AJS, then since, if be perpendi cular to the tangent at A, will be ultimately the space described by the body, under the action of the force at 4, in the time in which the body describes the arc AB, and the times are proportional to the arcs ;

BD

BD

.-.

AL: BD:: AE* AB


: :

Z
;

.-.

AL.AG BD.AG
(<k&AB)*

::

AE*
:

AB*\
ultimately;
::

and

BD.AG =

= (xccAB)\
or

therefore

AL.AG = AE\

AL AE

AE

AG.

Q.E.D.

SCHOLIUM.
The
case of the sixth Corollary holds for the heavenly bodies, and on that account the motion of bodies acted upon by a centripetal force, which decreases in the duplicate ratio of the distance from the centre offeree, is treated of more fully in the following section. Moreover, by the aid of the preceding proposition and its corollaries, the proportion of a centripetal force to any known force, such as gravity, can be obtained. For, if a body revolve in a circle concentric with the earth by the action of its own gravity, this
centripetal force. But, from the falling of heavy bodies, by Cor. 9, both the time of one revolution and the arcs described in any given time are determined.

gravity

is its

And by

propositions of this kind Huygens, in his ex cellent tract, De Horologio Oscillator io, compared the force of gravity with the centrifugal force of re volving bodies.
results

The preceding

In any circle let be described of any number of sides.

be proved in this manner. a regular polygon be supposed to

may

a body moving with a given velocity along the sides of the polygon be reflected by the circle at each of its angular points, the force with which it impinges on
if

And

PROP. IV.

THEOREM

IV.

1G<3

the circle at each of the reflections will be propor tional to the velocity and therefore the sum of the forces, in a given time, will vary as the velocity and the number of the reflections conjointly. But if the number of sides of the polygon be given, the velo city will vary as the space described in a given time, and the number of reflections in a given time will vary, in different circles, inversely as the radii of the circles, and, in the same circle, directly as the Hence, the sum of the forces exerted in a velocity. given time varies as the space described in that time increased or diminished in the ratio of that space to the radius of the circle that is, as the square of that space divided by the radius, and therefore, if the number of sides be diminished indefinitely so that the polygon coincides with the circle, the sum of the forces varies as the square of the arc described in the given time divided by the radius.
;
;

This

the centrifugal force by which the borly presses against the circle, and to this the opposite force is equal, by which the circle continually repels the body towards the centre.
is

Symbolical representation of Areas, Lines, &c.

In the statement of the proposition the words arcunra qtiadrata applicata ad radios," in the text of Newton, is rendered
167.
"

the squares of arcs divided

by the

radii.

Such expressions as
of lines
(e.g.

AB

-^

may

be regarded as representations

this

expression denotes AC] whose lengths are determined by such constructions as the following :

To AG apply a rectangle whose area AB, and let AC be the side adjacent
obtained by applying the square on
of the symbol

is

that of the square on

to

AB to AG.

AG} AC

is

thus

The propriety

AB

r-^
is

employed

to represent a line

A C,

assumed

from algebra, the square on

AB

of area in obvious, since the number of units and in the rectangle whose sides are AG,

1G6

NEWTON,
are the same;
lines,

AC

hence,

if

??i, ??,

r be the

number
.

of units of

length in these

m*

= n xr

and

r=

w* n

168.

If symbols or this kind, viz. -r-^


-<4

AW
Cr

be used

in the

same

manner

as a fraction,

we may

either treat

them numerically,

considering AB* to represent the tained in the square on AB, and

number

of units of area con

AG

as the

number of

units of

AG, and thus apply the rules of Arithmetical Algebra; or we may look upon AB* as the absolute representation of an
length in
area,

and

AG as that

of a line, in which case

-.--

would have

no meaning except by interpretation. In this interpretation we are guided by the principles upon which Symbolical Algebra is
applied to any science, the laws of operation by symbols being the same in Arithmetical and Symbolical Algebra, and the symbols being interpreted so that these laws are not contra
dicted.

Thus

if,

in the application to

an area equal to sides are represented by a and b, the assumption that A = ab or ba will imply that ab ba, hence the laws remain the same
be supposed
to denote

Geometry, the symbol A that of a rectangle whose

as in Arithmetical Algebra, and


is

^
b] so that the interpretation
is

legitimate, that,

if

a rectangle be applied to a, whose area

A,

will denote the other side of the rectangle.

Observations on the Proposition,

169.
lias

In the statement of the proposition the word


bodies
in order to

equal

been inserted before

make
to

the theorem

correct,

whether we suppose the centripetal force

be estimated

with reference to the


It

momentum
be

would,
"

perhaps,

or the velocity generated. better to state the proposition as

follows

The

resultant of the forces, under the action of which

bodies describe different circles with uniform velocity, are centri petal and tend to the centres of the circles, and their accelerating
effect are to

each other,

&c.,"

for

it

is

not known, prior to the

proof, that the forces are centripetal.

PROP. IV.
170.

THEOREM
first

IV.

1G7

CORS.

and

9.

The

centripetal forces on bodies


J/2

moving

corollary asserts that the in different circles vary as

-p
"

but the ninth shews that the accelerating effects of the

centripetal forces are in each circle equal to

7*
-=~-Li
.

be the velocity, the accelerating effect of the force in any circle, Tthe time of describing any arc, FT will be the length of the arc, \FT* will be the space through which
For,
if

the body would move under the action of the same force con tinued constant, in the same time in which the arc is described,
:

VT::

VT

171.
force
is

move

in

In uniform circular motion the centripetal employed in counteracting the tendency of the body to a straight line, which it would do, according to the first
Scholium.

law of motion, with the uniform velocity which it has at anv point of the circle, if the centripetal force were suddenly to cease This tendency to recede is called a to act. centrifugal force
of a force being to accelerate or retard the motion of a body, or to alter its direction, if the

improperly;

for the

effect

tendency could properly be termed a force and the centripetal force which counteracts it were removed, it would accelerate or
retard the motion of the body, or alter does not.
its

direction,

which

it

sense in which the term centrifugal force can be used with propriety as a force may be obtained by the con
sideration of relative equilibrium, in which, case, if the same centripetal force acted on the body, the centrifugal force would

The only

keep it in equilibrium, supposing the body were at it would appear to be to an observer moving WTU Jt.
Thus,
if

rest

as

a body be supported on the surfcee of the earth, since the body describes a circle about the axis of the earth with uniform velocity, the pressure of the support and the

must have a resultant, whose direction will pass through the centre of this circle, and whose magnitude will be such as would cause the body to describe it; this re
attraction of the earth

sultant

and the centrifugal force

will

be in statical equilibrium.

168
172.

NEWTON.
In
this

case of circular motion the force

is

exerted
its

not in accelerating or retarding the motion, but in changing


direction.

Thus, referring to the figure of Prop.


the impulse

I.,

if

the direction of

be

isosceles,

at B bisect the angle ABC, the triangle CBc will and BC=Bc = AB therefore the velocities in BC

and

be equal, and the effect of the impulse has been to change the direction without altering the velocity of the body. Hence, the regular polygon inscribed in a circle, centre $, can
will

AB

be described with uniform velocity under the action of impulses tending to the centre ; and, by similar triangles SBC, CBc,

Cc:BC::

BC

BS.
in

And

if

be the uniform velocity

the polygon,
2

the

time in a side
If

BC,

BC=

V. T; therefore Cc

J7

7
*

-^fru~

Jbo

of sides be indefinitely increased, Cc will be ultimately twice the space through which the body will be drawn from the tangent by the continuous force, see Art. ]46; the

now

number

Cc
therefore

7^

= V~
2

will

be the measure of the accelerating

effect

of the centripetal force tending to the centre of the circle.


Illustrations

of Circular Motion.

small body is attached by an inelastic string to a point on a smooth horizontal table, to determine the tension of the
(1)

string

when

the

body describes a

circle.

If the body be set in motion by a blow perpendicular to the will remain constantly stretched, and the only string, the string

being in the direction of the fixed point, the areas described round this point will be proportional to the time, and the body will move in a

force which acts on the

body

in the horizontal plane

with uniform velocity. Let v be the velocity of projection, and I the length of the effect of the tension of the string string, then the accelerating
circle
v*
is

v
;

j 6

that

is,

is

the velocity which

would be generated

in

an

PROP.
unit of time from rest
2
t;

IV.

THEOREM

IV.

1C9

by the

action of this tension continued


:

constant, therefore the tension of the string

the weight of the

body

::

g.

If a velocity of two feet a second be perpendicular to a string whose length is a yard,


v*
:

Ex.

communicated

lg ::

3x32

::

24,

hence the tension


revolution

is

th
.24

of the weight, and

the

time of

is

evidently

seconds

=
9*4",

nearly.

(2)

If a
it,

point in cated to

a string of given length to a a rough horizontal plane, and a given velocity be communi
particle be attached by

supposed tight, find the tension of the string at any time, the time in which it will be reduced to rest, and the ichole arc described.
perpendicular
to

the string

Let

Fbe

the velocity of projection,

in feet, v the velocity at

any time

t.

the length of the string Since the particle describes


/

a small arc ultimately with uniform velocity the accelerating


v
effect of the tension at the time
is
2
.

-j

Again,

if

p
fig,

be the

coefficient of friction, the retarding effect of friction


is

is

which

constant, hence the velocity destroyed in the time t since friction is the only force acting in the direction of the tangent
is

ngt,

and

=V

figt.

Therefore the
describing the arc

particle
p>

comes

to

rest

in

seconds after

*M
,

feet.
t

The
particle
<x

tension of the string at the time


::

the weight of the


(

a ^ * I
:

::

therefore the tension cc

t]

\ng

the square of the time which comes to rest.


(3)

will elapse before the particle

Supposing that

the

velocity about the centre

of

describes a circle with uniform the Earth as its centre, to find the *atio

Moon
of

of

the centripetal acceleration

the

Moon

motion

to

gravity at

the Earttis surface.

170

NEWTON.

Let n

number

of seconds in the

Moon
;

= the
of the

radius of the
is

Moon

s orbit in feet
.

s periodic time, therefore the velocity

Moon

andl.( nj

is

the measure ot the acce-

the force exerted on the Moon, and the measure lerating effect of of the same for gravity at the Earth s surface = 32.2 ; hence, 2 the ratio required is TT*R 32.2/z .
:

(4)

body

is

suspended by a string

from a fix ed point, and

the vertical is projected horizontally so as to being drawn out of Find the describe a horizontal circle with uniform velocity.

velocity

and

the tension

of

the string.

Let

A
;

be the point of suspension,

BO the

radius of the circle

therefore, the circle being described uniformly, the resultant force on the body tends to the centre B, and the

described

measure of the accelerating


in the direction

effect of this resultant force is

the weight
respectively,

Let T, TFbe the tension of the string and of the body, acting in GA and parallel to AB

CB.

therefore

T: W::

CA AB\
:

also,
if

::

CB AB, Art.
:

171,

.-.

^ =
a

and,

CD

velocity will

be perpendicular to AC, BC* = AB.BD ; and the be that due to falling through the space \BD.

XXI.
If the cube of the velocity, in circles uniformly described, be law of inversely proportional to the periodic time, shew that the of the radii. the as force will vary inversely square
1.

PROP. IV.
2.

THEOREM

IV.

171

ia the same time by the orbits about the Sun in the centre exerting a force which, varies inversely as the square of the distance.

Compare the areas described planets, supposed to move in circular

If the forces by which particles describe circles with uniform velocity vary as the distance, shew that the times of revolution will be the same for all,
3. 4. If the velocity of the Earth s motion were so altered that bodies would have no weight at the equator, find approximately the alteration in the length of a day, assuming that, before the altera tion, the centrifugal force on a body at the equator was to its

weight

288,

5. particle moves uniformly on a smooth horizontal t-able, being attached to a fixed point by a string, one yard long, and it makes three revolutions in a second. Compare the tension of the string with the weight of tke particle, 6. body moves in a circular groove under the action of a force to the centre, and the pressure on the groove is double the given force on the body to the centre, find the velocity of the body,

7. If a locomotive be passing a curve at the rate of twenty -four miles an hour, and the radius of the curve be i I of a mile, prove that the resultant of the forces which retain it on the line, viz. of the action of the rails on the flanges of the wheels, and the horizontal part of the forces which act perpendicular to the inclined road- way, will be T? of the weight of the locomotive, nearly,

point in a

body be attached by an extensible string to a fixed smooth horizontal table, find the velocity with which the body must move in order to keep the string constantly stretched
8.

If a

to double its length, If be the weight of the body, and n be the weight which if suspended at the extremity of the string would just double its length, 7 the length of the string, shew that the square of the required

velocity
9.

stands at the North Pole and whirls 24lbs. troy on a smooth horizontal plane by a string a yard long at the weight rate of 100 turns a minute; he finds that the difference of the forces which he has to exert according as he whirls it one way or the opposite is roughly 39 grains find the period of the rotation of
;

A man

the earth,
10. Two equal bodies lie on a rough horizontal table, and are connected by a string which passes through a small ring on the table if the string be stretched, find the greatest velocity with which one of the bodies can be projected in a direction perpendicular to its portion of the string without moving the other body.
;

172

NEWTON.

PEOP.
Having given

V.

PKOBLEM

I.

the velocity with which a bod?/ is moving af three any points of a given orbit, described ly it under the action of forces tending to a common centre, to find that centre.

Let the three straight

lines PT, TQ F, VR, touch the in the points P, Q, given orbit respectively, and in meet and F. them let

Draw PA, QB,

perpendicular to the tangents, and inversely proportional to the velocities of the body at the points P, Q, R. Through A, B, C draw AJJ, DBE, CE at right angles to PA, QB, R C meeting in and E. Join TD, VE-, TD and VE produced, if necessary, shall meet in $the required centre of force.
72 7

For, the perpendiculars SX, SY, let fall from S on the tangents PT, TQ V, are inversely proportional to the velocities at P, Q (Prop. i. Cor. 1), and are therefore as the directly as the perpendiculars AP, BQ, or

PROP. V.

PROBLEM

I.

173

therefore, $, D, T are in the same straight angles line. Similarly S, E, V are in the same straight line, and therefore the centre S is the point of intersection of TD, VE. Q. E.D.
;

DN on the tangents. Join XY, MN, then, since SX :SY:: DM DN and the angles XSY, MDN are equal, therefore the triangles SXY, MDN are similar; therefore SX:DM::XY:MN ::XT:MT, and the angles SXT, DMT are right
perpendiculars

DM,

XXII.
1. If AB, BC, CD, the three sides of a rectangle, be the directions of the motion of a body at three points of a central orbit, and the velocities be proportional to these sides respectively, prove that the centre of force will be in the intersection of the diagonals

of the rectangle.
2. If the velocities at three points of a central orbit be respec tively proportional to the opposite sides of the triangle formed by joining the points, and have their directions parallel to the same sides, prove that the centre of force will be the centre of gravity of

the triangle.

Three tangents are drawn to a given orbit, described by a particle under the action of a central force, one of them being parallel If the to the external bisector of the angle between the other two. be a mean at the this of contact of velocity propor tangent point tional between those at the points of contact of the other two, prove that the centre of the force will lie on the circumference of a
3.

certain circle.
4. If the velocities be inversely proportional to the sides of the triangle formed by the tangents at the three points, the centre of force will be the point of concourse of the straight lines joining each an angular point of this triangle to the intersection of the tangents to its circumscribing circle at the ends of the opposite side.
5. If the velocity of a particle describing an ellipse under the action of a centre of force vary as the diameter parallel to the direction of its motion directly, and as its distance from one of the axes inversely, prove that the centre of force will be at an infinite distance.

174

NEWTON.

PKOP.

VI.

THEOREM

V.

If a body

of force, in any orbit whatever, in a non-resisting medium, and if, at the ex tremity of a vert/ small arc, commencing from any point in the orbit, a subtense of the angle of contact at that point
be

revolve about a fixed centre

drawn parallel

to

the radius

from

that point

to the

centre offorce, then the force at that point tending to the centre will be ultimately as the subtense directly and the

square of the time of describing the arc inversely.

Let

PQ be
S
9

to

the small arc, the centre of force.

PS the radius drawn from P RQ the subtense of the

T the time of angle of contact at P, parallel to PS. the accelerating effect of the describing PQ.

force at P. Then, when the

leaves P, it would, if not acted on by the central force, move in the direction PR, and if continued constant in magnitude and the force the time T, QR would be the direction

body

throughout space through which it would have been drawn


*L x.T f uL-i in that time; therefore ultimately,
-

by F
-^

rr It

-y^-ac

COR.

1.

Draw (^perpendicular to 8P and let h = twice


9

PROP. VI.

THEOREM

V.

175

Then area the area described in an unit of time. PSQ = \hT, Prop, i., also, since triangle = SP. QT, and area PSQ = triangle PSQ, ultimately, Lemma VIII., therefore hT = SP.QT, ultimately;
,
.
L

PSQ

_
Jf

hence, ultimately,

2tf ~ = 2 QR T =-^
rt

QR
A

COR.

2.

Draw SY perpendicular on PR. Then,


.-.

PSQ

hence, ultimately,

hT= SY.PR = SY.PQ, ultimately; QR = 2/f QR F= 2 k

COR.

If the orbit have finite curvature at P, and be the chord of the circle of curvature whose direction
3.

PV

passes through

S PV.QR = PQ*, V- _
}
"

ultimately;

COR.

4.

If

Fbe

the velocity at P, then

PQ V=jrj
f

and

2QR

2QR
.

(PQ\*

(-^j
-

ultimately

F= 2 V*
J.
-

or UI

F -2P -A-L.
2

PV
,

that is, the velocity at any point of a central orbit at which the curvature is finite is that which would be acquired by a body moving from rest under the action of the central force at that point continued
constant, after passing through a space equal to a quarter of the chord of curvature at that point drawn in the direction of the centre of force.

COR.

5.

Hence,

if

the form of

the position of any point S, petal force is continually directed, the law of the centripetal force can be found, by which a body will be deflected from its direction of motion, so as to remain in the curve. Examples of this investiga tion will be given in the following problems.

any curve be given, and towards which a centri

176

NEWTON.

Observations on the Proposition.

enunciation of the proposition, the sagitta of the arc, which bisects the chord and is drawn in the direction of the centre of force, is employed instead of the subtense used 173.
s

In Newton

in the text, but these are ultimately proportional

by Art.

90.

The
first

by which Newton expresses the results of the three corollaries are replaced by equations, in order to
variations
in

facilitate the

comparison of the motion of bodies orbits and the forces acting upon them.
174.

different

proof of the proposition is drawn upon supposition that the force is attractive, the orbit being concave to the centre of force ; the same proof will apply
figure

The

employed

in

also to the case of a repulsive force, if the curve be

the direction of the dotted line

PQ

drawn in and the same construction

be made.
exception, however, should be made, that the method fails in the particular positions in which the body is at the points of contact of tangents drawn from the centre of force to the curve ;

The

does not ultimately meet the tangent at a finite is not a subtense ; the result of the or proposition is there angle further fore not demonstrated for these particular positions. discussion of the case is given on the next proposition.
in such cases

QR

assumed that the body moves ulti mately in the same manner as if the force at Premained constant in magnitude and direction, in which case the body would describe a parabola, whose axis is parallel to PS, and which is evidently the parabola which has at P the same curvature as
175.

In the proof

it

is

the curve.

By

this consideration the proposition

contained in

Cor. 4 can be readily proved. For, since the body moves in a parabola under the action of a constant force in parallel lines,
is that acquired by falling from the directrix the velocity at under the action of the force at P, continued constant, i.e.

through a space equal to the distance of the focus of the parabola, which is equal to a quarter of the chord of curvature
at P,

drawn through

S.

PEOP.
176.

VI.

THEOREM

V.

177

continued constant supposition that the force at in magnitude and direction, causes the body to move in a curve which is ultimately coincident with the path of the body, may be
justified

The

by considering that if PQ be the arc of the parabola described on this supposition in the same time as the arc PQ

Q is due to the change in the actually described, the error magnitude of the forces and the direction of their action in the
two cases ; now, the greatest difference of magnitude varies as the difference of SP and SQ ultimately, and the ratio of the error from this cause to Q R vanishes ultimately also, since L PSQ vanishes ultimately, the ratio of the error, arising from the change of direction, to Q R vanishes ; therefore, Q Q Q R vanishes, and
; :

the curves
177.

may

be considered ultimately coincident.

and of the fourth corollary are true of the resultant of any forces, under the action of which any plane orbit is described, for this resultant may be supposed ultimately constant in direction and magnitude, in which case the curve described is a parabola. Hence, as in
It is evident that the results of the Proposition

Art. 175,
forces,

if

QR

be the accelerating effect of the resultant of the the subtense parallel to the direction of the resultant,

and

^= 2

limit

Homogeneity.
178.

COR. 1,2. In the expressions

for

obtained in these

corollaries,

it is of great importance to observe the dimensions of the symbols. Thus JiT represents an area and k is of two 2 dimensions in linear space and of - 1 in time ; therefore Ji QR
.

Is

of five in space, and of

2 in time,
is

and SP*.

Q T*

of four

dimensions in space; hence,


space and of

of one dimension in

O-i

(j/

J.

2 in time, and represents either twice the space through which a force would draw a body in an unit of time, or the velocity generated by the force in an unit of time, either of

which

may
;

the force

be taken as the measure of the accelerating effect of moreover, this unit is the same by which the magni
determined.

tude of h

is

AA

178

NEWTON.

Hence, if the actual areas, lines, &c., be represented by the symbols, and not the number of units, as mentioned in Art. 168, every term of an equation or of a sum or difference must be

homogeneous, or of the same number of dimensions, both and time for example, PQ -\-V.T representing a line,
;

in space

must

be of

dimensions in time.
Tangential and

Normal

Forces.
the

components of the which a describes forces^ of body any plane curve^ taken in the directions of the normal and tangent at any point. Let PQ be a small arc of the curve described under the action of any forces, T the measures of the accelerating effect

179.

To find

the accelerating effect

of

under

the action

of these forces, in the direction of the tangent and perpendicular to it. be the velocity at P, t the time of describing Then, if PQ, the forces may be supposed ultimately to remain constant ;

therefore,

if

ultimately ratio of T.

QR = %N.t\
t*
:

be perpendicular to PR, we shall have and PR = V.t + \T.t* = V.t since the Vt vanishes ultimately ; hence, if p be the radius

QR

of curvature at P, 2p

= PR = 2V* p ^
2
r

F
ultimately
;

therefore

will

be the measure of the normal acceleration estimated towards


the centre of curvature.
if

Again,

component
Art. 53,

we

will be ultimately the velocity at Q, of the velocity in the direction therefore, by obtain two measures of the tangential acceleration,

V be the
*

the limits of

V*
(j/

p^ &JL
the

and

V
t

PR

V
.

180.

To find

velocity at

any point of an

orbit described

under

the action

at A and Let Bj and suppose the arc AB divided into a large number of small T the portions, of which PQ is one, v n v l+l velocities at P and Q,

AB

of any forces in one plane. be any arc of an orbit, F, v the velocities

accelerating effect of the tangential component of the forces at P,

v rH

vS

= 2T.PQ

ultimately,

and v - V*
2

is

obtained by taking the limit of the

sum

of the

PROP. VI.

THEOREM

V.

179

magnitudes
their

ZT.PQ

corresponding to the different arcs

when
that

number is indefinitely increased. That this is rigidly correct may be shewn by considering
v?
:

vr+

%T.PQ\s

Cor.,

Lemma

ultimately a ratio of equality ; therefore, by IV., or Art. 22, the limiting ratio of the sums is
effect is

also a ratio of equality.

In the case of a central force, whose accelerating

F,

+i

- v *=2F.PQcosRPS =
V*
9

ultimately,

whence

v*

if

F depend

only on the distance.

Radial and Transversal Forces.


181.

To find

force, under

the action

taken in the
point,

components of which a describes body any plane curve, of a radius vector drawn direction of from a fixed
accelerating
effect

the,

of

the

and perpendicular

to

it.

Let

PQ

be a small arc described in the time

T"

QEUj

PU

accelerating

to /SP; P, Q the measures of the parallel and perpendicular and a effects of the components in

PS

PU\ PR

tangent at P.

If

be the velocity at P,
>SP,

make PT=V.T,
the arc of a

draw
circle,

TN

perpendicular to

and

let

Qq be

centre S.

Since the forces

may be

considered ultimately constant in

magnitude and

direction,

%P.T* = Nn = Nq +

^- ultimately.

180

NEWTOtf.

Let h be twice the area which would be described in an unit of time by radii from S, if the transverse force Q ceased
to
act,

thenQn.SP~TN.SP~h.Ti
;

therefore

be the measure of the accelerating effect ultimately and if of a force, under the action of which the body would move
in

|~

PS,

so that its distance

from
2

that of the body in

mately

therefore

PQ P P

at
-f

would be always equal to 2 the same time, %P .T = Nq ulti-

h, the increase of /*, Again, if at Q h correspond to ^, h will be due to the increase of velocity in direction P7, which 2 therefore (/* - h) T= Q.T SP is equal to Q. T ultimately;
.

ultimately; hence

Q^

o-yr

ultimately.

Angular
182.

Velocity.

point is to the fixed point.

DEF. Angular velocity of a point moving about a fixed the rate at which angles are described by radii drawn
velocity
is

Uniform angular in an unit of time.

measured by the angle described

Variable angular velocity is measured by the angle which would be described by a radius in an unit of time, if moving with uniform angular velocity equal to the angular velocity at the time under consideration: this is the limit of the angle, described
in a time T, divided

by

T,

when

T is

indefinitely diminished.

183.

To find

Let

PQ
;

angular velocity in a central orbit. be a small arc described in the time T, draw
the

QN

twice the area to &P, then h. QN.SP perpendicular in circular estimated be supposed ultimately and, if the angles

T=

PSQ=

measure, L
Telocity,

PSQ=
is

|-

ultimately

therefore the angular

which

PSO
ultimately,

PROP. VI.

THEOREM

V.

181

184.

To find

the

angular

velocity

of

the

perpendicular on the

tangent from the centre offorce.

Draw

SY perpendicular on

the tangent

PY, and

let

PV

be

the chord of curvature through 8. in the time The angle described by

angle between the tangents

SY at P and
:

equal to the Q, or to twice the angle.


is

PVQ; SP 2
: :

therefore angular velocity of

SY

PVQ

PSQ

: :

2SQ Q V
-.

angular velocity of hence the ultimately ;


:

angular velocity of

SY = pv

Illustrations.
(1)
to the

To find
centre

the tension

of a vertical be the position of the body at any time, CP, CA Let and the lowest point, and let v, u be the radii drawn to

of a string by which a body circle in which it revolves.

is

attached

velocities at

P and A.
v

Draw
2

PM

perpendicular to

CA.

Then

uz

v*

= 2q.AM y

and -~-r

CA

is

the accelerating effect of the forces

in the direction P(7, viz. the tension of the string

and the com

ponent of the weight of the body.


the string and

Let
;

be the tension of

the mass of the body

182

NEWTON.
:

therefore the tension of the string


::

the weight of the body


:

- 2g.CA + Zg.CM g.CA.

NOTE

1.

since the string

In order that the complete circle may be described, must be stretched at the highest point where
for
2 CM, u =

CA
circle

must be written

or

>

bg.CA^ and

if

the

be just described, the tension at the lowest point will be

six times the weight.

NOTE
the
u*
l

2.

If the

body

oscillate, the

extent of the oscillation

will be given

by the consideration
there
is

arc

of oscillation

otherwise the string would not be stretched, so that the tension at the weight
less

= 2g.AM\
1

and

AM

that at the extremity of will be no velocity, therefore

than

AC,

::

2AM + AC:
(2)

AC.
under
the

Find

the force

action of which

a body

may

describe the equiangular spiral uniformly.

The

velocity being constant, there


2

is

only a normal force


"\T

measured by
(3)

(vel.)

-f-

radius of curvature

=
of
h
z

8P

Art. 128.

Find

the force tending to the pole


the curve is described.
a

the cardioid,

under

the action

of which

Since

PV

$SP, and

(vel.)

= -~K* =

BC
/
is
,

see

page 105,
cc -77=^
.

therefore the accelerating effect of the force

4^. 2SP

SI*

equal rings P, Q slide on a string which passes round in a smooth horizontal plane / the rings are two fixed pegs A, brought together, and then projected with equal velocities, so as to
(4)

Two

ke

the string stretched symmetrically.

Shew

that the tension

of

he string varies inversely as the distance

AP.

J)

PROP. VI.

THEOREM

V.

183

The
Let

CR

CR,
is

figure represents the position of the system at any time. bisect and PQ, and let be drawn parallel to so that then is

AB

therefore

DE

EP=PA,
fixed,

DE EPR = AP+PR
PQ

is

and

P moves in
P

constant; a parabola whose focus

and directrix DE.

Also, the tensions of the string in PA, being equal and inclined to the to s the resultant of these equally tangent path, tensions, which are the only forces acting in the plane of the curve, acts in the normal, hence the rings move with uniform

be the velocity equal to the velocity of projection F, and if measure of the accelerating effect of the the normal, tension,

PG

p the radius of curvature,

2TcosAPG=

V*
,

and 2p

cosAPG

= chord

of curvature through

A = PA
2

therefore

F T= 4PA
(5)

cc

PA
the action

lody revolves in a smooth circular tube under


to

of a force tending
the point

any
is

point in the circumference,

as the distance from that point.

Find

the pressure

and varying on the tube, and

where there

no pressure, the motion commencing

from

a given point.

Take

point of starting,

the centre of force, C that of the circle let be the ; a small arc, BD, PAf, ordinates to the

PQ

QN

diameter through the centre of force, Am, Qn perpendicular on let be the measure of the accelerating effect of the fju.PA OP;
force at

P;

therefore jj,.mA, fi.Pm are those of the tangential


forces,

and normal

= yL6.PJ/and

p.

AM respectively.

184
2

NEWTON.
at

(vel.)

Q-(ve\.y

at

P= 2p.PM.PQ = 2/*. OP.ifA7 ultimately,


all

see Art. 179, whence, taking the limit of the summation for a the small arcs in BP, (vel.) at P=2/j,.CP.DM.
"

Also,

-TTp

= ft.AMZ

the

accelerating

effect

of the

pressure of the tube, the according as the pressure

upper or lower sign being taken T therefore the is from or towards 6


;

has pressure on the tube


fjL

for the

measure of

its

accelerating effect
;

hence the

(AM- 2DM) = (3AM- 2 AD] pressure is outwards from B until AM=\AD^

at

which point there is no pressure, and inwards from that point to the corresponding one on the opposite side, having its greatest value at A, and the outward pressure at B is half the inward
pressure at A.

a particle be placed at any and be acted on by two forces which tend to the foci and point, the distances from those points, vary inversely as the square of shew that the pressure at any point will vary as the curvature.
(6)

If in a smooth

elliptic tube

Let
the body,

be the point of starting,

PQ

a small arc described by

Q 2]
<y^

QU
,

perpendiculars on $P, HP.


j

Take

-TTn*

-^ as tne measures of the accelerating

effects of the forces,

and of the pressure of tube outwards.


letters for the lines of the figure,

Then, employing the usual


the accelerating effect
to

of the tangential

component of force

is

PT PQ

fji(SP-SQ} ___

__

At
!

lllTliniTPlV

SP.SQ.PQ

PQ.SQ

PQ.SP

Jc

and

similarly for the force tending to //;

PROP. VI.

THEOREM

V.

185
(
2fJ>

(Vel

at

P- fvel V at O - (^
"

2//
"\

2/z

V-(Hp-HQ)"(B(i-~Bp)>

HP~ HO
+
a
\

...

80
,

(vel.)

Also,
.

-*

at

P=
,

LL

^p

^p J
.

PF -p^

if
/>

be the radius

20. of curvature at P, and e

AC.HP

p.SP +

PF = DT = 2CI? = 2SP.HP = ^^ r-^PA PF A G AC p. HP // 2ft AC.SP HP


2ft,

2ft

AC
which
is

__
R

AC^\HO

SO

_ AC*

constant

therefore

varies as the curvature.

XXIII.
1. body is attached to a point by a thread, and is projected so as to describe a vertical circle, prove that, if 2\, be the tensions z of the string at the extremities of any diameter, the arithmetic mean between v 2 is independent of the position of the diameter, and is six times the component of the weight in the direction that TI ~ of the diameter.

T T T
{

capable of sustaining a weight W. less than attached to the other end, oscillates in a vertical plane, find the greatest arc through which the weight can oscillate without breaking the string.
2.
/ is

A string of given length


is fixed,

One end

and a given weight

7F",

3. ring slides on a string hanging over two pegs in the same horizontal line, find the tension of the string at the lowest point, if the ring begin to fall from the point in the horizontal line through the pegs, the string being stretched.

4.

A3f,

AN are the abcissee of points

AB

is

the vertical axis of a cycloid,


at

the highest point,

down
that

the arc of the cycloid, and at is the middle point of MB.

which a body begins to slide which it leaves the curve; prove

If in a central orbit the direction of motion change uniformly, the normal force will vary as the radius of curvature. that prove
5.

BB

18G

NEWTON.

6. Given the Sun s motion in longitude at apogee and perigee and 61 find the eccentricity of the Earth s orbit, be 57 an about the Sun in one of the foci. be to ellipse supposed

to

10"

10"

7.

focus of
8.

Prove that the angular velocity of a projectile about the its path varies inversely as its distance from the focus.
constrained to

A particle,

move on an equiangular

spiral, is

attracted to the pole by a force proportional to the distance, prove that, at whatever point the particle be placed at rest, the times of describing a given angle about the centre of force will be the same.
9.

vertical

cycloid, at the lowest point will

body slides down a smooth .cycloidal arc, whose axis is and vertex downwards, find the pressure at any point of the and shew that, if it fall from the highest point, the pressure
be twice the weight of the body.

Find the law of force, tending to the centre, under the of which a lemniscate can be described. action
10.

XXIV.
1.

Two

about A, and

shew that

AB and BC are united at B A B revolves BC about B with the same uniform angular velocity the acceleration on C tends to A and varies as CA*
straight lines
;

2. particle describes an ellipse, the centre of force being Shew that at the point situated at any point within the figure. where the true angular velocity is equal to the mean angular velocity, the radius vector is a mean proportional between the

semiaxes.
3. particle begins to move from any point of a smooth parabolic tube, being attracted to the focus by a force which varies inversely as the square of the distance find the greatest pressure.
;

the perpendicular on the tangent at a point of a centre of about force that described the orbit, S, prove will be equal to the product of the velocities of acceleration at divided by SY. and
4.

If

SY be

an

is placed with its axis vertical and vertex there shew that is a certain portion of the surface upwards, upon which a particle can describe a circle, if properly projected and acted on by gravity and by a force tending to the vertex and

5.

smooth cone

varying as the distance.

PKOP. VI.
6.

THEOREM

V.

187

Shew

that the force required for the description of an ellipse

about the vertex

AP A varies as -7^3
^3.J.\

where PJVis the perpendicular

on the
7.

axis.

If a particle describe an ellipse under the action of a force

D
.,

tending

to

any

fixed point 0, the force will vary as

pp?3 where
,

the position of the particle, the chord through 0, and T)D the diameter parallel to this chord.
is

PP

8. Shew that in the elliptic orbit described under the action of a force tending to a focus, the angular velocity round the other focus varies inversely as the square of the diameter parallel to the direction of motion.

in a circular tube, under the action of a to a point in the tube, and whose accelerating effect varies as the distance, shew that, if the particle begin to move from a point at a distance from the centre of force equal to the
9.

particle

moves

force

which tends

radius, there will be no pressure on the tube at an angular distance from the centre of force equal to !
1

cos"

10. particle moves in a smooth elliptic groove, under the action of two forces tending to the foci and varying inversely as the squares of the distances, the forces being equal at equal distances. Prove that, if the velocity at the extremity of the axis major be to to BC, then the that at the extremity of the axis minor as velocity at any point will vary inversely as the normal; find the pressure on the tube.

AC

Determine the relation between p and X and the velocity of order that an ellipse may be described under the projection, in
11.

action of forces

J^g t frp*

to the foci

and X

CP to

the centre, acting

simultaneously.
ai string, and is particle is attached ta a point C by and varies to a tends which a force S, inversely as point by Find the least velocity with the square of the distance from S. which the particle can be projected from a point in CS, or CS pro duced, so as to describe a complete circle. If CS be less than the of the string, prove that the tension will be a maximum at

12.

attracted

length where SI) is perpendicular to CS, and that if a point the length of the string, the two minimum and the tensions will be as 0, 4 and 3 y S.
D>

CS be half maximum

188

KEWTON,

PEOP.

VII.

PROBLEM

II.

"body

moves in the circumference of a

circle, to

find the law


in the

of the centripetal force, tending to plane of the circle.

any given point

Let

AP Fbe the circumference of the circle, $the given point to which the centripetal force tends, P V the

drawn through S from P, the body at any time, and VGA the diameter through F. Join PA, and draw SY perpendicular to PY, the tangent to the curve atP,
chord of the
circle

position of the

By

F be the measure of the accele2h rating effect of the centripetal force, F =


Prop.
vi.

Cor

3, if

AJ

-L

J~

and, since the angles SPY, VAP are equal, and also the right angles PYS, APV, the triangles SPY, VAP are similar, and SP V VA;

SY

2h\ VA*
~~

SP\PV*>

therefore,

since

h and

VA

are

inversely as

SP\PV\

given,

varies

PROP. VIT.

PROBLEM

II.

189

COK.

1.

Hence,

if

the given point

to

which the

centripetal force tends, be situated on the circum ference of the circle, will coincide with S, and

vary inversely as
Con.

force, under the action of which a body is to the force, under revolves in a circle
2.

The

APTV,

the action of which the same body can revolve in in same circle the same time about any the periodic other centre of force R, as RP\SP to SG\ SG being a straight line drawn from the first centre parallel of the body from the second to the distance centre of force R, to meet PG, a tangent to the circle.

RP

For, by the construction of this proposition, since the periodic times are the same, the areas described in

a given time are the same therefore, h is the same for both centres, hence, if be the chord through RP\PT* the force to R R, the force to S
;

PET

iSP\PV^ but, by similar triangles .PV\:SP:SG\ therefore force to

PT
: :

TPV, GSP,
:

force to

RP\SP* SP\SG
:

RP SP
Z

COR.

3.

The

revolves in to the force,

force,

under the action of which a body


orbit about a centre of force $, is

any

under the action of which the same body P can revolve in the same orbit in the same periodic time about any other centre of force R, as

190
3
,

NEWTON.

EP*.SPio SG- 8G- being the straight line drawn from


the distance the first centre of force S, parallel to from the second centre of force R, to meet PGf of the tangent to the orbit.

EP

For, in each case, the body may be supposed for a short time to be moving in the circle of curvature, and the forces are the same as those which would retain the body in the circular orbit; therefore, since the areas described in a given time are equal, the ratio of the forces is RP\SP
:

Observations on the Proposition.

In the figure employed in the proposition, the force is supposed to be attractive, but the investigation of the law
185.
of force applies also to the case in which the centre of force

exterior to the circle, in which case the force is repulsive through the arc BC, which is convex to the centre offeree, and

S is

contained between the tangents drawn from S to the circle. It is important, however, to observe that this problem
find

is

to

what would be the law of force tending to $, under the action of which a body would be moving, supposing that it

move in the circle, or any portion of the circle, under the action of such a force, but it does not assert the possibility of such a motion, which is considered in Art. 165.
could

PROP. VII.

PROBLEM

II.

191

the complete description of a circle ABC, under the sole action of a central force tending to an external point $, is

In

fact,

impossible, because, as the body approaches the point J?, the remains finite component of the velocity perpendicular to

SB

however near the body approaches B, and since there

is

no

force to generate a velocity in the opposite direction, the body on the opposite side. must proceed to describe an arc a to both would be curves, because the velocity in tangent

BU

SB

any finite quantity, as the body approaches B, and therefore the angle between BS and the direction of motion is indefinitely small at B.
direction

BS becomes larger than

That a

finite

velocity in the direction perpendicular to

SB

could remain up to B, at in the tangent

PY
i

may be shewn by producing SB to P\ then the component of the velocity

at

-n

perpendicular to

bn

nr>

h
is

*$Y
.

~^y

~-~

-^

^
B

when

the

body

arrives at a point very near to B.

force at a point indefinitely near to cannot be the method of Prop. VI., because the properly determined by direction of the the force from which the meato lines parallel

186.

The

surcs of the force are obtained are not subtenses, or sagitta?, since they are in this case not inclined at a finite angle to the

tangent.

192

NEWTON.
it

But
Prop.
I,

can be seen in another manner from the polygon of that the force is infinitely great, when the distance from
small.
if

B becomes infinitely
Thus,

CDEF

touches the radius from

DE and DS or ES

be a portion of the polygon whose limit S between and E, the angle between may be made as small as we please compared

with the angle between

CD

and

DE, hence

the

velocity

generated by the impulse in the directions become infinitely great compared with the

DS

and

SE

will

velocities in

CD

and E^ whose In the figure, the impulses at directions are denoted by the arrows, have corresponding to them In the limit the forces on opposite sides of the tangent, which

and EF.

are attractive and repulsive respectively.

187.

COR.

1.

For the reasons given above, a


via.,

limitation

should be made,
this

when

P is
8A
2

at a finite distance
2 .Z2
,

from 8.

In

case

PV SP

and

being the radius of the

circle,

ike possibility of a description of a circle is not asserted, but only the law of force required The complete in case of description of any portion of the circle.
description of the single circle is, in fact, impossible, for, under the action of the force obtained, the body would pass to the other
side of the tangent on arriving at $, then proceed to describe another equal circle, and, on arriving again at $, return into the

We may also observe here that

original circle.

188.

COR.

3.

The

orbit

being the

and periodic times about 8 the two cases, is the same; also, the force tending to 8 for as that under the the orbit being of the same magnitude at

same, and also the being equal, the value of A, in

action of which the circle of curvature would be described, and being the same in the orbit and the circle, h is also SY,

PV

the same, Prop. VI. Cor. 3 ; and, similarly, h is the same in the therefore it is the same in circle and orbit described about ;

the circle described about

and

R R as centres

of force, and hence

Cor. 2 applies.

PROP. VII.

PROBLEM

II.

193

Absolute Force.

upon a body placed at any distance from the point S vary inversely as the nth power of that distance, the magnitude of the force, or its ratio to any given force,
189.
If the force
as that of gravity, will be determined when the distance is The measure of the accelerating effect of the force Is given.

SP
is

written

77,

where

/z

the constant part of this measure

an

algebraical

symbol of n

dimensions in linear space.

If the

unit of space

= #,

-^

is

the measure of the accelerating effect of


yu,

the force on a body at an unit of distance, and

is

called the

Absolute Force, being the measure of the accelerating effect of the force at an unit of distance x the nth power of that unit.
not the measure of the accelerating effect of any force, unless the symbols be treated numerically, in which case //. is twice the number of units of space through which a
absolute force
is

The

constant force, equal to the force at P^ unit of distance, would draw a body from rest in an unit of time.

Law
190.

of Force in a Circular Orbit.


of force

The law

may

be expressed

in

terms of the

distance SP, for SD, Sd being the greatest and least distances of the body from , SD.Sd= SP.SV; see figure, page 188.
.-.

or

according as

SP.PV=SP*SD.Sd, S is within or without the


*

~~

circle

If

S be
If

on the circumference Sd = be exterior


;

0, therefore

F=

9Ji*

AS*
.

^-7,5

to the circle,

SD.Sd= SJ?\
.,-

and the lower

.1 sign must be taken

^ r therefore

WAV^.SP 77 F= ~ o--\3
Circular
in
the
to

Velocity in the

Orbit.
orbit in the

191.

To find

the

velocity

circular

described

under

the action

of a force tending

any point

plane of

the orbit.

CG

194
.
.

NEWTON..
x

The

velocity at

P=

#p

#r

SP =

VA

Sp-

py
circle,

COR. If

be in the circumference of the


effect of the force,
/JL

and

-_

be the accelerating

2tfSA*

hence the velocity at


Or,

P=

li.VA

we may employ

the result of Prop, vi., Cor. 4,

SP
"

~2~

v-(\* UJ

&F*

Periodic Time.

192.

To ^AI^

the periodic time in


to

a circular

orbit described

under

the action

of a force tending

a point in

the circumference.

Let
let

P
5

be the periodic time,

the radius of the circle, and


effect of the force at

-^

of

be the measure of the accelerating

P) then

h.P= twice
and
fi

the area of the circle


8
;

= 2AM^ = S^JK

/.

P=

same circle when described under the action of a force tending to a point in the to the centre, of the same Circumference^ and a force tending at a distance equal to the radius magnitude as that of the first force
193.

To compare

the periodic times in the

of

the circle.

Let

be the periodic time, and Fthe uniform velocity in

the circle in the second case,

F = -p E
2
.

/.

F=

Illustrations.
(1)
tJie

When

the force in

a circular
which

orbit tends to

a point within
is

circle, to

find

the pointat

the true

angular velocity

ejjual to the

mean angular

velocity.

PEOP. VII.

PEOBLEM
-~

II.

195
--

The true angular velocity =

the

mean = -^ =

2-7?

or the perpendicular from therefore at the required point the required point upon the line joining to the centre of the

SP=Rj

circle bisects
(2)

OS.
circle

A
to

body describes a

tending

a point within

effect at the

under the action of a force measure of whose accelerating it, greatest and least distances SD and Sd are the radius
the

twice the diameter respectively, the unit find the number of seconds in passing from
Q.

and

of time being a second;


to d.

Sh
3

Sh

.R

and the number of seconds from

D to d =

=
4

XXV.
1. If p. be the absolute force in a circular orbit described under the action of a force tending to a point in the circumference, prove that the time in a quadrant commencing from the extremity of the diameter through the centre of force will be (* + 2) ? (%fj.)~$. In what unit of time is the result expressed ?

A point describes a circle, with an acceleration tending to any within the circle. Prove that, if three points be taken at point which its velocities are in harmonica! progression, the velocities at the other extremities of the diameters, passing through those points, will also be in harmonical progression.
2. 3. In the case of a centre of force S within a circle, if two points be taken, such that LS, make equal angles with the Z, diameter through S, and on the same side of it, then the forces at Z and will be to each other in the inverse ratio of the squares on

MS

OL and

4. The sum of the reciprocals of the velocities at the extremities of any diameter is independent of the position of the centre of force, and varies as the periodic time.
5. Prove that, when a circular orbit is described about an in ternal point, the sum of the square roots of the accelerations at the extremities of any chord passing through that point varies inversely as the square root of the length of the chord.

196
C.

NEWTON.

Prove that, if the law offeree tending to S, a point without a the law of force under which part of the circle can be de be circle, scribed, the body will move near B as if acted on by a force tending to B and varying inversely as the cube of the distance from B.
is a radius perpendicular to the diameter through S in a 7. circular orbit about a central force tending to a point S within the circle, SJ3 an ordinate, perpendicular to OS, shew that, if the force

OE

at

B be
8.

least distances,

an arithmetic mean between the forces 0*--= SB.SE\

at the greatest

and

Prove that, if a circle be described about a force tending to a be a chord parallel to the dia in the circumference, and point meter through that point, the times of describing equal small arcs and Q will differ by a quantity which varies as PQ. near

PQ

describing a circle under the action of a at every instant the angular velocities are the same. circumference in the about all points
9.

When

a particle

is

central force,

shew that

The period in an orbit described under the action of a central n m whose accelerating effect is jur is given to be Xa -j- ^, a be force, ing a line and X a number, find n.
10.

in Cor. 3, to prove that if under the action of a force tending described orbit in an elliptic to the centre, the force vary as the distance from the centre, then the force tending to the focus will vary inversely as the square of
11.

Apply the proposition contained

the focal distance.


12. Deduce, by Cor. 3, the law of force, when a parabola is described under the action of a force tending to the focus, from the constant force parallel to the axis, under the action of which the

same parabola may be


13.

described.

force at

Shew, by the method of projections, that the centripetal in the axis major any point P tending to a fixed point of an ellipse under which the ellipse can be described, varies as
OQ,
3

being the chord of the ellipse through 0.

PROP. VIII.

PROBLEM

III.

197

PEOP.

VIII.

PROBLEM

III.

under the action of a lady moves in a semicircle force tending to a point S so distant that the lines PS, QS

PQA

drawn from
parallel ;
to

body to that point find the law offorce.


the

may

be considered

Let CA be a sernidiameter of the semicircle drawn from the centre perpendicular to the direction in which the force acts, cutting P8, QS in and and join CP.

Let PRZ\)Q the tangent at P, ZQT perpendicular to PMS, meeting PRZ in Z and let SXQ meet PRZ in R.
}

Then

the force at

P=
;

ultimately, if the arc

P$ be indefinitely diminished, and SP may be con


sidered constant
also,

by Euclid m.

36,

and, since

PZT,

CPM are similar,


RP\ QT
::

RQ

is

parallel to

PT
::

and the triangles


:

ZP ZT CP
:

PJLT;

2PM
G
hence force at
p>

3
J

ultimately
oc

P=

pjr

198

NEWTON.
Aliter.

In

page 190 draw OE a semidiameter perpen dicular to SD, and let the distance SP cut the circle in F, and OE in M, then, by the prefig.

if $ be F= very distant, the ratio PM SM or SO will vanish therefore, SP = SO ultimately, and PV is ulti

ceding proposition,

mately perpendicular to

OE and

equal to

2PM,

SCHOLIUM.

in an ellipse, hyperbola or parabola, under the action of a force tending to a point so situated and so distant that the lines drawn from the body to that point may be considered parallel, and perpendicular to the major axis of the ellipse, the axis of the parabola or the transverse axis of To shew that the force varies the hyperbola. inversely as the cube of the ordinates.

body moves

Let

be the axis to which the direction of the forces may be considered perpendicular, PM, PCr

AMG

O
the
ordinate

and normal,

curvature, tion PS.

and

PFthe

the diameter of chord of curvature in direc

PO

PROP. VIII.

PROBLEM

III.

199

^
"

_ ~

PG
if-*- *~

P
Art. 84.

since

PO*PG\

Observations on the Proposition.

194.

It

Las been shewn in Art. 151, that the equable de

scription of areas
lines,

may,

in the case of forces acting in parallel

be replaced by the uniformity of the resolved part of the to that of the forces. In velocity in the direction perpendicular
the proof given in the text, when S is removed to an infinite dis but the expression tance, h and SP are both infinite magnitudes,

^p is

finite, for

area

SPQ

described in the time

is

ultimately

equal to area SMN, whose base is equal to uT, u being the com ponent of the velocity perpendicular to the direction of the
7 a

forces; therefore

liTuT.SP

ultimately, and -^^

=u\

hence

the acceleration due to the force, u*2p


semicircle,
is

when a body

describes the

-77773

195.
lines,

The

may

accelerating effect of the force, acting in parallel be obtained directly from the proposition of Art. 151,

as follows.

Let u be the constant component of the velocity F, perpen dicular to the direction of the force, and let FbQ the accelerating
effect of the force, therefore

2 F = F F= -^^
2

-p-j>5

also

F. ui\CPiPM\

F= u\ 07*

Extension of Scholium.
196.

When a
to

body describes any curve under the action of a


the lines

force tending

a point S, so distant that

drawn from

200
to the

NEWTON.
body

may

"be

considered parallel ;

to

find the law of force

and

AP be any curve, AMG the line to which the forces are perpendicular, PM, PG the ordinate and normal at the point P,
Let

the velocity at

any point.

PFthe
Let

chord of curvature in the direction of the force, diameter of curvature.

PO

the

be the accelerating

component of the velocity Fin


.
.

of the force at P, u the the direction


effect

AMG]

also
=

PM, PV-.PO:: PM-.PG;


:

V:u::

PG

2F

Su .PGP

PM\PO PV~ PO.PM

PO _

Zu

.PG3
3

and the velocity =u.

Illustrations.

cycloid is described by a particle, under the action of a force acting in a direction parallel to the axis ; find the accelera tion and the velocity at any point.
(1)

In the cycloid

P0 =
;

4P<2,

and

PM.AB = PG\ AB
u\AB rr 1 ~ 2PM PO
2
^e

being

the length of the axis

2u\PG*

PG
PO
"

PIP
and the velocity
(2)

at

P=u.

-y

P.M

u. -7-^ oc -j^.

Per

PO

A particle

moves in a catenary under the action of forces

acting in vertical lines ; find the accelerating effect of the force and the velocity at any point. the ordinate at the lowest be the directrix, Let

AM

AB
:

point.

Then

PG PM PM AB and PO = 2PG
:

: :

u\PM
and the velocity
at

P= u PG
.

u.

PM r.

or

PM".

PKOP.

VIII.

PEUBLEM

III.

201

XXVI.
1
.

A body is moving in
motion

a semicircle under the action of a force

tending to a point, so distant that the lines drawn from the body to that point may be considered parallel ; if the centre of force be transferred to the centre of the circle, when the direction of the

body

at that point

move

is perpendicular to that of the force, its magnitude being unaltered, prove that the body will continue to

in the circle.

2. If a cycloid be described under the action of forces in the direction of the base, the force at any point will vary inversely as A3.3IQ\ AUT, JIQ being the abscissa and ordinate of the cor responding point of the generating circle.

catenary is described under the action of a horizontal force, prove that the force varies as the distance from the directrix directly, and the cube of the arc from the lowest point inversely.
3.

the same parabola be described by particles when the force tends to the focus, and when it is parallel to the axis, the velocities will be equal at the points at which the forces are equal.
4.

If

and its axis coincident described so as to cut the semicircle in P; prove that, if a body move in the semicircle under the action of a force perpendicular to AS, the time of moving from to will vary as the difference between and the latus rectum. Prove also, that if a second body move from to in the parabola in the same time under the action of a force perpendicular to its be equal, the latus axis, and the velocities in the two curves at rectum of the parabola will be
5.

with

AS the diameter of a semicircle,


P

A parabola

having

its

vertex at

is

AB A

DD

202

NEWTON,

PEOP. IX.
If a body
law of
revolve in

PROBLEM

IV.

spiral, required the centripetal force tending to the pole of the spiral.

an equiangular

Draw

the pole of the spiral, perpendicular be the chord of to the tangent PY, and let curvature at P, whose direction passes through S; then F\ the measure of the accelerating effect of

SY from &,

PV
is

2
the force tending to the pole,
a be the angle of the Art. 128;

A"

Trrr^rri/j

but, if

spiral,

SY= SP

sin a

and

PV=2SP,

F_ ~
197.

h*

To find

the velocity

of a body describing an equiangular


to the

spiral under the action of a force tending

pole.

If

-^jj

be the accelerating
J.
.

effect of the force

tending to

V*- pi.py-.JLr o zj3 SP2V -

F
any arc of
radii,

198.

To find

the

time of describing

the

equi

angular spiral. be any arc, SA, Let

AL
"~^

SL
2

bounding

P
2
-<

the time of
;

describing the arc.


ij
-/.

Then

area SAL=% (SA*~SL*) tana, Art. 127

2 x area

h
199.
to

SAL ___

SA
~"

- SI? _ ~
-.

. tnn

SA
X
~
-

SL*

LCvll rt

In any
$,
is

orbit, described

under

the action

of a force tending

any point

when

the angle between

the tangent the

PY

and

the

radius

SP

a a

maximum

or

minimum,

velocity is equal to
the

the velocity in

circle at the

same distance about

same force

in the centre.

For, the curve, near this point, may be considered an equi a short angular spiral ultimately, since the angle is constant for = 2/SP, and V*=F.SP time; therefore the chord of curvature is

PROP. IX.

PROBLEM

IV.

203

XXVII.
1. In different equiangular spirals, described under the action of forces tending to the poles which are equal at equal distances, shew that the angular velocity varies at any point as the force and the perpendicular on the tangent conjointly.

2.

The angular

velocity of the perpendicular

on the tangent

is

equal

to that of the radius.

3. The velocity of approach towards the focus, called the para centric velocity, varies inversely as the distance.

a circle, whose radius is a, with uniform of the a force, whose accelerating effect at action velocity, under
4.

A body is describing
is

any distance r

Prove

that, if the direction of its


/3

motion be

deflected inwards through

any angle

without altering the velocity, 2


i
:

at the centre of force after a time r the body * will arrive

5. Deduce from the time in an equiangular spiral the time of passing from one point to another, when a body moves along a straight line with a velocity which varies inversely as the distance from a fixed point in that line.
6.

body

describes

an

medium with uniform angular

force tending to the pole ; as the distance and the resistance as the velocity.

equiangular spiral in a resisting velocity under the action of a prove that the force to the pole varies

7. Tsvo particles of equal mass m, and at a distance 2a apart, in the same direction are projected simultaneously with velocity the to the line joining them, only force acting is a perpendicular mutual force of attraction varying inversely as the cube of the distance between the particles, and equal at the distance 2a to mf.

Prove

that, if after a

time \/(V f

-- one of the particles be ^2 ~ a j~} v j i

stopped and kept at rest, the other will proceed to describe an equiangular spiral about it as pole.
8. Three particles A, B, C start from rest and move with uniform velocities, A always directing its course towards Z?, towards C, and C towards A. Prove that if their velocities be proportional to b~c, c-a, a~b, where a, b, c are the initial distances of B from (7, G from A, and A from B respectively, they will describe similar equiangular spirals with a common pole.

204

NEWTON.

PROP. X.
If a body
Let GA,
be revolving in

PROBLEM
an
ellipse,

V.
to

find the law of

centripetal force tending to the centre of the ellipse.

P the position of the body at any time, PC G, DCD conjugate diameters, Q a point near P, QT, PF draw perpendiculars from Q and P on PC, DD a subtense ordinate to an QU POa, QR parallel
CB
be the semiaxes of the
ellipse,
]

to

OP.
7?

Then
But,

F=.
PF*
CP*
nr>i

ultimately.

by

similar triangles

QTU, PFC,

QT

Z
~"

QU

>

QT*

pu.ua PF\CD* AC\BC*


and
...

ancl

QU*

CD*

pu.ua
2

OP

ultimately,

2W
r A

QT*

= AC\BC*
3
.

~ ~CP
is

PU=QR^
6y;

"TTrSTTTTfTa

AC\BC ^

h\

CP

therefore the force from the centre.

proportional to the distance

PitOP. X.

PROBLEM

V.

205

Aliter.

Let

PV

CY

be perpendicular on the tangent at P, and be the chord of curvature at which passes

= rTr O.Z 2ff - -^ CP ~ ThcnPCY\PV PF*~C&


through the centre
COR.
1.

2 CD*

Art. 79.

V CP- * CP AC\BC*

conversely, if the force be as the distance, a body will revolve in an ellipse having its centre in the centre of force, or in a circle, which is a particular kind of ellipse.

And

COR.

the periodic times will be the same in all ellipses described by bodies about the same centre of force.
2.

And

For the periodic time h


and the
If
.

in

any

ellipse
__

_ 2 x area of ellipse

2-n-A

C BC
.
~>

~7T

forces, at different distances in the same or different ellipses, vary as the distance ; therefore
J\. (/

____= G
Jj

/*

is

the

same

in

different

ellipses,

therefore the
is

periodic

times in different ellipses

the same, and

=
SCHOLIUM.

If the centre of an ellipse be supposed at an infinite distance, the ellipse will become a parabola, and the body will move in this parabola and the force, now tending to a centre at an infinite distance, will be constant and act in parallel lines. This theorem is due to Galileo. And, if the parabola be changed into an hyperbola, by the change of inclination of the plane cutting the cone, the body will move in this hyperbola under the action of a
;

repulsive force tending from the centre.

206
200.

NEWTON.
To find
the velocity in the elliptic orbit

under the action

of a force tending to the x distance. effect is p

centre, the

measure of whose accelerating

Ihe

velocit

at

P=

h.CD -= -h
Aliter.

= ~ h.CD

AG BC

rrp
(Vel.)* at

P=F.~=/ji.CP.
a hyperbolic

>

.\ vel. at

P= V/- CD.
the

201.

Tjf

orbit le described

under

action

of

a repulsive force tending from vary as the as the diameter of the distance, and the velocity at any point
the centre, the force will

conjugate hyperbola parallel

to the

tangent at the point.


-case

This

may

be proved exactly as in the


figure,

of the ellipse,

employing the proper


202.

To find

the time in

any arc of an

elliptic orbit

about a

force tending
If

to the centre.

of the orbit, Q the corresponding point in the area A. CPcc area ACQcc auxiliary circle, time in if $ be the : therefore time in periodic time:: $ 2?r,

Pbe any point

AP

<x

LACQ;

AP

circular measure
.

of/.ACQ, and

periodic time

= 2?r
-/->

therefore

V/*

time

in

Ar
.

-.

a given point, the velocity of a body be known, and the direction of its motion; to determine the curve which the body will describe under the action of a given centripetal the point to which it force, which varies as the distance from
203.
If,

at

tends.

ft

Let Pt be the direction of motion at P, V the velocity at P, CP the measure of the accelerating effect of the force tending

to C.

On PG

produced,

if

necessary, take

PV

equal to four

times the space through which a body must move from rest, continued constant, in order under the action of the force at

to acquire the given velocity

F;

so that

= 2/4 CP. \PV.

PEOP. X.

PROBLEM
a

V.

207

proportional to CP and as semiand let an ellipse be constructed with CP, , is the chord of curvature at conjugate diameters, then

Draw CD

parallel to Pf,

mean

CD

PV

through

(7.

In

this

ellipse

let

force tending to (7, force, see Arts. 160, 162, then, when it arrives at the point P, it will be moving in the direction Pf, also the square of the

a body revolve under the action of a whose magnitude at P is that of the given

velocity at P=/*.CZ> in the constructed ellipse,


in this ellipse is

= /4.CP4PF=F
is

2
,

V.

Hence

or the velocity at P, the body revolving

body, in

all

under the same circumstances as the proposed the motion of a body respects which can influence
;

therefore the proposed as above.

body

will describe the ellipse constructed

A
cally

direct solution of the problem, which is solved syntheti in this Article, is given in pages 78 and 79.

Geometrical construction for the position and magnitude of the axes of the elliptic orbit, described by a body about the centre,
204.

when

the velocity at

a given point

is

known and
j

also the direction

of motion. Produce

perpendicular to CR, describe a in 0, and with centre meeting the tangent at circle passing through (7, Rj and cutting the tangent in Tand ;
Z7,

CP to R, CD] bisect CR in

making

PR

a third proportional to

CP and

and draw

UC

208
Let

NEWTON.

TO intersect
then

the ellipse in A,

and draw

PM parallel

to the diameter conjugate to

ACA
::

.-.

TA.TA CA* :: CT*-CA CA PT* PT.Pt CT*-CT.CM: CT.CM-, PT:Pt::MT: CM-,


PT*
:

CD*

::

.-.

hence Ct

is

parallel to

PM, and CT,

Ct are in the directions of

conjugate diameters; but TCt is a right angle, therefore 9 Ct being in the direction of perpendicular conjugate diameters, are the directions of the axes of the ellipse, and if PM, Pm be

CT

upon these directions, the semiaxes are mean proportionals between Q.E.F. CT, and Cm, Ct.

perpendiculars from

CM

205. Equations for determining the position and dimensions

of the orbit. Let fi.R be the measure of the accelerating


at the distance

effect of the force

CP=R, Fthe

velocity, a the angle

between
Let

CP

and the direction of motion at the given point P. the semiaxes of the ellipse, r the angle which the major axis.

a, b be

CP
6

makes with
2
;

Then V* = p,

CD
...

and CD*

+ CP* = a +
2

a*

+ tf =
s\na.

1 + R* .................. (I),

Also V. R

=h=
sin a

V.R
and, by the properties of the ellipse,
-Lv

2 -V

cos

CT+
(3)

-7^ sin CT

/r\\

1 .................. (3).

The

equations

(1),

(2),

and

determine

a, &,

and

sr,

whence

the magnitude and position of the ellipse is determined. can obtain an equation for OT, immediately in terms of

We

the data, as follows

by

(3),

PROP. X.

PROBLEM

V.

209
and

-*

y = cosec
*

2
cc

+
(l
,

^ ^^coseca.^jby
,

^p )

by

(I)

(2),

(2),

(?*

) (

-P)-""*

sn-cr

^
"

cota

cosec a
1

.*.

cot

2^ = -

tan a

cot a

//

1 -f

cosec a.

7?\
J

^^

whence CT

is

known immediately from

the initial circumstances of

the motion.

206.

If the force be repulsive, the equations for determining

oj

bj

tzr

will

be

sn a

cosV

;v

sinV

= 1 ........ ...... ..(3).

The

direction

may

be

and magnitude of the axes of the hyperbola determined geometrically^ by observing that the

asymptotes are the diagonals of the parallelograms of which the conjugate semi^diameters are sides, and that the axes bisect the
angles between the asymptotes.

207.

When
to

a particle

is

acted on
"by

any number of

forces,

which tend
centres,

to different centres,

and vary as

the distances from those

find the resultant attraction.

EE

210
Let
fj>.

&EWTON.
R,
fju
.

distance R, A, the centres to which they tend, of a particle acted on by the forces.

R B

be the magnitudes of two of the forces at the the position

Let Gr be the centre of gravity of two particles at A and whose masses are in the ratio of ^ to ///, join PA, PB, PG.

The components
are

of the force p. PA, in the directions


fjt,.

yu,. GA, GA, and those of the force ///. PB, in the directions PG, GB, are p.PG, and p.GB, but p.GA = p. GB, therefore the resultant of the forces tending to A and B is which is a single force of magnitude (//- +/i/) R, at ) PG, (/j, +
fj,

PG

PG,

and

the distance R, tending to the centre of gravity of masses placed at A and B.

/A, yu/

Let

fj!

be the magnitude of a force


is

tending to C, the resultant attraction

of particles at C and G, whose masses to the centre of gravity are in the ratio which varies as the distance from //, /JL + //, and whose magnitude at the distance J? is (/* + // + yu/ ) R.
:
fju"

distance R, that of a force tending


at

the

generally, the resultant of any number of forces is a single force, tending to the centre of gravity of a system of particles, placed at the different centres, whose masses are

And

proportional to the magnitudes of the forces at the unit distance, and whose magnitude at any distance is the sum of those of the
forces at the

same

distance.

If every particle of a solid of any form attract with a force which varies as the mass of the particle and the distance conjointly, the resultant attraction of the solid upon
1.

208.

COR.

any body

will be the

same as that of the whole mass of the

solid

PROP. X.
collected Into
its

PROBLEM

V.

211

centre of gravity and attracting according to the

same law.
209. COR. 2, If any of the forces be repulsive, as that whose centre is B, G will lie in AB or BA produced, according
greater or less than p, and the resultant of the forces, and from B, will be (/* - p] from G, or tending to
as
fA

is

PG

towards G.

Illustrations.

(l)

body revolves in a circular orbit about a force which

varies as the distance, and tends to the centre of the circle, and the centre of force is suddenly transferred to a point in the radius
which, at the

moment of change passes through


motion of the body.

the

body ;

to

find

the subsequent

Since the force varies as the distance, and orbit will be an ellipse. And, since the force

is

attractive, the

the body will move in the same moment of the change. Also, the velocity will, for the reason, be unaltered at that moment.

a finite force, direction as before, at the


is

same
the

Let

CA

be the radius passing through the

body

at

moment

of change, perpendicular to CA, at distance CA, the velocity in the circle.

CB

p.CA

the force

Then V* = fjL.CA.CA = fi.CA*i and if which the force tends, be in CA, let AB be

8, the new point to the ellipse described,

SA

will be

one of the semi-axes of the

ellipse, since

is

an

212
apse, and,

NEWTON.

SB being the other, if a body revolved in this ellipse round $, SB would be the square of the velocity at A, that = SB CA\ and therefore SB = CA= CB-, hence the is, magnitude and position of the two semi-axes SA and SB are
*

//,.

//,.

fju.

known, and the

completely determined. The ellipse lies without the circle at A, because, the velocity being unaltered, the force has been diminished in the ratio of
ellipse is

SA

CA, and

therefore the curvature diminished in that ratio.


in

produced, as at $ the force would have been increased, and the orbit AB" would be within the circle near A.
If

had been

AC

which the body reaches is in greatest distance from cases the same for this law of force, because the component of is the same at the same distance the force perpendicular to
all

The

CA

CA

from

whatever curve the body moves therefore, in each orbit, the velocity being the same at A^ the velocity perpen is dicular to destroyed by the force at the same distance
in
;

CA

AC

from AC.
describing a circle about a force which varies as the distance and tends to the centre / if the centre to which the force tends be suddenly transferred to a point in the circumference^
(2)

body

is

at an angular distance of 60

from

the position

of

the particle at

any

tirne^ to

determine the orbit described.


is

The

orbit

an

ellipse, since the force is attractive.

Let
force
is

P be the

position of the body at the instant the centre of transferred from (7, the centre of the circle, to $, where

BOP is

an equilateral triangle.

PROP. X.

PRORLEM

V.

213

is *//j,.CP= \fp.SP; and, since it is un velocity at altered by the change of the centre of force, the semi-diameter

The

conjugate to

SP is equal

to

SP.

perpendicular to CP, meeting it in F, and take SP. Construct an ellipse having SP, SD as equal conjugate semi-diameters SA, 5 the semi-axes bisect the angles PSD, PSD. The ellipse so described will be the orbit required.

Draw

DSD

SD = SD =

Prove the following construction

On CP as diameter describe a circle cutting SD SA, SB are the lengths of the semi-axes. Explain why the orbit is exterior to the circle.
(3)

in .?

Two

bodies whose masses are

m,
to

m
the

under

the action

of a force tending

an ellipse centre; shew that, if


revolve in

at the extremities of two conjugate diameters they be at one tune and in this case find the locus of their they will always be so,
centre of gravity.

be their positions at any time, CP, Let the ordinates J/P, semi-conjugate diameters.

Let P,

CD

being

ND, meet

the auxiliary circle in Q and R. are always proportional to the Since the angles ACQ, will always be a right angle; therefore the bodies times,

ACE

ECQ

will

of conjugate diameters. always be at the extremities

A
Let
Join
GH\>Q

Jl

RQ
.
.

and produce

also,

HG to meet RQ in K; KH-. GH= QM PIT, a constant ratio, EK:KQ = DG: GP,


:

the orJinate of their centre of gravity.

hence
of

CK
G

is

locus of

is

is a circle, and the constant, or the locus of are an ellipse, whose axes proportional to those

APD.
Shew
that the semi-major axis
:

CA

::

(wi*-f

ntff

m+m

214
(4)
force,

NEWTON.
composed of matter which attracts with a varying as the distance ; shew that, however a particle be
body
is
tJie

projected, unless it strike the same periodic time.

body,

it

will describe

its

orbit in

This

is

obvious immediately from Art. 208, relating to the

resultant of attracting forces.


(5)

body moves in an ellipse under the action of a force

varying as the distance ; if the velocity at any point be, slightly increased in the ratio 1 + n : 1, find the consequent changes in the

axes of the
If,

ellipse.

change takes place, the body be at the end of one of the equal conjugate diameters, shew that the eccentricity will be unaltered, and that the apse line will regrede through a small angle^
the

when

whose circular measure

7.7

nab
-r.

is

a*

-b

z .

When V
(1 + n) CD
;

is

let
;

an, J3b

and 7

their squares.
<1

+ a)

V+
(1
.
.

is (1+ri) V, changed to the corresponding changes of a, b and OT be a, ft, j, and n being so small that we may neglect Then by the equations of Art. 205,

changed

to

CD

(1

0)

V=
.-.

4 n? CD + R*

a*

-f

V + 2n CD*

Again

OLa* + 0V = n. CD\ + a)a. (1 + j3)b = (1 + n) CD. J?sina = (I +n)ab= n, and a(a - CD*} = a CD* - b*}, j3
2

4-

a.

(3

2 In the particular case 2R = a + 2 .*. a = /3 = Jw, hence, and b being altered in the same proportion, the eccentricity ill be unaltered.
2
Z>

7?

2 2

7?^

Also, -Y cos (a CL
,

+ 7) +
.,

TS-

sin (BT
.

+ 7) =

+n

and

^1

r>a

cos

-sr

p2 X
-73

sm

CT

=1

~ S1

PROP. X.

PROBLEM

V.

215

and, since tbe axes bisect the angles between equal conjugate 2 JR diameters, ab siu2w, therefore 7, being expressed in circular

measure,
(6)

nab
2

the

In any position of a particle describing an ellipse, under action of a force tending to the centre, the centre of force is

Find the axes of the new orbit suddenly transferred to the focus. and shew that its major-axis bisects the angle between the focal
distance

and

the

major-axis of the given

ellipse.

Employing the equations of Art. 205, if a, /3 be the semiaxes of the new orbit, the position of particle when the centre

s transferred to 8,

the

new

since the semi-diameter conjugate to orbit will be equal to CD,

SP

in

d + yS 2 = CD* + SP* = SP. HP+ SP* = 2a. SP, and SY* BC* :: SP HP:: SP* CD*-,
2
: :

.-.

a$=CD.SY=b.SP
2

...

*
)

=4

(a

- V]
,

SP*, and a
2

- j3 = ZaeSP,
2

.-.

=a

(1+e) SP, and/3

=a
.
<

(1-e) SP.
1,

A1 Also

SP*
a
7-

SP*
-}-

COS-OT

^-

sin

V=

o/j

= (1 - e cosV -f (14
)

e]

sin

V=

e cos 2

therefore
bisects

2cr

the

major-axis of the new orbit angle between PS and the major-axis of the
or

= L PSA,

the

original orbit.

the construction of Art. 204, since is a third proportional to SP and CD, and therefore is equal to HP, the circle which determines Tand t passes through J3T, and the arcs

NOTE.

By

PR

TR

are equal, that

is,

ST

bisects the angle

PSA.

XXVH.
same

Shew that the velocity in an ellipse about the centre is the at the points whose conjugate diameters are equal as that in a circle at the same distance.
1.

216
2.

NEWTON.

revolving in a circle under the action of a force law of force at different distances being tending that the force varies as the distance find the orbits described when the circumstances are changed at any point as follows

body

is

to the centre, the

i.

The The

force is increased in the ratio of

1 1

n.
:

ii.

velocity is increased in the ratio

n.

iii.

The
The

force

becomes repulsive, remaining of the same

mag

nitude.
iv.

direction is

the centre, measured

changed by an impulse in the direction of by the velocity equal to that in the circle.

3. If a body be projected from an apse, with a velocity double of that in a circle at the same distance, find the position and magnitude of the axes of its orbit.
4. particle is revolving in a circle acted on by a force which varies as the distance ; the centre of force is suddenly transferred to the opposite extremity of the diameter through the particle and becomes repulsive shew that the eccentricity of the hyperbolic orbit = JV5.
;

5. body is moving under the action of a force tending to a The force suddenly fixed centre, and varying as the distance. Prove that ceases, and after an interval commences to act again. the radii of curvature of the orbit at the points where the body ceases and recommences to be attracted are equal.

body moves in an ellipse about a centre of force in the and its velocity is observed when it arrives at its greatest centre, distance, and again after a lapse of one-third of its periodic time. If these velocities be in the ratio of 2 3, prove that the eccentricity of the ellipse will be v^
6.
:

The particles of which a rectangular parallelepiped is com attract with a force which varies as the distance, and a body is posed to describe a curve on one of the faces supposed so as projected
7.

smooth
8.

find the periodic time.

elastic ball, moving in an ellipse about the centre, on at the extremity of the minor axis strikes directly another arriving ball at rest ; find the orbits described by both bodies.

An

9.

A body

is

projected in a direction

making an angle

1
cos"

with the distance from a point to which a force tends, varying as the distance from it, and the velocity = V| x velocity in the circle at the same distance; prove that one axis is double of the other and
that the inclination of the major axis to the distance
is

cos

1
"^.

PROP. X.

PROBLEM

V.

217

10. From points in a line CA between C and particles are projected at right angles to CA with velocities proportional to their distances from A, C being a centre to which the force tends, and force varying as the distance; find the ellipse of greatest area the^ which is described. 11. Two particles are projected in parallel directions from two points in a straight line passing through a centre of force, the acceleration towards which varies as the distance, with velocities Prove that all proportional to their distances from that centre. tangents to the path of the inner cut off, from that of the outer, arcs described in equal times.

12. An hyperbola and its conjugate are described by particles round a force in the centre. They are at an apse at the same instant shew that they will always be at the extremities of con 3 2 3 - 2= i ). jugate diameters. Also if v, v be their velocities, /z (a
;
e>

An ellipse and an hyperbola have the same centre and foci. are described by particles, under the action of forces in the They centre of equal intensity. If a. a be their semi-transverse axes, the square of the velocity of each body at a point where the curves - a 2 ). cut will be ft
13.
1
<r

14.

If any

number

force in the centre,


after
all

the lapse

of particles be moving in an ellipse about a and the force suddenly cease to act, shew that, of -- of the of a

period

complete revolution,

the particles will be in a similar, situated ellipse,

concentric,

and similarly

15. particle is describing an ellipse under the action of a force tending to the centre. Prove that its angular velocity about a focus is inversely proportional to its distance from that focus.

XXVIII.
1. CX, C P are straight lines inclined at any angle, and a force tends to C, and varies as the distance from C. If from various different particles are projected parallel to at the points in same moment, and with the same velocity, they will all arrive at at the same time and plnce; and they will also do so, if the force cease to act for any interval of time.

CY

OX

CX

2. number of particles move in hyperbolas, under the action of the same repulsive force from their common centre. Shew that, if the transverse axes coincide, and the particles start from the vertex at the same instant, they will always lie in a straight line

F F

218

NEWTON.

perpendicular to the major-axis. If the hyperbolas have all the same asymptotes, shew that the particles will at every instant be in a straight line passing through the centre, if they be so at any given
time.

body is revolving in an ellipse under the action of a force to the centre, and when it arrives at the extremity of the tending major-axis, the force ceases to act until the body has moved through a distance equal to the semi-minor axis, it then acts for a quarter
3.

of the periodic time in the ellipse prove that, if it again cease to act for the same iime as before, the body will have arrived at the other extremity of ^he major axis.
;

4. small bead slides on a smooth wire in the form of an are of a circle, under th e action of a force tending to the other end of the diameter through its middle point and varying as the distance. If the bead be initially situated at the middle of the arc and just displaced, prove that, whatever be the length of the arc, the sum of the squares on the axes of the elliptic orbit, which the bead will describe after leaving the wire, will be equal to the square on tho diameter of the circle.

in an equiangular spiral, its acceleration 8 When it arrives at a point P, the law of acceleration is changed to that of the direct distance, the actual acceleration being unaltered. Prove that the point will then move in an ellipse, whose axes make equal angles with and the
5.
is

A point

moving

always tending

to the pole

SP

tangent where a

to the spiral at P,
is

and that the

ratio of the axes is tan

%a

1,

the angle of the spiral.

6. particle is attached by an elastic string to a centre of attractive force of constant intensity, and of such magnitude that
it

would exactly double the length of the elastic string. The string now stretched and the particle projected at right angles to it. Shew that the particle will begin to move in an ellipse but if the velocity of projection be less than the velocity in a circle at the same distance, the ellipse will be deserted after a certain interval of In the latter case find the velocity and direction of motion at time.
is
;

the moment of leaving the


7.

ellipse.

particle is projected from a point P, in a given ellipse, perpendicular to the major-axis, and is acted on by a force which tends to the centre C, and varies as the distance from it; and the velocity is that in a circle whose radius is C8 prove that the major,

axis of the orbit is equal to that of the given ellipse, and that CP* = the sum of the squares of the semi-minor axes of the orbit and of the given ellipse also that the tangents of the inclinations of CP to the major-axes of the elliptic orbit and of the given are in the duplicate ratio of the minor-axes. ellipse
;

PROP. X.
8.

PROBLEM.

V.

21D

A
;

centre

body describes an ellipse about a centre of force in the prove tbat if r, r be t\vo radii veetores and a the angle
1

between them, the time of describing the intercepted arc

=
v>t

sm
rr* sin

frr sin
T \

ct\
J

ab

What
the ellipse
9.

is is

this

time

when

a = %ab,

and the periodic time in

12 days?

If two particles describe the same ellipse, in opposite rotatory directions with accelerations tending to the centre, prove that the line joining them will move parallel to itself with a velocity proportional to its length.
10.

triangular plate

is

made

which

attracts with a force

; particle is projected so that its velocity at each of the angles is proportional to the side also opposite, the time between any two angles being the same that the mean of the squares of these three velocities is also the mean of the squares of the greatest and least velocities in the
;

which varies as its mass x distance. A as to pass through its angular points prove

of material, each particle of

orbit.

Two ellipses are described by two particles about a common the axes of the two are in the same directions, and the sum centre, of the axes of one is equal to the difference of those of the other prove that, if the particles be at corresponding extremities of the major-axes at the same moment, and be moving in opposite directions, the line joining them will be of constant length during the motion, and will revolve with uniform angular velocity.
11.
;

of a triangle is a centre of force which distance R. is any particle projected in any direction from B so as to pass through C, shew that the time of passage 1 from to C is /T* (27r;w), where m is the ratio of the area of the triangle to that of the orbit.
12.
is

The angle

pit at

ABC

sin"

13. number of bodies which describe ellipses about the centre of force as centre in the same periodic time, are projected from a given point with a given velocity in different directions in a plane. Prove that their paths will all touch a fixed ellipse with the given point as focus.

SECTION

III.

ON THE MOTION OF BODIES IN CONIC SECTIONS, UNDER THE ACTION OF FORCES TENDING TO A FOCUS.

PROP.

XI.

PROBLEM
ellipse,
ellipse.
to

VI.

body

is

revolving in
to

an

find the law of force

tending

a focus of the

Let

be the focus to which the force tends,


of the

position

body

at

any time,

conjugate diameters, respectively, perpendiculars on SP, DCK, from Q, a tangent at P, QR parallel to SP, Qxv parallel

a point near

P the PCG, DCK P, QT, PF


and
let

PR
to

DCK intersect
Then

PR, meeting SP

in x,

and

PC in

v,

SP,

in E.

P=

QR
"

when ^, ultimately,

PQ

is

inde

finitely diminished.

But, by similar triangles QTx,

PFE,
2

~? PJE*
Qv*

QT* ~ _ PF
CD*
,

PF ~~ BC
AC*

Z
2

CD

.Now,

by

the properties 01 the ellipse,

ir

PROP. XI.

PROBLEM

VI.

221

and

Pv Pv = CP = by Q R p- pE
,

similar triangles

**

Qv* __
~QR"v~G~

CP.AC*

and vG = 2 CP, Qx = Qv, ultimately ;

2BC*
if

be the latus rectum of the


1

ellipse
1

L SP
Alitcr.

Since the force tending to the centre of an ellipse, under the action of which the ellipse can be described, varies directly as the distance CP from the centre C] let CE be drawn parallel to the tangent PQ to the ellipse; then if S be any point within the ellipse, and SP, CE intersect in E, force tending to C: force tending to S
r.

CP.

SP PE
:

(Prop. vn. Cor. 3)

.. force

tending to

S cc

PE -~

since

PE is

constant.

PROP. XII.

PROBLEM

VII.

"body

is

revolving in a liyperlola^ to find the laiv of force


to

tending

a focus of the figure.

The

last investigation is exactly the same ns in the proposition, employing the subjoined figure. Also, repulsive force from C oc CP, and by Prop. vn. S Cor. 3, force from C: force to S :: CP.SP" ,
:

PE

whence

force to

S oc

2 ?

since

PE is

constant.

222

NEWTON.

In the same manner as in these propositions, it can be shewn that the repulsive force tending from a focus,

under the action of which the body describes the opposite branch of the hyperbola, varies
as the square of the distance.

inversely

PROP

XIII.
in

PROBLEM
to

VIII.

lody

is

moving
to the

a parabola,

find the law of force

tending

focus.

Let

be the focus of the parabola,

the

body

at

any

time,

the position o a point near P, a

PRY

P, QR PR, meeting SP in v, QT, SY


tangent at

parallel to SP, Qxv parallel to in #, and the diameter through

perpendicular

to

SP,

PY

respectively.

Then

F=
}

QR
r 2
,

ultimately,

when

QP

is

indefi

nitely diminished.

Since

SP Pv make

equal angles with the tangent,

PROP. XIII.

PROBLEM

VIII.

223

Pxv

is an isosceles triangle, therefore and by similar triangles AS.SP QT*

SF

and Qv* =

SP.Pv = SP. QB;

also,

Q$=Qv,

ultimately,

QT*

AS
L

QT

COR.

l.^It follows from the last three propositions, that if any body move from the in any point direction PR, with and be at the any velocity, same time acted on by a centripetal force, which is inversely proportional to the square of the distance, the body will move in some one of the conic sections, having a focus in the centre of force, and

conversely. For when the focus, the point of contact, and the position of the tangent are given, a conic section can be described which will have a given curvature at that point. But when the force is given and the and velocity of the body, the curvature is known

two

one another cannot be described with the same centripetal force, and the same
orbits touching
^

velocity at the point of contact. Cos. 2. If the velocity, with which a body leaves its be such that the body would describe position Pj

224

NEWTON.

in some very small time, and in the small space the same time the centripetal force were able to move the same body through the space RQ, this body will move in some conic section whose latus rectum is the

PR

limit of

QT*
-f-p

when the

lines

PR, QR

are indefinitely

diminished.

In these corollaries the circle is included as a particular case of an ellipse and the case is excluded in which
;

the

body moves

in a straight line to the centre of

force.
Observations on the preceding Propositions,

be the absolute force, in any conic section, whose latus rectum L, described under the action of a force tending
210.
If
/A

is

2A
to the focus,

p
is

an(i

/*

is

given, either

when

the force at

any point
are given.

is

given, or

conic section

the velocity at any point in a given and V. or h given, for, in the latter case,

when

SY

the chord of curvature through the focus for any point in an ellipse or hyperbola, we may obtain the law of
force from the expression

21 L If

we assume

F=
2

For,
::

SP

~~

tf.AG ~ W.AC BC\ SP 8Y*. HP. SP


and

Similarly for the parabola,


since

PV= 4SP,

SY* = AS. SP,


1

2V V F = AS. SP.PV~~2AS.SI-

COR. 1. It is assumed in this corollary that a conic section can be described under the action of a force tending to the
focus: see Art. 164.

PEOP. XIV.

THEOREM

VI.

225

PKOP. XIV.

THEOREM

VI.

If any number of bodies revolve about a common centre, and the centripetal force vary inversely as the square of
the distance, the later a recta will be in the duplicate ratio

of the orbits described of the areas, ivhich the bodies will describe in the same time by radii drawn to the centre of force.
in each orbit the latus

For

rectum

is

equal to the limit

QT
is

Cor. 2, Prop, xin.)


indefinitely small.

when

the arc

PQ

made

But

in a given time is ultimately in the different orbits as the centripetal force, that is, reciprocally as the square of the distance SP.

QR

Hence,

ultimately,
is

QT*
oc

QT\ SP*,

or
.

the

latus

in the duplicate ratio of or of described in the given small twice the area area in each orbit is pro since the time, which,

rectum

QT 8P

PSQ

portional to the time, varies as the area described in any given time.

COR.

of the ellipse, and the rectangle under the axes, which is proportional to it, vary in a ratio compounded of the subduplicaie ratio of the latera recta and the ratio of the periodic times.
is

Hence the whole area

For the whole area

as

QT x SP described

small time, multiplied by

in a given the periodic time.


VII.

PKOP. XV.
On

THEOREM

the same supposition, the squares of the periodic times in ellipses are proportional to the cubes of the major axes.

For,

by Prop.

xiv.

and the Corollary, since QT.SP,

in

GG

22G

NEWTON.
ellipse,
,

each
as

described in a given small time varies


oc

-7

]3C

and the area

AC. BC,

the periodic time,


oc

which varies
COR.

as the area divided

by QT.SP,

AC*.

periodic times in ellipses are the same as in circles whose diameters are equal to the major axes of the ellipses.

Hence the

Observations on the preceding Propositions.

Prop. XIV. and Cor. may be also proved as follows. Let /*, li be the double areas described in the unit of time in
212.

any two of the

orbits,

L,
9// **
-L
2

the latera recta

then, since the

absolute forces are the same in the different orbits,


2 9A * * ~Y~

JU

JTT

Li

Li

T>

::

12 n

7 a
5

hence the latera recta are


described in a given time,

in

the duplicate ratio of the areas

COR. Let P,
orbits.

Then

be the periodic times in any two of the L ^.P. the areas are as hP h ; Z*.
:

213.
the action

To find

the periodic time in

an

ellipse described

under

of a given force tending


the periodic time,
.

to the

focus.

Let

Pbe

the absolute force,

then \h

the area of the ellipse

= IT A C

BC

and

AC.h p = BC*

C A P=2^0.-, =
ft

Therefore, in different ellipses described about the same centre of force, the squares of the periodic time vary as the cubes
of the major axes.

214.
qrl>it

To find

the time

described under the

from an apse to any point of an elliptic action of a force tending to the focus.

PHOP. XIV., XV.

THEOREM

VI.,

VII.

227

Let

ASa

be the apsidal

line,

being the further apse,

AQa
orbit,

the circle on the major axis as diameter, Q the corresponding point in the circle.

P any point in the


Join

SP

SQ, CQ.

JS~

_U.

A
:

Time

in

AP:

periodic time
::

::

area
IT

ASP

irAC.

BO
QM-,
e

area

ASQ

AC*,

andsiresiASQ =
therefore, if

sQctorACQ+&SCQ = AC.AQ + $SC.


circular

u be the

measure of L

A CQ,
2?r.

and

the

eccentricity of the ellipse, area

ASQ = \A (7* (u + e sin w)

and time

m AP
. .

::

-f

smw

i.e.

the time from the further apse to

Pis

AC*
^- (u

+ esinu}.

Similarly, if u be the circular measure of a CQ, the time from

the nearer apse will be

AC^
T- (u
f**

e sin u}.

DEF. LaCQ, from the nearer apse, is called the eccentric anomaly, L aSPthe true anomaly, and the mean anomaly is the angle which would be described in the same time as L aSP
215.

by a body moving with uniform angular

velocity equal to the

mean angular
216.

velocity in the ellipse.


the relations between the

To find

mean,

the true,

and

the

eccentric anomalies.

Let m,

v,

and u be the three angles.

Since the

mean angular
*

velocity in the ellipse


,

is 2?r

divided

by

the periodic time, or

-^-a.

m = u - e sinw,

Art. 214

228
and,
if

NEWTON.
a be
tlie

semi-major axis, = a cosw

.*.

cos

u=
1

Also
217.

2 +e P=^l(7+0. CM = a(\ -ecosw).

/. tan -

_ _- __
cosy --V 1+ecosv cosw 16
(1

+ cosv

1-

1+ecosv
cosy

cost*

-f

1+cosu
.

M
2

/I 1

v tan ,

To find

the time

of describing any angle from


of

the vertex^

in a parabolic orbit.

describing the angle draw is 8 and vertex whose focus ; parabolic orbit, perpendicular to the axis ASM, and the tangent

Let

be the time

ASP
}

in
t

PM 8Y PY and let

PK be the normal at P. Then PM= MKtznPKM=


therefore
.-.

AM= ASt
.

hT= 2 &re&ASP=$AM. MP- SM MP


force, A*

where,

if /*

be the absolute

=^

A S.

Kepler s Laws.
218.
I.

The

three laws discovered by Kepler are:


in ellipses

That planets move

having the sun

centre In

one focus.

That the areas swept out by the planet to the sun s centre are, in the same
II.

radii

drawn from the

orbit, proportional to

the time of describing them.


III.

That the squares of the periodic times are proportional


major axes.

to the cubes of the

laws, although not rigidly true, are sufficiently near to the truth to have led to the discovery of the law of

219.

Kepler

PROP. XIV., XV.


attraction

THEOREM

VI., VII.

229

The deviation solar system. from complete accuracy is due to the facts, that the planets are not of inappreciable mass, that, in consequence, they disturb
of the bodies of the

each other

sun
if

itself,

about the sun, and, by their action on the cause the periodic time of each to be shorter than
s orbits

the sun were a fixed body, in the subduplicate ratio of the mass of the sun to the sum of the masses of the sun and planet ; these errors are appreciable but very small, since the mass
of the largest of the planets, Jupiter,
is

less

than y^Votn of the

sun

mass.

Deductions
220.

from Kepler

Laws.
description

of areas, stated as the second law, it is deduced, by Prop. II., that the forces acting on the planets are centripetal forces tending to the sun s centre. But this law gives no information regarding the
the

From

law of the equable

nature or intensity of the forces. From the elliptic motion of the planets, as asserted in the first law it is deduced, by Prop. XI., that the force which acts

upon each planet varies inversely as the square of the distance from the centre of the sun. From the relation between the periodic times and lengths of
the major axes, stated in the third law^ it is inferred, by Prop. XV., that the planets are acted on by the same centripetal force and
;

that the attraction, being the same for all bodies, independently of their form and substance, is not of the nature of the elective action of chemical or magnetic forces.

221.

The same laws hold

for the

motion of the

satellites of

Jupiter, Saturn, and Uranus, and the first two for our moon, their respective primaries taking the place of the sun in the statement of the laws. Hence it is inferred that forces tend to

the centre of the planets, varying according to the same law as the forces tending to the sun.

222.

By

such deductions the law of gravitation

is

rendered

probable, that every particle attracts every other particle with a

230
force,

NEWTON,
which acts in
the
line

joining

the particles,

and

varies

inversely as the square of the distance.

thus suggested is assumed to be universally true, and calculations are made of the effects of the action of the
bodies of the solar system upon one another in disturbing their elliptic motion 5 and also of the disturbances of the motion of the

The law

due to a want of exact sphericity in the primaries and these calculations have been found to agree with the results
satellites
;

of most minute astronomical observations.


Predictions
of the

return

of

comets have been

fulfilled,

founded on the supposition of the truth of the law, and the existence and position of a planet have been recognized, before
discovery by actual observation, from according to this law upon another planet.
its
its

assumed action

of gravitation has satisfied every test which has hitherto been applied to it, and it is so far proved to be true

Thus the law

where our system

is

concerned.

PROP. XVI.

THEOREM
velocities

VIII,

On

same supposition, the the ratio compounded of


the

of the bodies are in

the

inverse ratio

of the per

tangent pendiculars from the focus recta. ratio the latera of subduplicate

on

the

and

the

For, in any two orbits,

v.
COR.
1.

SY SY

"

SY SY
orbits

L ~

The

latera recta of the

are

compounded of the duplicate perpendiculars and the duplicate


ratio
velocities.
T7<

ratio

in the of the

ratio

of

the

Jb

or

Li

Lt

K* n

. :

J.

fi

..

T7a
r

OJL

2
:

<3V"

2 T/ V

C JL Tr o

a
.

COR.

velocities of the bodies, at their greatest and least distances from their common focus, are in the ratio compounded of the ratio of the distances
2.

The

PROP. XVI.

THEOREM

VIII.

231

inversely, and the subduplicate ratio of the latera recta directly.

For the perpendiculars on the tangents are these very


distances.

COR.

therefore the velocity in a conic section, at the greatest or least distance from the focus, is to the velocity in a circle at the same distance from the centre in the subduplicate ratio of the latus rectum to twice that distance.
3.

And

For the

latus therefore if

rectum of a circle is the diameter, SA be the greatest or least distance,


:

velocity in the conic section


..

velocity in the circle

COR.

4.

The
at

are,

velocities of bodies revolving in ellipses their mean distances from the common

focus, the same as the velocities of bodies revolving in circles at the same distances ; that is (by Cor. 6,

Prop,

iv.),

in the inverse subduplicate ratio of the

distances.

For the peip^ndiculars are now the semiaxes minor, that is SY=BC, and the distance SB = AC, therefore
velocity in the ellipse at the mean distance in the circle at the same distance
(2 AC)
:

velocity

BC
COR.
5.

AC

AC

>

In the same figure, or in different figures

having their latera recta equal, the velocity varies inversely as the perpendicular from the focus on the
tangent.

COR.

6.

In the parabola, the velocity varies in the

inverse subduplicate ratio of the distance of the body from the focus, in the ellipse it varies in a greater, and in the hyperbola in a less inverse ratio,

232

ls

EWTON.
in the parabola,

For

(vel.) oc -n

HP
oc -~oc

-^ 2AC-SP.

oc

m
.

fc"

e ellipse.

2AC+SP ~ -- in

the hyperbola.

COR.

In the parabola, the velocity of the body at any distance from the focus is to the velocity of a body revolving in a circle at the same distance from the centre, in the subduplicate ratio of 2 1 in the ellipse it is less, in the hyperbola greater than
7.
:

in this ratio.

For, velocity in the conic section circle at the same distance

velocity in the

::

V2
_

in the parabola,

.\*
/]

(HP\*
\~Ar)

.
:

ft

ay)

in

ir elapse or hyper
>

bola,

and

HP<2AC in

the ellipse, and

2 A C in

the hyperbola. Hence also, in the parabola, the velocity is every where equal to the velocity in a circle at half the distance, in the ellipse less, and in the hyperbola
greater.

Con. 8. The velocity of a body revolving in any conic section is to the velocity in a circle at the distance of half the latus rectum, as that distance is to the peprendicular from the focus on the tangent.
For, the velocity in the conic section

the circle at distance

\L

the velocity in
: :

U*
:

: :

-^-^

Si ^L
Prop,
is

T F

\L

8Y.

COR.

9.

Hence, since (Cor.

6,

of a

body

revolving in a circle

iv.) the velocity to the velocity in

PROP. XVI.

THEOREM

VIII.

233

any other

circle in the inverse subduplicate ratio of

the distances, the velocity of a body in a conic sec tion will be to the velocity in a circle at the same distance as a mean proportional between that common distance and half the latus rectum to the perpendicular from the focus on the tangent.

For velocity

in a circle at distance

circle at distance

SP

in conic section

velocity in a ())*, therefore velocity in circle at distance velocity

\L

::

SP

SP

::($,.

SPf SY.
:

Notes.

223.

the action

To find the velocity in a conic section described under of a force tending to the focus.

In the central conic sections


**
ft
.

HP
a.

CD*
but
and,

HP

HP=2AC-SPin

the ellipse,

HP= SP- 2 AC,


= SP+ 2AC,

in the hyperbola, force repulsive,

in the hyperbola, force attractive;


-

AC)

In the parabola,

or else,

V^F^PV=
-^ oz

.2SP=

224.

The

expression

(2--^-^) A \j / \

for the square

of the

velocity in the ellipse reduces itself to that for the hyperbola under an attractive force by changing the sign of CA, which is measured corresponds to the opposite direction in which

AC

in the hyperbola

it is

reduced to that for the hyperbola undei

HH

234

NEWTON.

a repulsive force by changing the sign of //., which corresponds to changing the direction of the force ; and to that for the,

parabola by making
225.
that in

AC

infinite.

To compare

the,

the velocity in the ellipse or hyperbola with circle at the same distance.

Let

U be

the velocity in the circle,


- fJ
-

8P*

V*

U*

2 ~

Hodograph.
If from any point lines be drawn representing in direction and magnitude the velocity of a particle describing an orbit under the action of a force tending to a fixed centre,

226.

DEF.

the locus of the extremities of these lines

This name,
in his

is

given to the curve

Hodoyraph. by Sir William Hamilton,

is

the

work on Quaternions*
Since the velocity in a central orbit

227.

is
-Q-F>,

if

SQ

be

taken

in

SY equal

to

-o-p-,

the locus of

will be the polar reci

procal of the orbit with respect to a circle, the square of whose radius is h ; and if it be turned about JS through a right angle
will be the

hodograph of the

orbit.

228.
"force

described under the action of a If a conic section to a the tending focus, hodograph will be a circle.
"be

For, in

the

case

of an

varies inversely as SY, its direction is is a circle. perpendicular, and the locus of And, in the case of a parabola, being the tangent at the

or hyperbola, the velocity and therefore directly as HZ, to which


ellipse

AY

vertex,

AU perpendicular to
SU varies

SY,

SY: 48:: AS: SU,


therefore

which

as the velocity, passes through S.

and the locus of

7 is

a circle

THE HODOGKAPII.
229.
In tht

235
orbit.

General properties of

the

hodojrapli of a central

B or Be and are propor figure of Prop. I., tional to the velocities with which the body moves along
and

BO

AB

it 0a, 0/3 represent these velocities in and magnitude direction, (i) a/3 will be parallel to Cc or Z?, and will represent the velocity generated by the impulse at J3 and if 0y, OS, Oz ... represent the velocities in CD, DE,

BC\

therefore,

EF...J

(3y, 78, B^ ... will


Z>,

the impulses at (7, portion of the polygon aSyoz will represent the sum of the velocities generated by all the the cor impulses tending to responding perimeter of the polygon ABODE:, (iii) also the
>Sin

represent the velocities generated by ...; (ii) hence the perimeter of any

chord as will represent the

resultant

of these

velocities

in

magnitude and

direction.
limit,
is

Proceeding to the

a/^Ss

...

becomes the hodograph

of the central orbit which

the curvilinear limit of the polygon


properties of the hodo

ABCDE.
Hence we
arrive
at the following

graph of a central
(i)

orbit.

The tangent
drawn

to the

hodograph

at

any point

is

parallel to

the radius
(ii)

to the

corresponding point of the orbit.

arc of the hodograph represents the sum of the velocities generated by the central force in the correspond

Any

finite

ing arc of the orbit.

The chord of the arc represents in magnitude and (iii) direction the resultant of the whole action of the central force in
the passage through the corresponding arc. From Art. 227, it follows that

and /, p be the radius and perpendicular on the tangent corresponding points in the orbit and hodograph = = h rp rp, and the angles between r, p and /, p will be equal. NOTE. In this article and in Art. 227, h represents an area and not a rate of description of areas.
(iv)

If

r,

at

HI list rat ions,


(1)

The hodograph for an

ellipse,

described under the action


ellipse.

of a force tending

to *.he centre, is

a similar

236

NEWTON.

For

CD

is

parallel

to the direction

of motion and propor

tional to the velocity.

The holograph for an hyperbola, described under the action of a force repelling from the, centre, is a hyperbola similar to the
(2)

conjugate hyperbola.

The hodograph for a parabola, described under the action of a constant force parallel to the axis, is a straight line parallel
(3)
to the axis.

For the square of the

velocity cc

SPac SY*, and

the locus of

a horizontal line, therefore, since /Sl^is perpendicular to the direction of motion, and proportional to the velocity, turning
is

the locus

of

through a right angle, the hodograph

is

vertical line.
(4)

If Pi p

be the radii

of curvature at corresponding points


r,

corresponding radii, p,p the perpendiculars on the tangents, then willpp pp =r*r*. Let PQ, pq be corresponding small arcs, then L PSQ is

of a

central orbit

and

its

hodograph,

equal to the angle between the tangents to the angle between the tangents at P, Q;
.*.

at p, q,

and

Op

= limit PQ oLpSq
PQ, we have

h
~

-pq
I

PSQ

77777=; 9

and,

if

jTbe the time

in

ultimately

pSq

Ji
r.

PV

PSQ T

r^
r

PQ_ v
T

pq

V.F.PV.r*
If F be
that
it

Vr*

V
the

(5)

the accelerating effect

of

force in a central
the cc rr.

orbit,

and

which

of a force tending to the pole of can be described as a central orbit, FF

hodograph by

For ^00

4-, pp
cr

FF
NOTE. The motion
orbit,
is

VT

_
i

p
cc

pp
rr.

hodograph considered as a central not generally the same as that of the point which is
in the

PROP. XVII.

PROBLEM

IX.
in

237
the original

guided by the motion of the corresponding point


central crbit, so as to generate the hodograph.
(6)

orbits,

whose holographs are oho central with accelerations tending to their poles, the motions being

The only central


the

orbits,

description of the hodograph, which the acceleration varies as the distance.*


the

same as in

are those in

pole of the P" , corresponding points in the orbit, the hodograph, P, Then the hodograph, and the hodograph of the hodograph. hodograph being a central orbit, the tangent at P" is in the

Let

be

the

centre of force taken as

the

direction of the acceleration of

hence

it

is

parallel to

SP

and therefore to the tangent at P. Also SP" represents and direc velocity, and therefore P s acceleration in magnitude hence SP is a straight line, and the tangents at PP tion
P" ;

P"s

are parallel, therefore

"s

orbit

is

similar to the central orbit.

Hence

>SPcc

SP"

oc

acceleration of P.

PROP XVU. PROBLEM

IX.

Given that the centripetal force is inversely proportional to the square of the distance from the centre, and that the absolute force of the centre is known; it is required to find the curve which ivill be described by a body which is projected from a given point with a given velocity in a
given direction.

Let Fbe the velocity, PFthe direction of projection from P, S the point to which the force tends, and let P7be measured on PS. produced, if necessary, equal to twice the space through which the body must be drawn from rest by the action of the force at P con
tinued constant, in order that the velocity V may be generated; therefore since the absolute force is given, PUis given. Draw perpendicular to PY, and so that HP, or produced, and SP make UG perpendicular to with PG. Draw equal angles

PH

PG HP

Ptfandjpin SG.
*
Tait, R.S.E., 67-68.

238

NEWTON.
distinct cases arise
:

Here three
I.

equal to 2SP, S will be the centre of a circle described about PGU, and /_SGP = LSPG
If

PUbe

= LlIPG\

therefore

SG, produced

either

not meet PIT.

way, will

In this case, draw

as focus

GL perpendicular to PS, and with and %PL as latus rectum, describe a

parabola whose axis is in the direction SG. Then Z7 is half the chord of curvature at through S. II. If PZ7be less than 2SP, tSGPis greater than tSP G or LHVGj therefore SG produced meets PHiu II.

In

this case,

with

major axis, chord of curvature at


III.

and describe an

H as

foci,

and

P through S.
28 P s_SGP
is less

ellipse,

then

PU\s

half the

If

PZ7be
,

greater than

and angles SGP, IIPG are together

less

than than

PROP. XVII.

PROBLEM

IX.

239

mH.

two right angles, therefore

G8

produced meets

PH

In this case, with

S and

H as

foci,

and

HP - 8P as
PUis

transverse axis, describe an hyperbola, then half the chord of curvature at through S.

In

all these cases, a body may be supposed to revolve in the conic section described, under the action of the force tending to S, Art. 164, and the velocity at is that due to falling through one-fourth of the chord of curvature through S, or half the action 7, under of the force at is therefore and supposed constant,

equal to F, the velocity of the projected body also, since 8P and HP, or produced, make equal with 1 is a angles G, tangent, therefore the direction of motion is that of the projected body.

HP

PY

Therefore, the circumstances of the two bodies are the same in all respects which can influence the motion at the point P, and they will therefore describe the same orbits that is, the projected body will describe a conic section of that kind which corresponds to the velocity.
;

The

therefore, will be an ellipse, parabola, or hyperbola, accordingasP is less, equal to, or greater 2 than 2/SP, that is, since V* = F.PU, according as
orbit,

is less, equal to, or greater than 2F.SP, or twice the square of the velocity in a circle whose radius is SP.

240

NEWTON.

COR. 3. Hence if a body move in any conic section, and be disturbed from its orbit by any impulse, the orbit in which it will proceed to move may be discovered. For, by compounding the motion of the body with that motion which the impulse alone would generate, the motion and direction of motion will be found, with which the body will proceed from the point at which the disturbance took place.
COR. 4. And if the body be disturbed by any con tinuous extraneous force, its course can be deter mined, approximately, by calculating the changes which the force produces at certain points, and estimating from analogy the changes which take place at the intermediate points.

SCHOLIUM.
If a

meeting in G the tangent PG to the conic section. Then, by Prop vn. Cor. 3, the force tending to R: the force tending to C::CG* CP.RP\ but the force tending to C varies as CP9 therefore the force tend:

body P move in the perimeter of any conic section, whose centre is (7, under the action of a centripetal force tending to any given point R, and the law of force be required, draw CG- parallel to RP and

7? ing to jRac

Observations on the Proposition.

assumed that if, in conic section, G be the intersection of the axis and normal anv j will at P, and GU, parallel to the tangent, meet SPin U, be half the chord of curvature at P drawn through the focus ;
230.

In the solution of Prob. IX.

it

is

PU

this

property
1.

may

be proved as follows.

In the ellipse and hyperbola, let PG meet the conjugate diameter in F\ then CD. PF= AC.BC, and EG* ;

PG PF=
.

PU _PE _ CD PG

PKOP. XVII.

PROBLEM

IX,

241

PU
*

CD

__ ==

PG _ BG _ CD

BC~ PF~ AG
P through
S.

.:

CD = half the PU= -j2

chord of curvature at

be perpendicular to SP, Also, if the senii-latus-rectum.

GL
=

PL

will be equal to

For f.~

PG

^r,: PE

/.

PL = r^ = half the AC

latus rectum.

2.

In the parabola,

PU
/.

SP and -=-,
chord of curvature at

P7=2P=half the

through S.

Also,

PL

fG

==

SY
sp
;

.*.

PL =

-7TFT-

= 2^S-4 = half the

latus rectum.

if the central force vary inversely as the square of the distance^ a ~body, projected from any point in any direction, will describe a conic section.

231.

To shew

that

Let

be the centre of

force,

any point of the

orbit

perpendicular to the tangents

produce them

P and SY SY.SQ= $ SQ =h, then SQj SQ represent the velocities at P, P in magnitude, and are perpendicular to their directions hence Q Q represents
PF,
,

described,

PP

an arc described
necessary to

in a small time.

Draw SY,
and
7

SY

PY

at

if

so that

the velocity generated by the force PS, and is perpendicular to PS; that is, the tangent to the locus of Q at Q is perpen
dicular to SP.

the angle described in a given small J time varies inversely as /SP , so also does the velocity generated x. LPSP, and, in the same time; therefore by Lemma IV.,

Now

PSP

QQ

arc of the orbit described, QQ^ the cor will vary as the angle P>SP,, , responding arc of the locus of and therefore will vary as the angle between the tangents at
if
t

PP

be any

finite

and Q^ which

locus of

a property peculiar to a circle. Hence, thr is either a circle or a being a circle, that of
is

II

242

NEWTON.

straight line, being the inverse of the locus of Q. Hence, the feet of the perpendiculars from the centre of force on a tangent
to the

body

path

lie

in

circle or straight line,

which
lines

is

property

of a

conic

section

only,

since straight

drawn

according to a fixed
according as locus of Q.

law can only have one envelope. Therefore, the path will be an ellipse, parabola, or hyperbola

S lies

within, upon, or without the perimeter of the

NOTE. The radius of the

circular locus of
fA

is

QQ ~ p_ h_ ~ PSP ? 7
"

Geometrical construction for the conic described by a body projected with a given velocity in a given direction.
232.

Let

Fbe

the given velocity,

PY the
is

given direction.
if

Draw
Q, so
parallel

SY
that
to

perpendicular to

PY,- and produce

necessary to

SQ=V, PS and equal


Q
is

then
to

SQ.SY=h
j
,

given.

Draw

QO

and, since the tangent to the circular

locus of

is its centre and perpendicular to SP, is, by on the axis of the conic described. Draw SZ symmetry, per in Z, then pendicular to SP, meeting perpendicular

PY

ZD

to

SO

is

the directrix of the conic.


intersect
in

NOTE. Let SZ, QO D, M, Y are right angles,


.$Z)=semi-latus-rectum

M,

since the angles at

SD.SO = SZ. SM= SY. SQ = h,


,

and

=
p
-j-

therefore

SO=-^h

therefore

is

compounded of

and

perpendicular respectively to

OQor

SP and SO.
Equations for determining the elements of the orbit described by a body projected from a given point with a given velocity in a given direction.
233.

Let SP and

PY the

be the velocity of projection, a the angle between


direction of projection,
yu.

the absolute force,

PROP. XVII.

PROBLEM

IX.

243

the orbit will be an ellipse, hyperbola, or parabola, according as

T7*
<>

or

=
elliptic

and hyperbolic orbits, let a, 5, L, e be the semi-axes, semi-latus-rectum, and eccentricity, and let SP=Hj and T/T be the angle PTS between PY and the transverse axis in the figures on pages 238, 239
I.

For the

"

SP.AC~ R
>

Also,

t.L = ti =V*fi Bm**i

V
/.

(1

->

e)

= VR
2

a
Z
IJL ;

sin a
............. (11).

Draw
then

HZ perpendicular to the tangent, and HK io SH w*SHK=HK=YZ= (HP SP) cos SPY;


F,
/.

SY,

2ae
/.

= 2a cos a = cosa ...................... (Hi). cos\|r


cosi/r

Also,

SH sin SHK= SK=SY+ HZ-,


.. 2ae

s,m^

= (SP+HP) sin a = RHF(2a + -Bj} sinaj


J

.% e sin\|r=

sina:

\a
(

.*.

tan

\!r

\a

tan a

tana

............... (iv).

equations (i) and (ii) determine a, b y and e, and (iv) de termines yjf immediately from the given circumstances of pro a convenient equation for determining the jection, (iii) is also

The

e has been previously found. position of the axes when Instead of (iii) or (iv) we might employ the equation

L
to determine the angle the axes.

VR
2

sin*

ASP^ which

also gives the direction of

244

NEWTON.

II. For the parabolic orbit, fig. 1, page 238, SY*=SP.AS, and the tangent makes equal angles with the axis and &P; = cc, which determine the position therefore sin*a, and ^ and dimensions of the orbit.

AS=R

To find the, dements of the orbit described under action of a repulsive force varying inversely as the square of distance from the point from which the force tends. Let // be the point from which the force tends, IIP= jft,
234.
~

the

the

._ HP.AC~

UP"

AG

(E _f* ~

R\a

The

other equations are similar to those in Art. 233.


Illustrations.

revolving in a circle under the action of a force which tends to the centre and varies inversely as the square of the When the body arrives at any point, if the force distance from it.
(1)
"body

is

begin body,

to
to

tend to the point of bisection of the radius through the determine the orbit described by the body.

Let

CA

be the radius,
is finite,

the

new
8

centre of force.
is

since the force

the velocity at

Then, A is and unaltered,

an apse of the new

orbit.

Also

(vel.)
;

in the circle

^
e

<

^-r

hence the body moves in an

ellipse

and

-= V =-.SA*
a,

by

(ii)

.-.
;

f and

Instead of equation (ii) we might determine e from the con is one extremity of the major axis ; sideration that

/.

&4 = a(le);

.*.

le = f,

and

= J,

since the upper sign must be taken, greatest focal distance.

and therefore

is

the

The
is

orbit lies entirely within the circle, since the force at

increased, in the circle.

and therefore the curvature

is

greater than that

PROP. XVII.
(2)

PROBLEM

IX.
the

245
bisection
to

If

the

new

centre

of force be in

of

the

ra Jius winch, if produced, passes through the body,


the orbit.

determine

The

*?

A
,

orbit

must be

elliptic since

CA

=H

<

also

SA = a (1

e)

/.

=$
to S.

and A, in the new orbit, is the nearest point In this case the force, and therefore the
nished, which accounts
(3)

curvature,

is

dimi

for the orbit being exterior to the circle.

particle, acted on

of which velocity

the square

the distance, is projected


is to the

by a force which varies inversely as from a fixed point, with a a


circle at the

velocity in
1

same distance as

2 with the line joining the point of projection to the fixed point; shew that the eccentricity of the orbit is %, and that the major axis is perpendicular to the distance
:

V5

2,

making an angle tan

of projection.

fia (I

therefore a

= $E,

- e = V\E\ = pR by = e %, and R being the


2
}

(ii) ;

semi-latus-rectum,

is

perpendicular to the

major

axis.

Or, since

e cosi/r

= cos a

by

(iii)

.-.

cos^ =

~=
\/o

sin a

hence,

the angle between the direction of projection and major axis is the complement of that the a, is, major axis is perpendicular to the distance of the of point projection.
(4)

A
to

body revolves in a
the centre

tending
distance.

Find

a point
tance 60

of a force as the inversely square of the the orbit described, if the force suddenly tend to
the action

circle

under

and varying
of

in the circumference
the body.
is

the circle, at

an angular

dis

from

Since the velocity

unaltered at

A
;

by the change,
a = 8A.

SA\
.-.

a J

246
that
is,

NEWTON.

the extremity of the minor axis of the new orbit ; hence the major axis is parallel to the tangent at A, or perpen dicular to CA, and the centre is in the bisection of CA.
is

The curvature
normal force
(5)
is

is

less

than that of the

circle,

because the

diminished by the change.

body, revolving in an ellipse,


to

under

the

action

of a

force tending
to

a focus S, has
its

the direction

of

its

motion altered

at a given point oj

path, the velocity remaining unaltered

determine

the

corresponding

change in

the position

of

the

major axis.
Since the velocity, as well as the distance SP, in the new orbit is the same as in the old, the length of the major axis is
the same
;

therefore

PH

is

the

the other focus

lies in

a circle

same in the two orbits that is, whose centre is P, and SP, PH
;

make
(6)

equal angles with the

new

direction.
orbit a slight alteration
the velocity

To find

may

be

what point of an elliptic made in the direction of motion,


at

remaining

unaltered, so that the direction

of

the

major axis

may

be the

same

as before.
direction of the major axis being unaltered, SII must must be at one of the be a tangent to the locus of H, hence

The

extremities of that
centre of force.
(7)

latus

rectum which does not contain the

Prove that
rectum

if,

when a body

is

latus

which does not contain

at the extremity of the the centre of force, the

direction of motion be deflected through a small angle, without altering the velocity, the alteration of the eccentricity will be to the

circular measure

of

the angle

of deflection as

BC* AC*.
:

A.
For,
let

1L .11

the position of the body, //// the small arc of the circle described by H, which nearly coincides with the

P be

PROP. XVII.
direction of the
flection,

PROBLEM
1

IX.

major

axis,
^,,

HPH
f

is

double the angle of de


the change of eccentricity
;

and
/.

r-^

or

^.1 \j

~,

is

change of eccentricity

deflection of direction

HK HH
2AC 2HP
(8)

::HP:AC::BC*:AC\
ellipse

If a body, moving in an

about the focus be acted on


,

by an impulse towards the focus ivhen it arrives at the extremity of the latus rectum, the axis major will be unaltered in direction.
For, the force being central, h is unaltered ; therefore, if SL be the semi-latus-rectum, p.SL is unaltered, or SL is the semi-latus-rectum of the new orbit, and the axis major is per
pendicular to SL.
(9)

particle
to the

moving in an

ellipse

under the action of a


7? LL

force tending

focus has a very small velocity

-=-

impressed

upon

it

in

the

direction

changes of the eccentricity

of the focus ; find the corresponding and position of the apse.


at

By

(6),

page 147, the velocity


LL

is

the resultant of the

P LL

constant velocities
j-

and

-j-

respectively perpendicular to

SP

and

ASA.
;

And,

since the impressed velocity


i

is

towards

/S

is

unaltered
are
7-

hence the components of the velocity


to

in the

new

orbit

perpendicular
P
ti

SP

and
is

~-

to

the

new

axis
P ii

SM
in

therefore

-7-

in

direction

PM

the resultant of

-7-

PM

248
72 LL

NEWTON.
-=/&

and

in

PS.

Let L

MSM

in circular measure, then


costs-

e sin or
or,

=n
e-^

cosP/SJf,

and

= e + w s mPSM,
sin

neglecting squares of small quantities,

n cosPSM,

=n

PSM.

XXIX.
1. The velocity in an ellipse at the greatest distance is half that with which a body would move in a parabola at the same distance; required the eccentricity of the ellipse.

moving in a parabola about a centre of force in the at the vertex with an obstacle w hich diminishes the meets focus, of the velocity by one-fourth, without altering the direction square shew that the body will afterwards move in an of the motion axis whose major is equal to the latus rectum of the ellipse
2.
T ;

A body,

parabola.
3. body revolves in an ellipse about a centre of force in the Shew that there is always some determinate point at focus S. which the absolute force may be supposed to change suddenly from ju to ??/*, so that the subsequent path of the body may be a parabola about S in the focus, provided n is not situated beyond - e}. Prove also that the latus rectum the limits (1 + 0) and % (I of the ellipse : that of the parabola :: n : 1.

4.

comes
the

particle, describing an ellipse about a force in the focus, find in what ratio to the point nearest to the centre of force in must then be diminished force order that the absolute
;

particle may proceed to describe a hyperbola, the reciprocal of that of the ellipse.
5.

whose

eccentricity is

The
:

is

18

13

ratio of the axes of the Earth s find the periodic time of Venus.

and Venus

s orbits

6. A body is projected, with a velocity of 100 feet per minute, from a point whose distance from a centre of force, which varies inversely as the square of the distance, is 32 feet, the velocity in a circle at that distance being 80 feet per minute ; find the periodic

time.

If at any point of an ellipse, which is the orbit of a particle moving under the action of a force tending to the focus, the direction of motion be turned through a right angle, the velocity remaining unchanged, prove that the sum of the squares on the minor axis of the new and old orbits wil) be equal to the square on the diameter parallel to the tangent in either the old or new orbit.
7.

PROP. XVII.

PROBLEM

IX.

249

8. If a body be projected with a given velocity about a centre of force which varies inversely as the square of the distance, shew that the minor axis of the orbit described will vary as the perpen dicular from the centre of force upon the direction of projection; and determine the locus of the centre of the orbit described.

in a given hyperbola under the action of S when it arrives at the point P, the force becomes suddenly repulsive, find the position and magnitude of the axes of the new orbit shew that the difference of the squares of the eccentricities of the new and old orbits varies inversely
9.

body

is

moving

a force tending to the focus

as SP.

in a circle of
;

comet moves in a parabola about the Sun and a planet which the radius is half the latus rectum of the para bola shew that the planet will move through about 76 22 of longitude, while the cornet passes from one extremity of the latus rectum to the other.
10.

perihelion distance of a comet moving in a parabolic half the radius of the Earth s orbit, supposed circular. The planes of the orbits coinciding find the time in days from, perihelion to the point of intersection of the orbits.
11.

The

orbit

is

12. body is moving in a given parabola under the action of a force in the focus and, when it comes to a distance from the focus equal to the latus rectum, the force suddenly becomes re pulsive determine the nature, position, and dimensions of the new
; ;

orbit.

13. particle is describing an ellipse under the action of a force tending to the focus if, on arriving at the extremity of the minor axis, the force has its law changed, so that it varies as the distance, the magnitude at that point remaining unchanged, prove that the periodic time will be unaltered, and that the sum of the new axes will be to their difference as the sum of the old axes to the distance between the foci.
;

is perpendicular on the directrix from any point of orbit described by a particle about the focus S, and elliptic the force suddenly tends to when the particle is at instead of S, prove that the new orbit may be a parabola if e and that, in this case, passes through the intersection of the two circles,

14.

PO

an

>

SP

one described on Slf as diameter, and the other with centre radius SA, the shortest focal distance,

S and

15. A particle P is moving in an ellipse about the focus S, and has a normal impulse which generates a velocity equal to the Prove that the particle will velocity at the end of the minor axis. now describe a parabola, and that the angle through which the

o ~p

direction of motion

is

deflected is tan-

KK

250
16.

NEWTON*.

from a given point with a given 3 and moves under the action of a force pR velocity prove that there may be two directions of projection for which the direction of the major axis will be the same, and if a be the angle between these directions, e, e the eccentricities of the two orbits,
particle is projected
F",

p
17.

(e

e}

- V-R

sin a.

body moves in an ellipse about a focus, and is at the ex of the minor axis when its velocity is doubled. Find the tremity new orbit, and shew that the body will come to an apse after describing a right angle, if the ratio of the axes of the given ellipse be 2 1.
:

18. A body is revolving in an ellipse under the action of a force tending to the focus S, and, when it arrives at the point P, the centre of force is suddenly transposed to the point S in PS pro duced so that P*S is equal to the major axis of the ellipse, and the force becomes repulsive shew that if IIP be produced to II and
Y
;

PIT =

PIT, the length of the transverse axis of the hyperbola will be the other focus. described will be S-P,. and

XXX.
1.

Prove that the periodic time of two bodies round each other

is

2ir0 77\l(m +

m)

rr

where 2a

is

their

maximum
units.

distance,

and

m m
}

their

masses expressed in astronomical


2.

comets moving in the ecliptic in parabolic orbits, the latus rectum of its orbit equal to the diameter of has that which the Earth s orbit will remain within the latter for the longest period, the Earth s orbit being considered circular.
all
&. particle is moving in an ellipse about a centre of force in the focus, arid the centre of force is transferred to one end of the Prove that latus rectum as the particle passes through the other. the eccentricities of the old and new orbits, are connected by
<*

Of

<?,

the relation
4.

3 + 40

described by two particles acted on respectively by forces, one constant, and the other tending to the focus. If they start from the same point, they will reach the vertex in equal times if the difference between their initial velocities is to that of the particle acted on by the constant force as 2TA 3SP, is the point in which the initial direction of motion meets where the axis SA.
orbit
is
:

The same parabolic

elastic particles describe the same in opposite directions, one about each period, focus; prove that the major axis of the orbit is a harmonic mean between, those of the orbits they will describe after the impact*
5.

Two

equal perfectly

ellipse, in the

same

PROP. XVII.

PROBLEM

IX.

251

6. Prove that the rate, at which areas are described about the centre of a hyperbolic orbit described by a particle under the action, of a force tending to a focus, is inversely proportional to the distance of the particle from the centre of force.
7. Two ellipses are described by two particles about the same the eccentricities are % and centre of force in the focus V3 respectively, and the major axes are coincident in direction and equal in length. Compare the times which each body spend* within the orbit of the other.
;

8. particle is attracted to a centre of force varying inversely as the square of the distance, and is projected from a fixed point so as to describe a parabola prove that the tangent to the path at the other extremity of the focal chord through the fixed point envelopes a parabola of which that point is the focus.
;

If a number of equal particles be projected from the same with equal velocities so as to describe ellipses in one plane point under a force tending to the common focus, these ellipses will all touch a fixed ellipse which has one focus at the centre of force and
9.

the other at the point of projection.


10. A body revolves in a parabola under the action of n force tending to the focus, and when it arrives at a point whose distance from the axis is equal to the latus rectum, the force is suddenly transferred to the opposite extremity of the focal chord passing through the body. Shew that the new orbit will be a hyperbola whose axes are as 2 1, and that the conjugate axis and the direc tion of motion at the point make equal angles with the focal chord.
:

11. particle is describing an ellipse about a centre offeree in the focus, and the absolute force is suddenly diminished one half; shew that the chance of the particle s new orbit being a hyperbola is TT - 20 2?r, all instants of time being supposed equally probable for the change.
:

Two particles are revolving in the same direction in an the action of a force tending to the focus under prove that ellipse the direction of the motion of one as it appears to the other is parallel to the line bisecting the angle between their distances from
12.
;

the focus.
force tends to the centre of a given circle, and varies in 13. versely as the squnre of the distance; prove that all elliptic orbits which can be inscribed in any triangle inscribed in the circle will be described by a particle, under the action of the force, in the same periodic time.

252

NEWTON.

14. Two equal particles are revolving in the same direction in the same ellipse, under the action of a force tending to a focus shew that if they become rigidly connected when they are at the extremities of a focal chord, they will afterwards move about their centre of gravity with an angular velocity which varies inversely as the length of the chord, and that, wherever this takes place, the initial velocity of the centre of gravity will be the same.
;

15. body revolves in an ellipse about the focus from nearer to farther apse, and the angle which its direction makes with the focal distance is constantly being increased without altering the shew that the motion of the apse line will change from velocity progression to regression, when the true anomaly of the instantaneous
;

orbit is
16.

?r

-f

tan"

^,

being the eccentricity.

comes

particle is describing an ellipse about the focus ; when it to the extremity of the minor axis the absolute force is

diminished by one-third. Determine the position and dimensions of the new orbit, and prove that the distance between its focus and its centre bisects and is bisected by the semi-minor-axis of the
original orbit.
17.
elliptic

When

the earth

is

at

n x sun Prove also that the apse line where cos \ is the excentricity of the earth

orbit, a small meteor fails into the sun, s mass, prove that the year is diminished
s orbit.

an end of the minor axis of its whose mass is by 2n of itself. turns through the angle n tan \,

18. body is describing an ellipse about a centre of force in the focus, and when its radius vector is half the latus rectum it receives a blow which causes it to move towards the other focus with a momentum equal to that of the blow. Shew that, a the the f?r, angle between the tangent and radius vector being - cot 2a, ratio of the eccentricity of the new elliptic orbit will be 2 old and new major axes= cot 2a - 1 cot 2 a - 1, and that these axes *Hre in the same line.
<

19. If a small velocity be communicated when a body moving in an ellipse about the focus is at the extremity of the latus rectum, in a direction parallel to the axis, shew that the change of the

eccentricity will

be 2/m
41

and that the angle through which the axis

will

be turned =

If at any point of the elliptic orbit of a body, moving under the action of a force tending to the focus, the force cease to act for a given very short time, find the angle through which the line of apses will have turned and the change of eccentricity, and shew that they will vary as the components of the force respectively parallel and perpendicular to the line of apses.
20.

APPENDIX.
SECTION
VII.

ON RECTILINEAR MOTION.
PROP. XXXII. AND PROP. XXXVI.
To find
of motion and the velocity acquired when a body falls through a given space from rest, under the action of a force ivhich varies inversely as the square of the distance from a fixed point.
the time
^

Let

be the centre of

force,

the point from which

the

body begins

to

fall.

Let

APA
a

major

MPQ

ASA AQA
j

be a semi-ellipse, whose focus

is

common

the circle upon A A ordinate let C be the


;

S, and axis as diameter,

common

and join CP, CQ, SP, SQ. If a body revolve in the ellipse under the action of the force tending to S, the measure of whose accelerating
centre,
effect at a distance

SP

*
is
a 7

time in AP time in
:

APA

area

ASQ
67@
:

::

sector

AOQ +

triangle

QA semi-circle,4 QA
:

semi-circled

254

NEWTON.

^
This
is

IT

AC*

true whatever be the

magnitude of the minor axis


indefinitely diminished,

BC, and therefore when

it is

in which case the diameter of cur vatureat^.=

2JBC*

AC
.

= 0,

and therefore the body has no velocity

that is, the elliptic motion ultimately degenerates to a recti linear motion in which the body starts from rest at A.
at
;

Also, since

AS.SA = BO\ SA

ultimately

0;

Again, the velocity in the ellipse at

.T

*.

n-

IDP is

A n AJ
L/
.

~
./

->

e and, when the minor axis is indefinitely diminish d, the velocity at M, in the rectilinear motion of the body,

COR.

directly towards or from a centre, to which a force tends which varies inversely as the square of the distance, the time and velocity acquired in a given space may be determined by
If a

body be projected

of an ellipse, parabola, or hyperbola, whose latus rectum is indefinitely diminished, so con structed that at the point of projection the velocity is properly represented.
Notes.

means

must not be supposed that the motion will be repre sented throughout by the ultimate motion in an ellipse, whose axis minor is indefinitely diminished, in which case the body
235.
It

would return

to

for,

since in this

case

the

ellipse

passes

through $, we are precluded from applying the results of the second and third sections in determining the motion of the body
after arriving at

$; but we may correctly apply these determine the motion before arriving at S.

results to

APPENDIX.

255

In order to determine tne motion after arriving at $, we must observe that at S the force is zero, since its direction is
indeterminate, although, when the body is at any point very near to $, there will be a very great force tending towards $; on approaching $, therefore, the velocity will continually in

and the body will pass through S with very great but the motion will be retarded, according to the same velocity as law, rapidly as it was generated, and the body will proceed
crease,
;

to a distance equal to

SA

on the opposite side of S.

PROP XXXVIII.
To find
the velocity acquired zvhen a lody falls through a given space from rest, under the action of a force which varies as the distance from a
the time

of motion and

fixed point.

Let

be the centre of force, A the place from which the and on ASA body begins to move make SA =
;
SA>

as

major

circle

AQA

and a semi axis, describe a semi-ellipse and let be a common ordinate. j

A PA

MPQ
P

Suppose a body to revolve in the ellipse, under the action of the force tending to the measure of whoso
,

accelerating effect at
oc

is

p.SP, then time in


arc A

AP

area J./SP

oc

sector .4$ $

therefore time in

AP

time in

ABA

::

arcAQ
x

irAS,

and time

in

AP =

arcAQ ~

256

NEWTON.
is

the minor axis is indefi nitely diminished, in which case the velocity at A vanishes, since the diameter of curvature vanishes. Therefore the elliptic motion is reduced to the recti linear motion of a body originally at rest at A, and aro A is thus shewn to be the time in x - r^
true

and the same

when

AM

V/"

AS

Again, the velocity in the ellipse at

P
motion

= *Jlj,.SD, =

where

>SD

is

conjugate to JSP
in the rectilinear

therefore the velocity at

^ (AS*

SMJ =
8=
5-7-,

COR.

Time from A

to

or the time of reaching

S is

the same whatever be the initial distance.

SECTION
PKOP. XL.
Jf

VIII.

THEOEEM

XIIL

the velocities of two bodies, one of which is falling directly towards a centre of force and the other describing a curve about that centre, be equal at any equal distances they

will always be equal at equal distances, if the force only on the distance.

depend

Let S be the centre of force, and

let

one of the bodies be


the other in the

moving

in the straight line

APS,

curve AQq.

Suppose the

velocities at

P, Q

to

be

APPENDIX.

257

equal, and let Qq be an arc of the curve described in a short time. With centre S and radii SQ, Sq describe circular arcs QP, qP, let SQ meet pq in m,

and draw mn perpendicular

to Qq.

Since the centripetal forces at equal distances are equal, and Q, and Pp, Qm may represent they will be so at

Pp is wholly effective in accelerating P, Qn the only effective part of Qm on Q, the component nm being employed in retaining the body in the curve. and Q the Also, since the velocities are equal at times of describing Pp, Qq are ultimately proportional to Pp, Qq, when the time is indefinitely diminished.
;

them

is

Hence

force at

in

PS
:
:

force at

Q
: :

in

Qq
:

::

Pp

Qn,

and time
.
.

in

Pp

time in Qq

Pp
:
:

Qq,
:

vel.

acquired

vel.

at^>

acquired at q

Pp* Qn. Qq,

but
therefore the velocities added in Pp and Qqare equal, and the actual velocities at p and q are equal. By proceeding in the same way through any number of small times, the proposition is proved.

XXXI.
1. If a particle slide along a chord of a circle, under the action of a force tending to any fixed point, and varying as the dis tance, the time will be the same for all chords, provided they ter minate at either extremity of the diameter which passes through centre of force.

2. If the velocity of the earth in its orbit were suddenly de stroyed, find the time in which it would reach the sun.

3 particle moves from any point in the directrix of a conic section, in a straight line towards a centre of force, which varies inversely as the square of the distance, in the corresponding focus. Prove that when it arrives at the conic section, if I/ be the latus
rectum, the velocity will be (~) \z/ /
.

LL

258
4.

NEWTON.

If three centres of force reside in the three angles of a a force whose accelerating effect is triangle, attracting with the intersection of in a that ii x distance, prove particle, placed P drawn through OO line the in oscillate will the perpendiculars, = $ in a centre of the circle, where O

the

circumscribing

27T

time

in an ellipse about a centre of force at 5 particle revolves If PU, PU" be the spaces through which one of the foci S, S a particle, falling from any point P, of the curve, would have to move in order to acquire the velocity at P, according as S or ig the centre of force, prove that

&

PU:
6.

PU

::

2SP + S P 25 P
:

+ SP.

towards a centre of when it has force varying inversely as the square of the distance, and so as to move fallen half the distance it is reflected by a plane, an angle a with its former direction; shew in a direction

A perfectly

elastic ball falls

from

rest

that the eccentricity of the ellipse subsequently described

making

is

cos a.

to each of two equal and similar elastic particle is attached are fixed at points whose distance apart ends other wiiose strings, of the strings; is greater than the sum of the natural lengths at rest between the fixed points and in the initially the particle is and one of the strings is just unstraight line joining them, motion, and the velocity of Determine the
7.

stretched. subsequent the particle in any position.

ball falls from a distance a towards a perfectly elastic When it has described a distance. the as iorce of centre varying of 45 on a plane and is reflected. space \a it impinges at an angle Shew that the semiaxes of the orbit subsequently described will be a cos 60 and a sin 60. Suppose that the ball again impinges on the opposite side of the same fixed reflecting plane, shew that it at will be reflected to the centre, and that the time of arriving it. to of fulling directly the centre will be five times the time
8.

e to be the elasticity of the ball in the last problem, = tan V*, the subsequent the angle of incidence prove that, in which orbit will have its axis major or minor in the direction the from distance the the ball was originally falling, according as than less or centre C to the point of impact is greater

9.

Suppose
if

\/r

GENERAL PROBLEMS.

XXXII.
1.

1.2 + 2.3+...+ n(n-fl) j ^ r v Find the limit of 3


TV
<-

when n

iz

indefinitely increased.
2.

ABCD

is

a quadrilateral, which

is

slightly displaced into

the position abCD in its own plane, remaining fixed; prove that the small angular displacements of the sides DA, AB,

CD

EG

are ultimately in the inverse ratio of the perpendiculars upon the drawn from the points side being the point E, Cj and CB. of intersection of

AB

Z>,

DA
P

If a point from a fixed point


3.
if

move
and

so that the product of its distances a fixed straight line is constant, and

the polar subtangent, and the tangent meets the fixed will be bisected in P. line in V, prove that

ST be
4.

TV

particle describes

an

force in the focus

S; if F, in the directions PS, DS


diameters,

V be the components of the velocities


at the

elliptic

orbit

about a centre of
of two conjugate will be invariable

ends P,
(

prove that throughout the motion.


5.

V.

SPf -f V. SDf

body

is

describing an ellipse about a centre of force


its

in
at

the
its

centre,

and

velocity

is

observed

when

it

arrives

greatest distance, and again after a lapse of one third of its periodic time. If these velocities be in the ratio of 2 3, prove that the eccentricity of the ellipse will be \/f
:

velocity and direction at two central orbit, find the locus of the centre of force.
6.

Given the

points

of a

260
7.

NEWTON.

that in the elliptic orbit described under the action of a force tending to a focus, the angular velocity round the other focus varies inversely as the square of the diameter parallel
to the direction of motion. particle slides down the arc of a vertical circle, starting from rest at a given point ; find the point where it will leave the curve.
8.

Shew

9.

If at

any point of an
:

ellipse,

described under the action

of a force tending to the focus, the velocity be increased in the ratio n 1, prove that the latus rectum will be increased
in the ratio n
10.
2
:

1.

Supposing the major axis of an ellipse = 200 = and the periodic time 10 days eccentricity

feet,

the

find

the

number
vector in
11.

of square inches in the area swept out


1".

by the radius

a body describes a parabola about the focus, the intersection of its direction with the axis of the parabola moves

When

most rapidly when the body


rectum.
12.

is

at the

extremity of the latus

Shew how

to

find

the

weights of equal bodies on

planets which have secondaries.

body describes a hyperbola under a repulsive force tending from the farther focus, and when the body arrives at shew that, if the vertex, the force suddenly becomes attractive
13.
;

the

new
;

=3

orbit be a parabola, e the eccentricity of the hyperbola e if the new orbit be an ellipse of eccentricity 6, e 2.

point of an ellipse particles are projected in the direction of the tangent with velocities such that, when
14.

From every

acted upon by a centre of force cc D~* to one of the foci of the ellipse, they proceed to describe parabolas. Shew that the directrices of these parabolas all touch one or other of two fixed
circles,
ellipse.

whose

radii are equal to the

major axis of the given

GENERAL PROBLEMS.

2G1

XXXIII.
are two right-angled triangle?, the angle at C Prove that, being a right angle, and their perimeters are equal. as ab moves up to AB, the distance of the point of ultimate
1.

ABC, abC

intersection of

and ab from the middle point of the difference between CA and CB.
2.

AB

AB

is

half

are T, confocal ellipses;

P,

two neighbouring points on the outer of two tangents to the inner, TP, TQ, T P, being points which coincide when T moves up to T.

TQ

Prove that ultimately


3.

PF QQ
:

::

TP

TQ\

that

if

In a parabola described under a force to the focus shew the direction of motion meet the directrix in F, then the

velocity of

vary inversely as the abscissa of the corre on the curve. sponding point
will

parabola, whose vertex is A, is described by a body under the action of a force in its focus S. If, with S as centre
4.

and
in

SA

the

as radius, a circle be described cutting the axis again will represent in Q, prove that and the radius vector velocity at P, and hence find the law of force in the

SP

BQ

parabolic path.

a body describe an ellipse of very small a focus, the eccentricity under the action of a force tending to will be focus very nearly uniform. angular velocity about the other
5.

Shew

that

if

6.

Shew

pendulum,

that the intersection of the string of a cycloidal which makes complete oscillations, with the base of

the cycloid moves uniformly along the latter.


If a closed string, lying on a smooth horizontal plane, of an equi pass loosely round three vertical pegs in the angles lateral triangle, and if a bead be projected along the string so as
7.

to

keep it stretched tightly, shew that the tension of the string will have two minimum values, and that they will be inversely cases. proportional to the free lengths of the string in the two

2G2
8.

NEWTON.

The

latus

rectum of a comet
s

parabolic orbit
;

is

the diameter of the earth


describe an arc of
its

orbit

supposed circular

if

equal to the earth

orbit equal to the radius in 58j days, find

Low long
latus
9.

the comet

will take to

move from one extremity

of the

rectum

to the other.

a particle moves from rest in a smooth equiangular from the spiral tube under the action of a constant force tending pole, starting from the pole, shew that the pressure on the

When

curve
10.

is

constant.

body moving in an ellipse about a force in the centre are 4 and 9 per hour at the extremities of the major and minor axes respectively; find the
velocities of a

The angular

periodic time.
11.

Find the locus of a

point, in order that

the resultant

attraction of a uniform rod upon it may pass through a given of the rodj the law of point, equidistant from the extremities
attraction being that of the inverse square.

12.

Prove that

described

velocity at any point of an ellipse about a centre of force in the focus be resolved at
if

the

every point into two velocities in the directions perpendicular

and the axis major, the greater of these velocities will be the actual velocity in the orbit at a point where the direction of motion makes an angle with the axis major
to the focal distance

whose
13.

sine

is \e.

acted upon by two forces, tending to the foci of an ellipse whose major axis is 2a and varying according
particle
/

is

Q~*K
3 a
/

to tbe

law

//,

f\

Oc*
it

the absolute intensities being the same.


to the ellipse

Shew

that, if

be projected along the tangent


it
**

with a certain velocitv. then


/

will continue to describe the

ellipse freely,

and

its velocity, in
/
7
,a

any position given by the


2

focal

distances r,

r, will

be n

_j_

rrf
;

_j_
-,

2x
1

.
1

yrr

n being the mean


a focus.

J
-5 to

angular motion of the

ellipse

under a force

GENERAL PROBLEMS.

XXXIV.
1.

PQ
and

is

Prove that the area of an ellipse cut off by any chord \ab (0 sin$), where #, b are the semi-axes of the ellipse, is the angle subtended at the centre by the points on

the auxiliary circle corresponding to


.

P
_

Q.

Deduce from
,

this
2

that the area cut

on by any chord

or a

(I

sin#)

parabola

is

?T~^i

the length of the chord, 6 its inclination to the axis the latus rectum. of the parabola, and

where

is

and parabola whose axes are parallel have the if the same curvature at a point P and cut one another in in meet the axis of P the at T, prove that parabola tangent
2.

An

ellipse

PQ

will

be equal to four times

PT.

3.
i

Having given
i

rad. of earth
i

= 4000
cos X\
-.

miles nearly, shew


,

that gravity in latitude

X= CM( 1
s~i

289

,
.

the earth being con-

11-

sidered spherical, and


4.

gravity at the pole.

heavy

point in the vertical, the velocity being that due to the height above a given horizontal plane of the point of projection, find the form of the surface so that the particle may always remain in the horizontal

particle is projected horizontally from any interior of a surface of revolution, whose axis is

plane of projection.
5.

body describes a

circle to the centre of

which

it

is

connected by a string; it is attracted to a point in the circum ference by a force varying as the distance shew that, if the string be always kept stretched, the greatest and least velocities
;

will be in a ratio less than A/3

1.

6.

Find,
if

which,

when possible, the point in an elliptical orbit at the centre of force were transferred to the empty

Prove that such a point focus, the orbit would be a parabola. cannot exist unless the eccentricity of the elliptical orbit be
greater than
\i>

2.

2G4
7.

NEWTON.

particle describes

an

ellipse

about a centre of force

in the focus,

and another

particle describes the circle

upon the

per pendicular to the axis. Also shew that the velocity at any point in the circle will be inversely proportional to corresponding focal distance in the
*

major axis about another force in the same point in the same If the particles start simultaneously from the periodic time. vertex, prove that the line joining them will be always

ellipse.

8.

body moves
-rr-

in elliptic

arcs about a centre of force

varying as

Ta

situated in a perfectly elastic plane perpen

dicular to the plane of the orbits; shew that those arcs are portions of similar ellipses whose major axes are equally inclined to the elastic plane, and that the time between the first and third

impact
9.

is

equal to that between the second and fourth.

projected about a centre of force cc (dist.)~* perpendicular to the distance ; shew that as the velocity of projection is increased, the centre of the curve moves through

body

is

the centre of force to infinity, then suddenly starts back toinfinity on the other side of the point of projection and returns But when the force cc dist. the nearer focus moves to to it.

a given point and then suddenly starts at right angles to

its

previous direction.
10.

A
it

when

and y describing an ellipse about the focus arrives at the mean distance, the force is doubled ;

body

is

line of apses passes through the foot of the from the other focus upon the tangent. perpendicular

shew that the new

about the focus, when a particle is at a distance r from the focus, the direction of motion is turned
11.

In an

elliptic orbit

through a small angle


in the apsidal line is
6

&x,
1
(

shew that the corresponding change

e"

2a being the major axis,

Clj

and

the eccentricity.

GENERAL PROBLEMS.
12.

265

Prove tliat, neglecting the disturbances produced by the planets on each others orbits, the statement of Kepler s third The cubes of the mean distances of law should be amended to as the squares of the periodic times from sun are the the planets multiplied into the sum of the masses of the sun and the planet.
"

Prove that, when the distance between the centres of the sun and the earth is r, the attraction between them is
13.

-^

-~

~,

2 ,

where

is

the periodic time,

the mass of
is

of the earth, in astronomical units, and a the sun, distance between the centres.
14.

the

mean

orbit elliptic

Prove that the periodic time of a body describing an under an attraction to a fixed point within the
9
^

ellipse

is

V /*

where

is

the perpendicular from the centre

of the ellipse on the polar of


the body at distance r from

0} assuming the acceleration of it/ pr to be where p is the per^


,

P*
penlicular from the body on the polar of 0.

XXXV.
any point of a catenary, prove that when the area of the triangle formed by these straight lines and the directrix is the greatest possible, the distance of the point from the directrix is twice the length of the arc measured from the point to the vertex.
1.

tangent

and normal are drawn

at

traced out by a point in a straight line of given length, which moves with its extremities in the arc of an ellipse ; shew that the area included between the ellipse
2.
is

curve

and the locus of P is TTCC c and from the extremities of the line.
,

being the distances of

3.

If a circle touch

two

coils of

an equiangular

spiral,

one

internally, the other externally, the line joining the pole to the centre of the circle will bisect the angle between the radii

vectores of the spiral

drawn

to the points of contact.

MM

266
4.

NEWTON.

the highest point, JSP intersects the horizontal diameter in $, and B, C are the Prove that the square of Q a velocity extremities of Q s path.
oscillates in
circle,
is

of which

varies as
5.

BQ.QC.SQ\
moves
in

A particle

an

elliptic

tube under the attraction

of a material line joining the foci, each element of which attracts with a force varying inversely as the square of the distance.
that the velocity tube when the particle

Shew

is
is

constant; and find the pressure on the at the extremity of the minor axis.

6.

An

attractive force equal to


;

TT>

^ 2

resides in each focus

(dist.)

of a smooth elliptic groove

if

a particle start from the end of


2 -i

the major axis with a velocity

^
1

it

will reach the

end of

the minor axis in a time 4

/
v>

a.b.e bein

the semi-

2/

axes and eccentricity.


attached to the end of a string, which just winds round the circumference of a circle, in whose centre there
7.
is

A body

is

a repulsive force
r<//*

= ya (dist.).

Prove that the time of unwinding

Also find the tension of the string at any time.

8.

body moves

in

an

ellipse

under the action of a force


;

tending to a fixed point


the force at any point
in

in the transverse axis

prove that
is

PL
varies as

y-^i,

where
to

the point

which

OP

meets the diameter conjugate

that

passing

through P.
9.
it is

An
its

elastic

string just
;

fits

of

natural length

it is

a fixed straight tube when fixed at one end, and pulled out
;

so as to double its length the free end, is then projected at right at the

other,

a particle, fixed at angles to the string

which it along a smooth horizontal plane with the velocity would acquire in falling freely, under the action of gravity,
that through a space equal to the length of the tube; prove

GENERAL PROBLEMS.
tr-e

267

weight of the particle must be f or f of that which would double the length of the string, in order that it may describe an
ellipse

whose eccentricity Prove

is ^.

10.

that, if the velocity in the

hodograph of an orbit

be proportional to the angular velocity of the corresponding point in the orbit about the centre of attraction, the orbit will
be an
11.
ellipse

about the focus.


is
it

particle

of gravity;

when

is

describing a parabola under the action at one extremity of the latus rectum,

gravity is replaced by a force tending to the other extremity of the latus rectum and varying as the distance, such that the
accelerating effort in that position is equal to that of gravity. Shew that the ratios of the axes of the ellipse described to the
latus

rectum of the parabola are 2


If

\/2

cos^r and 2

\/2 sin |TT.

the nearer apse, the body, and a small velocity u be applied to the body at right P, prove that the change in the direction of the angles to
12.

be the centre of

force,

apse line will be given approximately by


~ 4 cos ASP) h (\e J

SPs mASPy

where

the eccentricity of the orbit and h twice the rate of description of area about
e
is

If an imperfectly elastic particle fall from an infinite distance, under the action of a central force varying inversely
13.

as the square of the distance, and impinge, before arriving at the centre of force, on a small plane area inclined to the direc
tion of

motion, shew that, if the orbit after the first impact be a circle, the elasticity will be -|j and shew that after an
its

of impacts, twice the major axis of the final orbit will be three times the distance of the plane area from the
infinite

number

centre of force.

HINTS FOR SOLUTIONS OF PROBLEMS.

I.
1.

Limits are
b.

in

(1), co

in

(2),

a
6.

in

(3).

2.

and

\.

3.

4.
/.
its

Difference does not vanish.

5.

PCc
shew

equal;

PB PC
: :

::

PC
:

Pb.

Triangles PBb,

section,

R
.

the point of inter

that
.

:BR

9. AB AP APQ, Q, meeting PQ in M\ PM.MQ = AM.MB = P M.MQ whence P M= QM. 10. CN.NT=QN* = A N.NA, QN being ordinate of aux = %CNu\t 11. R the point of inter iliary circle, and A fl

RS PB R C: BR

ultimate position.
::
::

RC

Draw RS, QT parallel to PB, EG, ult., and QT:RS::BC QT: PB :: AC: AB. 7. By result

of (3) p. 9. 8. In tangent at the common chord of circles


.
.

to

the given circle.

ordinate.; kAS.AM, similarly for or 2 AS. greater than


section,

RU

its

RM* = PM\
and

UM
B

QN
II.

subtract.

PM

RU*

-f

UM*

must be

- CN* r.V - TM* :: A C - CM* PW A C* BC Also TM, deduce that C3F AC*<AO* AC* + BC*. a +5 Shew that a - x* -f ?/ y* deduce that 4. tf, a 2 - x* + a* x* b and that c? thence x + -f if V, y* y* = & 2 5. ABC, AB C be two inscribed triangles BC-B C = BB cosA+ CC cos A, BB cosC=AB - AB, &c. 6- CV PU.QU parallel to BU, CT: CV::AT:AV, CT=CVu\t. SR :: C8 7. 8 T QT.PT:: BU* CT* :: AB* AC\ : CR-, S T =SR ult. AT.BT: AT .BT :: PT* S T :: CT.RT: SR* and CT.RT= CR RTuh. = PR* = SR\
.-.

-B A A -B A, A, equality A BB A whence shew that A B. 2. PS parallel to BC, shew that PS: BQ :: 2BC AC. 3. As in I. 11, shew that A C* - CM 2 AC*- CN* :: RT* + TM* R + TN
1.

If

tend

to

>

>

CM

: :

PM>

: :

turns about 8. Triangle foot of the perpendicular on


sin

OAB
sin

into

AB

the position

Gab, the
9.

moves along AB.

PQ

SPQ

pq
and

Sqp
:

tangents intersect in

SQ
::

Sp,

PQ, pq being
;

ultimately
::

in the directrix

/.
.

:Sp.pD

PD*

PQ

pq
10.

SP.PD

ABC

pD*

SP.Pp: Sp

triangle

dicular to

Abe; BC, AB, AC-, AD

be intersect in
is

Triangle perpen diameter of cucle about ABC\

Pp.

P; BD,

CD

HINTS FOR SOLUTIONS OF PROBLEMS.

269

Ad

common

= PR MAB,
.

that of circle about Abe, is the perpendicular to chord. Bb PN, perpendicular AB, C, = sin : sin Cc, and Cc C, &c. ; .-.

AM

PR

Dd

hence L

MAB = LPAC.

Dd

MA

A PN PR

: :

PN MA G
.

III.

3.

Fig. p. 25, parallelogram

Pn =
2

KL x

p. 25, vol.

by Pn round
n
10.

KL =
(l
\

TT

L?n

- Ln*) Pm
T n

n = irmn

1 AL.
.

5.

2Lm

ultimately
TT
::

=>rr-AL.2

- -\AL.
nj

LK.

Vol. round

(AH-Pm}\mn.
n

PIT* AM. AM. irPM*.MNnrBK\AH -:2AC + AH- hence hyperboloid cylinder (2AC+-AH] * n \ J n
:

::AC+AH:2AC+AH.
IV.
1.

PV diameter bisecting

QSq.

QVac

SPx SY*
m

2. Mass is to that of a homogeneous circle, den of that 4 2. 4. Let sity given circle at circumference, as 2 : w be the number of squares, each straight of the serrated portion
cc

SY*.

QV.SY

j 4 (7T
ing r divisions

IT \

-r-

Sn in number.

5.

AM contain6.

4>i/

=r2

and

MN= (2r

AH
-f

1)

5-

a a small

area near P, PJ/, perpendicular to the axis of revolution, 2 (2?rPJ/.a) =27rCHx area of ellipse. 7. m inscribed paral/ I r^!5 ,1 TT^^ZA sin 1 - cos lelogram -^-^-, and the sum r^) cc ^
(75"
*

2u

ultimately

cc

FH -

GF.

8.

area^C=If

AT)

A.JJ J o T?p

and

F
7?
\
.

9>

(0
1.

O^e
J

and n

n
(e

1)

= a,
V.
sect.

iilt.

Fig.

that the areas of sections to the base are equal. 3. in P, Q Vol. by

p. 34, sect. ^1

(7Pcc

^ (7(? cc L A CO.
the
.

2-

Prove
parallel

P N.

PN: 47r^.area P N:: :: vol. by APKH=7rKH.&AHK. 4.


.-.

QN

AK cutting PM. PN= TrAAS. A M.MNi, vol. by AM: P M AH: KH KH-.4AS:


Fig. p. 25, join
.

made by

same plane

::

Moments with
5.

gravity coincide.

cc Vol. by area are equal; /. centres of JAVcc Fig. p. 26 (4) mass of ILVcc

PN

respect to

AL

AM*

270
vol.

NEWTON.

Mass of ATI= Ox cone. If pAAP be generated by PN. 7. (M5, density at If, prove that n = C.7r tan a. the sector and square revolving about CB. PQ a small arc, on on Vol. PM, CA, perp. Pm, Qn, by Pn vol. 2
by

GADB
:

PN

QN

^1Z>.

: :

CA* 1
:

CM mn
)

CM. PM. MN.

ult,

: :

PM.mn

2CM.MN::
1.

2.

VI.
Vol.
ft 53.

by PNcc moment
In
T

^^=sm A An QN an jj ordinate near PJ/, take AP an arc of a circle, radius AC= AM, P Q ^MN, P M perp. to AC, PM. J/iVcc P M P Q oc surface generated by P Q cc M N Hence area APM= C.A M = A (7(1 cos -j-^ and to determine the constant C, when
a curve
of sines
let
,

TT O V. 3.

-1
f

of vol. of corr. slice of cone, as in

PM
\j

AM
L/

(7.

is

indefinitely small,

J^If.JfP. 0.40.2.
Z>

"

ult.;

Let P (2 correspond to P, $, -D on the P CD P Q CP 4. P CD PQ Q auxiliary circle, P N perp. from P near P; then area PJf = m area PZV volumes are as MM PI/ 2J\W. PiV. PJ/= m 2. 5. ^^^1
.-.

C=BC.

3.

::

::

-flf

,
,

the semicircle, centre 0, Ci? perp. to AA\ , perp. to tangent at A, cutting off small arcs PQ, Q surface = 4?r. AC. PQ- then generated by these =2-77 (I/P+JfP ) Z see p. 38 (8). 6. A"CA major axis of exterior ellipse, 2 1 oo PG\ : BC*::A M.A"M:A C .:P M*<x SP.HPvz ; surface generated by P^oc .MNaz M. MN. on its conju 7. P, JP adjacent points on the hyperbola, in intersect the P, r, QRN^ gate PMjtnn perp. asymptote
<,

MPP NQQ P
CD P

PQ

PM

PQ.PM* PG
:

BO

qrn perp. -4 (7.


2. In the

Prove that PJf

QN AC BC Nn
::
:

::

Mm.

VII.
the same, produce SP to Q, is the is same, triangle is In that the Shew 4. equiangular. equiangular. base take bisected by the centre 0, describe a square and let meet the semicircle in P, is an of the the centre of any 5. angle square required. circle touching the lines AB, drawn through the ,

making PQ = PH.

ellipses

make
:

PSH

SH 8Q SPH

SQH

AB D

ABCD

OD

given point

meets

this circle in
0"

the centres of the circles required. PO, QO , of a is made cone Surface 8. right up of an infinite number of triangles of equal mass, which may be collected in their centres of gravity and re-distributed uniformly over a circle, \vhose centre is the centre of gravity of the surface. In the

meet

AO in

AC AD P, Q\ DO

DO"

parallel to

HINTS FOR SOLUTIONS OF PROBLEMS.

271

oblique cone the triangles are of unequal mass and the centre of gravity of the circle is not its centre.

VIII.
1.

Curves can be drawn in which


t

2.

ST.SPac SY*cc
:

3.

RQ, Rq have any ratio. As in Lemmas VII., produce


is

AD to a finite distance. 4. Shew that QN-PM-. ON- 0J/ PM 30M ult. 5. The fixed line the directrix. 6. PJ/
:
:

perpendicular to ult,
is

AB*-BP* = AP* = AM.AB = AT.AB, ult. /. L SPY= L SQP quadrilateral in a circle


;

AB, AT. TB = PT =
2

MT

TO, T31=*2AT,
7.
.

SPF Q

8.

Pp, Qq

intersect in

the diameter

angles CPp, diameter 10.

BA FT SP(HP-HP )=HP (SP-SP}]

bisecting the chords, prove the tri CQq equal. 9. perpendicular to vertical down are as : I : 2. PA, (vel.)*

PM

MA MT::

perpendicular to

PF

and

SP -SP=PP
IX.

ultimately normal

PG

is

sinSPG.

1.

Circles on

common

chord.

secutive radii,

PJ/:: Nn
::

SP, SP have perpendicular to PP for is the pedal. 2. OPQ, Opq con Envelope PJ/, QR perp. to Opq, Nn to OPQ, ult. pl[
:

SY

nP,
/.

OQ: OP;

the vertex, T, are in semicircle on TT\ and bisects Normal to locus of of ellipse. 4. Chord joining perp fixed line,

QR qR nQ Nn; QR nQ~OQ. 3. P, P consecutive positions of T intersections of corresponding sides, P, P


:

::

nQ :nP::

PJ/

PM,P M = SP (PM-P M
and

TT is the chord of contact ult. TT and passes through centre P P ult. passes through S\ SD,

PN

AD

SP=2SD. 5. AD diam. OP s mABA = -?r smARA.


sin
2

),

SP.PJI=SP .SN;

perp.

SD, (SP
. .

of circle round

-SP)PU ND = \SD, AQB. AA =*


???,

fiTperp. SP, PJ/.

6. P\ P consecutive points, A SP meets PP in T, TU perp. PJ/, P Fn perp. SP* - SP = AB [PM- P M ), Pm = AB.Pn


<2SP.
;
,

2PJI=PUj
^ n cos FC.

centre of circle

is

in the fixed

line.

7.

eb

an ordiuate near

EB,
-

BU subtangent
^ Prove
8.
, ,

at JE,
_,

eb-EB = =r Inn. ^
Eb
and

AD
:

TT -:-_

AD
j-y

that /?.

=P(7

cos

/SP
:
:

BU.B U is constant. SP- SP L P SA L PSP


:

/S

P. Z P/S4

constant.

9.

SP.LPSP SP- SP ult. L PSA As in 8. ST, = SP. L PSA,


: :
:

circular measure,
:

ST SP
:

.-.

ST

constant.

272

NEWTON.

X.
is a line 1. In the construction of Art. 57, the locus of 4. As (2) p. 76. 5. In tig. p. 67, produce parallel to GAB. draw 110 to Hj so that a, 1, perpendicular to

KA

AH

HAK=
,

the curve

is

a parabola, vertex

0, latus rectum
2
3

passing

6. Velocity Space in time t = \a (3 + ). through A. curve is a parabola AP, time measured on the axis, acceleration
oc

PM: 2AM,

Art. 54.

7.

Acceleration

oc

2AM:

PJlocPl/,

Art. 54.

XT.
corresponding, the acceleration changes discontinuously. point of inflexion implies that the ac celeration passes a maximum or minimum values. 2. If the accelerations the forces on be the of IJL /SP, iJt! S particle at P, that of the resultant force will be (fi + yu/) 6rP, Time is centre of gravity of p at S, and p at S where = TT (fj, + ft 3. Curve described as in Art. 57 is a parabola. 4. Curve of Art. 57 is a straight line inclined at tan /* to 2 2 2 a ). 5. AP, the line of motion; (vel.) at distance x fj, (x Uniform op their velocity curves ; draw chords AP, ap.
1.

At

the

time

)"*.

acceleration which
if L

constant, therefore therefore, be a similar. arcs are i.e. : also 6. Let AP, ap ap, towards force point at which the two forces are equal., whole comes to on the particle at Pec CP. 7. After impact
is

AP

PAM=Lpam, AM: am

would generate velocity

PM

is

tanPAM;

B8+ SA + A

rest,

M gains

A* a

=M

If they meet at velocity. = twice s time in

BSB

wi s

m s time in time in 8A ;

XII.
.

= 8 4SA
.

3
.-.
>SP

= 644 S

3.

hence a*+b*
.-.

= 30IP>ab*.
5.

CP=CD.
6.

They

4. By Art. 85, L are inversely as

PF:AC:

CP, and

CP=CD.

7.

(\}CU = 2PG.PF=2BC\ ACF-BC*


i

L 8. By Art. 85, = axis distance from to the 4&P;


trix

LPST= STP= L SPT.


its

9.

Chord

parallel

middle point to the direc

= 3P.
P(? and

10.

2SP=2SP.

11.

CP are

equally inclined to the axis, circle on

P<2

HINTS FOR SOLUTIONS OF PROBLEMS.


as diameter has

273
cos 2

PGP

as a

common

chord.

and

A C* = CP
.

COB2PG4.

12. Portion

CP= PQ proposed =
2

PC A,

-40
n
in

13.

Diameter of curvature
ellipse,
all
>S",

=I
is

same
14. In
fig. p.

both
.
.

AC.BC

hyperbola and
is

and

PF

the

constant for

produce

UA,

EA

the ellipses.

to

/
,

making

AU

both; 104

=AU* AS = AS

is

the directrix,

fixed.

XIII.
1.

Chord through
at
.4

A = 4*P.
of
.

3.

MG, M G subnormals for P, P

Normal

= radius

curvature
cos 6^
2

GG

BivG

*m*G

= semi-latus-rectura. PP smG = MM = GG
1

Chords
in direction 7.
2

PQ are
2
.

as

PT

sin

TPQ QT
:

siuTQP::

PT

2
:

QT.

<?CM

:AC
9.

8.

^P^ tangent

asymptotes
both.
-^
11^
j

in T, t;

PT=CD

PQ

common

corresponding points in auxiliary circle. Q i:pq:p q. Prove that Q P 20 - -ITT; .P Q = 2AQ sin 20. bisects radius CA, 10. chord perp. to the sub OS to AB. is S the tenses, perp. focus, SA the semi-latus-

Q P\
t

at the point of contact meets both curves, and PPis the same chord, pq diameter parallel to
in
P(>,

q-i

C=

PQ

AB

rectum.
.V*

11.

y=x

is

the tangent,

2 PQ* = x + i/
2

(J^

- --

polar of P for confocal PQ QPF=RPF=a. HPF = SPF=0, QIIP = PHRtouching = 6, QSP=PSR=6 Produce SQ to JET, so that QH = QH. By
.
.

sm_(a

~~"

^)
1

SQ

8in~0~"

P
2a
5

sin (a
""

_
1
"

a
5

""Bind

sm(a-/3)

sin

PR

274

NEWTON.

X1Y.
1.

- ABD.

Complete
2.
nit.

BT CT ult. 4. a, b diameters of curvature of AP, A Q at A, APQ chord through A, R P PR parallel to tangent AT. PM, QN perpendicular to AT: AP AQ AM AN
and
:

= 4 (?M

RN QM, RN perpendicular to PT, PR = 2PQ 3. BM, CN perpendicular to AT, BM=CN,


;

ADBF.

ACBF=%ADBF,

ACBE~ABD
.-.

::

AM* AN*
-pv>

"TiTF

b ::

PP
is

2
:

RR
:

~.

5.

Inscribe n rectangles

in

A CB of
,

which
.

PMNQ
..
.

one

n
tor the

2 (PJ/)

=
b.

Ab S (PM MN)
.

4v>

bumlarly

tangent,

Any
.

small arc

PQ

of

AB
lie

which

2SZ.PV
SY"

(SP - SP) SZ + (SZ - SZ)


1

lies between the circles of curvature at one entirely within the other. 7. SP

SP= SY - SY*
2

and Q, SZ = SY*,
(Art. 86)

2SP.SZ_

PV
) /

PV~
/.

=p

<)

area
or

= JSyu.*
|P&4,

a
(

-f

TSP 4 rF ~ = |At
"

SY =
2 2

/.

(a

+ a^ + J^

2
)(/>.

9.

r5^ = iP/SU PP
,

radius of curvature

=2

pp>
-,

or

-^

10.
sider

S=&SP or |/SP parabola or cardioid. ABGDE the pentagon, BM, CN perpendicular to AE. Con
chord through
3

that
11.

Bm :BC:: PM CM
:

BM=%CN, Bm parallel
:

the curve as parabola of curvature, vertex ult. ; the ratio is J A

C.

Prove
:

AM=MN
to

Ab
;

meets
/.

OP

in
:

m.

be
.

be

BG

Pb
:

/.

be

be
/.

::

Pb.PMi

1. AM: 12. Sesr. AP=\ tri A TP, A TRB = seg. APB + } seg. ^P + J Keg P, angle ATHB ^1P5 n\ seg. AP seg. BP :: (m + nf seg, = A O* + n B0 APB + (m n)\ 13. (m + n)* + % (m + seg.

case 3;

be.

Qb .QN:: be. AN:: ml

PM
:

PM AB AC
: .

AON: ABCN. Bm :: Pb PB,


nit.
;

QN"

by

Lemma
.

XI.,

m"

AB* -2AO. AM-,


.-.

BO

AW = 2 AC AM= 2 AC. AT,


.

page 9

(3);

AO^ZOC.ATult.
*

OQ*+ OQ =

OP*, and OQ,

OQ
XV.

a right angle, is 14turn half as fast as OP.

QOQ

P, ^, 72 consecutive angles of the polygon, A P$/2= A tangent at Q parallel to PR. ^; on ^P, on BC, a rcct. inscribed in .^50,
1.
.
.
.

Q
.

near

P<2

perp.

BO

meets

in

/f,

rcct.

E EFGH

EFG EFGII
on

rect,

HINTS FOR SOLUTIONS OF PROBLEMS.


^ K E, E H

275
meet
3.
in

Let

K EH D^KEHD,
are

KE,

HE
a

rectangles
.-.

EDB=L ABD when EKDH or EFGH


PC

equal

and

about
is

diagonal

DL

,
:

max.

Shew

that
axis,

P being

and tangent at P make equal angles with the major an angle of the rectangle. 4. PQRS minimum

parallelogram,

shew that PQ and RS are bisected by the points of contact. OA .P 5. Prove for the auxiliary circle. OQQ near
<9PP
,

PQ.RS shifted

slightly so that

PQRS=P Q E S

AB
7.

= (c

+ a?) (x
fixed,
/.

- x) = 2c PO,
^1Z>

(x
to

+ ax]
^>

/.

x -f x =
0,

a.

6.

intersect
,

about 0;
1

OCD= A O0
"

OA.DD =OB.CC

to C D ABCD being a max. =ABC D in

Suppose
:

OZ) turns

or

TJ a PP =QQ

small arc, tangents to interior oval, , radii of curvature are inversely as L L 8. PU\V, inter equal common chords through P, , and each other in F, triangles secting the major axis in Z7, are isosceles, Art. 85. Q, Q in aux. circle, cor C/Pr,
<3

TP

OA.OD=OB.OC.

PU

W
;

TPT

TQT

UPT
in

respond to P,
intersect

P F

join

QU, QT, Q
L

then

U QT, and let UVU = angle between


,

UQ,
T

U Q W

/.

TFF=3PF.
TFTF
T

PP
.

cosa= TFIF

cosyS

and
^*

ABC,AB C consecutive positions; BC, B G intersect mD,BD = DC ult. GHK triangle formed by the tangents, prove that BB
WV
;

tan^ = 3tana.

9.

is

= GC.HA.KB.
at
"

10-

POP QOQ
,

normals at P,

parallel to into a circle, project


is
<3

PP, QC

bisects
;

PP PC
,

<?,

tangent
;

bisects

If P6r, be perpendicular normals intersecting in an axis, perp. normals through Q , and $, cutting the axis in 6r , G", P"G" normal at near = area by (9 = area by near P, area cut off by G", (7 and are on opposite sides of PGj .*. the and required normals are inclined at 45 to the axes.

J^

??

cut

into^p, &c.

qc and ^c perp. to

equal areas.

QG

pp\ qq

P"

^"

P" G"

XVI.
1.

Prove that
3.

it is ult.

PJ/: QJI::
=TT

QJf+AQ: QM ::
g
.

1.

2.

Art. 115.

nir

9 V/-

\ 9 S1U 30

4.

Fig. p. 115.

276

NEWTON.
cuts circle on diameter
5.

PO

= JBS.

P the generating point, A its initial position A Q, tangent at Q bisects AP at right angles. Shew that PIf perp. QR touches circle through A of twice the diameter of the fixed circle. 7. PO radius of curvature touches the evolute, L SOP= a, PD the diameter, A PDS of constant
point of contact Q, on the fixed circle
is

in p, shew that Epicycloid degenerates to a cycloid, length Sb, or ^ira. see Art. 120; and ?z.27r& diameter through the 6.

08

&rcpS=arcRP

QR

form.
stant

8. straight line

S moves
AP.
10.
9.

perp.

to

SP,

at a constant

= AO.

SQ.SP=SA\ SY.SQ = SP\


1.

Fig. p. 129, the corresponding point in the hyperbola

PU=AP, U fixed, UM con

angle to the

XVII.

= 2pm.mn.
arc
epicycloid

Lptm = L QAq L QBq, ultimately p Pp ::Pp :2pm::pt:pm:: BQ\ Qn, and Pp = 2Qn. 2. Fig. p. 117. PV=PV constant, difference of areas = 2 (Pp .W. L Pp F). 3. Pp, Qq intersect in R, PR = ^pR, pB diameter of rolling = circle,pPP and pCm are similar, PQqp SpqR = 4pR.pq cosBpP
Bq,

AQ

Pp, Qq corresponding
cut
in
n,

arcs, Ft, pt tangents,

pm

perp. Pt,
:

AM of

4. Fig. p. 123.
circle

c centre of

on

Ac

as diameter
5.

= arc AQ^
AO.

APE,

^41fperp. to cQ, generates an

touched by cQ.
6.
oc

In Art. 120,
perp.

--

for b gives

EP: GP.
oc
is

OR cc A
constant.

Fig. p. 123.

CR
at

FO.
$P,

7.

Force

consecutive positions of r, intersect , has SP turned to S in 0. p j through an angle equal cd PP = - -; the between .*. at the to tangents ; angle P,
8.

SP

in

PA

oc

PR

Tangential force

and

PA PR
:

SO

= = r 9. po, p q consecutive radii of T ^ p sm(p r paint/) curvature touch the spiral at qq LpSq is a right angle, area = 2 (\pf x pqp) = 2 (%Sp? cosec a x pSp) = ^$P* tana cosec2 a, Art. 127. 10. AC, tangents at A, P; OC, If 7 perp. PT, Art. 133, consecutive posi and If, = PP cosT= A CC O smCC CO tions of P, M, C-,

.*.

PT

OC=PM,

AC=AP,

MM\

XVIII.
2. Curvature changed, 1. A = F. /SPsin/SPFoc sinfi^r. but not direction. 3. Time oc ^IPJ/oc AM. MP. 4. Normal

= 2/ST. --jj H= ^ C - J5C not less

;2

cc

--

+
6.

5,
2

Velocity
U

(7D

than

BC.

(7Z>

+ (7P

constant.

7.

HINTS FOR SOLUTIONS OF PROBLEMS.


.

277

aux. circle L

T ,n L CA=\-rr,
4
1

area A
is

bL
2

=
+
a

47r-3\/3 --L87T-1-3 \/3


.

ae.
:

8.

Area

AB S

area Vel. at
:

AB

8:: \TTC?
at

a.ae:

^-rra

9.

Pxvel.

POP
V
t
1

a diameter.

constant.

$(HZ+SY)u constant. 11. Fig. p. 99. LYY P = L YSP = L SPO. YY cos YY P PP SY PO ult. /. vel, of Yx \PV= vel. of P x SY= constant. 12. SZ, SY,
and
1

10.

V
:

t ,

oc

HZ, 8Y,
;

perp. in
::

F ^
;

to tangents
,

at P,
Z"

Q, intersect are as velocities at

any circle through F, J P and Q, and F Z* SY


:

YZ
;

8Zj
since

vel.

compounded with

that of

Pec

F^
777

-o-fr.

con-

stant

FZ. AS=SY.SZ sin

FSZ and Y^Z= \PSQ.

XIX.
1.

Vel. perp.

PG

has components perp. PS,


required
-

SG = ~.
JrfjT

DO

=
3.

2AS

YeLatPo0 ^^ Sam
perp. to
>SPcc
CZ>.

x .HZ+

/SToc

PF
Component
->,.

If ^ be inclination of

fixed direction to the axis,


vels. at

P and D x a
sin 0.

sin

<

cos

eccentric angle of P, resolved - b cos sin and a cos cos 6


e

+5
c

sin<

4.
T,
^

TT

+2e =?/?

(TT- 2e), prove


*

- e cc
I

^
1

ult.
\

A
SY"

_A[_

7V

t+t

hence
7.

(n
*
-

+ l)AS=SP, AM=n.AS.
see

Am=~A8. n
oc

Vel. of

Foe

XVIII.
7
,

11

.-.

PFoc

SZ, and p
7

SY.

CM: CTis constant = sin 20 1 If they move in angles of P^P the intersection of PI and tangent
2
: ; .

in (7Z bisects PP Tangents intersect in T P (? and 7, and PQ, and /. P^7; .-. vels. at and Q are as rCT": TQ 9. CD, CD parallel to TP, TP T(7 bisects in J/, 2CJ/ and reversed vel. of P, and represents resultant of vel. of

8.

PT

DZ>

2$

difference of the eccentric

A T for a minimum angle RST. P moving towards A, PSA -ESA = ESA - ASQi P moving towards A QSA + RSA = PSA + A SR and A SR+MSA = QSA+A SQ; 2BSA=PSA -tA SQ. 11. AP half the string, P begins to move with vel. v relative to A, and
=.
,
;
. .

represent A, A nearer and further apse. AR


,

through

opposite directions, and t be at the other end cf diameter

Ct will

their relative vel.

10.

PS>QS,

278
force on

NEWTON.

P tends to A

moving uniformly,
rolls

therefore
line

P moves

in

with velocity v, which ^irl=vx time of meeting. 12.

circle

perp. tangent 7
velocities

PY
Op
::

intersects

PD PD

perp. AP, tixed to line, parallel in Z, SZP is a triangle of

on a

PQ

SY

othe Take PD SP SP
-o-:

vel. perp.
:

SP is

constant,

and

PZ = e
. .

SP.

draw SU,
constant;

ZN

.*.

PZ, triangles PSD, PZS are similar; SY.SZ= SN.SP-, 8N"i* perp. PD, SP. 1)17= e. SN is constant, .*. is PD perp. fixed,

DM

and SP=e.PD.

13.

(7) p. 105.

14:.

Art. 139.

1.

In auxiliary

circle

XX. A QQ +

AQQ

2 sector

QGQ
3.

2.

seg.

APcc
AS,

ocPl/

3
.

P^T

2 A /SOP. 4. Fig. p. 115, (vel.) at Poc BMcc SP vel. at P, perp. SP, has equal components perp. OS and OP; /. constant

perp. to

A parabolic area arc ^IP+PJ/oc sector


2
,

APM

2 seg.

QQ =

ATM AGP

force tends to 0.

5.

Projections of areas

<x

areas

cc times.

XXI.
2.

^
jfi

oc

JL
./i"

J2

VT*

R*

8.

^
jfi

P,

^
"V

constant.

4.

y=
T
.
:

attraction of the earth,

V, v velocities at the equator.

^5.

_
i

27TP27TJ?
288
:

7jB
:

"289

7;

F
is

Ju*

32.2,

y=187r,

ratio
feet in

51-^:10.1.

=
r
9.

7.

=
)

the

number of

a mile.

ft)

= angular
x 39
gr.

Mg
;

-77-

=
I lag

two cases 3 (y

= 32.2
I

velocity of the earth, tension of the string in the a x mass of 24lbs. .-. 4077 & x 24 x 5760 gr. 7r&>)

10.

the

coefficient

of

friction,

v*

= /u/y,

length of

moving

part.

XXII.
1. Perp. from the intersection are inversely proportional to the sides. 2. DCE, EAF, parallel to AB, BC, CA, S intersection of CF. in the lies three 3. AB, AC, AD, BE, = AC, a point in a circle touching AB, at tangents, on if a, /#, 7, be perp. from shew that 0, BC, CA, AB, B, centre of circle circumscribing A BC; BA, CA, a* = /3y. 4.

FBD

AB

BC

AC

OB, OC; shew that perps. from A on AB, AC are as AB S lies in AA. 5. PT, AC inversely as the velocities, BT tangents at P and B, PT, CB intersect in TU parallel to
perp. to
:

.*.

t,

HINTS FOR SOLUTIONS OF PROBLEMS.

279
Ct
oc
-

BC meets DC mU, UZpcrp. FT, vel. at Pec TU UZ:: vel. at P: vel at P, /. centre of of P. pcrp. A C) for all positions
:

CD

TU
TU

j^cc

force lies in

XXIII.
1.

2.

By (1) p. 181, T-.Mg::u*-2g.CA3gCM:<j.CA. JF-P Wl = i* =2 = 3P-JP 2a = greatest angle, (l-coscc),cosa yj7>nd


.
.

4.
5.
:

No
o)

pressure at

Pthe

point of leaving,
in

g.

BQ = =
.

-^

=
e)*

change of direction
::

time t.p

ult.

=
CO

6. (1

ef

Ct)t

(1

57
I

10"

Gl

10".

e=

-016905.
.

7.

about

T7 sin

7 P$
-^TTT-

Angular

velocity

hor. vel. jTTj-

8.

lang.

ace. oc /SPcc arc,

time depends only on the ratio of the bounding radii. 9. DE, from starting point and at any time. Pressure at PJ/perp.

AB

::

10.

Arts, loy, 140,

-Z

**

XXIV.
1.

Ace. of
of

relative to
to

is

the resultant of ace. BC.co and


to

AB.co\
in

rel.

B
2.
as

and
>

B rel.

A, and equal

to

direction

CA.
vertex,

SP
(6)

per. time
p.

3.

At

the

in

184,

2/i

-^
,

^i

ace. effect of pressure


-

2/u

-j

pressure

=W
K"

O^ 2
JL

4.

As
T

in

XVIII

11,

V
R
^7

V:

SY JPK
:

and

F.\PV
.

V\
is

5.

distance of the particle from the vertex,


yur,
2

the resultant of

n and

the ace. effect of the

r since

pressure;

.*.

pr

F -g cosa=

and

yur

cosa

=E

sina>

0,

280

NEWTON.
lies

,\ yur

between g cos a and g sec a.

1/00

AY*.PV*
7.
P<9

^ AY*
CQ
2
.

PF

__ __ CT~ CT~
=
~

6.

PFcc

CD*. -. p ,

AY

cc ^4JV.

meets

conjugate to

CP in M.
to
;

Pec -^
.

PM

AC

/ oc (

PJf oc
.

PJV ordinate
round
4-4(7,
a

CD P3f C2V=
"

2CN = PP
9.

8.
p.
2

Ang.

vel.

.ffcc

cc

p.
(6),
1

In

(5),

183, -41?
at

C3/=j-4C7.

10. As in
;

p. 184,
/

(vel.)

A-

(vel.)

at

P=4a
.-.

u(i- ^-L)
^afju

/.

(vel.)

at

b \

-4x^1

^J

= 4a/z

(I

^
=
*

l\

^j
-

^
+

cc

-^
2
,

ace. effect

of pressure on tube x p
11.

SP.HP
also tbat
2

2a

Prove tbat v

vt

^ + X5 a
2 y

+
:

^| CD
/.
2 ) ;

- X. (7P
r r

- =
p
*

v*=

+ \CD* = CD be described
ace. effect
if

-^ .(4a -2r/J

^ +X a
r/
2

(a

+ & - CP

therefore the ellipse can

12. v. = vel. at P, 21 the a of the tension, AS, P/Sthe least and greatest distances

= Xa*-^.

= a + c. prove that v*- vp = 2/* f


and v a

m+ = a 71
2

a
,

-2/j,

\a

-c
2

-- -1 ~ =21 + 3 cos/SP(9, a r
, 1

rj
\

/3
\r

*/*
<

a -c --r
;

2
.

is

maximum

when
or

=a -c
2

and
.

Ta

T
,

least vel. is at

when

Ta = 0,

-^
(a
c)

(a

c)

Tr If
c

v b least.

XXV.
^ T=\TrR*-\- E*. 2. Sum of Express h in terms of /LI. is constant. intersects dia on 3. parallel tangents perps. the same meters through 8 in 0, OL OM:: SL SM;
1.

LM
x

PV
.

f for

T L

and

J/.

4.

5.

P/SQ any chord,

SY -SY = 2R = 1 -,-^ h h h irli ace. at P cc inversely as


I

,.

,.

periodic

time.

SP*.

PQ

3
}

and the

HINTS FOR SOLUTIONS OF PROBLEMS.

281
3
,

sum named
Art. 190.

QC f

:sp

4 -^\ __-|OCy

^.

6.

Force

cc

(SP-SB)~
;

7.
2
-f6>S

=
).

+ FT
7

=
,

2
2(<9"

8.

is

the same at

*=&!.& P and /.
,

Toe
vel. at

Prove that

about<?=

SY ~ SY = PQ. 9. PR a diam. V VsmQPY VsmPEQ -. 10.

-= 0.

Ang.

,iisof-n + l

dimensions,

/.

m4
SG

(n

12. Alitcr, p. 221. parallel to the axis, being infinite is = SP. 13. Project the ellipse into a circle constant, and described in the same periodic time, p, q projections of P, $, small arcs PR.pr are described in same time, forces at P, p are
as the subtenses parallel to

RP

1)

11.

See Prop.

XL,

Prob. VI.,

OP, Op,

i.e.

::

OP:

Op,

force

Up .pq

XXVI.
u*
1.

CP*

u*

For, by Art. 195, at the point considered


.

2.

Fig. p. 115,
-

J)

~ yrrcc-^-wtBQM R ^ ir QC A(f.MQ sec 7PJ/ seSUPM ^Z!


v

and

--

PM* PF pcosPGM* ~GM~ GV.PU* 4. ^ the ace. at P in both cases. V*= 2F. SP
:

AM.MQ

in both cases.

5.

PJ/

the

common
is

ordinate.

AM.MB=PM***L,AM.u
or

AM= uT, and


OJ/= J/Gr,

the

same

in both, therefore at

normals are equally inclined, and

if

be the centre,

XXVII.
li
.

1.

UL=

n
constant;
.*.

is

sin a

o^is
>SP

SJL
TTTTS

-.

oP

2.

/.Pol being

T_

constant. 3. in a spiral, ^TT

Being Fcosa.
/^ is

Since the vel. vV -? is that the spiral angle, and time to the centre
4.

=a

cotyS^2/i, Art. 127.

time from

to

L=
6.
2
i?

-,

5.

In a spiral of angle
.

a, vel.

=
is

which

is

true

cos a

finitely

diminished.
cc
r,

Angular velocity
i/

=
P)

(r

when a
,

inde-

.*.

cc

r.

F sin a =
P

and

(Pcosa

sec a, ult.,

00

282
.Fcosa
3s, 2s
,

NEWTON.
Jftxv.
1

7.

Vj
(,
3

velocities
ult.

of approach at distances
3

t/

-v =2 -^ 6
ult.

<)

=/

,J7 ( \S 5

\
(s

S SJ

_ 3 =yy x
)

75 S

--5)
S J

v*

=fa

\S

--2)
a
J
1

Draw PJ/
v

ordinate to semi-

circle

on 2a,

the centre,

CM=s,

= *J(fa)

PM
jrrf
ult 2
"
"

Time

in

MM
, ,
/I/
"

MM = JflT = CM. 73i r


v

PM

PJlf
.

._

"

//a /I
I

/a

F -2
2

V
.

flj

4
.

F2
m
A

K* - of)
{

_
is
~

vi/a)
I

-7~:r\

=P

M -PM
"/TIM-"?
2

time to
3

/7

-.
<r

a,

F -2a/
-

/a

F- a/) =
let

=
4Jbo

veL )

In

equiangular

spiral.
.

8.
, ,

After a short time T,


.

triangle, velocities

Aa.
5c

m J3b

abc bo the position of the

b
, 1

=
<p

z.

Bb y, 7 Bab = lab

sin

c
if

T\
ad
:

7,
::

hence
:

similar to

ABC;

Bab,

Aa

ab

AB, hence

angle 0,

will

SA _ ~"
^
-

if Aa, ad subtend at S the same be the focus of the spiral described by let

BmjfH-^) _
J

/. -JT-

Sa

ab

=1+6 cotB+

and

.-.

cot0 = cotA + coiB + cotC, spirals have a common focus,

^^ =T\ =6(cot^l+cot(7), ac .: SAB= SBC= SCA, and the subtending at AB, BC^ CA the
,

- -

supplements of B^ G, A.

XXVII.
2

bis.

I.

= ftc
ft

(VeL)
,

in

circle
(3),
-*

=fiCF* = nCD*.
c
(2)
is

2.

(Vcl.)

in

circle

in

(1),
is

(2),
c"

a semi-axis;
(3) c*.
2

semi-axis

=
c",

(1)

w,

wV,

In orbit

square of the other 2


(4)

2c*=
2

<7Z>

a = 2c, 6 1 = J. Semi-axes are c and 2c. 4. y^c = 3 = radius of curvature CD *J ft + h. 5. A and 6V) are unchanged, 2 2 = = Sb 2 is 9 6. ecc. angle of JTT, fa* + J&* ^ 4, 3a 7. ^ = attraction of unit mass at unit distance, m = mass of parallelepiped, Gil perp. from centre of gravity on the smooth
3.
/*&",

a, b

(V5

inclination of major-axis to c 1),

=\

tan

-1

2.

C/>

face, force tending to 8. Vel. of

H
,

at

w=
.

P^m.HP^
%t*R
10.

Vy""<3)

em
7/1

+W +^=

|rtZ>,

m~ + e] (1 -and a. 9. W+ cosV + 2 smV = l.


,

= 2?r periodic time semi-axes perp. to b are

^ = uCD ^ n2
P

7 h

771

-|

the point of pro-

HINTS FOR SOLUTIONS OF PROBLEMS.


oc CP.AP, maximum when jection, vel. cc AP, area : CP:: the 11. P, points of projection concentric ellipses are similar and project into two

283

CD

CP=AP. CD CP
,
:>

circles.

12.
V/*

Let the two particles be CP, CD, and in small time T


.

CD,

Dx P
P
CP

acquired
is

V/A CD are velocities in PP = pCP.T ult.,


.

at extremities of conj. diameters let be at , conj. to ,

P
.
.

at

DD
1
}

P,

= Jn.CP.T = ve\.
2

P CD CP = P vel. -S^ \/M


.

at

T, and the
at

P,

particle in the conj. hyperbola is at Z) when thin if once at extremities of conj. diams. they will
v*

13. At the point of intersection (vel.) = ^CD* = pSP.HP in both. 2 = - V* 4 GUP = a* + b* - CD\ also a2 - = CS 2 = a"+&". at the end of the 14. Distance described by a particle at of will be at the it the C angle opposite parallelogram given time CPED, the theorem follows by the aux. circle. 15. Vel. perp. sin V/* CD.PF-r PE, constant.

be always, and
a"

- v*

= p CD*
(

CP = /* (a V P=CD,

ft").

SP=

V/"

CD

SPY=

XXVIII.
directions of conj. diameter, and all pass a quarter of the periodic time, which is the same for all, *J/jt,.CD being the vel. of projection. Resolving vel. and ace. in CX, CY, all are equally accelerated parallel to lie at any time in a line parallel to CY, whether the CX, ace. cease or not ; hence the tangents to their paths at any time 2. (i) Ace. perp. conj. pass through the same point in CX. axis is the same for all, and initial vel. is zero, (ii) Hyperbolas
1.

CY are D in CX in through
CX,
.

are similar,

/.

-r* = ^,*
CB,
vel. at

or ang. vel. equal.

3.

AP

equal

and

parallel to
J

P=\f/j,.CB, CP,
.

CB

are semi-conj.

diameters of the quarter ellipse described in the second period. Time from to A = time from Vel. at B=^f i. CP= t/p.BA = the arc, (vel.) at to P. 4. 8 the centre of force, 2 = p (SA* 2SB ), SA* SB* (\ diara.) conj. to 8B. 5. In the = /. in the elliptic orbit spiral F and SP* sina = a&. 6. / the ace. effect of the

BAB
51

51

/*P^SP=//P.SP;
= natural
length

constant force, c
total central

of

string;

= c f 1-f T\
>

V,

force

T f = -\-f--r* J
m
c

= initial

length, (vel.)
<

mjj f 2 2 =Z>

vel. in a, b are axes of the ellipse, b<c, i.e., vel. of projection circle at distance equal to length of unstretched string ;* the

ellipse

is

deserted

when

= c,

the

string

becoming

slack,

* Note an error in the statement of the problem,

284
8

NEWTON.

(vel.)

f =(a
c

-f b*

),

angle between c and the direction


^s-^
.

of

motion

1
cot"

ab
/.

7.

a, /3

semi-axes of orbit
2

?^F-^

0, & the inclinations 2 &* a2 -c =


a"-c

M\

a (a

+ ff - a = oW,
2
)

- b*) = prove that a (CP and a = a, .-. 6 P 2 = & 2 + /3 2 ;


2

of
6"

CP

to
"

the axes, prove that


,,
ft

tan
a
,

clinations of r

-^--^ / r to
,

^
axis,
sin
/3 /3

V
1

major

eccentric angles of their

extremities.
r

/3

/3

V/*

[p
1

^)
.

=
TT

1
-

(r sin

^ r cos ^
,

ab VA6 6 Vf* time at the any moving in directions TP, P, Q particles s vel., Q s vel. rel. with vels. which are as TP: TQ, reversing to P is in PQj and if Q be the corresponding chord in the revolve with equal vel., aux. circle, since GP\ Q and moves parallel to itself. .*. 10. C centre of gravity of
9.

r sin 0)

a*

= rr

sina
--

^ Time = -7-

2?r --= one day. 12

TQ

P GQ
G.
4.

PQ

: :

&PQR, fi.CP ace. CP* - G/ CP*


:

to

PG
=

biseots
(7Z>"

: :

vf

A
/.

in aux. circle is equilateral,

.*.

times from

^PG^to
2

QR

in p.

pR

CD*

equal.
i

i(V + ^ + O=iAt(aH//). 11. -4 PA ^ P 5 the two inclined at 6 to GA. ellipses, PP joining the two particles

P/f + PQ* + 2

<3^

= %QR* +
of

2/>

Q and Q to R are = | + (7P ),


J
(C/>*

Corresponding

ace. on and perp. parallel

Reverse

rel.

ace.

P=/-tPP
time.

= vel.

to (7-4, rel. vel. at


.*.

in a circle,

PP =
.

of orbit;

B\
1

x
T-..
,

A = y^ (& 4- V)
12.

cos#,

//.PP sinfl
\//^

(a- a)
axis

24a major
1

points on aux. circle, rad.

B,

(7.

time

in

BC = a~^ x
..

z.

jB -4

C =
s*,,

Aa, corresponding to 1.1 2vr A Jj A L/


sin
,.
.
.

area ot circle

= /z~ J
CD,

sin

DQP) D Q P consecutive

(2irm).
t

13.

Vf6

GD
<?^

vel.

CD

in

t,

and
i

CP in
. .

orbits,

common

T;

G F, C
is

of projection from P, tangent at Q, Q meets ordinates at Q, Q are


at
(?;

equal,

Ct=Ct CT: CP:: CP: CV,


/.

utt.

normal

CP =
/.

hence

T:

P V::PT:

PY,

^P G

CP,

XXIX.
H-e
~

HP

aU+e)
2nj,

HP

..

..
lS

unaltered

HINTS FOR SOLUTIONS OF PROBLEMS.


1 1

285

Li

C
c/

-V
\Jv

~~

r
A

(1

- e) = a
7.

(e-

1),

- e.

5.

Nearly 225 days.


(

6.

About

40".

In both orbits V*
2
,

=8.

V*SF

sin

a
2

= /*a
: :

F SP
>

cos*a

= IL a
4

fr

6"

SP. //P.

BC*
is

SY

HP

SP, prove that


.

HP

is

a 9.

-=^ a H
*
2

+ -, a
,

constant, locus of C 4/^ 1 PET * 2


e

a circle,
-

-e =

10.
O7T

A=Ja.4a = 4a circ. x 180 = 76. 22 nearly.


is

p
Time
:

Pfl

4a

+A

meas. of angle described by planet.


11.

a year

::

R.R

time

39

days nearly.

12

HP

parallel
,

to

the axis 13-

and

.:e

= *j3.
/#

Cv
2
.

-,=n a,

(7Z)

=-;

conj.

diameters are equal;

a,

the

semi-axe.?,

+ & = 2a*,
15.

2a/3

= a6.

14.

2
\

-A.>/
>Jr

o-r

= l-e.

F*+

g
i

*
is

the

angle,

tan>

~
H

^P
in

Locus of
a &
OL

circle,

two points H,
2a

lie

the same line as


17-

,1

TTrtTT ^HPH,

+
a.

=
2a
. .

HP Sin X

is

transverse axis of the hyperbolic orbit,

produced =2a,
18.

and

if

= 26,

SPH = GO\

H P HP H SP=90.
in

XXX.
1.

centre of gravity of
7?Z

P and P
\
,

r
771

=
77Z

77Z

771

Force on P=-s- = ^-rt towards G fixed. 2. 2c. 4a f r z +?/z / CrP the diameter and latus rectum II =/JL 2a, prove that \/(c-a)(c+2a) is a maximum, two nearly equal values a, a make the time the 2 -a +*2a-f (c + 2a) (c (a ^ = 4 (c + a -f a] .-. c -H 2a -/- = ~-^same, /. c-a c a a a = 4(c rt) and c = 2a. 3. Prove that in the old and new orbit h = 2h and a a 1- e*. 4. u, v init. vel., prove that e?
.,

77Z

Tft

286
>

(iAM-SM)PM
!_

__ _ _
v.bY m and m
f for
~

NEWTON.
v
It

PM
~TPM>

u cos

u
M
9

_
3SP
A*
,

SP+2AS
It

VPI

of

round

S
i
.

and //= - - and -- are interchanged, a r a r


/*

.*.

m8
,

new

orbit
.

- a r

2/*

IJL

I -

arr
cc

(rr

-j-

r).

. 6.

_
Kate

PQ.CZ

-rSir-

CZ
cc

ult.

-.
I

_
7.

Ecc.

angles in the two aux. circles of the point of intersection are 30 and 60, periodic times are equal, times proposed are as

P intersect
goes round
the
/.

V3

(27T4 3)

9.

8.

O&Pthe
PZ,
.

in

SZ
and

perp. CS.

CQZ Z,
foci
t

hence

PZ CQ CS = CZ

focal chord, tangents at (7, intersect in $, circle


2
.

9.

C
b

fixed.

H,
in

PH=PH

empty

of two

8P+ PH= SC + CII,

consecutive orbits intersecting


.:

P,

SP+PC= SC+2CH
-=\ Gt

constant.

10.

SP=5AS, PSQ=*SP, h =

%h,

is

an hyperbola if SP<AC, chance is area BAB S: area ot 12. Resolve as in (6), p. 147, and ellipse =7r- 2e:27r. s h ve reversed to P. Vel. of P re I. to Q is resultant apply $

QH= 2 ^JbPQ.

Prove that 90

+ P8Y= HQP.

11.

New

orbit

of equal vels. j perp. to

SP

and SQ.

13.

ABC

an inscribed

triangle, ^47), perp. to BO, focus of an inscribed ellipse;

5^

AD

CA

intersect in

// the empty
all

and the

tSQ and
ellipses.

BC

circle intersect in Q,
6LL

in P,

SQ=SP+PJfj
LL

major axis constant for


is
-7fi

14. Velocity of centre of gravity


2
.

perp. to the

axis,

and angular velocity

is

-=

^-^.

15-

Change takes

place

when the body is at the extremity of the latus rectum through H, a (1 - e*) tan SPH= 2ae, ASP = %7r + 2 tan~V 16. a = 2a, BE = 3BS, bisects EH .: CK parallel to 8H\ 3tf = V\ SE meets BCB in G, GC = $BC, SG Gil :: SB: BE

= GC
x [2
\

axis

is

turned through tan

1
.

2ae

17.

=
a
1
:

--

a/

= 1 + n.
.

Periodic time changed in ratio

1:1

2w; axis turns through

.HH -- mBSH =
s

~y=

n tanX.
/.

18.

Old

vel.

=2

cos ax

new

vel,

and h unaltered,

HINTS FOR SOLUTIONS OF PROBLEMS.


8e
2

2S7

(l 4. e
8
)

8
7

4e*(l-e
19.

l^?
e

anc*

e cos

xjr

= - cos 2a

-cot2a<l.

impressed
e/j,

vel.

TO-

displacement of the axis,

fL
fj,
?

j-

it,

~v A

~z,

~J7 h

20.

ft /*

..

-_ -= h -h = uh h
e e e
fju

6t

/
5

(//

fc)

+ a = 2.

PP = of,
SP

/*

unaltered,

P SP=
6

/3

=
"

-,

resolve parallel to

and ^S,

sin

=
cos 0,

/,
(e

sn(
ear cos

=
9

sin(^-/S)+
sin ^, e

- e)
1.

sin

= /3 -

=^

or, /. es-

-e = {3

sin ^.

XXXI.
point, AP tends to B and varies as the distance time depends on AB: AP a constant ratio. 2. Ahout 64J days. 3. (vel.)* at P from Q^pPQ+SP.SQ. SD=SQcosO, e.SD=SP(l+eco80). 4. O Q, VHiAODperv.&C] BE BQ BD $ (ccosB+ a) \a ccosjft, hence HQ DH, and 00 = 30 G. Force tends y^.^ P n s e 2 At.P/7 ^ rr = to hannonic, 5.
^4

Pa

chord from

^1,

05

perp. 0^1 from the fixed


;

force in

::

^motion
(vel)2

SMP*
4f )

PU

6P./S"P

%Cl&>

SP^&

=
~AS
sin a.
2

fs
7.

2
(
-4,

= * AS and ^ a ^ -

^=
P the
}

the fixed points,


of particle

AD

the natural

length, and

bisects
,-

AB, nx weight
ace.
, towards

/i particle at
~

any time,

C=

nn J

(BP-AD
(

----AD AD
)2

= modulus,

AP-AD\
)

on

reflectlon

2
)-

(a i -i reflection
/*

Time
-i-

direct to centre

= 2vr

= ^TT-=- \//z,

time added by

reflection, tan 6 flection At (^

perp.

CM =e (AC* -CM*).
Limit
L
is

= e cot (vel.f at M= ^(AC* - CM*}, after re O - (7J/*) (sin*# + e cos*0), square on semi-axis
(9,

V//.

9.

6,^-jr-

the angles of incidence and

XXX IT.
1.
\.
:

2-

AB
PM

revolves round

perp. AB.

ADa

A Ma (= L AEa) ::AE: AD

to ab,
::

3. p near P, PJ/, ^/i perp. fixed line, that :: SP: Sp :

SP-

pm

PM

TU perp.
ult.

EM

EM,
:

DX
DN.

J/P, prove

and

PU= PM.

288
F.

NEWTON.

4.

Poc

angle of

-^ cos SPY x CD cosDCA oc CN. 5. Ecc. CD* = ^ + JZ/ = $b\ 6. A straight line P=~. o
TJ. 2
.

np

through the intersection of the tangents making with them angles


,
.

.,

whose
8.
it

sines are inversely as the velocities.

sina
oc
-

7.

~p

Starting a given distance from the horizontal diameter, leaves at two-thirds of that disrance. 9- h is increased in the ratio 72:!. Vel. of Toe vel. in 10- faJU. 11.
1

AY PM
13-

SP

,_
!<

mass and radius

of

a planet,

M
c"

72,

^oc-rs. n
<r

a the periodic time and s l a n f *,\ P e


(1)

mean
a
/

distance of the secondary,

= ^ e -TVT +1

2^
(e

a(l

e)

=a
is

+ 1)^
.

or

/N
(

/^

le

and

"i

(e

centre
ellipse.

the

14. The directrices touch the circle whose 1). other focus and radius the major axis of the

XXXIII.
that Bb Aa AB + AC AB + 7? (7, also 1. Prove PB.BC: PA, AC, lience PA-PB PA+PB :: AB(BC-AC] + jB(7 - ^ 6 ^15 (A C -f ^C) AB\ PA-PB=BC-AC. 2. Radii of curv. at P, $ are as TP TQ and TP, TQ are TP.L TPT = TQ.LTQT equally inclined to the tangent TT ult. 3. /ST, SP have equal angular vcls., vel. of V x s\i\SVD
:
: : :

::

ri2

-f

.-.
:

-/SFoc

P- 2

5Fmn^Kl>

= 2^fi
J

/.

vel.

of

Foe

oc

4- -BCperp.-4G.

BQ-.AB:: SY: SP:: AS: SY.

Force*
6.

P^:
p.

/SPoc
.
.

ig.

117.

5Q ^Y ER PP
2
:

oc
:
:

AB

2
:

SP*. 5

PS

PP
7.

::

vel. of

pegs, bead P describes two portions of ellipses with uniform vel., on same or opposite sides of of which B* C are foci, A and

Pec BQ,

vel.

of

XXXII. 7. \AB BQ, ult.


See
:

constant.

A, B,

the three

EG.
::

T?PJTension oc -777?,
:

(<p

i
j

^o D

when
2

BP = CP
A

8.
/S

Time
4?T

|a.2a

2
.

78 days.

9.

SPcoseca.
periodic time
rod,

^-r,

10-

(Vel.) 9?T

2/cosa.

P seca,

/o

=
i,

7- in hours
/i

= 2j

days nearly.

H. A~B

the

on

attraction point in a circle about ACJ3 7 bisects JlPZ? and passes through C. 12- P2 tangent and

fixed point;

HINTS FOR SOLUTIONS OF PROBLEMS.

289

PU

perp.

SP

meet major-axis
:

in
:

T,

U;
-.

PM perp. TU must
.:

bisect

TPU,

*:

::

PT 2PM
-

PU,

2PM=e.PU.
^Jcos/SP<2,
2

13.

If no pressure at P,
2

= /*
-j rr

(^
\

-f

^+
/A

hence

(vel.)

at

P= ^ a
/*

/rr

\4a
a

i 4a -2rr

4 a

(4a ,

rr
,

)* ;

4rr

n*.

+ r?
(r* l

"t.^LL

also(vel.)
2
I

generated by the forces from .4 to


-f

=-

8a

+r ~
*

2
is

e*)}

the variable part

the

same

r a (I \r as in the above.

2/i

-,

of which
e*}J

XXXIV.
1.

in the aux. circle to P, Q. p, q correspond

ty

= inclination
-tan \Jr
.

of pg_ to the major-axis.

Area
.*.

PCQ-=

sector pCq.

= =

tan0,

tan^Jr

2b
-j tan^,
ijr

^?r ult.
sin
J^>

when
. .
<^>

=00

2#

sin
J(/>,

sin^

= - pq

sini/r

= 25

ult.,

vanishes

ult.

Area

z 3 ult.= --^ (I sin#) 2. Common chord ab$ 12 62o of circle of curvature and either conic is inclined to the axis at the same angle as PT, and is .*. PQ. Tang, at Q meets PTin the parabola in P, and meets U bisects diam. PQ Z7, through is tang, at E. 3. rad. of earth = 4000 x 1760 x 3 in feet = a, o) = ang. vel. = 27r-r- (24 x 60 x 60). QJ/perp. the
.

PCQ =

ET

QCE=\

s circular path; a cosX.o^, ace. axis CP. Qlf.co is vel. in in 6Y and^ ^ 2 =6r 2 +2 racos\.o> 2 COS(TT X) to J/, is resultant of 4 2 aw* cos*X. 4. PJ/ radius (acosX.a/*) ; neglecting ,
<2

of circle described
tang,
to

by

9= G P; (vel) = 2#
o>

^O/;

P<2,

PI

normal and

surface,

r.

PM

-.

MG,
5.

= TM.MG,
at/S;
2

and ^T=^1J/, property of parabola.

F = vel.

2 atP, v

T^

- ^, - =
2

T least when r greatest at A and is positive, V = vel. F = aZ + 2/*a*, F aT 2/za + aT F 6yLta


71

::

-f

<

at 3 :

A
1.

6.

PP

290
7.
::

NEWTON.

PP, QSQ
Trab
;

corr. chds. of ellipse

and

circle.

ASP: ASQ
oc
.

ird

z
.*.
,

PQ is perp.
I

AS.

Vel. in circle oc

-~^

O /Y

QQ

Z>

PP
impact
of
2

tne arc between

first

and second

PEP m
QC

R, second arc will be the reflection complete ellipse the plane as a mirror. the point of projection, 9.

h}-perbola. ^j-rf -j^ C on same side as $, then changes from \SA to co on the opposite side. Force QC dist. SA diminishes from oc , is one semi-axis, the other QC vel. 10. a the new mean

(velV

21 _ a
.,

PQP

r ellipse,

and

cc ~

21
-,

for

AC

distance.

^=
a

(2 V

.,

-} a/
7?,
,.
,

=
:

*,
:

perp. /S/fand tangent at

ZT Jf JIZ:

change

m
.

the

apsidal

line

--coiSPH = HH = ~=
2

8M: SH.

- -11.
-

2ae

ae 13.

ae
,

e )}.

12. See

XXX.
1

1.

r distances of
is

from centre of gravity

of

which

at

rest

or

moves

uniformly.

-.

S=

r*

S .-= (E + Sf
3

E and

$.

r*

betwecn

OZperp. tangent PT;

parallel to polar in AT, /.

= CQ.OT.

CO meets PT m T, polar in ^, and PM CT.CM= CQ.CO, whence CT.MQ PO meets CD in U. Ace. to =


.

(}/j

V
-77^

C/D
to

CY*

T
7

a
<9^

=:

"

~OP~ OT-~>

acc

a 6 \^

r * hence periodic time

XXXV.
Fig. p. 131. entre of curvature A
1.

QT QG tangent TPG= A T QG
, ,

.-.

and normal A TQT =

at

GPQG

Q,
ult.

has revolved through TT, tion of the line, Rp = QP, when and p trace the whole curve, let comes to p, bisect $72, let turn through a small angle to Q about 0, , , jt?

4P07-60
QR

.PM=<2PU=2AP.

2! Take

OP

QPR\ny

posU

the

new

positions

of P,

(7,

p, corresponding

area

betweea

HINTS FOR SOLUTIONS OF PROBLEMS.


2
(

291

- OP + OR* - 0*) x / = locus of P and Q* ellipse = i (00- + CQ) - 2 (CP4 x A whole aria = TT {2 the centre of the circle 3. J (c + c)* 4 (c - c) = TTCC
2
6>C*)j

.1

<9<2,

q. pT, tangents, p Qq = Sp T= SPT= Pq Q, Pq, pQ parallel, and bisects pSP. 4. P Q consecutive positions of P, Q. vertical diam. meeting BO in 0. SP.SQ=SO.SA.
Pand^>,
<),

touching at

SP, Sp meet the


,

circle in

PT

.-.

flt at

pPvel.of^

-,

and

SQ
at

See

res. attraction bisects

SPH, and
6

5=

2/

"

CBH
^

pre ssure at
1

^
(vd.}

/JM"

2 ae\
y

l"^

nates to the ellipse and aux. circle.


at

P=

MM
unwound
v* ri o **
i-J / )

PP^ \W fV ^ W
Prove, as in
;

T~J

PP/

a sma11 arc
>

^PJ/ C P J/
)

ordi-

(6), p.

184 that

time

in

A and 2

"<$,.f

i"".

^
string at
7D /O
4
0. 4.

tlmc to
A

B=
_ /*
_

timot=arcAQ
.

(|aV + 20) of

**")

i) FQ the

It

the circle, centre C. /.i ^

PL
w 2 2

if
"

ace. effect of tension

PL.PF*
"

PL

=2u$CA
tiraes

t.

Up*
the

n
length

weight double the length.

c= OC
rf

of the

tube.
.-.

Tension in

CP=
= }c

OP.
2
;

the semi-axis perp. or f.


2
.

00,
in

2^c

=
^<f,

cp
o

or |c
<x

.-.

=&

10.

ace.

orbit oc

vel. in

hodograph
;

rectum
conj.

L LD, S D
2

11. LSS the latus ang. vel. oc (dist.)" tangents at Z, 8 intersect in directrix at

right angles.

t*.AS=g.
equal

diameters
iS

(a5) = 2Z
;

(Vel.)* at

and
2
.

tt

+J
tsr

L = 2g = 2Z1
the

.Z>S=fj,.
,

(1A8)*.

ajrri sinjw,
(

(cosj7rsinj7r)

12.

change in direc

tion

h - k

=u

.
>SP,

resolve parallel to the axis.


sin

- ^] x
siuASP,

sm^=u

ASP,

ev=u+^ u.Sp

292
2
7^

NEWTON.

and
the vel.

^
n

=l + ecosJP.

13.

the angle of incidence, v


after
first

of striking ; v sin 6 = vel. parallel plane b If impact. perp. plane after n impact, e v cos

orbit

every be

circle, /
,

tan 6

=e

cot 0, v (sin \
*

+
1

cos 0)
*

= ei/

.*.
, *

2yL6 e. - A*

=
,

///

^*

and/.

=i
i

rf
2

Ifn=co,
"

(vel.)

^A*

sin

z /)

0=

A*

(2-

\
)

"

14-

THE END.

CAMBRIDGE. METCALFE, AND SON, PRINTERS, ROSE CRESCENT,

BY THE SAME AUTHOR.


AN ELEMENTARY TREATISE
ON

CURVE TRACING
BY

PERCIYAL FROST,
FORMERLY FELLOW OF
ST.

M.A.,

JOHN

COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE,
S

MATHEMATICAL LECTURER OF KING

COLLEGE.

THE
a view
the

Author has

selected the subject of this

work with

of assisting the Student,

who

is

ordinary

processes

of

Algebraical

acquainted with Geometry, in the

which he must undergo in some form, if he wishes It would be to become an accomplished mathematician.
training in
difficult

another subject which requires so limited an extent of reading, and which yet foreshadows so many
to

find

processes which

are

employed

in

all

departments of the

higher branches of Mathematics, Pure or Applied. Espe manner the cially the student will acquire in an agreeable

power of discriminating the different orders of magnitude of large and small quantities, which will be of avail at the
outset of his

more advanced

studies.

MACMILLAN

&

Co.

London and Cambridge.

BY THE SAME AUTHOR.]

SOLID GEOMETRY

BY

PERCIVAL FROST,
FORMERLY FELLOW OF
ST.

M.A.,

JOHN

COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE,

MATHEMATICAL LECTURER OF^KIXG S COLLEGE.

A\_$EW EDITION,

REVISED AND ENLARGED, OF THE TREATISE BY FROST AND WOLSTENHOLME.

FOE
in

the convenience of Students


all

who may wish


studies

to

have

one volume

those portions ofJSolid


to

Geometry which
Physical I^.could without
I
of

would be
subjects,

useful

them
the

in

their

I have

endeavoured, as far as

material
sidered

departure
best
for

from

arrangement which
all

con

the

proper treatment of the

subject, to

include in the

first

volume nearly

that will be required

from their point of view.

MACMILLAN

&

Co.

London and Cambridge.

RETURN

Astronomy/Mathematics/Statistics/Computer Science Library

100 Evans Hall

642-3381

FORM NO. DD

3, 13171,6-76

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, BERKELEY BERKELEY, CA 94720

u.c. nun III

II

IHII Inn nil

003754514^

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