UN
MEMOfUAM
Edward Bright
M a t hema t i c s De p t
OF
NEWTON S
PRINCIPIA,
NEWTON S PRINCIPIA
FIRST BOOK SECTIONS
I.
11.
III.
VTITH
COLLECTION OF PROBLEMS
PRINCIPALLY INTENDED AS EXAMPLES OF NEWTON
S
METHODS
BY
PERCIVAL FROST
D.Sc.
F. R. S.
FELLOW AXD MATHEMATICAL LECTURER OF KING S COLLEGE} FORMERLY FELLOW OF ST. JOHN S COLLEGE.
Fifth
Edition
Principals enlm
coffnitis,
intelliyetis.
ClCEHO.
MACMILLAN AND
NEW YORK
:
CO.
LIMITED,
1900
[All rights reserved]
HOG
W\od&
x
CAMBRIDGE
1900.
PRINTED (FROM PLATES) BY MBTCALFK & co LTD., TRINITY STREET AND ROSE CRESCENT.
PEEFACE.
my
principal
to
explain
difficulties
which
may
of
be
encountered by the
Principia,
student
on
the
first
reading the
a
and
to
illustrate
advantages
by shewing
applied
in
the
the
solution
I have also
the student
who
engaged in the study of the higher branches of Mathematics, by representing in a geometrical form
employed in the Differential and Integral Calculus, and in the analytical investi
gations of Dynamics.
In
my
version of the
first
section
could to
and,
have been interpolated, or the form of demonstration changed, I have indicated such
which sections
781458
VI
PREFACE.
It
is
generally
advisable
in
not
to
deviate
of
from
the
Newton
s
;
words
but in
the
demonstrations
Lemmas
lie
many
cases, I
suppose purposely,
Lemmas
iv.
and
x.,
the enunciation of
Lemma
v.
depend upon the sixth proposition, the variations are By this method of treating replaced by equations.
the
subject
I
conceive that
clearer
ideas
of
the
meaning of each step are obtained by the student. In this edition I have introduced some notes on
the geometrical solution of some
to
illustrating
geometrical
methods, in
more pro
minent position, at the end of the first section. I have derived great assistance in the preparationof
my
notes from
the
study of
W he well
Method
With
Laws
of Motion, I
may
remark that
enunciating
partly
have not commenced the work by and making observations upon them,
been repeating
PREFACE.
vil
said
so
well
by Thompson,
Tait,
and Maxwell, whose works are in everybody s hands, and partly because in the course of reading recom
mended
to
students,
for
whose benefit
will
my
work
have been
the
elementary
treatises
on
Dynamics. The Problems are principally selected from the papers set in the Mathematical Tripos, and in the
course of the
College
Examinations,
into
and
have
the
generally
first
divided
them
two
portions,
of which
contains
those
capable of solution
the
propositions
by more
they
of
are
which
and
In both portions I have been careful to introduce very few problems which are not capable of solution
by methods given in the work. At the end of the work I have given
the solution, and in
of the problems
;
hints for
many
and in doing so
am
acting in
direct opposition to
my
but additional experience of fifteen years has shewn me that it a satisfaction to a student who has not
been able
it;
to
and,
even
his
when
lie
has
been
successful,
to
compare
solution with
The
viii
PREFACE.
is
.is
whose radius
is
the length
Two
Solutions.
I
to
sets
of
Problems
is
have
been
numbered
in the
written
XXVII. Ms
opportunity to express
s
my
for
thanks
College,
for his
kindness
and
many
valuable suggestions.
PERCIVAL FROST.
CAMBRIDGE,
February, 1878.
CONTENTS.
SECTION L
ON THE METHOD OF PRIME ASD ULTIMATE RATIOS.
./
LEMMA
Continuity
I.
Variable quantities
Lemma
Limits of variable quantities . Ultimate ratios of vanishing quantities Orders of vanishing quantities .
1
1
3 4
6 7 8
9
Prime
ratios
PROBLEMS
LEMMA
Kbtes on the
..... .8
. .
L, II.
II., III.
...
.
14, 15
17,
.
18
Lemmas
.
.
.
. .
Volumes
of revolution
.
.
.
.
.
Sectorial areas
Surfaces of revolution
.
. ,
.
.
.
. . .
,
.
.
Kotes on corollaries
....
.
19
22 23
c.
.
.
.
. .
.
. .
.
,
.
.
Rod
28
r
.
PROBLEMS
IV.
29,
50
X
LEMMA
Notes on the
CC^TEXT S.
IV.
...
.
PAGE.
32
.
Application of
Lemma Lemma IV
.33
.
,
to find
. * .
Elliptic area
.
. . .
Parabolic area
Rod
Volume
....
.
...
.
.
and mass of
.
. .
34
36
39
39
PROBLEMS
V., VI.
Notes on the
LEMMA V. Lemma
Criteria of similarity
Centres of similitude
Similar continuous arcs, having coincident chords, have a Centres of similitude of two circles . .
Conditions of similarity of two conic sections Instruments for drawing on altered scales
Volume
PROBLEMS
LEMMA
VII.
VI.
41, 42
43
common
.
tangent
.
any form
49 49
51
,51
.54 .55
56
52 53 54
LEMMA
VII.
Notes on the Lemma Subtense vanishes compared with the arc Exterior curve greater than interior
...... ....
.
.
...
.
.57 .59
58
59
LEMMA
Notes on the
VIII.
.61
.
.
Lemma
PROBLEMS
VIII., IX.
....... ......
.
61
63
64
.65, 66
LEMMA X.
Finite force
Notes on the
Lemma
CONTENTS.
XI
PAGE.
67
69
69
.71
71
the time
.
73
74
75
.
. ,
76
77
77
Time
. . . . Simple harmonic motion Path of particle acted on by a force tending to a point and varying as the
distance
Motion in a
resisting
medium
.
...,.
.
78 78
79
PROBLEMS
LEMMA
X., XI.
80,81
XI.
Involute
Hyperbola
Relation between radius of curvature and normal in any conic section Common chord of conic section and circle of curvature ^
.82
84
87
89 89
89
91
.91
..
92
93
.94
94
95
96
97
,
.
Radius and chord of curvature of a curve referred to a pole Notes on the Lemma and Scholium Relation between sagitta and subtense Tangents to a curve, from the same point, ultimately equal
98 98 99
100
101
, ,
Example
..
.
.
.
PROBLEMS
XII.,
XIH., XIY.
.
....
.
.103
104
105
,
,
.110
.
112
CYCLOID
Tangent Length of
arc, relation
......
.
.
.114
114
114, 115
with abscissa
Xli
CONTEiNTS.
PAGE.
Evolute
Area
..
.
.
.
Time
of oscillation in
.
.
Pendulum, to count a large number of oscillations of Pendulum, force of gravity determined by means of Pendulum, height of mountains determined by
EQUIANGULAR SPIRAL
of arc
CATENARY
Length of arc
LEMNISCATE
Inclination of curve to radius Relation between radius and perpendicular on tangent . Chord of curvature through centre
.
Radius of curvature
Poles
.
PROBLEMS
XVI., XY1I.
...... .... ..... ...... ...... .... ....... ..... ..... .... ....... .... ..... ....
. .
...
. .
.
. t
120
.122
.
125 126
127
127
130 130
131 131 131
132 132
133 133
133. 134
SECTION
II.
PROP.
I.
THEOR.
. Notes on the proposition Force in parallel lines Effect of sudden change of force
Only two
Illustrations
PROBLEMS
PROP.
XVIII., XIX.
II.
THEOR. H.
I.
136
1
39
143
144
145
145
all
equal
146
146
147
compounded
of
two constant
velocities
148, 149
151
153 155
156
any point
PROBLEMS XX.
CONTENTS.
Xlii
PAGE.
PEOP.
Illustration
III.
THEOR. in.
s
from moon
motion
.....
.
.
.157
158
.
PROP. IY.
THEOR. IT.
V
.
. . .
.
.
.
, .
.
160
165
.166
.
.
t
167 168
170
PROBLEMS XXI.
PROP. Y.
.170
PROB.
I.
.172
.
PROBLEMS XXn.
PROP. VI.
THEOR. Y.
. Notes on the proposition Dimensions of symbols, homogeneity Tangential and normal forces Velocity in an orbit, any forces acting Radial and transversal forces
..... ....
.
.173
174
.
176 177
. Angular velocity in a central orbit on of tangent perpendicular Angular velocity . Examples of constrained motion
.
.... ....
.
.
.178
178
180
181 181
.179
PROB.
II.
.
.....
.
.
185, 186
188
. .
.190
193
Law
.
.
.
.193
.
PROBLEMS XXV.
PROP. VIII.
193
194
195
PEOB. IH.
..
..
197
199
. Cycloid, force parallel to the axis Catenary, force perpendicular to the directrix
PROBLEMS XXVI.
PROP. IX.
PROB. IV.
PROBLEMS XXVII.
PROP. X.
Velocity in
...
.
200
.
203
PROB. V.
ellipse
an
....
XIV
CONTENTS.
PAGE.
Hyperbola, repulsive force from the centre . Time in an elliptic arc . . Orbit described under given circumstance of projection, force tending to a point, and varying as the distance from it . Geometrical construction of the orbit . .
.
206 206
206
207
orbit,
208
.
Eepulsive force
209 209
. .
PROBLEMS XXVII.
Resultant of forces tending to different centres . orbits described under various circumstances Variation of elements for a given small change of
Examples of
211
velocity
.
214
.
bis,
XXVIII.
215, 2 17
SECTION
ON THE MOTION OF BODIES
III.
IN CONIC SECTIONS,
.....
.
220
2 2l
PROP. XIII.
Time
Time
in
an
elliptic arc
in a parabolic arc
Law of
gravitation
PROP. XVI.
Hodograph Hodograph
of a conic section, force tending to a focus General properties of the hodograph of a central orbit
PROB. VIII.
222 224
THEOR. VI.
225
THEOR. VII.
.
225 226
226
226
227
mean anomalies
228 228
229
229
230 233
THEOR. VIII.
234
234
235
. . .
PROP. XVII.
PROB. IX.
. .
237
o.jg
CONTENTS.
XV
PAGE.
Direct investigation for the orbit described under given circumstances of projection, force tending to a point and varying inversely as the square
of the distance from
it
.
. .
241
.
242
242
hyperbolic under repulsive force Examples of orbits described under various circumstances Variation of elements for given changes of direction of motion
.
elliptic or hyperbolic,
parabolic.
, .
.
. . ;
Change
of eccentricity
velocity
....... .....
.
.
line for
APPENDIX.
SECTION
VII.
ON RECTILINEAR MOTION.
PROP.
Notes
XXXH.
N ,
and
XXXVI.
.
,
.
,253
.
254
PROP. XXXVIII.
255
SECTION
PROP. XL.
VIII.
256
THEOR. XIII.
.
.
.
.257
,
XXXIII., XXXIV.,
,
t
XXXV.
e
268
I.
LEMMA
Quantities,
I.
and
the ratio
finite
and
end of that time, approach nearer to each other than by any assigned difference, become ultimately equal.
If not, let tlieni become ultimately unequal, and let their ultimate difference be D. Hence [since, throughout
the time, they tend constantly to equality], they cannot approach nearer to each other than by the difference D, contrary to the hypothesis [that they approach nearer than by any assigned difference. Therefore, they do not become ultimately unequal,
that
is,
1.
The
Quantities, of
in this
Lemma,
are variable magnitudes, described by a supposed law of con struction, the variation of these magnitudes being due to the*
arbitrary progressive change of some element of the construc tion employed in the statement of the law.
When,
hypothesis
in the progressive
is
change of
it
this element,
it
receives
assigned to
at
its
in
said to
arrive
ultimate
be
indefinitely extended.
&lt;
J
:
NEWTON.
be a semicircle, CB its diameter, any ordinate as the arc to arc, perpendicular ACB, then, is a variable gradually diminishes, magnitude, con
Thus,
let
ABP
BP
PM the
BP
AM
is
BP
to the arbitrary
and
if
BP
AM due AM may be
is
;
made
to approach to nearer than by any difference that can be named, and the hypothesis approaches its ultimate form. be divided into a be a triangle, and Again, if
AB
ABC
AB
number
grams
of equal portions, Act, ab, 6c, ..., and a series of parallelo be inscribed upon those bases, whose sides a, b/3, cy, .,.
are parallel to
BC and
terminated
in
(7,
the
sum
of the areas
of the parallelograms will be a variable magnitude, defined by that construction, and changing in a progressive manner, if the
number
of parts into which is divided be continually In this case the number of parts is the variable increased. element of the construction. In the ultimate form of the
AB
hypothesis,
it
will
be shewn, Lemma II., that the sum of the the area of the triangle when the number
variation of a magnitude is continuous, when in tho from any one value to any other, throughout its change, passage
The
LEMMA
it
I.
receives every intermediate value, without becoming infinite. "When this is not the case, the variation is discontinuous.
in
is
the
last
illustration,
the
N
AB
magnitude varies discontinuously, i.e. not pass through all the intermediate values
states of the progress.
remaining over and above after ba, the last of the portions for which there is room, these equal portions could be made to diminish gradually, and the sum of
Aa
Tendency
3.
to
Equality.
when they
are ultimately
Quantities, which always remain finite, throughout the. change of the hypothesis by which they are described, tend continually to equality, when their difference continually dimi,
rushes..
ratio to
BP
be an arc, always in a given be the QJ$ corresponding ordinate ; as remain finite, and, continually diminishes, AM, and since their difference continually diminishes, they tend conr_
Thus,
in fig. 1,
page
let
2, let
BQ
BP, and
AN
tinually to equality.
Quantities, which may become indefinitely small, or. in^ as the hypothesis is indefinitely extended, tend definitely great,
5.
continually to equality, when the ratio of their difference to, either of them continually diminishes. To illustrate this test of a tendency to equality^ let us
suppose, in
fig.
1,
page
2, that
the arc
BP is
2
BQ
then, since
(MBPf = AB.BlI,
2
:
and
2 (cMBQ) = AB.BN,
..
Bll
BN:: (chdP)
:
(chd#,
2
(arc#&lt;?)
2
:
(arc#P)
ultimately,
,.
JI/JV:
BN::
ultimately;
NEWTON^
and have a difference, which hence, we observe that tends continually to become SEN, the ratio of which to either
is
BM
BN
BN
although both tend to become indefinitely small as the hypothesis tends to its ultimate form, and do not satisfy the condition requisite for a tendency to
finite,
so
that,
BM
equality.
Observations on the
6.
Lemma.
proceed to examine the force of the other important terms employed in the statement of the first Lemma. The expression in any finite time (tempore quovis finito),
will
"
"
We
now
signifies
what has been called the indefinite extension of the hypothesis from some definite state to its ultimate form.* The law of the variation of the magnitudes under considera
is
tion
obtained by the examination of their construction while the element, to which the change is due, is at a finite distance from its final value, and the finite time is the supposed time
occupied in the passage from this definite to the ultimate state. In the first illustration, Art. 1, it denotes the progressive diminution of J5P, from being a finite magnitude to the point
of evanescence.
finite
number of equal
The
expression
tendunt) signifies that, time to the limit of the extension of the hypothesis, the dif ferences continually diminish.
which constantly tend (quae constanter from the commencement of the finite
"
To
illustrate this
mode
of expression, let
BC
be a quadrant
Whe well s
Doctrine of Limits.
LEMMA
I.
of a circle whose bounding radii are be a straight line cutting the arc
OB,
0(7,
and
let
BDA
00
in
BDG
OC to OB, and A, and let OP of bisection of tne the arc BD. in IM and cutting Q, point OP and OQ twice tend to equality, viz. from OG to OD and from 0^ to OB^ and once y/w?z equality from OD to OE to OJ? that OP" and OQ" tend to it is only from and it is from some equality constantly during the progress,
be a radius revolving from
0;
OE and OB
must be con
8.
"
"
state is
still
arrived at, while the distance finite, however near to the final
may
be 60, the Tims, if, difference and the or f radius one inch, given T ott^ Toot^o" will be less difference than the the an inch, PQ given difference,
if
BOD
the revolving radius be 2 or 1 , respectively, from the ultimate however small we choose the difference. position ; and so on,
In the proof of the Lemma, if the ultimate difference be cannot approach nearer than by that given J), the quantities difference otherwise, they would, in one part of the pro gression, have been tending from equality in order to arrive
9.
;
ultimately at that difference, contrary to the statement of the ad tequalitatem constanter tendunt." proposition in the words The nature of the proof, which is more difficult than may at
"
sight appear, can be illustrated as follows, by examining the effect of the omission of some of the points in the statement
first
of the
at right angles,
MQPP
As
in and meeting Oy A, CED a curve touching another touching a straight line parallel to (7, CD a common ordinate.
AB any straight AB E
becomes
line
meeting
AB
Oy
in
in
(7,
OM
diminishes
to
until
it
indefinitely
small,
MQPP
moves up
Oy.
NEWTON.
In both curves, the ordinates
MQ
and
MP
or
MP
have an
ultimate difference
CA,
equal to
D suppose.
c
JL
o
Omit
the
word
"
constanter,"
CED
is
admissi
ble in a representation of the approach of the quantities ; because the ordinates approach^ before the end of the time, nearer than
difference, as at E, although the condition of continual tendency to equality is not satisfied.
by any assignable
Omit
ficient
;
the words
"
ante finem
temporis,"
and
CD
will
be suf
they tend continually to equality, but before the end of the time they do not approach nearer than by
for, in this case,
any assignable
difference,
QM
may
at A, all touching and tend continually to be made less than any given,
AEF
AB
RM
difference before
OM vanishes.
When a variable quantity tends continually to equality a with certain fixed quantity, and approaches nearer to this quantity than by any assignable difference, as the hypothesis
10.
determining
its
variation
approaching its ultimate form, called the Limit of the variable quantity.
is
this
that
tendency should be continued from some finite condition and that the approach should, during the progres sion to the ultimate form, be nearer than by any assignable
this
;
difference.
Thus, as
is
mentioned
in the
Scholium
a.t
LEMMA
I.
section, the variable quantity does not become equal to, or surpass the limit, before the arrival at the ultimate form.
by less than any assignable difference, as the hypothesis deter mining their variation is indefinitely extended, this fixed ratio
is
When
does not imply that expression vanishing quantities the quantities are indefinitely small while under examination, but only that they will be so in the ultimate form which observa
"
The
"
of
the
vanishing quantities
"
is
not an
equivalent expression with the ultimate ratio of the vanishing ante finem temporis." quantities, the former being taken
"
Ultimas rationes
illae
Thus, let GO, FG be two straight lines intersecting F, and draw ADE, MPQ, perpendicular to AB.
AB in
Let
a, /3
be the areas
it is
easily found
JP
8
that a
:
NEWTON.
/3 ::
AD + MP AE+MQ;
:
now,
then, in hypothesis, a and (B vanish, and are called vanishing quantities from this circumstance.
posed to
move up
to
ADE,
MPQ
Also,
the
ultimate
ratio
of
the
vanishing
quantities
is
AD
ratio
is
AE.
this case,
Jn
since
MP MQ
: :
Is
not equal to
of the
AD
When we
quantities, it is necessary to consider their relative magnitudes, and for this purpose if one of them be selected as a standard of small quantities, this quantity, and all the vanishing quan
tities
of which
the
ultimate
ratio
to
it
is
finite,
are called
vanishing quantities of the first order. If a, /3 be any two vanishing quantities, and
in the limit, fi
is
/3
a vanish
order than
a.
first
If a be of the
is
order,
and
j3
be ultimately
finite,
and
so
on
Trigonometrical functions give familiar illustrations of these orders; let 6 be taken as the standard of vanishing quantities;
sin# tan20, sinifl are
to
all
of the
first
;
0sm0
are/of
Quantities which
also classified in
state
are
If the order of the change in the form of the hypo thesis be reversed, or the varying quantities be tending from
14.
equality, having started into existence from the commencement of the time, the quantities are called nascent quantities / and the
LEMMA
ratio with
I.
9is
called the
prime
Application of Lemma
\\x
(1)
I
,
to the
investigation
of certain Limits.
Limit of &
~~
as
x gradually
diminishes ,
and
ulti
mately vanishes.
Since the difference between 2
and 2
is
2(2
less
1
,
this
x)
by diminishing x
1
4 x 
sufficiently,
diminishes, and,
than any
assignable difference.
will tend continually to equality with J, if we x commence from some value of x less than 2, and the difference may be made less than any assignable quantity ante finem tern
Hence,
_.
limit.
(2) v
Limit of J

3x

ichen
increases indefinitely.
 3
r
3u;
3 (o
which continu
and may be made less than any ally diminishes as x increases, assignable difference ; therefore, as before, J satisfies all the con2
ditions of being a limit of

f
x3x
4
(3)
and
at its extremities.
a circular arc, at its middle point ^ Shew that^ when the arc diminishes, the
to
fanned by
the
twa*
four
Let
FB,
DCE
the chord, FA, be the middle point of the arc, the centre of the circle, the three tangents, and
AB
FDE
FAB
.FC*
FG\
Now
/
10
the limit,
FG FG
:
::
CO
CO
/.
&FDE. A FAE\\
1
,
j.
4.
(4)
m x Limit of x ~~
when x
differs
from
by an indefinitely
small quantity,
tive or negative.
being
First,
where
m
**
is
Xi
which
1,
may
be made to
differ
from
by
less
difference
by taking x
let
sufficiently
near to unity.
Next,
m=^
let
2?
Q
,
p,
q,
and r being
positive
whole
numbers, and
x = yr
,7
/I
p
7/
//
"~
ry

This
less
may
be made to
differ
from
*
or
by
a qnantity
than any assignable quantity by taking x, and therefore y, sufficiently near to unity; hence, whether it be integral or
is
When we
y
is
by?/
1,
not equal to
LEMMA
while the difference
referred to
is finite.
"
I.
^1
in the
Scholium
above
Cave
quantitates magnitudine
limite."
(5)
T * * Limit of
 1
P
2p
p+l
when n
is
indefinitely in
jLfi,,!
creased,
being any positive number. Since this sum is the arithmetic mean, of the n fractions
/*
UJ
therefore, for all positive values of j?, integral or fractional,
?&gt;
it
lies
/1\
fn\ [
or
1.
therefore
its
ultimate value
lies
between
and
1.
This being an important limit, we will investigate it first for the particular case in which p is integral and positive, and then
generally
when p
is
any
positive quantity.
?i
;
then
If therefore
we assume
that
.
then
/.
(n
8U = An^ + Bn* +. .f Ln + M, Sn+l = ^ + 1) + B (n + 1) +...+ (* + !)+ Jf + I/ = .4 {( + l)^  n^} + 5 {(re + 1)*  np f ...
(
1 ]
=^
we
obtain,
{(^
f 1
i (p
f
l)^?i
+...}
+ 5 {^^ f
^ (^ 
p a
1}
f ...)
+...
1
by equating the
coefficients,
p+
equations for
...
L, which
The
first
of these equations
is 1
= p+
(
1)
Sn
M
"
12
hence,
i
NEWTON*.
if
n be
p+1
is finite,
we may make
it
p+l
;
diminish until
becomes
less
therefore
&gt;
Next,
let^&gt;
be the limit of
,,.
i"
in which ^? +
1,
vanishes,
when n
p
made
infinitely large
(n
l)
= Z {(n +
If"
*"}
+ B \(n
i
1)^
 nP} +
..
ft&gt;
n
therefore, observing that,
n
is
when n
increased indefinitely,
iYl
* imit of
where
e, s
...
quantities
ft
s,
vanish ultimately, Let s t be the greatest of the and let all the terms be positive, then ...,
is less
(14
e)
/+...
than
o
(1
,WB^+
&lt;7*
+...)
*y
and, since
^
5 ...
&)Brf+... i
is less
than
,f
(1
+ 8,)^
_ x jB/
LEMMA
which vanishes
in the limit,
I.
13
1
hence
is
= (p f
1)
ultimately;
therefore
v+l P
COR.
p

is
p+
p
sum
.
(wl)*
,
n*
!
..
since
of constant length slide with its ex tremities in two straight lines^ which intersect at a given angle A, and BCj be be two positions of the line intersecting in P, which become ultimately coincident find ike limits of the ratios Cc Bb
(6)
If a straight
line
and
PC PR
:
but
By BC =
Z
and
.%
Cc
Bb
Draw CNj
of the ratio Cc
Bb
is
BN
CM.
14
Again,
let
NEWTON.
be in $,
Cc
Bb ::BN:
:
CM ultimately,
Ac;
and
..
Bb:BQ:: Ab
:
: :
BN.AB CM. AC ultimately. Biaw AR perpendicular to BC, then BN.AB=BR.BC and CM.AC=CE.BC; ,% PC:PB::BE: CE; PC = Bit and PB=Cfi.
Cc
:
BQ
..
I.
1.
ARE
2
:
equations
when,
a:
is
&lt;wr,
y=*
$,
2.
Find the
limit of
i
is
(1)
(2)
3.
when a; when x
indefinitely diminished,
is indefinitely
increased.
bx*,
Ix +
ax*,
Find the ultimate ratio of the vanishing quantities ax + when x is made indefinitely small.
4.
to zero,
Prove that a  Ix and I ax tend to equality as x diminishes and yet have not their limits equal.
5. BAC, lAc are two triangles, in which AS, Ab and AC, Ac are coincident in direction, and BC, be intersect in P; prove that, if the areas of the triangles be equal, as B, C and j, c approach, each to each, will be ultimately in the point of bisection of C.
are two straight lines which are intersected by moves up to ABC, fixed lines BP, CQ, prove that, as and QB intersect in a point whose ultimate position divides in the ratio of : C.
6.
P APQ, ABC
two
PC
APQ
AB A
BC
7.
and
at its extremities,
Tangents are drawn to a circular arc at its middle point, and the three chords are drawn. Prove
that the triangle contained by the three tangents is ultimately onehalf of that contained by the three chords, when the arc is indefinitely diminished.
LEMMA
I.
15
a chord near AP, find is a chord of a given circle, 8. the position of the point of ultimate intersection of circles described as diameters, when on AP, approaches to and ultimately
AP
AQ
AQ
AQ
coincides with
AP.
circle passes through a fixed point, and cuts off from a 9. of constant length, prove that the chord fixed line a chord of ultimate intersection of two consecutive circles bisects PQ.
PQ
10.
PN
P
is
an ordinate, and
NT
a tangent to an ellipse, cutting being the vertex, shew respectively is ultimately bisected in A.
;
PT
ordinates to the axis AMN, 11. APQ is a parabola, PIT, two circles are drawn with centres Jf and .A and radii PM, when approaches indefinitely near to JU, if the two prove that, circles intersect, the distance of their point of intersection from PJl
7
QN
QN
ultimately equal to the semilatus rectum. that the circles may intersect ?
is
What
is
the condition
n.
If two quantities 1. What is the test of tendency to equality ? diminish so that their difference diminishes, prove that they will tend to or from equality according as the ratio of their rates of decrease is greater or less than the ratio of the greater to the less.
2.
ABC
is
an
isosceles triangle,
prove that,
if
PQ
position of R,
when
CB
AP
BC]
is
P,
are points on
3.
P3IP
is
R is the point of ultimate intersection of the circles described on PP and the next consecutive double ordinate respectively, and R T Shew that TM CJf: BC is the ordinate of JR. AC\ What
2
:
is
C;
is
may
intersect ?
4. Two concentric and coaxial ellipses have the sum of the if the curves approach to coincidence squares of their axes equal with each other, shew that the ratio of the distances of any one of their points of intersection from the axes will be ultimately equal to the inverse ratio of the squares of the axes.
;
If a triangle be inscribed in a given circle, prove that the algebraic sum of the small variations of its sides, each divided by the cosine of the angle opposite to it, will be equal to zero.
5.
16
6.
NEWTON.
point
ABC, APQ are drawn to cut a circle from an A] BU, CT are tangents at B and C to the circle,
in
U,
external
APQ moves up to ABC, is AB* AC\ 7. BCRA is a diameter of a circle whose centre is C, and PRQ PR is bisected in S, and is a chord in it perpendicular to BA. If tangents at P and 8 meet BA in T CS meets the circle in 8
:
.
APQ,
T;
ratio of
PU
and
T
8.
P moves up to ^4,
ABCD
^4T=
4AT
ultimately.
be slightly displaced in its own If the quadrilateral the to as so position ah CD, and O be the point of occupy plane, intersection of D A, CB, prove that the point of ultimate inter will be the foot of the perpendicular from O section of ab and
AB
upon AB.
PSp, QSq are focal chords of a parabola^ prove mately, when P moves up to Q,
9.
that, ulti
PQipq:: SP*
10.
Sp*.
extremities of a straight line slide upon two given the three straight lines, so that the area of the triangle formed by of the chord find the is constant lines limiting position straight of intersection of two consecutive positions of the circle described about that triangle,
The
LEMMA
II.
17
LEMMA
If, in
II.
any figure AacE, bounded by the straight lines Act, and the curve acE, any number of parallelograms Ab, Be, Cd, fyc. be inscribed upon equal bases AB, BO, CD, fyc., and having sides Bb, Cc, Dd, fyc. parallel to the side Aa of the figure ; and the parallelograms aKbl, bLcm, cMdn, be completed ; then, if the breadth of these parallelo ffc. grams be diminished, and the number increased indefi nitely, the ultimate ratios which the inscribed figure
AE
AKbLcMdD,
AalbmcndoE, and
one another, will
AabcdE
have
to
J5
A.
IB
3&gt;
E
For the
difference of the inscribed and circumscribed figures is the sum of the parallelograms Kl, Lm, Mn, Do, that is (since the bases of all are equal) a paral
is Kb, that of one of them, and of their altitudes, that is, the paral But this parallelogram, since its lelogram ABla. breadth is diminished indefinitely [as the number of parallelograms is increased indefinitely] becomes less than any assignable parallelogram ; therefore, by Lemma I., the inscribed and circumscribed figures, and, a fortiori, the curvilinear figure, which is inter
sum
NEWTON.
LEMMA
The same ultimate
III.
of equality
when
&gt;
the breadths of the parallelograms AB, C, and all are diminished unequal, indefinitely.
t
CD,
are
TV
be equal to the greatest breadth, and the For, let This parallelo parallelogram FAafbe completed. gram will be greater than the difference between the inscribed and circumscribed figures. But, when its
AF
breadth is diminished indefinitely, it will become less than any assignable parallelogram. [Therefore,
a fortiori, the difference between the inscribed
and
circumscribed figures will become less than any assignable areas. Hence, by Lemma I., the ultimate Ratios of the inscribed and circumscribed and the
curvilinear figure, which ratios of equality.]
is
intermediate, will be
COR.
of the vanishing paral lelograms coincides [as to area] with the curvilinear
1.
figure.
COR.
And, a fortiori, the rectilinear figure which is bounded by the chords of the vanishing arcs ah, be,
2.
cd,
figure.
COR.
As
which
of the
also the rectilinear circumscribed figure, is bounded by the tangents at the extremities
arcs.
same
COR.
these ultimate figures, with respect to their perimeters acE, are not rectilinear figures, but curvilinear limits of rectilinear figures.
4.
And
LEMMA
Observations on the
15.
II.,
Ill,
10
tt\
Lemmas
and
III:
statements of the propositions concerning limits of contain quantities and their ratios
:
The
I.
The
II.
The manner
The
its
when
the
hypothesis
is
thus
strength of the proofs lies in the examination of the is in a finite state, before arrival quantities while the hypothesis at the ultimate form, and the deduction of properties by which the relations of the quantities can be pursued accurately to the
The
ultimate state.
If in this
and
III.,
manner we analyse the statement of Lemmas II. the hypothetical constructions are given in the manner
of describing the parallelograms; the extension of the hypo thesis towards its ultimate form is the continual increase of the
of parallelograms ad infinitum ; the ultimate property is the equality of the ratio of the sums of the parallelograms and the curvilinear area.
number
In the proof of the Lemmas, the continual decrease of the parallelograms Al or Af shews that the conditions of ultimate
equality of two quantities are all satisfied, viz., that the sums of the two series of parallelograms, since they are finite, tend
continually to equality, and that they approach, nearer to each ante finem temporis," other than by any assignable difference while the number of, the parallelograms still remains finite. i.e.,
"
Volumes of Revolution.
16.
In a manner exactly
similar to
Lemma
II. it
may
be
that, if Aa be perpendicular to AE, and the whole as an axis, the ultimate ratios, which round revolve figure the sums of the volumes of the cylinders, generated respectively. by the rectangles Ab, Be, ... and aB, bC, ... and the volume
shewn
AE
of revolution generated
by the
curvilinear area
AEa
will
have
20
NEWTON,
by the
in
the difference of the cylinders generated by Ab and annulus generated by the rectangle a&, and the difference of the two series of cylinders, which have all equal heights AB, BC, .., is the sum of such annuli, and is easily
Thus
is
aB
the
seen to be the cylinder generated by aB^ which, since the height continually diminishes, may be made less than any assignable volume, hence the conditions that the two series may have the
and hence also the volume of revolution, which is greater than one sum and less than the other, is ultimately in a ratio of equality to either sum. The same argument applies when the revolution is only through a certain angle instead of being complete, in which
same
by
Sectoricd Areas,
17,
to
sectorial
areas.
LEMMA
Thus,
let
IT.,
III.
21
let
SABCFbe
,
be divided into equal portions A SB, BSO, ... arcs Ab aBc, bCd ... be drawn with centre S] then, since
j
ASF
sum
is
the
equal to the difference of the therefore the ; greatest and least of the sectors, viz. two areas SAb Bc ... and SaBbC... tend continually to equality
of the areas ab
be,
...,
it
is
AGHV
and
their magnitudes which these areas have to each other ratios and the diminished, and to the area SABF are ultimately ratios of equality. Similarly, as in Lemma III., if ASB, BSC, ... be unequal.
as the
number of angles
is
increased
Surfaces of Revolution.
following proposition is the extension of the prin of a method for ciples of the Lemmas to the determination finding the area of a surface of a solid of revolution.
18.
The
be a plane curve which generates a surface of revo lution by its revolution round AB, a line in its plane.
Let
CD
is
is divided into portions, of which one, PJ/, drawn are are perpendicular to parallel to AB, and Pp, Qq in length ; pm, qn are perpendicular to AB. each equal to
CD
PQ
QN
AB
PQ
shall be the limit of the sum of surface generated by the cylindrical surfaces generated by such portions as Pp or Qq. For, the cylindrical surfaces generated by Pp and Qq are
The
CD
one
less
PQ^
since every portion of Qq is at a greater, and every portion of Pp at a less, distance from the axis than the corresponding
portions of
PQ.
22
NEWTON.
But
QN
of this
QNPM: PM or
ratio.
QN,
which
the sums of the surfaces generated by the lines corre sponding to Pp and Qq have the ratio of their difference to either sum less than the greatest value of the ratio PM^
Hence
QNPM:
which
may
be made
less
than any
finite ratio.
Therefore the
cylindrical surfaces and the curved surface, which is intermediate in magnitude to these sums, are ultimately in
sums of the
a ratio of equality.
Centre of Gravity.
same methods are applicable to the determination of the position of the centre of gravity of any body, since it is known that, if a body be divided into any
19.
Tt is easily seen that the
number of
body from
portions, the distance of the centre of gravity of the any plane is equal to the sum of the moments of all
sum
of
all
the portions.
General Extension.
general extension may be stated as follows: be divided into a series of magnitudes If any magnitude ...A n each of which, when their number is increased indefi
20,
The most
AA
a a*
i
nitely,
"
becomes
indefinitely small,
"A.
and two
series of quantities
a an ^ ^A*
&gt;A&gt;
and also such that each of the ratios a, & t : # a2  b 2 a^ ... becomes less than any finite ratio when the number is increased ; b + b z +...+ b n and A will be ultimately then a 4 aa +...+
t ,
1:1 be equal
+...
to the greatest
b \a^b
l
al
+a
+...
1,
and
may
therefore be
made
less
than
LEMMA
II.,
III.
23
any assignable ratio by increasing the number. Therefore the two series + a 2 4... and 5 + 5 2 +... tend continually to equality, and the difference may be made, before the end of the time, less
1
than any assignable magnitude therefore the three magnitudes are ultimately in a ratio of equality.
;
21.
COR.
1.
"Omni
ex parte
"
the
of Newton, because it perimeters do not ultimately coincide with the perimeter of the curvilinear area.
text
Lemma
II. the
series of parallelograms is
perimeter is 2Aa + 2AE. The perimeter of the other series of parallelograms, being 2Aa + 2AE is constant throughout the change, and has properly
this
no
limit.
of the figure bounded by the chords ab, be, ... ultimately coincides with that of the curvilinear figure. This coincidence will be discussed under Lemma V.
Cos.
2.
The perimeter
COR.
tangents.
3.
The same
is
true for
the
figure
formed by the
COR.
4.
Instead of
"propterea,"
as in
Newton,
it is
advisable
s Doctrine of Limits, that, if a finite be taken, and many successive points in the portion of a curve curve be joined so as to form a polygon, the sides of which, taken in order, are chords of portions of the curves, when the
to state, as in
Whewell
number
of those points is increased indefinitely, the curve will be the limit of the polygon.
Application
(1)
to the
Let AB,
Let
BC
Com
ABCD.
AM
be divided into n equal portions, of which suppose to contain r, and to be the (r+ l) th ; draw HP,
AD
MN
NQ
NEWTON.
parallel to
\
the curve in P, Q, and Pn parallel to the curvilinear area is the limit of the sum of the
AB, meeting
A CD
JL
33
series
the
portions
corresponding to
MN.
But parallelogram
PN
::
parallelogram
ABCD
PM.MNiCD.AD,
: :
and, by
PMiCD
also
/.
AM AD
2
:
::r
:
2
:
n\
3
MN.
AD
:: 1
j

PM.MN:CD.AD::r*:n
therefore, parallelogram
PN=
$
x parallelogram
ABCD;
hence, the
sum
l
=
and,
+ ...4 (n
1)"
x parallelogram
is
AB CD,
when
the
number
of parallelograms
3
increased indefinitely,
curvilinear area
respectively,
and the parabolic area ABC will be, onethird and twothirds of the parallelogram
A CD
ABCD.
Note
1.
ABC,
AB
inscribed the series of parallelograms in being divided into n portions, we should have arrived
If
we had
at the result
LEMMA
II.,
III.
25
which might thus have been directly shewn to be but the former method is peferable, since the ultimately f
ABO),
upon simpler
principles.
Note
2.
If
BC
PN
gram
ABCD
a
7i
r :wV, and
ABO
to parallelogram
ABCD the
n
limit of
(2)
Volume of a paraboloid.
Let
A KB.
AH
A
3C
;ar
JC
revolution found the axis
and an ordinate
///i,
which by
its
generates a paraboloid* Let be divided into n equal portions, and on th inscribed. (rf l) , as base, let the rectangle
AH
MN the
PENMbe
Cylinder generated by
PN
cylinder by
AHKL
: :
::PM\MN:HK\AH.
But
PM* HK*
:
AM AH
:
n,
and MN.
/.
AH::
n;
r
:
PM\MN: HK\AH::
by
n\
Hence
cylinder generated
PN= 3
x cylinder by
is
AHKL
therefore the
sum
1+24...+ (ftn
and the paraboloid
is
x circumscribed
cylinder,
hence the volume of the paraboloid is half that of the cylinder on the same base and of the same altitude.
26
(3)
NEW TON.
Volume of a spherical segment.
Let
AHK generate, by
its
AH.
A MJf
Divide
then
S
and make the same construction
;
A H,
PM*
as before,
=
AH. AB  ~ AH*.
n
Volume of
cylinder generated by
PN=irPM^.MN
AH
n
whence, as before, the limit of the sum
a hemisphere whose volume is irAC* (AC %AC) = ^irAC*, which is twothirds of the cylinder on the same base and of the same altitude.
COR. If
AH=^AB=A 0,
the segment
is
(4)
Area of
the surface
of a riyht
cone.
As an
illustration
of the
to
method of finding
AHK
AH,
surfaces given
be a rightangled
triangle,
which
AK
MN
(r+l)
portion of
AH,
ordinates parallel to n equal portions; 3/P, and parallel to AH. each equal to
NQ
HK;
Pp,
Qc[
PQ
LEMMA
The
areas generated by
II.,
III.
27
Pp and Qq
respectively are
w,
.^lirHK.AK and
is
intermediate in magni
tude between
n
and
each of which has for
its
2f...+
1
ri
limit
TrHK.AK^ which
is
therefore
Note.
If a circular sector
bounding boundary
radii
KLK
AK,
will
AK
KAK\
traced on paper, be cut out, the can be placed in contact, so that the
circle.
form a
will be the slant figure so formed will be conical, in the last figure will be the radius of the circular side, and . base, whose length will be the arc of the sector
The
AK
HK
1
KAK
Hence, the area of the conical surface is equal to that = AK. 27rHK= TrHK.AK. sector
o.f
the
KAK
(5)
the
varies as th ?H th
power of
Let
its
AB be the rod,
and
let
MNbe
when
m
length has been divided into n equal parts; and let p.AM be the density at or the quantity of matter contained in. an
The
quantity of matter in m
MN
is
intermediate between
p.AM .HN
and f,,AN
28
and the
NEWTON.
ratio of the difference of these to either of
is
them
is less
indefinitely increased.
Therefore,
since
is
AM= AB, n
the limit of
and
MN
I
AB.
the
mass
n 
l"
+2
+...+
foir
nm+i _ 
/
[
\m +
I
\tb
)
AS
and of uniform
lj
AB
at
B.
Let
radiqa
CAB
QA
its
Let
MR
cylinder, so that
CM = x CA n
and
MN=
x CA.
MR
2
will be
ri
A
i
(?&lt;. ]
l~ n )7rCA
2
.
7r^ 3
l2+2 +
;"
2
"
= TT CA  JTT CA = f TT CA
9
3
3
.
Again, the moment of the mass of the cylinder generated by MR, with respect to the base of the hemisphere, will be
irPM\MN4
(CM}
CN],
LEMMA
which
differs
II.,
III.
29
from
it.
wPM*.MN.CM
and
is
compared with
therefore the
base,
is
?*
moment
therefore ultimately
TrCA*
its
(\l}irCA\
hence the distance of the centre of gravity of the volume of the hemisphere from (7, which is the moment with respect to the
base divided by the mass,
is
in.
1. Illustrate the terms tendunt ad aequalitatem
"tempore quovisfinito"
"
case of
Lemma
III. as
employed an example.
in
Lemma
I.
2. Shew, from the course of the proof of Lemma II., that the ultimate ratio of vanishing quantities may be indefinitely small or
great.
3.
Shew
which P3I 3 oc AM, to the area of the circumscribing parallelogram, of which one side is a tangent to the curve at A, is 3 4.
that the volume of a right cone is onethird of the same base and of the same altitude. the on cylinder
4.
Shew
a parabolic area, the axis, and an ordinate 5. the circumscribing rectangle. perpendicular to the axis, round Shew that the volumes generated by the revolution of are and and of the ~. AH, KL, AL, respectively i, , , the rectangle. cylinder generated by
\s&gt;
AHK
AHKL
AH
UK
UK AUK
6.
The volume
of a spheroid
is
cylinder.
7.
by
Find the centre of gravity of the volume of a right cone the method of Lemma II.
8.
is
Shew
distant
9.
Find the mass of a rod whose density varies as the distance Find also its centre of gravity, and shew that an from extremity. it is in one of the points of trisection of the rod.
30
NEWTON.
10. The limiting ratio of an hyperboloid of revolution, whose axis is the transverse axis, to the circumscribing cylinder is 1 : 2 when the altitude is indefinitely diminished, and 1 3 when it is indefinitely increased.
:
IY.
1. Prove that the areas of parabolic segments, cut off by focal chords, vary as the cubes of the greatest breadths of the segments.
Find the mass of a circle whose density varies as the power of the distance from the centre.
2.
mih
3. Shew that the abscissa and ordinate of the centre of gravity of a parabolic area, contained between a diameter and ordinate BC, are \AB and \B C respectively.
AB
4. number of equal squares in one plane with their centres coincident are arranged consecutively, their sides making equal small angles, each with the adjacent ones prove that the limit of the length of the serrated edge, when the number of squares is indefinitely increased, is equal to the circumference of a circle whose radius is a side of the square.
;
5. By supposing the axis of a parabola portioned off into suc cessive lengths in the ratio 1:3:5, &c., apply Lemma III. to find the area contained by the curve and a double ordinate. 6.
disc about
Find the volume generated by the revolution of an elliptic an axis parallel to its major axis, and at such a given
In the curve
is
A CD, BE is
an ordinate perpendicular
7?
and
FC
lie
AH

to
) * I
Shew that the area varies as HG, where ordinate equal to of the circle CH, whose centre radius FC.
BE
ABE
GE
is
is
the
and
LEMMA
8.
II.,
III.
31
area
AT,
9.
DT at the extremities,
In the curve APC,
ordinate
A CD
last
problem shew that the ratio of the whose sides are AD, and the tangents
is 8
:
TT.
in
which the
relation
between any
rectangular
PM
and abscissa
Olf
is
OA
OA
prove that the area contained between the curve, the abscissa OB,
is
OA(BCAO).
32
NEWTON.
LEMMA
If in two figures AacE, Lemmas II., III.) tivo
IV.
PprT
and
the
to the
parallelograms in the
other be the same, each to each, then the tivo figures will be to one another in that same ratio. AacE,
PprT
T E P [Since the ratio, whose antecedent is the sum of the antecedents, and whose consequent is the sum of the consequents of any number of given ratios, is inter mediate in magnitude between the greatest and least of the given ratios, it follows that the sum of the parallelograms described in AacE is to the sum in PprT in a ratio intermediate between the greatest and least of the ratios of the corresponding inscribed parallelograms; but the ratios of these parallelograms are ultimately the same, each to each, therefore the sums of all the parallelograms described in AacE, PprT are ultimately in the same ratio, and so the for, figures AacE, PprT are in that same ratio is to former the the former Lemma III., figure by sum and the latter figure to the latter sum in a ratio of equality.] Q. E. D. A
;
COR. Hence, if two quantities of any kind whatever be divided into any, the same, number of parts, and those parts, when their number is increased and magnitude diminished indefinitely, assume the same given ratio each to each, viz. the first to the first.
LEMMA
IV.
33
the second to the second, and so on in order, the whole quantities will be to one another in the same given ratio. For if, in the figures of this Lemma, the parallelograms be taken each to each in the same ratio as the parts, the sums of the parts will be always as the sums of the parallelograms and, therefore, when the number of the parts and parallelograms is increased and their magnitude diminished indefi nitely, the two quantities will be in the ultimate ratio of parallelogram to parallelogram, that is, (by hypothesis) in the ultimate ratio of part to part.
;
Observations on the
22.
Lemma.
proposition contained in the Corollary may be proved independently in the following manner: be two quantities of any kind, which can bo Let A,
The general
number n
of parts, viz.
1?
#2
a 3 ...an
6 t , & 2 , b s .b n respectively, such that, when their number is increased and their magnitudes diminished indefinitely, they
and
have a constant
ratio
where a l5 a 2
...
,
vanish
when n
is
inter
each of
which
is
ultimately
1,
we
A:BnLil\
that
is,
and
in the Principia is as follows : For, as the parallelograms are each to each, so, componendo, is the sum of all to the sum of all, and so the figure to the figure III., the former figure is to the former sum PprT, for, by
23.
AacE
Lemma
and the
sum
is
in a ratio of
equality."
in the text
down
substituted for this, because for any finite distance from the
34
Application
(1)
to the
NEWTON.
determination of certain Areas, Volumes,
ellipse.
&lt;&c.
Area of an
Let
axis,
auxiliary circle, parallelograms be in scribed, whose sides are common ordinates to the two curves.
let
BG
the semiminor
and
Let PMNJRj
grams.
The
QMNU
QM
BC:AC.
a
ft
~JT
jic
: :
BC
AC,
but area
= trA C.BC.
be joined,
:
(2)
Area of a
sector
of an
ellipse,
If
&
be a focus of the
ellipse,
:
and SP,
: :
SQ
&SPM ASQM BC A C, and area APM area A QM BC A C, BC AC, hence, area ASP: area ASQ = but area ASQ &SCQ + sector ACQ
:
: : : :
(3)
and
an ordinate
the diameter.
In the following investigation it Is asserted that when a chord PQ is drawn to a curve from a point P, as Q moves up to P, PQ assumes as its limiting position that of the tangent at P, which is deducible from the idea of a tangent being in the
direction of the curve at the point of contact. Let AB, be the diameter and ordinate
BC
AD the tangent
at
A;
CD
parallel
to
AB;
P,
and AB. PJ/, QN and Pm, Qn parallel respectively to Let QP produced meet BA in T, and complete the parallelo grams TAmS, TAnU.
AD
LEMMA
IV.
35
Then, since QP is ultimately a tangent at P, is ultimately double of ultimately, and the parallelogram
AT=AM
PU
JJ
T
the parallelogram.
P/?,
A.
M
tlie
.2IT
and
complements
PA
7
",
PU are equal
PN, Pn
two sets of Hence, in the curvilinear areas ABC, are ultimately in the ratio parallelograms can be inscribed which
ACD
2:1, each
area
to each
therefore area
ABC
is
ultimately double of
ACD,
and
is
therefore twothirds of
ABCD.
Volume of a paraboloid of revolution. the be the axis of the parabola APK, Let Also let PoV, Pn be rectangles in circumscribing rectangle.
(4)
AH
AHKL
AHK, AKL.
IT
..
vol.
by
PN:
but
vol.
QN+ PJ/=
by PoV=vol. by Pn ultimately; hence, by Cor., the volume of the paraboloid generated by volume of the circumscribing cylinder generated by
Lemma
is
AEK
AHJL.
36
(5)
NEWTON.
Centre of gravity of a paraboloid of revolution.
PN
volume generated by
:
PN with
:
respect
moment
of that generated by
i.e.
:
:
Pn
AM
\Pm
ultimately,
hence the moment of volume generated by is twice that of the volume generated by AKL, and the moment of the
paraboloid
AHK
= J moment
of the cylinder
=
volume of cylinder x
is
\AH= f
volume of paraboloid x
AH;
Centre,
Let
AB
be the rod,
MN
a small portion of
ffl
it,
then the
density at If GO
AM.
Construct on
AB
as axis
an isosceles triangle
CAD, whose
base
then PR, parallel to ; and B\ are proportional to the densities at M, QS, is therefore the mass of proportional to a rectangle inter
is
QNS
CD
CD
MN
MN
and QS,
MN,
which are
Hence
the mass of
MN
of the rectangle PR, MN, moment of MN, with respect to the line
proportional to the moment of the same rectangle, since their distance is the same; hence, by the Lemma, the moment of the whole rod
CD,
is
the
moment
CD
;
: :
LEMMA
IV.
37
therefore, the distances of the centres of gravity of the rod and being the same, the centre of gravity of the triangle from from B. rod is at a distance
CD
\AB
A CD,
at B,
proportional to the area PEN, is proportional to the area of the triangle and the mass of a rod of uniform density equal to that
MN being
being
and of length
AB,
rectangle
(7)
AB, CD,
is
to the
rod.
Let
ABC, OB
OD
parallel to ac,
and Aa, Cc parallel to OB. Let QR be the side of a regular polygon described about the
the point of contact, Qq, Er perpendicular to ac, and are perpendicular to QR, qr, to OB. Then, since OP,
arc,
PM
OB
qr
but, since
QR::
OM
OP::
OM
OB;
OM,
OB are
and qr from OD, and qr with respect to OD are in a ratio of equality, and the same is true of every side of the circumscribing polygon ; therefore, by Cor., Lemma IV., the moment of the arc, which is
ultimately that of the polygon,
.
QR QR
is
equal to the
moment
of ac
38
NEWTON.
Hence, the distance of the centre of gravity of the arc from
radius x chord
arc
(8)
be the portion of a circle which generates by the spherical segment, revolution round the centre of the circle, PQ the chord of a small arc, PM, perpendicular
Let
AKH
AH
QN
to
AH.
Let
AOCD
HK
q,
Since
PQ
is limiting position a tangent at P, ultimately to is the radius OP, also pq perpendicular perpendicular to
is
in
its
PQ
MP;
..
PQ
:pq
OP
PM ultimately,
is
OP.pq = thQ
PQ
NTW
JL
O
when
The same
the
is
is
surface generated by AK, or the surface of the the circumscribed spherical segment, is equal to the surface of cylinder cut off by the plane of the base of the segment.
Con. Hence, also, the surface of any belt of a sphere cut off by two parallel planes is equal to the corresponding belt of the
cylindrical surface.
LEMMA
(9)
IV.
39
Centre of gravity of a belt of the surface of a sphere con tained between parallel planes.
The moment
by
;
PQ
is
KK
that
is
responding belt generated by k k. Hence, the centres of gravity of the two belts are coincident,
viz. in the bisection of
HIl
is,
contained between parallel planes, gravity of a spherical belt, halfway between the two planes.
(10)
Volume of a spherical
about
sector.
A OP
AO.
the limit of the
(9,
The volume of the spherical sector is equal to sum of a series of pyramids whose vertices are in
is
of whose bases ultimately the area of the surface of the seg ment ; also the volume of each pyramid is J base x altitude.
Hence, the volume of the spherical sector is onethird of the area of the surface of the spherical segment x radius = J 27rAD. Dp.AO = 1&gt;*AM.. A 0* = O 5 versP6L4.
.
^A
(11)
If
we
may
be supposed collected at their centres of gravity, whose distances are \AO from ultimately, and they form a mass which may be distributed uniformly over the surface of a spherical segment
whose radius
to
is
%AO,
viz. that
generated by
a???,
r,
whose centre
perpendicular
if
rm be
AH.
Therefore the distance of the centre of gravity of the spherical = \ ( Oa + Om) = %OA. cos^POA. sector from
become a right angle, the distance of the If the angle centre of gravity of the corresponding sector, which in this case will become the hemisphere, will be %OA, as in page 20.
(12)
POA
To find
the direction
and magnitude of
the
resultant
the
attraction of a
40
rod being supposed
to
NEWTON.
attract with
be the attracting rod, Let the particle attracted by the rod; draw OC perpendicular to AB, join OA, OB, and let a circle be described with centre O and radius OC meeting OA, OB in a, b. Let OpP, OqQ be drawn cutting off the small
portions pq,
AB
PQ
and draw
PR
perpendicular to
Then
and
.%
PR PQ pq PR
:
:
OC OP Op OP
:
:
ultimately,
.............
;
pq
:PQ::Op
2
:
OP*
.............
and,
if
aCb be
attract
according to the
attraction of pq
same law,
on
:
attraction of
PQ
ultimately.
Therefore the portions PQ, pq of the rod and arc attract in the same direction with forces which are ultimately equal.
Hence, by Cor.,
rod
is
is
the
same
IV., the resultant attraction of the as that of the arc a Cb, which, by symmetry,
Lemma
in the direction
OD,
A OB.
to
qn
then,
by
qOn,
pq
*
qr
::
Oq
==
On
qr
pq
~0?
that
is,
On
~0q
2
"OC"
OD
is
the
LEMMA
same
IV.
41
0(7; hence the whole re
sultant attraction of
AB
ia
fi.ab
or
where
* is
Y.
1. Shew that the area of the sector of an ellipse contained between the curve and two central distances varies as the angle
to the
5.
Find the mass of a straight rod, whose density varies as the square of the distance from one extremity, by comparison with a cone whose axis is the rod.
6.
Shew
another plane
that the orthogonal projection of any plane area on is the given area x the cosine of the inclination of
As a first step, prove that, pqsr being the projection of the inscribed parallelogram PQSR, cosJLC 1. pqsr 7. Find the volume of a hemisphere by comparing the volumes the generated by quadrantal sector and the portion of the circum which is the difference between the square and the scribing square
:
PQS
quadrantal sector.
42
NEWTON.
VI.
1. Find the volume of a paraboloid generated by the revolution 3 of a semicubical parabola, ia which PM" , by means of a cone on the same axia.
&lt;x
AM
belt of a sphere cut off two parallel planes varies as the perpendicular distance between them, find by the aid of Lemma IV. the area of any portion of the curve
2.
"by
of sines.
PQ be a small arc of an ellipse, and CD be the limit of the sum of all the ratios PQ CP, conjugate CD, taken over the whole perimeter of the ellipse) will be 2rr.
3.
Prove
to
that, if
any point of a curve OP; OX, any lines drawn at right angles through 0, PM, perpendicular to OX, respec Prove that, if area area m : I always, and tively. the whole system revolve about OX, volumes generated by 0PM, 2. will be as m
4.
is
PN
OF
: :
0PM
OPN
OF
OPN
5.
Prove that the surface generated by the revolution of a round its bounding diameter is to the curved surface generated by the revolution of the same semicircle round the
semicircle
tangent at the extremity of the diameter in the ratio of the length of the diameter to the length of the arc of the semicircle.
are drawn to two ellipses the and outer of which touches axis, the directrices of the inner; shew that the area of the surface generated by the revolution of PQ about the major axis bears a constant ratio to the area MP Q N.
6.
Common
ordinates
MPP NQQ
,
7. Prove that the area included between an hyperbola and the tangents at the vertices of the conjugate hyperbola is equal to the area included between the conjugate hyperbola and the tangents at the vertices of the hyperbola.
LEMMA
V.
43
LEMMA
V.
All the homologous sides of similar figures are proportional, whether curvilinear or rectilinear, and their areas are in
the duplicate ratio
of the homologous
sides.
[[Similar curvilinear figures are figures whose curved boundaries are curvilinear limits of corresponding portions of similar polygons.
Let jSABCD,.., salcd... be two similar polygons, of which SA, AB, BC, .... are homologous to sa} ab,
Ic,
...
respectively.
&lt;f
Then
Similarly,
AB
ab
SA
sa,
ab
be
::
::
SA: SA
:
say
sa&gt;
therefore,
componendo,
f
...
:
AB
Now
f
BC + CD
and
cd
+ ...::SA:
sa.
this, being true for all similar polygons, will be true in the limit, when the number of the sides AB,
increased, and their lengths diminished indefinitely; if, therefore, AE, ae be curves which pass through the angular points A, B, ... and 0, b, ... of the polygons, these curves will be curvilinear limits of be ^ BC\... and ab ...^
Z?6^.. ;
ab, be,
...
is
AB
44
NEWTON.
will
be the boundaries of similar curvilinear figures; therefore the curved line AE the curved line ae
and
8A
sa
.
::
.
SE
se.
Again, polygon
SABC.
polygon
;
:
sale..
: :
SA*
sa* t
and
SAE
SA*
scf
AE
ae*
SE*
se*.
Q.E.D.]
Observations on the
24.
Lemma.
is
In order to deduce the properties of similar curves, it premised, as before mentioned under Cor. 4, Lemma III.,
that, if a finite portion of a curve be taken, and if a polygon be inscribed in the curve, the sides of which are chords taken
and the number of sides of the polygons be increased indefinitely, and the magnitudes a the same time diminished indefinitely, the curve will be the limit
in order of portions of the curve,
is
Criteria of Similarity.
the definition of similar curve lines, that they are curvilinear limits of homologous portions of similar polygons,
25.
From
the following criteria of similarity can be deduced, are very convenient in practice ; namely
:
all
of which
another when, if any polygon be inscribed in one, a similar polygon can be inscribed in the other.
(1)
One
curve
line
is
similar
to
be taken (2) If two curves be similar, and any point in the plane of one curve, another point s can be found in the plane of the other, such that, any radii SP, being drawn in
SQ
the
* Wliewell
Doctrine of Limits,
LEMMA
the
V.
45
same angle
as
the former,
sq
SP
SQ.
two curves be similar, and in the plane of one curve any two lines OX, O Y be drawn, two other lines ox, oy can be drawn in the plane of the other curve, inclined at the same angle, having the property that the abscissa and ordinate
If
in the first being taken, the abscissa of any point and ordinate om, mp of a corresponding point p in the second will be proportional to the former, viz.,
OM, AfP
om
mp
: :
OM
MP.
i
the converse propositions can also be deduced, that these proportions hold, the curves will be similar.
26.
And
In order to
illustrate
test
(1),
let
the arcs
AB,
ab of
two
circles
let
be coincident
Let
A DEB
AB, and
:
let
CD,
CE
DE,
adeb
cut ab in d, e
EB
is
respectively, similar to
AD DE
AD,
are
EB;
ab,
hence
AB
similar.
27.
Test
(2)
may
If
ABCD...,
of similar polygons,
AB, EC,
...
...
be drawn to any point S, construct the sides, triangle sab equiangular with SAB, and join sc, sd, ....
Then
sb
SB ::
ab
AB
be
BO, and L
46
therefore
NEWTON.
SBC,
sc
:
hence
SC
sb
SB ::
sa
SA
for
set,
se,
&lt;tc.
two polygons be
similar,
can be found in the other, such that the radii drawn to corresponding angular points will be propor tional and include the same angles.
in one, another point
If
we now
increase
diminish their
number of sides indefinitely and magnitude, the same property will hold with
the
test (1) in a similar
Test
(3)
manner.
Centres of Similitude.
so situated that a point can be found, such that the radii drawn from that point, either in the same or opposite directions, are in a constant such
ratio,
28.
When
a point
direction, the point will be a centre of direct similitude, and of inverse similitude if they be measured in opposite directions.
It
is
easily
Properties
tests
of
Similar conterminous arcs, which have their chords coincidentj have a common tangent.
(1)
.A
JB
&
Let
APB,
ABb
the line
APp any straight lines meeting the p respectively then A will evidently
;
be a centre of direct similitude for the two curves; therefore A Q A% AP Ap hence AP, Ap are similar portions of
:
: :
LEMMA
V.
47
:
the curves, and arcAP : arcAp :: : Ab there Ap :: fore the arcs AP, Ap vanish simultaneously, or, when assumes its limiting position for the curve APB, this is
AP
AB
AP
is,
AD
the limiting position of Ap for the curve Apb, that the curves have a common tangent.
also
(2)
To find
the centres
two
circles.
lie
entirely
be
the
intersection
intersect
in
of
two common
circles
the produced line Cc joining their centres, and let CQ, cq be radii to the points of contact. Draw SpP through S cutting the circles in p, 1 then cq
which
is parallel
to
CQ, and
.
CP
cp
CQ
:cq::
CS
cS~,
CS: CP::cS:cp;
also
CPSj cpS
and
CSP
is
are each greater or each less than a right angle, common to the triagles CPS7 cpS 7 therefore the
triangles
angle
therefore
CSP S is
the
sides
:
about the
.
SP
Sp
SC
Sc
Similarly, the intersection of two common tangents which cross between two circles is the centre of inverse similitude.
(3)
To find
the condition
sections.
directrices
48
NEWTON.
let
are parallel and foci coincident, and through the focus meeting them in perpendicular to the directrix
SpP
be
any
line
/&gt;,
PQ
DQ
and
let
pq, parallel to
P$, meet
:
:
it
in q 7
pendicular to SD.
Then Sd
be similar, Sp is a constant
*,
ratio,
and dq
is
fixed
straight
line
for
all
: since pq : Sp : : P, pq ; Sp is a positions of p ; also, constant ratio ; therefore qd is the directrix of ap, and, the constant ratio being the same in both, the eccentricities are
PQ
the same.
Instruments, like the Pantograph and the Eidograph^ for copying plans on an enlarged or reduced scale are founded upon
(4)
the properties of similar figures ; as are also other methods of copying, such as by dividing plans or pictures into squares. The Pantagraph is an instrument for drawing a figure
similar to a given figure on a smaller or larger scale ; one of and AE, DO, its forms is as in the figure. AD, EF,
GO
at
FG
by
are
two
sets
of parallel
bars,
joined
all
the
angles
is a point, which serves to fix the compassjoints ; at is a instrument to the drawing board at point which is made to pass round the figure to be reduced or enlarged ; at
;
a hole for a pencil pressed down by a weight, and the pencil traces the similar figure, altered in dimensions in the
is
ratio of
BO: AB
or
EF AD.
:
The
by the pencil
is
a con
ABD, BFC.
LEMMA
V.
at
49
By
described
of the required dimensions. For a description of the Eidograph, invented by Professor Wallace, see the Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh^
by
C may
be
made
vol. XIII.
(5)
is
any form. the base, VII perpendicular to the Let V be the vertex, base from V, let VH be divided into n equal portions, of
AB
2
which
MN
PQ
is
the (r
f l)
th
;
and
let
PQ be
parallel to
AB.
Take
section
VPA
any generating
AB
PM.AH. VM:
therefore
VH,
PQ
is
similar to
AB, M,
:
H
: :
points
and, by
Lemma
area
V.,
2
:
a
,
w;
is
whose base
PQ
is
and
height
MN = r
3
x area
by
Lemma
II., is
AB
circles
Apply a criterion of similarity to shew that segments of which contain equal angles are similar.
2. From the definition of an ellipse, as the locus of a point the sum of whose distances from two fixed points is constant, shew that ellipses are similar when the eccentricities are equal.
50
3.
NEWTON.
Prove
tliat the centre of an ellipse is a centre of inverse two opposite equal portions of the circumference of
similitude of
the ellipse.
4. Employ the properties of similar figures to inscribe a square in a given semicircle.
5. Construct, by means of similar figures, two circles, each of which shall touch two given straight lines and pass through a
given point.
6.
sector
Deduce the position of the centre of gravity of a circular from that of a circular arc; shew that the distance from
2
is
the centre
radius x chord
.
arc
be the vertex of a conical surface, G the centre of that of the volume of the conical figure* the of base, gravity = IAG. shew that
7.
If
AH
Find the centre of gravity of the surface of a right cone on a circular base. Does the method apply to the surface of an oblique cone?
8.
LEMMA
VI.
51
LEMMA
If any
arc
VI.
given in position be subtended ly a chord AB, and if at any point A, in the middle of continuous produced curvature, it be touched by the straight line in both directions, then, if the points A, approach one
A CB
For, if that angle do not vanish, the arc ACB will an angle equal to a contain with the tangent
AD
rectilineal angle, and therefore the curvature at the will not be continuous, which is contrary to point
Definitions of a
Tangent
to
a Curve.
29.
(1)
and
if
If a straight line meet a curve in two points A, B^ move up to A, and ultimately coincide with A,
AB
and cut one another at a finite angle in A, there will be two tangents AD, , which will be the limiting positions of straight lines AB and move up to A along the different portions AE, when B and
EA
AB
AD
BA
of the curve respectively. And, similarly, if there in which several branches of the cnrve be a multiple point in
and
EA
The tangent
is
is
the direction of the side of the polygon, the curvilinear limit, when the number
52
This
tion
(1).
is
NEWTON,
founded on the same idea of a tangent as
to a curve at
defini
(3)
The tangent
any point
is
the direction of
the curve at that point. In order to apply geometrical reasoning to the tangent by employing this definition, we are obliged to explain the notion of
the direction of a curve, by taking two points very near to one another, and asserting that the direction of the curve is the
limiting position of the line joining these points when the distance becomes indefinitely small, a statement which reduces this definition to the preceding,
Observations on the
30.
"
Lemma.
consider
Gurvatura
Continua,"
if
we
curves as the
curvilinear limits of polygons, requires the curves to be limits of polygons whose angles continually increase as the number of
the sides increase, and may be made to differ from two right angles by less than any assignable angle before the assumption of the ultimate form of the hypothesis.
however, as we increase the number of sides and diminish their magnitude, one of the angles remains less than two right
If,
angles by any
limit
is
finite difference,
discontinuous, and the form is that of a pointed arch, in which the two portions cut one another at a finite angle.
A
w
per
curve
may
between two
Thus,
if
be of continued curvature for one portion points, while for another its curvature changes
saltum."
ABC
be a curve forming at
a pointed arch,
it
may be
to
and from
to
B,
all
to
assume
LEMMA
positions
VI.
53
,
pass
intermediate to CT, Bt, and Bt TA, but at they from Bt to Bt without assuming the intermediate positions.
"
31.
la medio curvaturae
continue,"
A
of
Lemma
side, the
is
to another
on the other
the intermediate positions. The curvature is supposed to be in the same direction in the figure of the Lemma, which in all curves of continuous be taken sufficiently near to at curvature is possible, if the commencement of the change in the construction.
medio curvaturse continuae," two may be drawn at A to the two parts of the tangents AD, curve, and the curve BCA will make a finite angle with one of
If the point
be not
"
in
AD
.
the tangents
AD
that tangent which belongs to the portion of the curve sidered continually diminishes and ultimately vanishes.
The Subtangent.
DEF. The part of the line of abscissae intercepted be tween the tangent at any point and the foot of the ordinate
32.
of that point
33.
is
as follows, to find a
tangent at any point of a curve. be the abscissa and ordinate of a point Let 9
OM HP
in
TO
a curve, and and ordinate.
let
ja:
be a point near P,
OJV,
NQ
its
abscissa
54
Let
NEWTON.
QPV meet OX
Q
parallel to
OM meet QN in R,
:
U]
then, if
PR
PMi MU:: QR PR
Now
as
::
QNPM ON:
OM.
PM M T
:
QPUis
is
the limiting
QNPM: ON
The Polar Subtangent and the Inclination of the Tangent the Radius Vector^ at any Point of a Spiral.
34.
to
pole,
PT the
S T is
S T,
PT in
T\
35.
To find
to
any point of
a curve
the
radius vector.
&gt;SP,
Let Q be a point near P, QM perpendicular to pro duced if necessary, QR the circular arc, centre $, meeting
BP
in
E.
Let (JPmeet
BT m
U, then
ME QM QM 8M+ BE,
:
::
but,
when Q approaches
indefinitely near to P,
;
QM
:
vanishes
is
the
limiting
ratio
of
QR PR
or
LEMMA
Hence ST, and
VI.
55
SP T
tangent of the angle between the tangent and the radius vector can be found.
also the trigonometrical
Illustrations.
SY be the perpendicular on the tangent PY at P in Y will trace out a curve, called the pedal of the original a curve, curve; to shew that if YZ be a tangent to the locus of Y, SZ SY = SP. SZ. perpendicular to Let P be a point near P, SY perpendicular on P P, SZ perpendicular on Y Y. Since angles SYP, SY P are right angles, a semicircle on SP will pass through Y, F therefore the angles SF F, SPY the right angles SZY in the same segment will be equal SYP also are equal; therefore the triangles SPY, SY Z are similar, and SZ SY :: SY SP but, ultimately, as P moves
(1)
If
it,
up
to P,
FPT
To find
at P,
and
Y YZ
that at
SY = SY;
sz.sp=sr*.
the.
Y^
(2)
PM*
:
cc
3
OM*
3
;
:
..
OX  OM OM*. but QN+PM=2PM, and ON + ON. OM+ OM* = 3 OM\ ultimately; QJV PMi PJ/r: ON OM %OM ultimately,^ and QNPM: PJT:: ON OM1MT;
:
04
li
therefore
HT
is
twothirds of
OM.
56
(3)
NEWTON.
To find
to
the,
inclination
of
the
a cardioid
the
radius vector.
DEF. If Bqp C be a circle, whose centre is S and diameter BC, and pm be drawn perpendicular to BG\ then, if Sp be produced to P, making SP=Bm^ P will trace out a cardioid
APS.
JL
Making
Let
to
8T: SP:: QR
SP SQ
in
,
ultimately.
SQ
meet the
then
also
..
circle
BC,
QR pq
:
pq
SP Sp mn :: Sp pm
::
\
QR mn
: :
SP: pm
:
..
but mn = BmBn=SP SQ] QR SP SQ SP pm ultimately 8T: SP.iBmipm; hence LPTS= LpBm = \LPSA;
:
:
..
and
it
axis
SCA
at right
at $, and that angles, that it touches at an angle equal to half a right angle.
SB
it
BDO
LEMMA
vir.
If any
and at
arc, given in position , be subtended ly the chord AB, the point A, in the middle of continuous
approac/ies ultimately coincides with it, the ulimate ratio of the arc, the chord, and the tangent to one another, is a ratio of equality t
to
a tangent
curvature,
then,
when
let
b and d at a finite distance, and Id be drawn parallel to the subtense BD, and let the arc Acb be always similar to the arc A CB, and have, therefore, for its tangent at A.
T)
ADd
But, when the points B, A coincide, the angle I Ad, by the preceding Lemma, will vanish, and therefore the straight lines Ah, Ad, w hich are always finite, and the arc Acb, which lies between them [and is of con tinuous curvature in one direction, if the change is near enough to A~\, will coin commence when cide ultimately, and therefore will be equal.
r
Hence, also, the straight lines AB, AD and the inter mediate arc A CB, which are always proportional to them, will vanish together, and have an ultimate ratio of equality to one another.
be drawn through COR. 1. Hence if parallel to the tangent, always cutting any straight line will have ulti passing through A in F, then A a ratio of equality, arc OB mately to the vanishing
BF
AF
BF
NEVfTON.
A FDD
COR.
2.
And
if
through
B
;
and
be drawn
cutting the tangent and BF, parallel to it the ultimate ratios of all the abscissae AD, AE, BF, and of the chord and to one another will be ratios of equality, arc
AD
straight lines
AG
many
BG
AB
COR.
3.
ment
therefore, all these lines in every argu concerning ultimate ratios may be used indif
And,
Lemma.
DEF. The subtmse of the angle of contact of an arc is a straight line drawn from one extremity of the arc to meet, at
a
finite
angle, the tangent to the arc at the other extremity. This subtense is the secant which defines the limited line
called, in the
Lemma,
is
"
the tangent.
The chord
called
arc, see
Lemma
37.
XI.
In
the construction for this
i.e.
subtense,
finite
Lemma,
BD
angles
BAD
LEMMA VH.
and
50
being then both small, the ultimate ratio of the chord to the tangent might be any finite ratio instead of
ADB
BD
the figure
representing changes which may take place in the approach towards the ultimate state of the hypothesis. Here b % d are the. distant points, that is, points at a finite are consecutive positions distance from A; BD, ^
BD
B"D"
of the subtense, when approaches towards A, and db, db are parallel to these, Acb , Ac are the forms of Acb changed so as to be always similar to the corresponding portion of
db"
b"
ACB
curve Acb
is
not inter
mediate in magnitude to the two lines Ab, Ad, but only in make position / for example, Ab may be equal to Ad, if equal angles with the two lines, and the curve line will then
BD
bent, until
it
is
Ab
Ad\
but
it
Acb, Ab,
be ultimately equal, the only alternative being that the curve may become doubled up, as in the figure,
will
Ad
which
is
precluded by the supposition that the curvature near continued in the same direction throughout the passage from
is
to
A.
The subtense ultimately vanishes, compared with the arc. For BD :: bd Acb, and, since bd vanishes and Acb remains finite in the limit, the ratio BD ACB ultimately
38.
:
ACB
vanishes.
It will
finite
varies as the square of ultimately. ultimate equality of the lines AD, with the chord or arc, whatever be the direction of the subtense, is due to the vanishing of BD, and therefore of with respect to AD.
curvature
BD
The
ACB AE
DE
39.
sect
If two curves of continuous curvature ivhich do not interhave a common chord, the length of the exterior curve will be
60
NEWTON
greater than that of the interior, provided that the curvature of the interior be always in the same direction.
Let AcdeB, A CDEFB any two polygons, having a common side ABj be such that the first lies entirely within the second
A
is less
It
first
For, produce Ac, cd, de to meet the perimeter of the exterior C + Cc Ac ; .. CDEFB Ac in c , d j e ; then ;
&gt;
A
&gt;
&gt;
DEFB
similarly
,.
Ac DEFB
same
&gt;
on;
a fortiori,
is
A CDEFB
And,
of sides
since the
is
true in the limit, when the number increased indefinitely, the curvilinear limits of the
is
proved.
LEMMA
VIII.
Gl
LEMMA
If
ftvo
VIII.
maize with the arc
BR
ACB,
the
chord
RACB, RAB
of equality.
AB, and
the
tangent
AD,
the
three
the points
A,
triangles
approach
one another ; then the ultimate form of the vanishing triangles is one of similitude, and the ultimate ratio one
is approaching the point A, let For, whilst the point be always produced to points b, d, r at AB, AD, a finite distance, and rbd be always drawn parallel to RD, and let the arc Acb be always similar to the arc and therefore have Dd for the tangent at A. ,
AR
Then, when the points B, A coincide, the angle b Ad will vanish, and therefore the three triangles rAb, rAcb, rAd will coincide, and will therefore in that case be similar and equal. Hence also RAB, RA CB, RAD, which are always similar and proportional to these, will be ultimately similar and equal to one another.
COR.
hence, in every argument concerning ulti mate ratios, these triangles can be used indifferently for one another.
Observations on the
And
Lemma.
40.
finite
If
RB throughout
RA,
angle with
the change in the hypothesis make a the three triangles rAb, rAcb, rAd will
62
remain always
finite,
NEWTON.
and
will
But, if the angle ARB be ultimately not finite, for example, RB revolve round a fixed point R, the three triangles rAb,
will
become
move
to r
and so on
to
an
infinite distance,
and there
will
2*,
dealing with these infinite triangles, as to reasoning im= in mediately upon the relation of the triangles RAB,
to
RAD
In
this case
we can
at
tri&lt;
AD
and
at a finite distance.
RAD
and
and
also
BD
this
RB, which
case
;
vanishes ultimately,
since
hence
is
RAB
RAD
the
curvilinear
triangle,
which
LEMMA
IX.
G3
LEMMA
If a
IX.
and curve ABC, given in position, cut straight line in a bs one another finite angle A, and ordinates BD, drawn, inclined at another finite angle to that straight
AE
CE
in
B,
C;
the
curvilinear triangles
point
are approaching the point A, be always produced to the points d, e at let AD, a finite distance, such that Ad Ae AE] and
AE
AD
ec
EC meeting
the chords
:
DB,
c.
:
Then
Ac be supposed to be drawn always similar to ABC, while B and C move up to A. Let the straight line Ag be drawn touching both curves at A, and cutting the ordinates DB, EC, db, ec in
: :
AB
Ad
:
Ab
F, G, f, g. [Now areas ABD, Aid, by Lemma V., are always in the duplicate ratio of AD, Ad, and areas ACE, Ace in the Ae ; Ad duplicate ratio of AE, Ae, and
AD
:
AE
If,
ABD Aid ACE Ace, and ABD ACE AM then, the points B and C move up to A and ultimately
therefore
:
Ace."]
coincide with
it,
the angle
vanish,
64
NEWTON.
will coincide with the rectilinear triangles Afd, Age, and therefore will be ultimately in the duplicate ratio Ad, Ae. But ABD, are proportional to Aid, Ace always, are also, AD, proportional to Ad, Ae therefore also areas ABD, are ultimately in the duplicate ratio of AD, AE.
ACE AE
ACE
Observations on the
Lemma.
a finite angle is to be understood an angle less than two right angles, and neither indefinitely small nor indefinitely
41.
By
and the curve and between Al) angles between are different finite angles, because otherwise produced and
The
AD
BD
BD
42.
figure
DAF be
may assume a form in which AD will lie below ABC; in this case DB, EC, ... must be produced to meet the tangent, and the argument may proceed in the same manner as before.
not necessary that d and e be fixed, but only that they remain at a finite distance from A, and that the proportion bb retained and the first part of this observation applies to
43.
It
is
;
in the
previous
Lemmas.
The student, by reference to Arts. 37 and 40, will be able to exhibit the change in the figure which will correspond to a and C in the progress towards the change of the position of
ultimate position.
the angle vanishes, the curvilinear areas Abd, Ace coincide with the rectilinear triangles Afd, Age, and : Ae. But if the angle so are in the duplicate ratio of
44.
When
CAG
Ad
those triangles will not themselves be finite, and the object aimed at by producing to a finite distance will not be attained.
DAF
be not
finite,
The
fact
4df and
that the triangle Adb is made up of the triangle the curvilinear triangle Afb, of which the latter is
is,
is
finite
therefore,
LEMMA
in the
IX.
65
Lemma, Afb
it*
not be so
AFB,
it
AGO
vanishes compared with AJf" but this will Adf be indefinitely small, the ratio of the triangles must, therefore, be found by another process, and
by referring to Lemma XL, that the ratio will that of the cubes of the arcs if the curvature of be ultimately be finite. the curve at
will be found,
YIIL
1. RQq is a common subtense to two curves PQ, Pq, which When RQq approaches to P, have a common tangent PR at P. RQ and Rq ultimately vanish ; will the ratio RQ, Rq be ulti mately a ratio of equality ?
:
2.
If
PY,
in Y,
and
ST
a tangent to an ellipse at P, meet the auxiliary circle be perpendicular to the tangent at Y, ST will vary
inversely as
3.
HP.
finite
DB BC
BD be drawn to meet the tangent at A at which remains constant as B moves up to A, and angle a, meet the normal at A in C, shew that the ultimate ratio of to AB will be sec a.
If a subtense
4. In the curve in which the abscissa varies as the cube of the ordinate, shew that the subtangent is three times the abscissa. 5. Prove that the extremity of the polar subtangent from the focus of a conic section is always in a fixed straight line. 6.
AB
is
a diameter of a circle,
at
meets
BA,
A&gt;
In any curve, if Q be the intersection of perpendiculars to radii vectores through their extremities, and consecutive two be the perpendicular from the pole S on the tangent at P, prove that ultimately SP = SY.SQ.
are parallel chords of an ellipse whose centre is C; shew that, if p move up to P, the areas CPp, CQq will be ultimately equal.
8.
SY
PQ, pq
9.
From a
and tangent are drawn, the one terminating at the lowest point, and the other in the vertical diameter produced compare the velocities acquired by a heavy body in falling down the chord and tangent when they are indefinitely diminished.
moves so that the product of its distances from two constant shew that the normal to its path divides the angle between the two radii into two whose sines are pro portional to the radii.
10.
A point
is
fixed points
66
NEWTON.
IX.
1.
On
;
described
2. If the intercept between two curves of their radius vector OPQ be constant, and the normals at intersect in JV, will be at right angles to OPQ.
PQ
common
and
ON
right angle slides on any oval curve, so that the sides containing the right angle always touch the curve; shew that the angle one tangent makes with the tangent to the locus of the vertex is equal to that which the other tangent makes with the chord of contact. Hence shew that, if the oval be an ellipse, the locus of the vertex will be a circle concentric with the ellipse.
3.
point moves so that the rectangle, whose sides are equal distances of the point from a given point and a given straight line, is equal to the square described on the perpendicular from the given point on the given line. Find the position of the point at which the tangent to the curve passes through the fixed point.
4.
to the
Two points A, B describe two curves according to any and continuous law. If A B be the consecutive positions of A, B, and ABC, A B C bo similar triangles, then the corre sponding sides of the two triangles will ultimately intersect in the
5.
finite
points Pj Q,
6.
p n
T&gt;
It)
u *u * such that
AA .BC = BB .CA
QjT~
ft
CC .AB
is perpendicular to a fixed that the locus of the centre of the circle cir prove cumscribing the triangle formed by the tangent, the radius vector, and the polar subtangent, will be a straight line.
If
SP
= AB.PM, where
PM
straight line,
7.
let
FB
be taken equal
to
;
the corresponding ordinate to the curve be that the subtangent at varies inversely as that at
let
and
BE
AB,
prove
8. In the hyperbolic spiral, in which the radius vector varies inversely as the spiral angle, prove that the subtangent is constant.
9. In the spiral of Archimedes, in varies directly as the angle, prove that of which a radius is the radius vector subtangent will be equal to the arc of
LEMMA
X.
67
LE^DIA X,
The spaces
action of
tvhich
any
finite force,
or else continually increase or continually diminish, are in the very beginning of the motion in the duplicate ratio
of the times.
[Let the times be represented by lines measured from A, along AK, and the velocities generated at the end of those times by lines drawn perpendicular to AK. to be divided Suppose the time represented by
AK
into a
number
by AB,
A.
2&gt;
Bb, Cc, Dd, ...Kk represent the ve locities generated in the times AB, AC, ...^irrespec which always tively, and let Abed be the curve line passes through the extremities of these ordinates. Complete the parallelograms Ab, Be, Cd, In the interval of time denoted CD, the velocity con
BO, CD,
...,
let
by
to that tinually changes from that represented by Cc represented by Dl, and therefore CD being taken small enough, the spice described in that time is
intermediate between the spaces represented by the parallelograms DC and Cd\ therefore the spaces are represented by described in the times AD, areas which are intermediate between the sums of the parallelograms inscribed in, and circumscribed about, the curvilinear areas ADd AKk respectively.
AK
68
NEWTON.
Therefore, by Lemma II., the number of intervals being increased, and their magnitudes diminished indefi nitely, the spaces described in the times AD, are proportional to the curvilinear areas ADd, AK/c. Now the force being finite, the ratio of the velocity to the time is finite therefore Kk is a finite ratio, however small the time is taken; hence, if be the tangent to the curve line at A, meeting Kk in T, will be a finite ratio therefore the angle will be finite, or will meet the curve at a
:
AK
AK
AT
KT AK TAK
:
AK
if
:
finite angle.
Hence, by
Lemma
area ADd area AKk :: AK*; therefore, in the beginning of the motion, the spaces described are proportional to the squares of the times of describing them. Q. E. D.]
IX.,
AD,
AK
be indefinitely
diminished,
AD
COR. 1. And hence it is easily deduced that the errors of bodies describing similar parts of similar figures in proportional times, which are generated by any equal forces acting similarly upon the bodies, and which are measured by the distances of the bodies from those points of the similar figures, to which the same bodies would have arrived in the same propor tional times without the action of the disturbing forces, are approximately as the squares of the times in which they are generated,
COR.
2,
But the
errors
portional forces, acting similarly at similar portions of similar figures, are approximately as the forces and the square of the times conjointly.
COR
to be understood of the spaces which bodies describe under the action of different These are, in the beginning of the motion, forces. conjointly, as the forces and the squares of the times.
3.
is
The same
COR. 4. Consequently, in the beginning of the motion the forces are as the spaces described directly, and the squares of the times inversely.
LEMMA
X.
69
COR. 5. And the squares of the times are as the spaces described directly and the forces inversely.
The
is
as follows:
et veloci
tates genitffi per ordinatas DB, EC] et spatia, his his velocitatibus descripta, erunt ut areae ABD, initio motus hoc ordinatis descriptoe, est, ipso (per Lemma IX.) in duplicata ratione temporum AD, AE.
ACE
Q.E.D.
45.
in
order to exhibit in
ordi
Lemma
which
may
be stated as follows:
A force
is finite
of
the velocity
generated,
is finite,
generated in any time to the time in which however small the time be taken.
is
Observations on the
46.
Lemma.
time
is
represented by the length of a straight line, and a distance traversed by a body is represented by an area.
this
In the proof of
Lemma,
If the length of a straight line be always proportional to the period of time elapsed, the straight line will be a proper repre Thus a length of n inches has the same sentation of the time.
ratio to
second
and on
length n inches
is
a proper repre
sentation of n seconds.
If an area be always in the same ratio to the unit of area that the length of a straight line is to the unit of length, the area
will be a proper representation of the length of the straight line.
if
Thus,
t
Ab
be one
foot,
AB,
feet,
Ac
AC^
Z&gt;c,
inches:
then
If
ABCD
now
complete the parallelograms ABDC, Abdc, and will contain nt such areas as Abdc.
a particle
move with
t
a second, and
A C represent
70
NEWTON.
a second, the parallelogram Be will represent the space travelled over in the first second, since it contains n times the parallelo
ABDG
seconds.
will
be no difficulty in the representation of a period of time by a line, or of a distance by an area, if the student bear in mind that periods of time and lengths of lines, although
There
by their ratios to certain standard periods, and standard lengths, and they are therefore determined whenever these ratios are given, either directly in numbers or by the comparison of any magnitudes whatever of the same kind.
COR. 1,2. If bodies describe orbits under the action of certain forces, and small forces, extraneous to those under the action of which the orbits are described, be supposed to act upon the bodies, the orbits will be disturbed slightly, and the errors47.
spoken of are the linear disturbances of the bodies, at any time, from the positions which they would have occupied at that time, if the extraneous forces had not acted.
Thus, in calculating the motion of the Moon considered as moving under the attraction of the Sun and Earth, it is conve
nient to estimate the motion which she would have, if subjected to the attraction of the Earth alone, and then to calculate what
effect of the
Sun upon
this orbit.
AB be a portion of an orbit described by a body in any time, AC the portion of the orbit described when a disturb the space which quam ing force introduced, BC
"
is
is
proxime"
in the
rest
is
bv the w
taken
When
the time
LEMMA
X.
71
of the corollaries, "approximately," is necessary for two reasons; for, in the first place, the position of the body in space is not the same at the end of any interval in the lapse of the time as if the body had moved from rest under the action of the disturbing force alone, and therefore the magnitude of the force not generally the same either in direction or magnitude ; and, in the second place, since the force is not generally uniform, the
is
variation according to the duplicate ratio of the times exact, except in the limit.
is
not
the times are taken very small, the variation of direction and magnitude of the force may be neglected, as an
But,
when
Lemma
l&gt;y
to
determine
the action
a Jinite time from rest a particle, under a constant force. of Let f be the measure of the acceleration caused by the
constant force, so that at the time t the velocity V=ft. Since the velocity varies as the time, the curve Ak in the figure of the Lemma is a straight line, dD : being constant.
AD
is
?,
re
AK, is represented by the AKk or \Kk.AK. The space described is therefore %Vt = ft\
50.
from rest
General geometrical representation of the space described by a body when it moves with a variable velocity for a Jinite
time.
at each
point represents the velocity corresponding to a time represented by the abscissa, then the space described by the body will be
represented by the area bounded by the curve, the line of abscissa?, and the ordinates corresponding to the commencement
and end of the time of motion. Let OAj OB represent the times at the commencement and end of the interval during which the motion of the body is to be examined. Let be any other time, and let AC, MP, BD
OM
perpendicular to
OAB,
72
NEWTON.
the times represented by OA, OM, OB CPD the curve which passes through the extremities of all such ordinates as MP.
be divided into any number of small portions, such be the ordinate corresponding to ON. as MN\ and let Complete the parallelograms PMNq, QNMp, and suppose cor responding parallelograms ta be constructed on all the bases
Let
AB
NQ
corresponding to
MN.
a velocity, which, if mediate in magnitude between the velocities represented by and QNj and the space described during that time will be
intermediate in magnitude between the spaces which would have and been described with uniform velocity represented by the areas the or between PN, QM. QN, spaces represented by
MN
the time represented by moves with be taken small enough, will be inter
MN
PM
PM
in the
interval
of time
that represented by the inscribed series and less than that by the circumscribed series of parallelograms, and each of these is y by Lemma II., ulti
to the area
is
AB
1.
A CDB,
is
when
the
number
is
of portions
divided
;
indefinitely increased,
and their
magnitudes diminished
51.
proved.
COR.
PMNQ
it.
is
ultimately equal to
the rectangle PM.MN, it follows that the measure of the velocity at any time is the limit of the quotient of the space described after
that time
l&gt;y
the tim,e
2.
of describing
represent the unit of time, and com PMRr ; then the area PMRr represents plete the parallelogram
52.
COR.
Let
MR
LEMMA
X.
73
the space which would be described in an unit of time with a velocity represented by PM; whence it follows that the velocity
may
would describe if
unit of time.
it
moved
When
t,
and
be
the space described in that time, the following equations will 2 hold : (vV) = Ft and \m (v*  F ) = Fa.
The
increase of
momentum
in a
given time
is
equal to the
Half
the increase
the kinetic
a variable force, and F^ be its least and greatest z values during the time t, m(v will be V) greater than Ft and less than Fj, each of which will become Ft ultimately when t
is
F be
and similarly for ? (y a Hence we obtain two measures of variable force of the two limits
indefinitely diminished;
:
F ).
2
in the
form
(1)
The quotient of
the time is
the increase
of
the
momentum by
the time^
when
(2)
diminished
indefinitely.
The quotient of the increase of the kinetic energy by the space through which the force has acted, when that space is
diminished indefinitely.
In the velocity curve, Art. 50, the velocity Qq is added in the time MN, the measure of the acceleration at the time
54.
is
OM
tangent of the angle which the tangent at makes with the line of abscissae.
55.
Geometrical representation
of
the
momentum generated
L
74
by a
finite
NEWTON.
and
particle
moving
In the figure of
the
action of the force
is
OA,
of
OB
considered.
AB be
and
number of small
PM, QN, perpendiculars to AB, represent the on the forces acting particle at the times OM, respectively, and let parallelograms be constructed and the curve drawn as
as
MNj
let
ON
if
in Art. 50.
in the
time
MN,
MN be taken
small enough, will be intermediate between the momenta re and QM; therefore, by presented by the parallelograms Lemma II., the whole increase of momentum is represented
PN
by the area A CDB bounded by the curve, the line of abscissae, and the ordinates at the commencement and end of the finite
interval of time represented
by AB.
measure of force given
at
in
(1)
56.
As
any
instant
may
if
be measured by the momentum which would be generated the force were to continue unchanged for an unit of time.
57.
Geometrical representation of the kinetic energy generated by a force which acts upon a particle moving in the direction oj the force s action through a finite space.
Let
it
OAB
let
arrives at
force,
and
PM
OAB
represent the
The
is
increase of kinetic energy in the passage from to intermediate between the work done by the forces re
PM
it
is
PN
represented by an area
and
QM;
therefore,
by
II, the increase of kinetic energy or the work of the to is force during the motion from represented by the
Lemma
58.
The measure
ns before, since
is
deducible
LEMMA
59.
X.
75
In
rectilinear motion
any
sum of
is constant.
limits
If the motion of the particle be considered only within the A, B) the area represents the whole work which
PMBD
the particle moves from to the end of its path ; this work is called the Potential Energy, and since the kinetic energy at is represented by the area the force will be able to do as
M
of
CAMP,
it
follows
that
sum
constant.
Application
To find the space travelled over in a given time by a body moving with a velocity which varies as the square of the, time from the beginning of the motion. Let AB represent the time, and let BC perpendicular to AB represent the velocity at the end of that time.
(l)
Let which
AB
MN
NQ
by
Then, since
can be
AM, AN.
:
::
parabola
ail
represented. Hence the space described in the time represented by or \AB.BG. is represented by the parabolic area And ifp be the velocity at end of pt* will be that a*
AB
ABC
1",
76
the end of
t"
NEWTON.
;
therefore ^pf. t
= \p?
will
in the time
t.
Join
AC, and
let
pM, qN
AM
pM
circle
may
be taken to
represent the velocity at the time corresponding to AM, and the solid generated by represents the space described in time MN. The whole space is therefore represented by the
pqNM
or
cone generated by
result as before.
(2)
ABC^
^AB.TrJBC
from
To find
under
the space
described
any time
a
l&gt;y
particle,
the
th
action
effect
varies as the
power of the time. This problem is more simply solved by applying directly the method of summation, since in order to find the area of
the curve, constructed as in Lemma X., we should eventually be obliged to have recourse to that method.
be divided into n equal intervals, and let the m acceleration by the force at the time t be pt ; hence, at the com
mencemeut
and,
if
frt\
(
\n/
velocity generated
will
be p
rt\
(
and
if
the
same arrange
ment be made during each interval, the whole velocity generated m .+ (n  1) 4. 2 f m* hence, when the number of will be pt n
1
&gt;H
I"
. . "
intervals
is
increased indefinitely,
it
follows,
by the reasoning
of
Lemma
t^
vt
ni+1
.
In the same manner, if the velocity at the commencement of each interval were continued uniform during the interval, the space described could be shewn to be
LEMMA
whence, proceeding to the
time
t
X.
the
77
space
described
in
=
(m
t
/rj/
m+2
limit,
the
1)
(m
2)
To find acted on by an
(3)
the velocity
acquired from rest, when a body is attractive force whose accelerating effect varies
Let
S be
commences, and
AB,
s
pendicular to
.zr
SA, meet
SB in P;
BA
::
SM: SA,
and the
is
BAMP
S
8A.AB SM.MP.
SA
by
With
let
centre
and radius
describe a circle
MPQ, NR be
Z
A QE,
M=[JL(SA 
SM
) ;
M= ^(p)
(vel.)
QM.
Time of describing a given space from rest under the (4) action of a force varying as the distance from a fixed point.
The time
j
of describing
MN MN
v
is
ultimately,
when
MN
x
is
in
indefinitely
diminished,
OR y
vO) SQ
circular
to
J/,
vU*j
v(/*J
measure of
*
Let SA = a, then the distance from 5 at the time ta cos[t and the velocity = a V(yu) sin{* V(/*)} when *
5
VM
QSR;
from
V (/it)},
hence,
78
NEWTON.
the particle will come to rest at the point on the opposite = SA, and, the time of oscillation from side of Sj where
SA
\
TT
rest to rest,
being j~l/*J
will
From
definition,
for simple
may
also be
taken as a
obtained.
When
a point
Q moves
its
uniformly in a
circle,
and an ordinate
QM
A A\
is
drawn from
the motion
of
position at any instant to any diameter M, the foot of the ordinate, is simple
harmonic motion.*
is
the
SA
or
SA
is
The period
moving
the time which elapses from any instant until point again moves in the same direction through
A particle is subject to
effect
the action
of a force, whose
accele
the
rating
from a fixed
point, in
direction
of which
acts,
a given
point in a direction perpendicular to the direction that point, to find the path described by the particle.
of
the force at
to
(7,
and
let
P the
position of the particle at any time. Let CB, perpendicular to CA, be the distance in which a
to rest, if projected from C with the of so that if be the velocity of projec velocity projection; be the accelerating effect of the force at P, tion, and particle
would be reduced
pCP
\&gt;j
(3).
Thomson s and
Tail
LEMMA
Describe circles Bb,
X.
79
having the common centre C, and draw CpP cutting the circles in p and P and dra\v^? perpen dicular to CB, tmdpm, P J/to CA.
,
Aa
Referring to
start
and the other with the ing respectively one from rest at velocity of projection at C, under the action of the same force,
at
M and
P
n,
P by whose effect accelerating represented by PC, is and PJ/, there and CB to represented by parallel fore the acceleration in A C is the same as that of the particle supposed to move in A C from rest, and the retardation parallel to BC the same as that of the particle in CB, projected from C, therefore P is in the intersection of np and MP, and
is
CA. proportional to the angle in the But the particle proposed problem
is
acted on at
a force which
AC
MC
PM PM pm P M
: : : :
: :
Cp
CP
is
::
CB CA
:
therefore the re
an
ellipse
CA
and CB.
COR. 1. Area ACPx area ACP cc LACP & time from A to P, hence the area swept out by the radius vector is propor
tional to the time.
of the velocity at is the sum of the squares the velocities of the particles at J/and n=f.t,.PM *+p.pi? ^ fji. CD 2 , where is the semidiameter conjugate to CP.
COR.
2.
The square
CD
The space described by a body moving in a medium, in which the resistance varies as the velocity, when no other force
(7)
80
NEWTON.
be divided into equal intervals AB, J5(7, Let the time and let ... be the velocities at the Bb Aa\ CD, ...; beginning
,
AK
AK
is
AKk
represented by the
Suppose the force of resistance to be constant throughout the AB, BG, ..., and equal to the amount at the commencement of each, and let Aa, Bb, ... be the measures of
intervals of time
the retarding effect of those forces, then the velocity destroyed s represented by the limit of the sum of the parallelograms
hence the space described and the velocity destroyed vary respectively as the areas a AKk and aAKk and, since the resistance varies as the velocity, the
aB, bG,
...
ratios
Aa Aa^ Bb Bb^ &c., are all equal Lemma IV., the areas a AKk, aAKk are in a
:
therefore,
by
;
constant ratio
X.
If the square of the velocity of a body be proportional to the space described from rest, prove that the accelerating force is
1.
constant.
2. At what point of the proof of that the body starts from rest ?
Lemma X.
is
it
assumed
State the proposition by which Lemma X. is replaced, when the body, instead of starting from rest, commences its motion with
3.
a given velocity.
4. If a body move from rest under the action of a force which varies as the square of the time from the beginning of the motion, shew that the velocity at any time will vary as the cube of the time, and the space described as the fourth power of the time.
LEMMA
5.
X.
81
If the velocity after a time t from rest be equal to a (2t + *), be the shape of the curve in the figure, and the space described in any time ?
what
will
If the square of the velocity of a moving point vary as the the space which will be described in a given time; and find time, shew that the acceleration will vary inversely as the velocity.
6. 7. If the curve employed in the proof of the Lemma be an arc of a parabola, the axis of which is perpendicular to the straight line on which the time is measured, prove that the accelerating effect of the force will vary as the distance from the axis of the
parabola.
XI.
If in the velocity curve of Lemma X. there should occur point where the two parts of the curve cut one another at a finite angle, what would be the interpretation of this singularity ? Explain also what a point of inflexion would imply.
1.
is placed in the line joining two centres of the accelerating effect of each of which varies as attracting force, the distance, find the time in which the particle oscillates. 2.
particle
3. When a body moves from rest at A under the action of a force 2 which varies as the square of the distance from S (= p. SIT at Jf), 3 3 the square of the velocity at 21= f p (SA  J/ ).
.
4. If a body be acted on from rest by a repulsive force which varies as the distance from a fixed point, find the velocity when the body arrives at any position.
5. Two points move from rest in such a manner that the ratio of the times in which the same uniform acceleration would generate Shew that their respective velocities at those times is constant. their respective accelerations, at any time bearing that ratio, are
equal.
Two forces reside at S, one attractive and whose accelerating on a particle varies as the distance from S, and the other constant and repulsive prove that, if a particle be placed at S, it will move until it be brought to rest at a point which is double the distance from S at which it would rest in equilibrium under the
6.
effect
moves from rest at A under the action of a force and varying as the distance from $, and in its path towards S it strikes another particle of equal mass at rest at B prove that, if the particles be perfectly elastic, they will meet again on the opposite side of S at a distance equal to SB, and continue to impinge at B and B for ever.
7.
A particle
tending to S,
82
NEWTON.
LEMMA XL
The vanishing
which have
of the angle of contact, in all curves at the point of contact, are curvature finite ultimately in the duplicate ratio of the chords of the con terminous arcs.
siibtcnses
1.
Case A,
Let
}
Draw
the
JL
a,
ID
the points D, B, G move towards the points d, 3, g y and let / be the point of ultimate intersection of the lines BG, AG, when the points B, move up to A.
GI may
less
and GAB are equal, and But, since the angles also the right angles BDA, ABG, the triangles ABD, GAB are similar therefore A G, or BD.AG = AB*, and, similarly, Id.Ag = Ah*,
;
ABD
BD AB
:
AB
..
AB* AV =
:
BD.AG
:
Id.Ag
AB
:
BD
Atf
LEMMA
XI.
83
But, since GI may be made less than any assigned length, the ratio A G Ay may be made to differ from a ratio of equality less than by any assigned dif ference therefore the ratio AB* Atf may be made to differ from the ratio bd less than by any
: :
BD
assigned difference.
Hence, by
Case
2.
Lemma I.,
now
the
Let
BD subtenses BD
AB
,
AB
1
:
Ab*
is
the
Q. E. D.
bd be inclined at
to the tangent;
BD :bd
Case
3.
mately
BD
::
DBD,
:
d bd
::
:
BD
:
bd
;
BD
then,
:
by
similar
ulti
bd,
but
bd
Atf
therefore ultimately
AB*
Ab\
Q.E.D.
be not a given O if a to or be drawn given converge point, angle, according to any other [fixed] law [by which the remains finite, since BD is a subtense], still angle d constructed by this law common the angles
BD
to both, will continually approach to equality and become nearer than by any assigned difference, and will be therefore ultimately equal, by Lemma I., and hence BD, bd will be ultimately in the same
ratio as before.
Q.E.D.
COR.
1.
AD,
AB, Ab and
BC,
be
become ultimately
equal to the chords AB, Ab, their squares also will be ultimately as the subtenses BD, bd.
COR. 2. The squares of the same lines also will be ultimatelv as the sagittal of the arcs, which bisect the chords, and converge to a given point; for those sagittse are as the subtenses BD, bd.
/
c_?
COR.
therefore the sagittse will be ultimately in the duplicate ratio of the times in which a body describes the arcs with a given velocity.
3.
And
COR.
rectilinear triangles ADB, Adb are ulti in the triplicate ratio of the sides AD, Ad, mately
4.
The
84
NEWTON.
in the sesqui plicate ratio of the sides DB, db ; since these triangles are in the ratio compounded of Ad and Id, So also the triangles ABC, Abe will be ultimately in the triplicate ratio of the sides BO, be. The sesquiplicate ratio may be re garded as the subduplicate of the triplicate, or as
and
AD
BD
COR.
5.
in the duplicate ratio of AD, Ad [therefore, this being a property of a parabola,] at every point at which a curve has finite curvature an arc of a parabola can be drawn which will ultimately coincide with the curve and the curvilinear areas ADB, Adb will be ultimately twothirds of the rectilinear triangles ADB, Adb and the segments AB, Ab the third And hence these areas parts of the same triangles. and these segments will be in the triplicate ratio as well of the tangents AD, Ad as of the chords and arcs AB, Ab.
;
,
parallel
and
the angle of But, in all these contact to be neither infinitely greater nor infinitely less than the angles of contact which circles have with their tangents that is, that the curvature at the point A is neither infinitely great nor infinitely small; in other words, that the distance AI is of
;
magnitude. For might be taken proportional to AD*, in which case no circle could be drawn through the point A and the curve AB, and the between the tangent angle of contact would be infinitely less than that
finite
DB
AD
of
any
circle.
And,
DB
drawn in which similarly, if different curves be 6 5 varies successively as AD*, &c., a series of angles of contact will be presented which may be continued to an infinite number, of which each will
AD AD
,
LEMMA
XI.
85
be infinitely less than the preceding. And if curves varies as AD*, AD*, AD\ be drawn in which AD*, AD*, &G., another infinite series of angles of contact will be obtained, of which the first will be of the same kind as in the circle, the second infinitely greater, and each infinitely greater than the pre But, moreover, between any two of these ceding. an infinite series of other angles of contact angles can be inserted, of which each may be infinitely greater or infinitely less than any preceding; for 2 example, if between the limits AD and AD* there be inserted ADV,ADV,AD*, AD\ AD$, AD^AD^, A D J, A D^ &c. And, again, between any two angles of this series there can be inserted a new series of intermediate angles differing from one another by
DB
infinite intervals.
Nor does
admit any
limit.
The
propositions which have been demonstrated con cerning curved lines and the included areas are easily applied to curved surfaces and solid contents.
These Lemmas have been premised for the sake of escaping from the tedious demonstrations by the method of reductio ad absurdum, employed by the old
The demonstrations are certainly ren geometers. dered more concise by the method of indivisibles but, as there is a harshness in the hypothesis of indi visibles, and on that account it is considered to be an imperfect geometrical method, it has been pre ferred to make the demonstrations of the following propositions depend on the ultimate sums and ratios of vanishing quantities and on the prime sums and ratios of nascent quantities, i. e. on the limits of sums and ratios and therefore to premise demonstrations of those limits as concise as possible. By these demonstrations the same results are deducible as by the method of indivisibles and we may employ the
;
; ;
principles which have been established with greater safety. Consequently, if, in what follows, quantities
86
NEWTON.
should be treated of as if they consisted of particles [indefinitely small parts], or small curve lines should be employed as straight lines, it would not be in tended to convey the idea of indivisible, but of vanishing divisible quantities, not that of sums and ratios of determinate parts, but of the limits of sums and ratios and it must be remembered that the force of such demonstrations rests on the method exhibited in the preceding Lemmas.
;
An
made, that there can be no ultimate of inasmuch as vanishing quantities proportion before they have vanished the proportion is not
objection
is
;
and when they have vanished it does not But exist. by the same argument it could be main tained that there could be no ultimate velocity of a body arriving at a certain position at which its motion ceases for that this velocity, before the body
ultimate,
;
arrives at that position, is not the ultimate velocity ; and that, when it arrives there, there is no velocity. And the answer is easy that, by the ultimate velo
:
city
is
to be understood that,
when
the
body
is
moving, neither before it reaches the last position and the motion ceases nor after it has reached it, but at the instant at which it arrives i. e. the very
;
velocity with which it arrives at the last position with which the motion ceases.
and
And,
similarly, by the ultimate ratio of vanishing quantities is to be understood the ratio of the quan tities, not before they vanish nor after, but with which
they vanish.
Likewise, also, the prime ratio of nas cent quantities is the ratio with which they begin to And a prime or uRimate sum is that with which exist. it begins to be increased or ceases to be diminished.
attain at the
There is a limit which the velocity can end of the motion, but cannot surpass.
the like
proportions
com
And, since
this limit
LEMMA
is
XI.
87
it
certain
and
definite, to
determine
is
all geometrical geometrical problem. propo be may legitimately employed in determining and demonstrating other propositions which are themselves geometrical. It may also be argued that, if the ultimate ratios of
And
strictly a
sitions
vanishing quantities be given, the ultimate magni tudes will also be given, and thus every quantity will consist of indivisibles, contrary to what Euclid has demonstrated of incommensurable quantities, in his tenth book of the Elements.
But
this objection rests on a false Those hypothesis. ultimate ratios with which vanish are not quantities actually ratios of ultimate quantities, but limits to which the ratios of quantities without
decreasing
;
and which they can approach nearer than by any given difference, but which they can never surpass, nor reach before the quantities are indefinitely diminished The argument will be understood more in the
clearly case of infinitely great quantities. If two quantities, of which the difference is given, be increased infi nitely, their ultimate ratio will be given, namely, a ratio of equality, yet in this case the ultimate or greatest quantities of which that is the ratio will
not be given.
if at any time, for the sake of facility of the conception, expressions indefinitely smatt, or vanishing, or ultimate be used concerning quantities, care must be taken not to understand
thereby quantities determinate in magnitude, but to conceive them in all cases quantities to be diminished without limit.
Curvature of Curves.
curvature of a curve at any point is greater or less as the amount of deflection from the at that point, in tangent the immediate neighbourhood of the is point, greater or less.
60.
The
88
NEWTON.
curves will have the same curvature at two points, taken one in each, if at equal distances from the points of contact, in
the immediate neighbourhood of the points, they have the deflection from the tangents at those points.
Two
same
61
An
may
be obtained as follows
If
AB,
A, a
respectively,
AG
ac and take
AC= ac.
Draw
If
subtenses
BG and
be inclined at equal angles to the tangents. be were equal, for all equal values of 4(7, ac, the
BC,
If lie be ultimately curves would be equal and similar. ac are taken a ratio of equality, when AG, indefinitely small,
BG
the curves will have the same deflection from the tangents in the or the curves will have the immediate neighbourhood of } a,
same curvature
If the chords
at those points.
ab be drawn, it will be an immediate con lac will be (?, sequence that the ultimate ratio of the angles a ratio of equality. These angles are called the angles of contact.
AB,
BA
Hence, curves
one in each,
will
at
two
points,
tangents being drawn at those points, if, equal and subtenses inclined at any equal angles to the tangents, the
limiting ratio of the subtenses be a ratio of equality, or if the limiting ratio of the angles of contact be a ratio of equality.
of one curve will be infinitely greater or infinitely less than that of another if the limiting ratio of the subtense of the first to that of the second be infinitely great
62.
The curvature
or infinitely small.
63.
The
ratio
of the
curvature ot
another at two points, or of the curvature of the same curve at two different points, is the limiting ratio of the subtenses drawn
LEMMA
64.
point,
XI.
to
89
be
finite,
at
any
any
circle
finite, is
a finite ratio.
65.
The curvature of a circle is the same at every point. Let A, a be any two points on a circle, A (7, ac equal tan
gents at A, a, CBj cb subtenses perpendicular to the tangents, Od perpendicular to the subtenses produced; therefore
cd^
BD = bd]
;
hence
BC = bc
BG
In
vary inversely as
the
In the
Then, and
AC*=CB. CE; also, if AC be a tangent to another circle, A C be taken equal to A C, and the same construction be therefore CB.CE=C B .C E and made, A C = C B C E CB .C B :: C E CE; and when AC, AC are indefinitely therefore CB C B :: A AO, ulti diminished, CE=2AO
2
1
last figure,
produce
CB
to the
circumference in E.
radii.
Measure of Curvature. 67. The curvature of a circle is the same at every point
the curvatures of different circles
90
of the circles
finite
;
NLVTON.
and a
circle
curvature by varying the magnitude of the diameter. Hence, a circle can always be found whose curvature at
is
any
point
The
equal to that of a curve at a fixed point. curvature of a curve at any point is therefore
circle is found,
the same curvature as the curve at the given point. The diameter of the circle, which has the same curvature as the curve at a given point, the curve at that point.
is
of curvature of
is
The chord
The
any
direction,
called the
circle
of curvature, and is the which has the same tangent as the curve at any point, and
circle itself is called the circle
also the
same curvature.
other curve might have been chosen to establish a standard measure of finite curvature but, since no curve but
68.
Any
the circle has the same curvature at every point, it would then have been necessary, after selecting the curve, to specify the
point, the curvature at
curvature.
the standard curve were a parabola, we must choose the curvature of the parabola at the vertex or at the extremity
Thus,
if
some determinate
point,
by which
to
The inconvenience
is
obvious.
the
General Properties of
69.
Circle of Curvature.
at a
If a circle be
it
and cutting
circle will
assume a
limiting magnitude, and will evidently satisfy the condition of having the same curvature as the curve at that point.
Since a tangent at any point is the limiting position of a side, terminated in that point, of a polygon inscribed in
70.
the curve,
when
the
number of
sides
is
increased indefinitely,
LEMMA
so
XI.
91
the circle of curvature at any point is the limiting circle which passes through three consecutive angular points of the polygon, one of which coincides with the point.
71.
No
circle
its
lies
between
curve
and
of curvature^ of curvature
in the neighbourhood
is
of
the
drawn.
AQ
AS
lies
be the arc of the curve, Aq of the circle of let, if possible, another circle be drawn, of which between the curve and circle, and having there
same tangent
AR
at
and
let
RQ,
be ultimately in the inverse ratio of the diameters of the circles; therefore SR will be ultimately unequal
:
Then SR
qR
will
are ultimately in a ratio of in magnitude, will be ulti intermediate equality, SB, which mately equal to either, which is absurd ; therefore no circle, &c. This proposition corresponds to Euclid III., Prop. xvi.
to
qR
but,
since
qR and QR
is
72.
The
circle
of curvature generally
of the curve at different points taken along the curve continually increases or continually diminishes, until
it
arrives at a
maximum
or
minimum
value.
any point, on the side on which the curvature is increasing, as we proceed from the point, the curve will lie within the circle, and on the other side, on which the curvature is diminishing, the curve will which proves the proposition for the lie without the circle
;
drawn
at
general position of the point. For the particular case, in which the point is at a position of maximum or minimum curvature, as at the extremities of the
axes of an
ellipse, if
the curvature be a
maximum
the curvature
92
circle of
NEWTON.
curvature at the point under consideration ; therefore the circle will lie entirely within the curve on both sides near
the point of maximum curvature and, similarly, of minimum curvature. without the curve at points
;
it
will lie
by reference
to the
polygon inscribed
the curve, equal chords AB, BC, CD, r .. be placed in order, generally the angles ABC, BCD, CDE,... will increase or decrease, commencing from any point, which property of the
DE
polygon
will
have
when
diminished indefinitely, the corresponding property, that the curvature decreases or increases continually. Suppose the angles are increasing from B; make the angles
equal to the angle BCD, and BA, equal to will pass also through BC, CD...] then a circle through B, C, will be on and these and opposite sides of the points ,
CBA, CDE
DE
perimeter of the polygon, whence, if we proceed to the limit, the circle of curvature at a point in the middle of increasing curvature will cut the curve.
If the angles
ABC
lie
and
DEF be
each
less
BCD, CDE,
and BA,
supposed equal, the curvature will decrease and will pass through E, then increase, and the circle about
BCD
EF will
within the
circle,
the point of
minimum
curvature.
Evolute of a Curve.
of curvature be drawn at every of those circles will lie in a curve point of a curve, the centres which is called the evolute of the proposed curve.
73.
DEF. If the
circles
the evolute
of
a curve
Let
ABCDE be
any
equilateral polygon,
and
let
LEMMA
,
XI.
9.3
&
sides of the
The
ABC,
BCD,...
a,
&gt;,
c,...
will
,
be
and
the curve, which is the limit of the polygon abed..., will be the evolute of the curve a b c... , and the property proved for the polygons will be true for the limits of the polygons, therefore
the extremity of the string unwrapped from the evolute will trace the curve of which it is the evolute. This property gives
rise to the
name
of evolute.
string
The tangent
is
to the
evolute
of a curve
is
a normal
to
the
ultimately the tangent to the evolute and is perpendicular to BC, which is ultimately the tangent to the curve a b c ... , therefore the tangent to the evolute is a normal
Since b b
to the curve.
94
NEWTON.
Propositions on Diameters
76.
and Chords
the
the
of Curvature.
If a subtense
to
be
drawn from
of
finite
parallel
in
of
the
third pro
portional
the subtense
and
the arc.
its
circle of
curvature
tangent, and RQq the direction of a common subtense, meeting the circle in U. Draw the chord since parallel toRQ.
PR
be the
common
PV
RU
Then,
Rq.RU=PR\
is
Rq and PR.
If
and
PR = PQ,
by
Lemma VIL
is
Rq = RQ by
the property
Therefore
PV
RQ
and PQ.
COR.
portional
77.
is fhe limit
of
and
the arc.
TJie
drawn through
each equal
two cJwrds of curvature at any point of a parabola the focus, and in the direction of the diameter, are
times the focal distance of that point.
to four
Let
AP
be a parabola,
any
point,
RQ QM
^
to the diameter
PMx,
QM
the ordinate at
4P
PM and
there
to
RQ
and PR.
Hence,
4$P
is
LEMMA
subtense
XI.
is
95
therefore equal to the
QE
chord of curvature at
P in
And,
since
PS,
the chords in those directions are equal ; therefore the chord of curvature through S is four times the focal distance SP.
78.
of a parabola is a third proportional to the perpendicular from the focus on the tangent at that point^ and the focal distance of
that point.
QR
PR, and
let
PI
;
be the
Then PI.
..
since
the
QR = PQ* = PR* ultimately, = 4P. QR P/:4P:: QR QR SP SY; triangles SYP, QRR are similar; therefore ^PI
:
:
: :
is
a third proportional to
79.
SY
and
JSP.
The chord of curvature at any point of an ellipse drawn through the centre of the ellipse is a third proportional to the diameter through that point and the diameter conjugate to it. Let
to
be any point in an
ellipse,
PCG
QR
Q any point near P, it, an ordinate CP, parallel to DC, ture drawn through C.
conjugate to
DCD
QM
PV the
chord of curva^
..
QR = PQ* = Q3P ultimately, and QM* PM.MG CD CP PV. QR QR.MG CD CP* ultimately;
Then PV.
1
96
..
NEWTON.
ultimately;
J)
or
PV
80.
is
a third proportional to
PG and BCD
}
The chord of curvature at any point through tne j ocus is a third proportional to the major axis and the diameter parallel
to the
Draw
let
PV
SP cutting
the diameter
DCD
in
E,
subtense
QR
parallel to
SP.
:
Then
PV iPV::
: :
..
..
PV
is
a third proportional to
2PE
and
DCD
and
2PE is
81.
is
a third pro
twice the perpendicular from the point on the diameter portional parallel to the tangent and that diameter.
Draw
dicular to
QR"
DCD
PI
perpendicular to the tangent, and perpen and let PI be the diameter of curvature. ,
PF
PI .PV.
..
/.
is
QR"
LEMMA XL
82.
97
Since the chord of curvature in any direction varies inversely as the subtense QR drawn in that direction, it is easily
seen that,
will
if
PL
j
P and DCD
83.
be the portion of the chord intercepted between the chord of curvature at in the direction PL
2PL
P and BCD
propositions concerning the chords and diameter of curvature of an ellipse may be proved in the same words for
The
C
84.
is to the
A.
The radius of curvature at any point of a conic section normal in the duplicate ratio of the normal to the semi"
latus rectum.
Let
PK
PO
For
the parabola,
: :
but
2
;
: :
..
PK* L\
:
(ii)
For the
ellipse or
hyperbola,
PO.PF= CD
..
:
and
:
PK.PF=BC*;
2
but
..
L
..
PO PK PK
:
2
:
::
L\
98
85.
circle
NEWTON.
To find the chord common of curvature at any point.
to
If a circle intersect a conic section in four points, as and these points be joined in pairs by two lines, these lines will
PQUR
Thus, in
axis.
PQ,
For, if UR, QP intersect in 0, OE.OU= OP.OQ, hence the diameters of the ellipse parallel to UR, QP will be equal,
and therefore equally inclined to the axis. Let Q and R move up to and ultimately coincide with P, then the intersecting circle becomes the circle of curvature at P, and PQ is in the direction PT of the tangent, ultimately, and assumes the position of the chord common to the conic section and the circle of curvature at P. Hence, if PV be drawn at an equal inclination with PT to the axis, PV will be
RU
the
common
And,
if
PF",
meeting the
normal
86.
at
P in /, PI will
the
radius of curvature of a curve defined by the relation between the radius vector and the perpendicular from
To find
Let PY, PP Y* be the directions of consecutive sides of a polygon inscribed in a curve, SY, SY perpendiculars on these
LEMMA
sides;
XI.
99
draw
P0 P O
}
secting in 0, and
intersect in
PU
let
SY,
PY
;
W.
A semicircle on SP as diameter passes through Y and Y L YPW=L YSY = LPOP, and L WYP=L OP P] WPY are similar therefore the triangles POP
..
,
by
..
PO .PP ::PW: YW, SP::PU:PY also PP similar triangles PUP, SY P, and PW=PY PO SP:: PU: YW:: SP SP SY ~ SY
..
1
ultimately;
ultimately.
&lt;
Also,
if
PV
..
ultimately.
Observations on the
87.
Lemma.
In the proof of
Lemma
third proportional to
BD
to which, in
Case
3,
may
be determined,
we may
suppose that they always pass through a point given in position at a finite distance from A, or that they always touch a given curve; but it must be observed that the case in which they
100
NEWTON.
is excluded, at touch a curve which has the same tangent d do not in the limit remain since in this case the angles
AD
finite,
name
subtense.
be drawn from the middle point of an arc of a curve, making a finite angle with the chord, the part intercepted between the chord and the arc is called the sagitta
89.
DEF. If a
line
of the arc.
90.
subtense
drawn
ultimately one quarter of the at the extremity of the arc parallel to the sagitta.
is
Let the sagitta FE bisect the arc AB duced to the tangent at A in 6r, and let
parallel to
in
FE.
Then
/.
::
::
::
91.
COR.
5.
BD
bd
: :
DB AD Ad* proves
Z
:
ultimately in the form of a parabola, and that, drawn in the given direction is tho therefore, the line through corresponding diameter of the parabola of curvature.
Hence
may
be taken in any as
signed direction. If the subtenses be perpendicular to the tangent, the parabola of curvature will be the parabola whose curvature at the vertex
will determine the curvature of the curve, since the axis will be 44 ?7, in the figure page 104, perpendicular to the tangent, and if
to the subtense
and
U will be
the focus of the parabola. of this corollary the proposition alluded to under
44,
is
established
LEMMA
XI.
101
areas which takes place of the duplicate ratio, obtained in that the line, Lemma, is the triplicate ratio of the same lines, when coincides AE, instead of cutting the tangent at a finite angle, with the tangent.
92.
Scholium.
Let
AB,
AC
let
be two
subtenses
curves,
having a
the
common
tangent
AD at
A, and
DB,
DBC of
tangent
in the
AD"
curves
AB,
AC
respectively.
d, parallel to
Draw
dbc a
common
ordinate
DBG.
::
:
Then
and
if
be
Ad BD bd, n Ad n CD cd, and = n + r suppose, greater than n, AD\AD Ad\Ad \\BD\ld\ CD.AD cd .Ad r.BD.ld :: BD .AD Id .AD CD BD cd .Ad
:
:
AD AD
::
..
.ld.AD
r
,
::
::
and
fore
since b,
c,
AD vanishes in
BD
;
CD
is
are ultimately proportional to BD, CD, if in curves the subtenses vary according two follows it that, to different powers of the arcs or tangents, the angle of contact
of contact
BAD, CAD
of that curve in which the index of the power is the least will be infinitely greater than the angle of contact of the other.
Illustrations.
(1)
an arc
are
drawn
at the extremities of
to
ultimately equal
BT, when
AB
is indefinitely
102
NEWTON.
Draw
TCUV in
finite
and
B mUV.
Then
is
AT
at
A, and
TA*
and
TB*
::
TU=TV ultimately;
BD be
COR. If
AT+TB = AB = AD ultimately
therefore
AD will be ultimately bisected by the tangent BT. BT be a tangent at B, AB, BC equal chords of a (2) If curve of finite curvature, drawn from B, and AB be produced to making Bc=AB, and Cc be joined meeting BT in T, cT
c,
CT, when
the
arcs
AB, CB
are
diminished
indefinitely.
Let A U be drawn parallel to C T, meeting the tangent at in U, and let two circles touch UBT at B and pass one through
and the other through C, and let BV, or CT, then circles drawn parallel to
BV be chords
of these
AU
AU.BV=AB*,
and
LEMMA
XI.
103
CT.BV = BC
Z
;
but
A U= CT Through B draw RBR parallel to A C, meeting A U in R and Cc in R, then RU=RT, therefore 2RT is the difference
between
AB = BC,
AU and
,
CT, hence
RT ultimately
therefore
CR = Re,
vanishes compared
CT=
Tc ultimately.
1
of contact of a curve loith its tangent * equal distances be measured along the curve and tangent, the line extremities will ultimately be parallel to the normal joining their
If from
the point
In the
BC,
BT
;
meet
join
CT,
let
BE=
the chord
EC
is
and FC.
BC
BD + DC and BC, therefore, BT being equal to arc BC, the But the triangles BCE, point T lies always between E and F. DCF being both isosceles, each of the angles BEG, BFC will
ultimately be a right angle, therefore the angle
less
BTC, which
is
than BEG
BFC,
will also
ultimately be
a right angle.
Hence
CT will
NOTE. In order
by a
first
careless
shew the danger of falling into an error employment of the propositions proved in the
section, the following fallacious proof may be noticed of above the proposition. In the figure page 102, join BC, then BT: CB will be
Lemma VII
therefore
GET
CT will
be perpendicular
tangent
BT,
the
angle
BT
BC will
bisecting line.
The
fact is that
Lemma
BT and the
chord
BC
VII. only allows us to assert that differ by a quantity Tt, which vanishes
:
compared with either of them, and therefore but, by Lemma XI, CT & BC*; hence Tt
04
finite ratio, or
NEWTON.
be a
C T may
finite
angle to
B T,
proof
(4)
is
concerned.
construct for the focus of the parabola of curvature whose axis is in a given direction.
To
A.
&lt;l
J)
AB be a curve of finite curvature, BD, bd subtenses Draw A U perpendicular to parallel to AE the given direction. AD, and AS making angle UAS UAE; then since AE a diameter of the parabola by Art. 91, AS in the direction of
Let
is is
the focus.
Also,
if
to
BD
and
AD,
will
To find
the locus
of
the focus
of
the
parabola of curvature,
when
its
axis changes
its direction.
Let
BG be perpendicular to AD,
4AU.BC =
then the limiting , the parabola whose curvature at the vertex is the same as that of the curve at also, if 8 be the focus of the parabola whose axis is parallel to DB, 4.AS.DB = AD* = AC*, ultimately;
AC
therefore
if
AU: AS
::
BD
BC, and
angle
;
SAU = L DBG
will
hence
we join SU,
the triangles
8AU, CBD
be similar, and
is
ABC is an arc offinite curvature, and is divided so that AB BC m n, a constant ratio join AB, AC, BC, and shew that, ultimately, &ABC segment ABOi: 6mn (m + n]*.
::
:
LEMMA
For, by Cor.
:
XI.
105
XL ABO m* (m + n} seg AB seg ABC:: AB n (m + nf seg BC seg ABC m + n (m /. seg AB + seg BC seg ABC and A ABC = seg ABC  seg AB  seg BC; A ABC seg ^(7 3 (m n + win (m + n}
5,
Lemma
::
::
S
,
::
f TZ)
..
::
::
3mn
(m + w)
2
.
(7)
To find
the
easily seen
from
p.
56
(3),
that
SY being
perpendicular
PTj
the triangles
PSY,pBm,
and
CBp
are similar;
..
8Y: SP:: Bm Bp :: Bp BC; SY SP :: SP BC, since m = SP, ^P and (SY  SY BC = SP  SP SPSP 8Y~SY 2SY.BC: 3SP* ultimately;
..
:
..
3
;
::
..
by Art.
S=
xn.
1.
which
focal distance of the point in the parabola at the curvature is oneeighth of that at the vertex is equal to
106
NEWTON.
2. Prove that the diameter of curvature at the vertex of the major axis of an ellipse is equal to the latus rectum and shew
:
that the ratio of the curvature at the extremities of the axes of the cubes of the axes.
is
that
3. Shew that at no point of an ellipse will the circle of curvature pass through the centre, if the eccentricity be less
than Vi
Find for what point of an ellipse the circle of curvature passes through the other extremity of the diameter at that point, shew that the distance of this point from the centre is the side of the square of which AB is the diagonal.
4.
5.
In a rectangular hyperbola, the diameter of curvature at any and the chords of curvature through the focus and centre are
Prove that
axis is a
mean
the normal,
PC = A C B 0.
P in an ellipse for which the minor between the radius of curvature and proportional
at a point
Shew
If the radius of curvature for an ellipse at normal, prove that CP = CS. If moreover prove that CP  3PM.
7.
P be
twice the
AC=2C,
of a parabola pass If the circle of curvature at a point chord of the focal the other extremity through P, and the through T the the in that at P meet axis prove triangle PS T will tangent
8.
}
be equilateral.
Prove that the distance of the centre of curvature, at any of a parabola, from the directrix is three times that of the point
9.
point.
10. If trie circle of curvature at a point on a parabola touch the directrix, the focal distance of the point will be of the latus rectum.
&
is a normal at a point of a rectangular hyperbola, the curve in Q, prove that PQ, is equal to the meeting again diameter of curvature at P.
11.
PQ
12. Prove that the portion of the normal intercepted between the line joining the extremities of the two chords of curvature through
is
LEMMA
XI.
107
If fixed hyperbola is touched by a concentric ellipse. 13. the curvatures at the point of contact be equal, the area of the
ellipse will
be constant.
of finite
that the directrices of all parabolas touching a curve curvature at any given point, and having the same curvature at that point as the curve, pass through a fixed point.
14.
Shew
XIII.
1. Prove that the chord of curvature through the vertex 2PY T being the intersection of the of a parabola 2PY at and A. P tangents
: : : :
AP
2. Apply the property that the radius of curvature at any point of an ellipse is to the normal in the duplicate ratio of the normal to the semilatus rectum, to shew that the radius of curvature at the extremity of the major axis is equal to the semilatusrectum. 3. Assuming only that a curve has a subnormal of constant length, prove geometrically that its radius of curvature varies as the cube of its normal. 4. If Pp be any chord of an and p, shew that the curvatures at and PT.
ellipse,
P and p
PT,
pT
5. Shew that the sum of the chords of curvature through a focus of an ellipse at the extremities of conjugate diameters is constant. Also, if p, a be the radii of curvature at those points, 3 3 that prove p + a is constant.
6.
on an
same
at the points.
7. Prove that the distances of the centre of curvature at any point of an ellipse and of that point from the minor axis are in the duplicate ratio of the distances of the point and the directrix from the same axis. 8. An hyperbola touches an ellipse, having a pair of conjugate diameters of the ellipse for its asymptotes. Prove that the curves have the same curvature at the point of contact.
J) sin 2.
9. Shew that, if be the diameter of an ellipse parallel to the the length of the tangent at a point P, whose eccentric angle is chord common to the ellipse and circle of curvature at will be
&lt;f&gt;,
108
10.
NEWTON.
Determine a parabola of curvature in magnitude and position
circle,
when
#, y be the coordinates of a point P of a curve OP, the origin 0, the diameter of curvature at will through passing x* + 1/* a the inclination of the tangent be x sm a y cos a ultimately, being Hence shew that, if the equation of to the line of abscissae. at a curve, referred to rectangular areas, be y + 2ay  2ax = 0, the radius of curvature at the origin will be 2 ^2 a.
If
&lt;
12. circle is a circle of curvature, at a fixed point in the circumference, to an ellipse, one focus of which lies on the circle, phew that the locus of the other focus is also a circle.
Prove that the chord of curvature at any point P of an any direction PQ is half the harmonic mean between the two tangents drawn from P to the confocal conic that touches PQ, the tangents being reckoned positive when drawn towards the
13.
ellipse in
XIV.
AEB be the chord, AD tangent, and BD the subtense, ACB of finite curvature at A, find the limit of the ratio area ACBE area ACBD as B approaches A. 2. An arc of continuous curvature PQR is bisected in Q, PT is the tangent at P prove that, ultimately, as R approaches P, the is bisected by PQ. RPT angle 3. If AB be an arc of finite curvature bisected in C, and T be
1.
If
tl&gt;e
for
an arc
a point in the tangent at A, at a finite distance from A, prove that the angle B TC will be ultimately three times the angle CTA, when
J?
moves up
4.
to
A.
curves touch one another, and both are on the same common tangent. If in the plane of the curves this tangent revolve about the point of contact, or if it move parallel to itself, the prime ratio of the nascent chords in the former case will be the duplicate of their prime ratio in the latter case.
Bide of the
5. CB is a small arc of finite curvature prove that the mean of the distances of every point of the arc from the chord is equal to f of the distance of the middle point of the arc from the chord, and that the mean of the distances of every point of the arc from the tangent at either extremity of the arc is equal to f of the distance of the middle point of the arc from the same tangent.
;
Two
AB
LEMMA
XI.
109
6. When on an arc of continuous curvature there is no point where the curvature is a maximum or minimum, the circles of
its
in a curve increases uniformly with Prove that the area between the the of curvature of lengths a, b, and radii its two evolute, curve, is i (a~ + ab + which contain an angle 0.
8.
&lt;p,
b"}
such that the radius vector makes half the angle with the normal that it does with a fixed line find the chord of curvature through the pole.
9.
is
;
A curve
10. In a segment of an arc of finite curvature a pentagon is inscribed, one side of which is the chord of the arc, and the remaining Shew that the limiting ratio of the areas of the sides are equal.
pentagon and segment, when the chord moves up towards the tangent at one extremity, is 15 16.
:
and Q is a curve of continued and finite curvature, 11. are are two points in it, whose abscissae along the normal at the in from in the and two ratio m normal, 1, B, C, points always Pb, CPc, BQb CQc are drawn to meet the tangen* straight lines and Q move up to A, the areas 01 at A. Shew that, when
APQ
1.
AB
is
an arc of
:
finite
Tangents and B intersect the tangent at P in T and R, and AB is Prove that the ultimate ratio of the area ATRB to the joined. 2 2 z as B moves up to A, is 3 (m + mn + w ) 2 (m + w) APJB, segment
:
is
at
meets the normal at a point the centre of curvature at A, and when moves to in on the limit, A, the up prove that, the ratio OC OA. difference of OA and OB bears to
13.
a point
AC
14.
The tangent
in T,
to a curve at a point
is
AT
is
curve,
QPQ!
QP = PQ
trace out
= PO; prove that, as P moves round the curve, Q, Q two closed loops, the sum of whose areas is twice the area
a point within a closed oval curve, any point on the a straight line drawn in a given direction, such that
110
NEWTON.
When
its
value in con
sequence of the change of some element of its construction, the law of its variation can be graphically represented by the form of a curve in which the ordinate and abscissa of every
point represent respectively the corresponding values of the variable magnitude and of the element on which it depends.
of representation have been given in Arts. 55 and 57, in which the time or space is the element upon which depends the velocity or kinetic energy, which are
Examples
of this
mode
This
graphic representation
enables us
to
obtain
property of any
maximum
is
or
minimum
to
value of a variable
variety
magnitude which
of problems.
applicable
the solution of a
For,
let
Ox be
auxiliary curve at which the tangent parallel to Ox, and let the abscissa
RBS OA represent
AB
is
maximum
or
minimum
PBQ
in
the
the line
Ox.
PQ be drawn parallel to the tangent RBS, the two points P and Q one on each side of B have equal ordinates MP, NQ, which, as PQ moves up to and continues
Let a chord
the tangent, become nearer and nearer and are ultimately equal to the maximum or minimum value, while the difference between the corresponding abscissae ultimately vanishes.
parallel to
derived the following theorem : If a variable magnitude have a maximum or minimum value there will be two values of the element of construction, one greater
Hence
is
and
LEMMA XL
95.
111
Stationary value of a magnitude. be produced to meet the Let the equal ordinates MP, and $, then by Lemma XL, and QS vanish tangent in
NQ
PR
compared with
AM
or
AN, and
the
ratio
of the rates
of
increase of the ordinate to that of the abscissa, which is gene rally finite, vanishes for the critical case of a maximum or
minimum
is
said to
have a
of this method.
To find at what point on the bank of an oval pond a person must land in order to pass from a given point on the
96.
pond
to
a given point on
having given the ratio of his rates by land and by water. Let A, be the two given points, the point at which he
let ??y,
v be the velocities
On
he
which
take
if
P B
will
AM= A $,
&lt;
then
MR
in
water
AR
same time, therefore n QR = MR which is = ??, true, however near Q and R may be to P; therefore cos where is the angle between AP and the tangent at P; whence,
described in the
9
&lt;
when
is
can be found.
chord of an oval^ which, drawn through a given point, cuts off a maximum or minimum segment. it is Through the fixed point possible to draw two chords and one PA Q on each side of the required chord, for pAq,
97.
the
To find
which the areas cut off are exactly equal; take away the common part, and the remainders PAp, QAq are equal there when the angle between them vanishes, fore, ultimately, = PA.pA QA.qAj and the chord which cuts off a maximum or minimum area must be bisected by the fixed point.
;
98.
If a
triangle
of constant shape be described about a given when the area is a maximum the normals to
112
the sides
NEWTON.
of the circumscribed triangle at the angular points of the given triangle will meet in a point. Let be the given triangle, a/ity, od/S y two positions
ABC
of the circumscribing triangle whose areas are equal, the triangle of maximum area being intermediate in position. Since the angles at a, a are equal, the points a, a lie in
the same segment of a circle whose base in BC, and the angles a(7a , aBa are equal. Hence the triangles a(7a , /3(7/3 , /34/S ,
yAy\
&c., are ultimately proportional to (7a , (7/3 , .... But the sum of the areas cc(7a , /3Aj3 , yBy are ultimately
equal to the
. .
sum
of /3Q3
yAy
a.Ba!,
Let the
= 0.
 yB* = cuV  yN =
2
2
aZ&gt;
 7 Z) 2
if
ND be
perpendicular to ay
XV.
1. In an arc of continuous curvature w points . v 2 are taken so that the polygon AP^PZ has a maximum area; is indefinitely diminished, the arcs prove that, when the arc are all equal. y
,
AB
P P
AB
Find the greatest rectangle which can be inscribed in a triangle, one side of which is on a side of the triangle.
2.
3. Prove that the diagonals of the greatest rectangle which can be inscribed in an ellipse, having its sides parallel to the axes, are
A point
.
line is
APP A
taken on the major axis AA of an ellipse drawn through cutting the ellipse in the Prove that when the area of the quadrilateral
is
is
maximum
the projection of
PP
upon
AA
is
equal to
LEMMA
XT.
113
6. Prove that the quadrilateral of maximum area that can be formed with four straight lines AJ3, jBC, CD, DA, of given lengths Hence prove that is such that a circle can be described about it. the curve of given length which on a given chord encloses a maximum area is an arc of a circle.
a point on the exterior of two oval curves tangents are drawn to the inner; shew that, when the arc is a minimum or maximum, the radii of curvature at and Q are in the ratio TP sec a TQ sec/3, where a, /3 are the angles which TP, TQ respectively make with the normal at T.
7.
From
TP, TQ
PQ
8.
ellipse
Find the ultimate intersection of the chords common to an and two consecutive circles of curvature, and shew that when
:
the
it
common chord attains its maximum length for a given ellipse, cuts the ellipse at angles whose tangents are as 1 3.
9
triangle inscribed in a closed oval curve moves so that two Prove that when the area cut sides cut off constant areas. off by the third side is stationary the three lines formed by joining each angular point of the triangle to the intersection of tangents
of
its
at the other
10. Any two normal chords of an ellipse at right angles to each other cut off equal areas from the curve. Hence find the position of the normal chord which cuts off the minimum area.
11. An endless string just reaches round the circumference of an oval, and when it is cut at any point it is unwrapped until it becomes a tangent at the point of section shew that the involute BO formed will have a maximum or minimum length if the point of section be chosen so that the length of the oval shall be equal
;
114
NEWTON.
DIGRESSION
THE CYCLOID.
99.
line,
one plane, a circle roll along a straight any point on its circumference will describe a curve called
If,
DEF.
in
a Cycloid.
Let C,
from CD,
straight line,
be the points where the tracing point on which it rolls A the point where
;
P
it
meets the
is
furthest
AB being
The
AB
the axis,
100.
the vertex,
CD
the cusps.
the generating circle in any position, then, since the points of the base and circle come successively in are each contact without slipping, CS=arc PS, CB and
Let
EPS be
BD
101.
To draw a tangent
circle
to
then, con sidering a circle as the limit of a regular polygon of a large number of sides, it will roll by turning about the point of con
EPS,
tact,
be at rest for an instant, being an angular point therefore for an instant will move per of the polygon
which
will
pendicular to SP,
chord, which
If
A QB
PR of the supplemental be the tangent to the cycloid at P. as diameter, be the circle on an ordior in the direction
will therefore
AB
PQM
AB,
the tangent at
will be parallel to
To find
the length
Let
at P.
EPS
corre
sponding
to the point
in the cycloid,
PR
THE CYCLOID.
115
When
centre
POp
the
will have moved through a distance equal to Pp, and the motion of the generating point will be the resultant
of
Pp due
due
pP
Pp
parallel
to the base
;
of the
circle
and
PP
PR.
Draw pn
perpendicular to
since ultimately. arc of the cycloid measured from the vertex increases twice as fast as the chord of the generating circle, which is a
tangent to the cycloid, and they vanish simultaneously, therefore the arc of the cycloid is double of the chord of the generating
or referring to the circle on the axis the arc is double of the corresponding chord
circle,
AB
AP
as diameter,
A Q.
abscissa.
103.
To find
and
104.
cycloid,
To shew that the evolate of a given cycloid and that the radius of curvature of a cycloid
is
is
an equal
twice the
normal.
the axis, A the APC be half the given cycloid, and the base. to BC Produce making BC equal vertex, and let the semito AB, and complete the rectangle BOB C be generated by a circle, whose diameter is equal cycloid C to that of the generating circle of the given cycloid, rolling on
Let
AB
,
AB
6",
the axis of this cycloid. Let SPR, SP be two positions of the respective gene rating circles, having their diameters RS^ SR in the same the vertex,
CB
C being
CB
116
straight
line,
NEWTON.
P,
being the
corresponding
PR
and SP,
PR
points
of the
By
the
mode
of generation, arc
SP=SC,
is
and arc
SPRBC\
line.
..
L PSR = L
F8R
and
.%
PSF
a straight
r
Also,
arcP/S^arcPS;
..
chd.P/S =chd.P/S
also
CP OatP
and wrapped over the arc of the semicycloid, will, when unwrapped, have its extremity in the arc of the given cycloid hence, the evolute of a semicycloid is an equal semicycloid, and the radius of curvature at
therefore, a string fixed at
;
If another equal semicycloid be described by the circle rolling on C produced, the extremity of the string wrapped on this curve will trace out the remainder
is
2P$ or
to
oscillate
in
a given
105.
To find
the area
of the, cycloid.
in a cycloid,
Let P,
THE CYCLOID.
(),
117
corresponding points in the generating circle, p, p in the the intersections of the base with normals Pp, evolute, Rj
Pp, T, 8 the intersections of BQ and Fp with PQ. Then pR = PR = BQ, and bp P8=*p RR ultimately = &BQT;
therefore trapezium ultimately, and the same being true for all the inscribed triangles and trapeziums, whose sums are ultimately the areas of the semicircle and semicycloid,
therefore, by Cor., IV., the area of the cycloid times that of the generating circle.
PRR S=3&BQT
Lemma
is
three
is
following method of finding the area of a cycloid independent of the properties of the evolute.
106.
The
In the figure of Art. 104 let P be any point in the cycloid the chord of the generating circle which touches j the cycloid, and let Q be a point in the cycloid near P then
CPG PS
Let Q Q , ultimately coincides with PS. be the complements of the parallelogram whose diagonal is PS) and sides parallel and perpendicular to the base, these are
the arc
PQ
equal ultimately
therefore,
CNF = circular
The
segment
SP N CB BC
by
Lemma
.
the
is
area
of the
BOB C
the rectangle
118
NEWTON.
under the diameter and semicircumference of the generating circle, and is equal to four times the area of the semicircle ;
therefore the cycloidal area
semicircle.
CC B
is
107.
Let two cycloids APG, Ape be placed so that their vertices are the same, and their axes coincident in direction, and describe
on the axes AB, Ab as diameters. Draw Ag_Q cutting the circles in q, Q. are Then, since the segments Aq, arc :: if be similar, Aq arcAQ Aq AQ; and, mqp,
circles
:
AQ MQP
AQ = qp, QP
ApP
is
respectively
straight
QP
line.
Also
the
Ap AP:: Aq
:
AQ
::
Ab
AB,
condition the
To construct a cycloid which shall have its vertex at a given point, its base parallel to a given straight line, and which
108.
shall pass through a given point.
Let
line,
to the given
b,
and with
Ape, join AP intersecting this cycloid in p. Take AB a fourth proportional to Ap, AP, and Ab then AB will be the diameter of the generating circle of the required Ab AB, and cycloid; for, since Ap AP cycloids are P axis a point in the cycloid whose is AB. similar,
;
:
::
all
is
THE CYCLOID.
109.
119
cycloid,
the time
particle slides
is
whose
axis
vertical,
of an oscillation. Let be the vertical axis of the cycloidal arc APL, L the point from \\ hich the particle begins to move, PQ a small arc of
AB
its
QN perpendicular to AB]
A
respectively equal to
Suppose a point to
the particle
move from
to
A
L
AL, AP,
A Q.
in the
same time as
to A, their velocities cycloid from being always equal at equal distances from A. Let v be the velocity at or p, and the time of falling from to J, so that v* = and &lt;2AB = gT* , therefore
moves on the
ZgBM
A
and radius Al, and draw the Ap =pt^ audpt = vTj and if T be PQ =pq = vr ultimately, hence
z
tu
Al
pq pt
:
7 ;
therefore,
if
a point
,
move
in
with uniform
Al
velocity
=
the point
moving
IA
will
always be in the
and the motion in IA or LA will therefore be a simple harmonic motion, by (5) page 78. The time from L to A is the time of describing the quadrant
with velocity
~ =^T=\
,
120
NEWTON.
length of the string which, by the contrivance of Art. 104, makes a particle oscillate in this cycloid is 2AB=l suppose; therefore the time of the oscillation of a cycloidal pendulum
of length Zfrom rest to rest
The
=
to
TT
9 V/P V/
.
is
1
cos"
AP.
is
;
9
a
for,
is is
can shew that the motion on the cycloid simple harmonic motion by the first definition, (5) page 78
referring to the figure, page 115, since the tangent at parallel to AQ, the acceleration along the curve at
We
P P
AO
g.
jp=#
time from
111.
AP,
and,
by
(4)
page
77, the
is
of a very small oscillation of a simple pendulum suspended from a point. A simple pendulum is an imaginary pendulum consisting of a heavy particle called the bob, suspended from & point by means
To find
the time
of a rod or string without weight. In this case the pendulum describes the small arc of a circle
which may be considered the same as a cycloidal arc, the axis of which is half the length I of the pendulum, therefore the
1
is
TT
I 9
made by a given
112.
To count
the
number of
time.
oscillations
counting a very great number of oscillations, since in the case of a seconds pen dulum there would be 3600 oscillations for each hour, it becomes
In consequence of the
liability to error in
necessary to adopt some contrivance for diminishing the labour. For this purpose the pendulum is made to oscillate nearly in the same time as that of a clock; it is then placed in front of
that of the clock, so that when they are simultaneously near their lowest positions the bob of the pendulum and a cross
marked on
the
in the field of
THE CYCLOID.
Suppose that
after
121
of the
oscillations
given pendulum
they are again in coincidence close to the same position ; if there be such coincidences in the whole time of observation, the number of oscillations in that time will be mn ; thus the
only labour has been to count the n oscillations, and to estimate the number of the coincidences before the last one observed.
113.
To measure
of gravity by means
generated
by
oscillations in
m
/
= number
^
,
of seconds in one
in
oscillation
= TT
I is
v/
/g
therefore
j^oGOOj in
whatever unit
of length
estimated.
This would be a very exact method of determining g, if we but it is impossible to do this, could form a simple pendulum
;
too difficult to be only by explained here that it can be shewn how to deduce the length of the simple pendulum, which would oscillate in the same time as
and
it
is
calculations of a nature
at
any place
is
one second.
I
If
L
TT
the length
of a pendulum
,
making n
3600&gt;?i
oscillations in
,
m
J
hours,

g
115.
,
,
and
iiiiv*
TT
"
Y \
= !, /g 9
~~
IL
.. *
L= /P/V* m
[pv]
To determine
the height
of a mountain by means of a
seconds pendulum, the force of gravity at any point being supposed to vary inversely as the square of the distance from the centre of
the earth.
Let L be the length of a seconds pendulum, x the height of the mountain above the mean level of the sea, a the radius R
122
of the earth,
all
NEWTON.
expressed in feet; and let n be the number of in 24 hours by the pendulum at the top of the
seconds
lost
mountain.
If g be the measure of the accelerating effect of gravity at
the
mean
level
.
(a
+ xy
will
be
its
value at
the top of the mountain, and the time of oscillation at the top
...
will
be
TT
Y
.
I(L (a + x\ z \ M&lt;
a
or 
+x a
IL
TT
seconds, since
n)
ct
{g
V9
.
hence,
writing
for
24x60x60, (N n*
^^11 *
rl
;
= N,
and
bllt
a = 4000 x 1760 x 3 and JV= 24 x 60 x 60, therefore the height 2 == of the mountain will be 244 4/i + 0027;* thus, if n 10, the height will be 2444 7 feet.
NOTE. The
attraction of the
variation from the law of the inverse square, this law being true only if the earth consisted of homogeneous spherical strata.
To find the number of seconds lost in a day, in con the length of the seconds pendulum ; sequence of a slight error in
116.
and
conversely.
the length of of seconds in a day, the seconds pendulum, L + \ that of the incorrect pendulum, the number of its oscillations in a day;
Let
N be the
number
Nn
Epicycloid
directions,
in
opposite
a llijpocycloid
if
the
concavities be
in
123
is
To shew that
the evolute
of an epicycloid
a similar
epicycloid.
Let
FA
be the fixed
circle,
position,
the generating
APE the rolling circle in any point, CAE a line drawn through
the point of contact, meeting the rolling circle in A, E; and and will be a be the epicycloid, of which let
GPF
PA
PE
Draw
the chord
in 0.
EQ
parallel to
PA
:
and join
CQ
meeting
PA
produced
Since
EQ
is
parallel to
A 0,
CO: CQ:: CA
therefore
CE;
But $, being the describe similar figures. other extremity of the diameter through P, will describe an epicycloid similar and equal to GPF, being at its cusp when
and
P is at G the
Draw Oa
meeting
PO,
CA
rolling of a circle
circle of radius Ca.
AOa,
124
Also
NEWTON.
perpendicular to aO and is therefore a tangent tofF, \\encefF is the evolute of the given epicycloid and is a similar epicycloid.
the normal to
is
PO
GF
Let
lines,
Since
AO PA
:
EQ
CA
CE,
the
therefore
PO:PA::2(a + b):a +
curvature at
2J,
which gives
PO
radius
of
of the given epicycloid ; this will independently of the evolute in Art. 121 below.
be found
120.
To find
the length
of any arc of
the epicycloid.
By
the
last
figure, the
arcO^of
epicycloid
point,
=OP=2AP. ^77, f 26
= OF
to
the highest
=2AP. ^i^; a
GP
from
of the epicycloid
GPF=ZEP.
121.
To find
the
epicycloid,
125
BC be
AB, Be
sides,
consecutive sides of a fixed regular polygon sides of another regular polygon of n sides
it
rolls,
Let
as
P be
,
generate
PP P
will any angular point of the rolling polygon ; a figure composed of a series of circular arcs such when Be coincides with BC. being the position of
Produce PA,
P B to
meet
in 0.
LPBP = L cBC =
n
m
/.
\m
sinTr
n
.
PO PB
:
sin27r
+ }: (\m nj
( + } \m nj
When
indefinitely
increased, the
by
PO
If a, b be the radii of the fixed and rolling circles m.AB=27ra and n.AB=27rbj ultimately ; therefore n a : b]
PO PA::
:
25;
2PA
+ Vb*
where
PA
the part of the normal intercepted between the generating point and the point of contact. If a = GO , or the fixed circle become a straight line, the
epicycloid will
will
become a
cycloid,
in
122.
To find
the
area of an epicycloid.
area
2?r
In the
sector
last figure,
now
TT
PBP =
iPS".
\m
..
} and n) gj
y? *
]\
kPAB = \PB
sin
area^PP
P= &PAB l +
[
+ MK
j
ultimately;
hence, by
Lemma
120
NEWTON.
two normals and the fixed
circle
circle.
(3H \
Compare Art.
123.
properties of the hypocycloid may be proved in a similar manner; and the results obtained will be the same as for the epicycloid, if in the latter the sign
The corresponding
of b be changed. Thus, if the diameter of the fixed be double that of the rolling will become a straight line, which agrees circle, the u/pocycloid
with the result of Art. 121, since a + 26 radius of curvature at every point will be
= 0,
infinite.
124.
all
DEF. The equiangular spiral the radii drawn from, a fixed point
If a series of radii
is
at a constant angle.
125.
at equal angles,
...
)
SA, SB, SO, ... be drawn inclined and AB, BC, CD, ... make equal angles SAB,
limit
35
JD
of
the
polygon
...
ABCD
...,
when
the
will
equal
angles
A SB,
BSC,
spiral.
be an equiangular
126.
To find
SL
be the n th
THE EQUIANGULAR
radius from
similar,
SPIRAL.
127
SA
:
A SB,
1
BSC,
...
are
/.
SB: SC ... n Let SB=\.SA, then BC=\.AB, CD=V.AB...FL=\ \AB; AB + BC+...+ FL.AB:: I f X+...+ V  1 :: 1 Xn 1 X
8A
SB:.
SA\*.SA SASB:: SASL: SA SB, # cosASB = SA  SB ultimately, and cosa = &4 but .4 AB+BC + ... is ultimately the arc of the spiral therefore &rcAL= (SA  SL) seca.
::
:
127.
To find
the
two radii.
&ASB+ &BSC+ &CSD+... &ASB:: +X ...+ X lX :: SA*  SL* SA*  SB*, :: i_x
2
:
""
2
:
but
/.
SA* .%
cot a, ultimately
area
the
ASL = J
 SL 2 (SA*
tana.
radius and chord of curvature through the an equiangular spiral. pole at any point of Let SP, SQ be radii drawn to two points P and Q, near to
128.
To find
one another,
intersect
in
let
7?,
to the
spiral at
and
(?,
the normals
PO,
QO
intersect in
Oj
join
OR, SR.
128
NEWTON.
Then, since angles SQR, SPR are equal to two right angles, and each of the angles OQR, OPR is a right angle, the circle which passes through P, R^ and Q will also pass through S therefore L OSR is a and (9, and OR will be its diameter
;
is
the centre
P, and OSP is a right angle. SP coseca will Therefore if a be the angle of the spiral, be the radius of curvature, and 2/SP the chord of curvature
OP=
The
PV
but
..
SY SY: SP SP:: 2SF:PF; in the equiangular spiral SY SY :: SP: SP 8Y SY: SP SP ::SY: SP] whence PV= 2SP.
:
THE CATENARY.
130.
is
and perfectly flexible string, of which the extremities are sus pended at two points, would hang under the action of gravity,
supposed to be a constant force acting in parallel
lines.
The
directrix
is
the lowest point is equal to the tension at the lowest point. The axis is the vertical through the lowest point. 131.
a horizontal straight line whose depth below equal to the length of string whose weight is
The
tension at
any point of
from
that point^
would
be the lowest point of a uniform and perfectly flexible string hanging from two points under the action of gravity, the length of string whose weight is any other point,
Let
AO
Take a
point
in
and
let
M and
03/,
C.
BC
vertical
PM in
OA,
If a string pass round smooth pegs at APCB, it is evident that there will be a position of equilibrium whatever be the
THE CATENARY.
129
length of the string, or the position of BC, and for some length and some position of the tangent at will be horizontal.
BC
Also, since
T O BDG will
tensions of
the string at
B and C will
BO, CM of the string, without disturbing the equilibrium of AP, therefore the tension of the catenary at P is equal to the weight of a string of length PM.
and replaced by equal lengths
132.
proposition of the preceding article may be proved considering the catenary as the limit of the polygon formed
series of equal rods of the
BDG may
be removed
The
by by a
at
same substance jointed freely the extremities and suspended from two fixed points, when
is
indefinitely diminished.
equilibrium will be undisturbed if each rod be replaced by two weights at the extremities, each equal to half that of the rod, connected by a rod without weight.
The
Let
ABj
BC
be two
consecutive
positions
of the
s
rods,
130
NEWTON.
AM AM in D
The
weights equal to those of the rods being placed at A, B, C , let be vertical and horizontal, and produce CB to meet
BM
draw
DN perpendicular to
B
AB.
forces
which keep
of the sides of the triangle ABD, and are proportional to them. Therefore the difference of the tensions of and is
to the weight of the rod or mately, as
AN: AD
AB BG AB as AB BD AD, that ulti AM: AB, hence the difference of the
:
is,
tensions
the weight of a rod of length AM. Therefore, proceeding to the limit, the difference of tensions
is
any two points of the catenary is equal to the weight of string, which is equal in length to the vertical depth of one point below the other, whence the truth of the proposition.
at
P is a point in a catenary, PM perpendicular to the directrix, PT a tangent at P, MU perpendicular to PT ; to shew that PU is equal to the arc measured from the lowest point
133.
and
that
MU
is
constant.
Let PT, fig. for Art. 131, meet the directrix in T, and be the axis, then since the arc let A supposed to become rigid is in equilibrium under the action of the tensions at A and P and the weight, and these forces are in the directions
OM
AP
TPM^
: :
PU
MU
PM,
by
similar triangles
PU=AP
and
MU=AO.
To draw a tangent to a catenary at any point. and radius equal to A describe a circle, and With centre draw touching this circle in U; then, since MU, which is
134.
PU
perpendicular to at P.
135.
PU,
is
equal to
A 0, PU will
be the tangent
centre
= ON
OA = PM 2 9
UiM* = PU* ;
/.
THE LEMNISCATE.
136.
131
of
at
To find
the radius
and
a catenary.
Let
PQ
P and
Qj PJ/,
Q2? ordinates,
TOM the
QS tangents
directrix.
Since
QES is
:
tension at
.
.
PM PQ
P weight of PQ ES QR %PQ
:
PS
QR,
QR,
;
: :
ultimately
2PJ/ is the vertical chord of curvature, and P6r, the and the of the normal intercepted between the point part directrix is equal to the radius of curvature at P.
therefore
PG PM:: PT TM:: tension at P tension at A PM A 0, therefore the radius of curvature is a third pro and PM. portional to A
Also
: : : :
THE LEMNISCATE.
DEF. The Lemniscate is the locus of the feet of the perpendiculars drawn from the centre of a rectangular hyperbola
137.
To find
the radius
from
any point of
Let
CY
be perpendicular on
PT
132
NEWTON.
CP=
CD = A C\
since
AC=BG
CP= CD
Draw
the ordinate
..
PM,
then
CT.
CM=AC* = CY.CP;
and CMP,
then
OFT are
LPCM=L
Yio
page 55
;
TCY.
Draw GZ perpendicular
the lemniscate;
/.ZYC=LCPY= complement
To find
the
of twice
LYCA.
139.
of
the lemniscate.
CZ.CP=CY\
..
and
CY.CP=AC*}
:
AC*;
140.
To find
the
the centre,
and
the
radius of curvature at any point of the lemniscate. be the chord of curvature ; Let
YV
..
CZCZ\
CYCY CZCZ
:
::AC*:3CY*:: CY.3CZ;
/.
is
YV=$CY,
THE LEMXISCATE.
Also, the radius of curvature
::
:
133
^ YV
^CP,
or J of the radius at
Let S, of CS and
H be the
CH\
s,
foci of the
hyperbola,
s,
Draw
and join
therefore
SY HZ
,
bola at P, and
,
let
,
SY
to the hyper perpendicular to the tangent circle meet the auxiliary , again in
sY sZ
= sS, sY = s
sY,
JiY,
and
liZ.
Since Cs
Y",
YY
bisects it;
Y=
Now
therefore a circle can be
fore
LY sZ = LY CZ
CsY Z
there
CZ
since
the
altitude of
Y CZ
is
double of that of
Y sZ
therefore
sY.hY=%CA*,
proof I
which
is
the lemniscate.
For
this
am
XVI.
If a line move parallel to the base of a cycloid, find the limit of the ratio of the segment of the cycloid to the corresponding segment of the generating circle, when the line becomes indefinitely near to the tangent at the vertex.
1.
134
NEWTON.
2. A balloon was found to be sailing steadily before the wind an invariable elevation above the earth. A seconds pendulum suspended to the car was observed to make 2997 oscillations in 50 minutes shew that the height of the balloon was 4 miles and 7 yards nearly, the radius of the earth being 4000 miles.
at
3. If a particle be made to oscillate in a cycloid on a smooth inclined plane, whose inclination to. the horizon is 30, and the base of the cycloid be horizontal, find the radius of the generating circle in order that the particle may perform a complete oscillation in n seconds.
the corresponding position 4. If be a point in a cycloid, and of the centre of the generating circle, shew that PO will touch another cycloid of half the dimensions.
that the limit of the whole length of an epicycloid hypocycloid, corresponding to a complete revolution of the generating round the fixed circle, is eight times the radius of the latter, when that of the former is indefinitely diminished.
5. is
Shew
or
6. Prove that the epicycloid of one cusp referred to a point in its circumference.
7.
Shew
spiral,
that the evolute of an equiangular spiral is a similar and that the extremities of the diameters of curvature lie
in a similar spiral.
8.
An
equiangular spiral
rolls
along a straight
line,
shew that
its
9. Prove that, if a catenary roll on a fixed straight line, its directrix will always pass through a fixed point.
be drawn perpendicular to the tangent to a lemniscate 10. If S at a point P, and SA be the greatest value of SP, prove that SP*=SA 2 SY, S being the centre.
.
XVII.
the consideration that the diameter of curvature is the third the limit of proportional to the subtense perpendicular to the the and arc, prove that the radius of curvature of a cycloid tangent at any point is twice the normal cut off by the base.
1.
From
2. On the normal to a cycloid a constant length is measured both inwards and outwards; find the area included between the
loci of
THE LEMNISCATE.
3.
135
are consecutive points on an epicycloid of two cusps; the corresponding points of contact of the rolling with g, the fixed circle, pm, qn are drawn perpendicular to the cuspline ; prove that the elementary area PQj)q is twice the elementary area Hence find the area of the epicycloid and of its evolute. pmng?.
P,
from p,
4. Prove that the diimeter through the point of a rolling circle which generates an epicycloid always touches another epicycloid generated by a circle oi half the dimensions.
hypocycloid of n cusps has at any point a tangent drawn, that the length of the tangent, intercepted between the gene prove rating circle and the \ oint of contact, is to the arc measured from the point to the vertex of the branch in which the point is taken, as n 2(n 1).
5.
:
6. A bead slides on a hypocycloid being acted on by a force which varies as the distance from the centre of the hypocycloid and tending to it prove that the time of oscillation will be independent
;
the curve,
is
r p
.
from
sm&lt;j&gt;
the angle between this line and the fixed the point of contact, curvature of the curve at the point of and the radius of line, p
contact.
9. In an equiangular spiral, which is its own evolute, the area included between the curve and PQ, the radius of curvature at touching the evolute in Q, is %PQ tana, where a is the angle of the spiral, and is supposed not to cut the curve between
PQ
and
Q.
10. Prove, by the method of Lemma IV., that the area included between a catenaiy, the axis, the directrix, and the ordinate at any point P is twice the area of the triangle formed by the axis, the tangent at the vertex, and the straight line drawn perpendicular to the tangent at P from the point of intersection of the axis and
directrix.
SECTION
II.
CENTRIPETAL FORCES.
PEOP.
When a
I.
THEOREM
an
orbit,
I.
bod// revolves in
forces tending to a fixed point, scribes by radii drawn to the fixed centre of force, are in one fixed plane, and are proportional to the times of
describing them.
Let the time be divided into equal parts, and in the first interval let the body describe the straight line
AB
with uniform velocity, being acted on by no force. In the second interval it would, if no force
acted, proceed to c in produced, describing Be so that the equal areas ASB, BSc de equal to scribed by radii AS, BS, cS drawn to the centre $, would be completed in equal intervals.
AB
AB
But,
when
the
body
force tending to
PROP.
I.
THEOREM
T.
137
neous impulse, and cause the body to deviate from the direction Be, and to proceed in the direction BC. Let cCbe drawn parallel to BS, meeting J^in C, then, at the end of the second interval, the body will be found at C, in the same plane with the triangle ASB, in which Be and cC are drawn. Join SO;
and the triangle SBC, between parallels SB, Cc will be equal to the triangle SBc, and therefore
y
SAB.
In like manner,
the centripetal force act upon the body successively at C, D, E, &c., causing the body to describe in the successive intervals of time the straight lines CD, DE, EF, &c., these will all lie in the same plane and the triangle SCD will be to SCD, and equal to the triangle SBC, and
if
;
SDE
SEF to SDE.
Therefore equal areas are described in the same fixed and, componendo, the plane in equal intervals
;
to
each other as the times of describing them. Let now the number of these triangles be increased, and their breadth diminished indefinitely then their will be ultimately a curved line and perimeter the instantaneous forces will become ultimately a
ADF
centripetal force, by the action of which the body is continually deflected from the tangent to this curve, and which will act continuously and the areas
;
1 The velocity of a body attracted towards a fixed centre in a nonresisting medium is recipro cally proportional to the perpendicular dropped from that centre upon the tangent to the orbit.
For the
the bases
EF of equal
B,
C,
D,
are as
triangles,
and, since the triangles are equal, these bases are reciprocally proportional to the perpendiculars from T
138
jS let fall
NEWTON.
limit, in
upon them. [And the same is true in tlie which case the bases are in the direction
COR.
AB,
B C of two
arcs described in
equal successive times in a nonresisting medium by be com the same body the parallelogram of and the this diagonal parallelogram pleted, be produced in both directions in that position which it assumes ultimately when those arcs are diminished indefinitely, it will pass through the centre of force.
BV
ABCV
chords of arcs COR. 3. If, on AB, JBCanA on DE, described in a nonresisting medium in equal times, be completed, the parallelograms CV, and will be to one another in the the forces at ultimate ratio of the diagonals when the F, arcs are indefinitely diminished.
EF
AB E
DEFZ
EZ
For the
body represented by BC, EF in the polygon are compounded of the velocities represented by Be, I?Fand E/, EZ\ and those re presented by .Z?F, EZ, which are equal to cC,fF, in
velocities of the
the demonstration of the proposition were generated and E, by the impulses of the centripetal force at and are thus proportional to those impulses. [And the same is true in the limit, in which case the ulti mate ratio of the impulses at any two points is the ratio of the continuous forces at those points].
COR.
4.
The
forces
in
nonresisting media are deflected from rectilinear motion into curved orbits, are to one another as those sagittse of arcs described in equal times, which converge to the centre of force and bisect the chords, when those arcs are indefinitely diminished.
For the diagonals of the parallelograms ABCV, DEFZ bisect each other, and these sagittse are halves of the
when the arcs are indefinitely diagonals BV, diminished. [And the same will be true whether and DEF\&gt;Q parts of the same or of different
EZ
AUC
PliOP.
I.
THEOKEM
I.
139
orbits described by bodies of equal mass, if the arcs be described in equal times].
COR.
And therefore the accelerating effects of the forces are to that of the force of gravity as same those sagittse are to vertical sagittse of the parabolic arcs which projectiles describe in the same time.
5.
COR.
All the same conclusions are true by the Second Law of Motion, when the planes, in which the bodies move together with the centres of force which are situated in those planes, are not at rest, but are moving uniformly and parallel to themselves.
6.
The statement
"
is,
Areas, quas corpora in gyros acta radiis ad immobile centrum viriuni ductis describunt, et in planis immobilibus consistere, et esse temporibus proportionates,"
Observations on the Proposition.
of great importance for the student to distinguish between the forces themselves under the action of which the bodies may be moving, and the
142.
In
all
it is
which these forces produce. It is only by an examination of the motion of a body that we are able to infer that it is, or is not, acted on by any force ;
effects
velocity in a straight line, we infer that it is, during such motion, acted upon by no force, or that the forces which are acting upon it are in
if
we
body
is
any change of direction or velocity, gradual or abrupt, we infer that the body is moving under the action of some force or forces; if the change be gradual, we infer that such forces are finite, by which we mean that the forces require a finite time to produce a finite change whether of direction or velocity if, on the contrary, the change be abrupt, we infer that the forces are what are called impulsive,
equilibrium
;
if
we
is
that
such as produce a finite change in an instant. Since then, in order to make any inference with respect to the forces supposed to act, a clear conception of the motion of
is,
140
NEWTON.
a body must be first attained, it becomes necessary for the student to be able to describe the motion of a particle of matter
as he
would
.
motion.
he must give a geometrical description of the line traced by the point either in a plane or in space, and then he must describe the rate, uniform or variable, with which this
In doing
this
line is traversed.
then proceed to attribute any change of direction or velocity to the action of forces upon the particle whose motion he has been examining.
143.
He may
In accordance with
this
metry of the motion from the causes of the deviations, the tirst proposition would be stated in such a manner as the following When a point moves in a curve, in such a manner that the
"
accelerations at every point are in the direction of a fixed point, the areas, which it describes by radii drawn to the fixed point to
in
proportional to the times of describing them." And, generally, if the words force and body, employed by Newton, be replaced by acceleration and point, the resulting
statements will be in accordance with this geometrical method It will then be easy to use such terms in the of description.
proofs as will not imply, in the manner of expression, the action of force ; thus, instead of saying u let a centripetal force tending
upon the body by a single instantaneous impulse," we may use the words let a finite velocity be communicated
to
act
"
S."
144.
to
It should
be carefully observed
that, before
proceeding
the limit, it is proved that any polygonal areas SADS, SAFS, are proportional to the times of description of their
;
perimeters
become
finite curvi
145.
it
is
In proceeding to the ultimate state of the hypothesis? concluded readily from Lemmas II. and III. that the
;
but a greater
PROP.
I.
THEOREM
I.
141
difficulty arises in the transition from the discontinuous motion under the action of instantaneous impulsive forces to the con tinuous motion under the action of a continuous force tending
to S.
For, in the curvilinear path of the body which is the limit of the perimeter of the polygon, the direction of the motion
at the angular points of the polygon is different, and also the deflection from the direction of motion is twice as great in the polygon as it is in the curve.
the perimeter of the polygon may be described under the action of some force, is that force the same which is the limit of the
series of impulses ?
The
centripetal
force
"
in
stantaneous impulse,
impulsu unico
is
supposed
which
effect
finite force
cannot produce.
instead of this imaginary impulse, we suppose a force finite, but very great, and acting for a very short time, the effect upon the figure would be to round off the angular points
If,
of the polygon.
from the impulses to the continuous force, in the ultimate form of the hypothesis, must be considered as
transition
The
axiomatic, like the ultimate equality of the ratio of the finite arc to the perimeter of the inscribed polygon.
can, however, shew that if the curvilinear limit of the polygon be described under the action of some continuous force tending to $, the effect of this force, estimated by the
146.
We
quantity of motion generated in the interval between the im pulses, will be ultimately the same as that generated by the
impulse.
the geometrical properties of the limit of the Let BT, be tangents at B, C to the polygonal perimeter. curvilinear limit, and let Cc intersect T, fig. page 136.
first
Consider
CU
BT m
BC
ultimately bisected
CU=BU= UT
142
NEWTON.
which act
in the
two
cases.
In the polygonal path, the impulsive force at B generates a velocity with which the body describes Cc in the time t in
which
AB
is
or
BC
is
impulse
In the curvilinear path, the deflection from the direction BI is T(7, at B) in the same time by means of the continuous action of finite forces, and if we suppose the force ultimately
,
TC
^
V
,
TO
s c
Co
.t
L
.
Hence the
by
and impulsive
forces,
measured
can also shew that a continuous force, which gene in the rates the same quantity of motion as the impulse at
147.
We
time from
to
(7,
at
to
move
the perimeter. For the velocity due to the action of the finite force at the
2
end of time
TC
being ultimately
in the direction
TC^ and
TC,
is
BT
being
BT = 2TU
;
therefore
UT
the
represent the velocities in those directions direction of motion at (7, that is, the body
therefore
UC
moves
in the direction
of the tangent at
(7.
148.
COR.
1.
The
corollary
may
the proposition, for the proportionality of the areas to the times of describing them will be true if the force suddenly cease to act,
in
which case the body will proceed in the direction of the tangent. Let V be the velocity at the point A, A SB the curvilinear
PROP.
to
T.
THEOREM
triangle
I.
AT,
then
area
^B =
SAT=V. Tx
SY.
area
ASBcc
if
T\ therefore
V varies
F,
also
inversely as
Again,
in the unit of
time
employed in estimating the accelerating ing to S and the velocity of the body,
tend
2.are&SAB=hT
By
quent propositions by Newton
If bodies
..
h=V.SY.
may
move
in curves for
^. oY
statement in this corollary requires modi unless the forces be considered only with reference fication, for, to their accelerating effects, or unless the bodies be supposed of
4.
149.
COR.
The
motion of a body, when the circumstances of the motion are known for it supplies us with the ratio of this force to the force of gravity on the same the measure of which body at any
;
place,
PROP.
When
of tending
the
of
144
in
the proposition
NEWTON.
replaced by the property that the resolved part of the space described perpendicular to the direc
may
be
of the force is proportional to the times. This is immediately deducible from the second law of motion, since there is no force in the direction perpendicular to that of
tion
the forces, and the velocity in that direction is uniform. That this is the result of the properties in the proposition may be shewn by removing the centre of force to an infinite
distance.
s
Let
area
S be
AMN
proportional to the time of describing A C, and the areas and are ultimately equal when 8 is removed to an infinite distance in BMS, hence the triangle
ABCS
AMNS
ABCS
ASN
AN,
which
ASN,
is
CN
proved.
orbit about
152.
force tending constantly given time will be unaltered, if the force be suddenly increased or diminished, or if the body be acted on at any moment by an
a fixed point,
a a
to
that point.
be in For, if in the polygon the impulse at any point creased or diminished by any force tending to or from S, the
only effect will be to remove the vertex
C of the
triangle
SBC to
PROP.
I.
THEOREM
I.
145
in the line
cC
parallel to
US, hence
the area
be unaltered,
establishes
the
equality before.
Hence
of polygonal areas in a given time will proceed as in the limit the curvilinear areas described in
less
than two right angles when we proceed two parts of the curve will cut one another
any calculation made upon supposition of such changes of force, the value of h, Art. 148, will be the same before and after the change of the force.
Apses.
153.
DEF. In any
orbit
described
force tending to a fixed centre, a point at which the direction of the motion is perpendicular to the central distance is called
an apse,
distance,
is called
the
distance
is
called
an apsidal
and the angle between consecutive apsidal distances an apsidal angle. Thus, in the ellipse about the centre, the four extremities of the axes are apses there are two different apsidal distances,
;
is
a right angle.
is
In a central orbit described under the action of forces tending to a fixed point, each apsidal distance will divide the orbit
154.
symmetrically, if the forces be always equal at equal distances.
It
is
easily
shewn
that, in
any
orbit described
by a body
under the action of forces tending to a fixed point, the forces depending only upon the distance, if a second body be projected at any point with the velocity of the first in the opposite direc
tion,
it
direction,
in the reverse
be a portion of the polygon whose limit is the curvilinear path of the body, and produce to c, and
For,
let
ABC
AB
CB
to a,
CB
146
NEWTON.
at
The impulse
scribes
at
ABC,
and
if
measured by cC when the body de the motion be reversed, the same impulse
is
AB
BA, And
same
is
true
throughout the polygonal path, hence the assertion is true for the whole path, described under the action of impulses which
are always the same at the same points, and therefore, proceed ing to the limit, the statement made for any orbit is proved. Hence, since the forces are equal at equal distances on
both sides of the an apse apse, the path of the body from being similar and equal to the path which would be described if the velocity were reversed at the apse, is similar to the path
described in approaching the apse; whence the proposition
established.
is
155.
two
different
apsidal
distances,
and
For, after passing a second apse, the curve being symme trical on both a position that sides, a third apse will be in such the apsidal distance is the same as for the first apse, and all the
apsidal angles are
shewn
similarly to be equal.
156.
COR.
Hence
unless the ratio of the apsidal angle to a right angle be mensurable,, and if it be so, the curve will always reenter.
com
Illustrations.
(1)
If a
to
Itody describe
an
ellipse
under
the
action
of a force
tending
PliOP.
I.
THEOREM
and
I.
147
as
the distance
from
that focus,
the other.
For BC*:
/.
r
in oc
HP
body
focus
is to
(2)
77*
at the extremity
of
the
nearer
to
the
which
the
force
tends,
and
least in the
first
and greatest
in the second
The
velocity
at an
axis
is
geoanetric
mean between
the greatest
and
least velocities.
For
major
(4)
at this point
HZ= BC, and at the extremities of the HZ are Sa and SA, and BC* = SA.Sa.
^
force tending
the velocity oc
For,
(5)
SYac SP.
centre
to the
of
by a body,
of conjugate diameters
will be constant.
PCD
is
constant.
ing
to
The velocity at any point of an ellipse about a force tend a focus is compounded of two uniform velocities, one
to the
perpendicular
to the
major Let
axis.
S be
u:
148
NEWTON.
;
CII are perpendicular to the three directions therefore the velocity represented by HZ in magnitude is the resultant of the two represented by CZ and HG\ but the velocity perpen
dicular to
HZ=
~y,
= ^ HZ.
dicular to
HC and CZ are ^ ae
and
$
a.
XYIII.
1. If different bodies be projected with the same velocity from a given point, all being attracted by forces tending to one fixed point, shew that the areas described by the lines drawn from the fixed point to the bodies will be proportional to the bines of the
angles of projection.
2. "When a body describes a curvilinear orbit under the action of a force tending to a fixed point, will the direction of motion or the curvature of the orbit at any point be changed, if the force at the point receive a finite change ?
3. body moves in a parabola about a centre of force in the vertex, shew that the time of moving from any point to the vertex varies as the cube of the distance of the point from the axis of the
parabola.
4.
focus,
In a parabolic orbit described round a force tending to the shew that the velocity varies inversely as the normal at any
Shew also that the sum of the squares of the velocities ta point. the extremities of a focal chord is constant.
5. If the velocity at any point of an ellipse described about the centre can be equal to the difference of the greatest and least velocities, the major axis cannot be less than double of the minor.
to the
If an ellipse be described under the action of a force tending centre, shew that the velocity will vary directly as the diameter conjugate to that which passes through the body; also that the sum of the squares of the velocities at the extremities of conjugate diameters will be constant.
6.
In an ellipse described round a force tending to the focus, compare the intervals of time between the extremities of the same
7.
latus rectum,
8.
when AC=2CS.
In the
ellipse described
AB
BA
PROP.
I.
THEOREM
I.
149
9. If the velocities at three points in an ellipse described by a particle, the acceleration of which tends to either of the foci, be in arithmetical progression, prove that the velocities at the opposite extremities of the diameters passing through these points will be in harmonical progression.
10. If t? u v 2 be the velocities at the extremities of a diameter of an ellipse described about the focus, and u the velocity at either of those points when it is described about the centre, prove that u (v + r2 ) will be constant.
l
11. In a central orbit, the velocity of the foot of the perpen dicular from the centre of force on the tangent varies inversely as the length of the chord of curvature through the centre of force.
describing a parabola about its focus S; if its path, shew that its velocity at Q will and Q and a velocity which will be be compounded of the velocity at constant if the angle PSQ be constant.
12.
is
A particle
be two points of
XIX.
describes a parabola about a centre of force in the its velocity at any point may be resolved into two equal constant velocities, respectively perpendicular to the axis and to the focal distance of the point.
1.
;
A body
focus
shew that
2. body describes an ellipse under the action of a central shew that the sum of the velocities force tending to one of the foci at the extremities of any chord parallel to the major axis varies inversely as the diameter parallel to the direction of motion at
;
those points.
an ellipse under the action of a force shew that the component of the velocity at any point perpendicular to either focal distance is constant and
3.
body moves
;
in
that the sum. of the squares of the velocities, at the extremities of any pair of semiconjugate diameters, resolved in any given direction is constant.
4. In an ellipse described about a focus, the time of moving from the greatest focal distance to the extremity of the minor axis is m times that from the extremity of the minor axis to the least find the eccentricity, and shew that, if there be focal distance
;
a small error in m, the corresponding error in the eccentricity will z vary inversely as (1 + m)
.
5. If the velocity of a body in a given elliptic orbit be the same at a certain point, whether it describe the orbit in a time t about
150
one focus, or in a time
t
t.
NEWTON.
about the other, prove
that,
~
2a being the
major
v be
77
A and
v
6. A body describes a parabola about the focus; if the seg ments PS, Sp of the focal chord PSp be in the ratio n 1, prove that the time in pA time in AP 3n + I n~ (n + 3).
:
7.
P and
to
perpendicular to the tangent to a curve at P, and as if under the action of a central force tending will vary as SY. prove that the radius of curvature at
F"both
If
$Fbo
move
Q be any two points in an ellipse described by a the action of a force tending to the centre, prove under particle that tl;e velocity acquired in passing from P to Q will be in the direction QP where P is the other extremity of the diameter P. through
8.
If P,
9.
Two
points P,
are
moving
in the
same
ellipse,
in the
same
directions, with accelerations tending to the centre C; shew that the relative velocity of one with regard to the other is parallel and proportional to CT, where is the point of intersection of the
move
in opposite directions,
orbit
Two particles revolve in the same direction in an oval round a centre of force S, which divides the axis unequally, starting simultaneously from the extremities of a chord PQ, drawn through S. Prove that, when they first arrive in positions R, T respectively, such that the angle RST is a minimum, the time from R to the next apse will be an arithmetic mean between the times from P to the next apse and to Q from the last apse.
10.
Two equal particles are attached to the extremities of a of string length 2/, and lie in a smooth horizontal plane with the if the middle point of the string be drawn with string stretched uniform velocity v in a direction perpendicular to the nitial direc tion of the string, shew that the path of each particle will be a
11.
;
lir
cycloid,
particles will
meet
after a time
12. If the velocity in a central orbit can be resolved into two constant components, one perpendicular to the radius vector, and the other to a fixed straight line, shew that the curve must be
conic.
13. The velocity in a cardioid described about a force tending to the pole varies in the inverse sesquiplicate ratio of the distance.
14. The velocity in the lemniscate varies inversely as the cube of the central distance, when a particle moves in the curve round a force tending to the centre.
PROP.
II.
THEOREM
II.
151
PROP.
Every
"body,
II.
THEOREM
II.
which moves in any curve line described in a plane, and describes areas proportional to the times of describing them about a point either fixed or moving uniformly in a straight line, by ra Hi drawn to that point, is acted on by a centripetal force tending to the
same point.
Case
1.
and
body describe
AB
;
with uniform velocity, being acted on by no force in the second interval it would, if no force acted, pro ceed to c in produced, describing Be equal to AB\ and the triangles ASB, BSc would be equal. But
AB
&lt;L
BSc
in the second interval of time, so that the tri is equal to the angle triangle ASB, and there and fore also to the triangle BSc therefore
BC
when the body arrives at B, let a force, acting upon it by a single impulse, cause the body to describe
BSC
BSC
same
parallels,
hence 2?$
is
152
NEWTON.
Similarly, if at (7, Z), ... the body be acted on by im pulses causing it to move in the sides CD, DE, ... of a polygon, in the successive intervals, making the and BSC, the triangles CSD, DSE, ... equal to to can be have been in shewn the directions impulses Hence, if any polygonal areas be de OS, DS, .... scribed proportional to the times of describing them, the impulses at the angular points will all tend to &.
ASB
The same
if the number of intervals be their increased and length diminished indefinitely, in which case the series of impulses will approximate to a continuous force tending to $, and the polygons to curvilinear areas, as their limits. Hence the pro
will
be true
position
is
Case
proposition will also be true if S be a point which moves uniformly in a straight line, for, by the second law of motion, the relative motion will be the same, whether we suppose the plane to be at rest, or that it moves together with the body which revolves and the point $, uniformly in one direction.
2.
The
CcR. 1.
In nonresisting media, if the areas be not proportional to the times, the forces will not tend to the point to which the radii are drawn, but w ill deviate in consequential, i.e. in that direction towards which the motion takes place, if the description of but if it be retarded, the devi areas be accelerated ation will be in antecedentid.
r
COR.
also in resisting media, if the description of areas be accelerated, the directions of the forces will deviate from the point to which the radii are
2.
And
takes place.
SCHOLIUM.
body may be acted on by a centripetal force com pounded of several forces In this case, the meaning
PROP.
II.
THEOREM
II.
153
of the proposition is, that that force, which is the resultant of all, tends to S. Moreover, if any force act continually in a line perpendicular to the plane of the areas described, this force will cause the body to deviate from the plane of its motion, but will neither increase nor diminish the amount of area described, and therefore must be neglected in the composition of the forces.
Observations on the Proposition.
description of an area round a point in motion may be explained by the following construction for the relative orbit, in the case of motion about a point which is itself moving
157.
The
S moves
uniformly, and
let
the
A
cr
to
B in
the
S moves
from
and
let
P,
or
a"
$
cr$,
If
PP
construction be
made
,
for
is
every
point in the
the curve
AP B
which
the locus of
the body would appear to describe to an observer at $, who referred all the motion to the body ; for will be equal and
SP
parallel to crP, and therefore the distance of the body, and the direction in which it is seen, will be the same in the two cases. If , Q be corresponding points near and and the force ,
at
cr
will be unaltered if
be supposed to act impulsively, the relative motion round cr we apply to both P and a velocities equal to
154
that of
CF
NEWTON
and
be
in a contrary direction, but in this case a will will be the reduced to rest and the velocity of velocity
relative to a.
same time,
relative to
to
which are described in the represent the velocities of P and cr, and let Qq be
act
,
Take
PQ
cr,
and
cr
then
Pq
is and, since equal therefore the in and the orbit and parallel to Pq, velocity about S at rest is equal to the relative velocity about S in
;
Q q = Sa
AB
motion.
158.
CoR.
1.
area,, if
the
tri
angle SBC be greater than the triangle SAB^ the Impulse at will not be in the direction BS, but BU, parallel to cC", that is r if the areas be not proportional to the times but be in an
increasing ratio, the direction of the force will deviate towards the direction in which the description of areas is accelerated
5.
and
vice versd^
when
the description
effect
is
retarded.
159.
COR.
2.
The
therefore the description of areas be accelerated, must act still in the direction the impulse applied at further til consequentid than that in BU, in order that, with the
;
BA
if
BU
it
may
produce a resultant impulse in the direction of BU. The effect of the resistance alone is to retard the description of areas. If the force act in consequent id, the resultant of this force
PROP.
IT.
THEOREM
II.
and the resistance of the medium may act in the direction BS, and the proportionality of the areas to the times be preserved,
160.
in the plane,
PROP. Let ABCDE be any plane curve, to shew that, generally, the curve can
of a force tending
to
any point
be described
under
the action
For
arcs
any given point being any given velocity. AB, BC, ... can be measured from any point A,
SAB,
SBC,.,, are
all
equal,
move along
arcs
the arcs, as
pass through S, in which case, if the arcs be will not be finite ultimately. indefinitely diminished, Hence by Prop. II. a body can move with finite velocity
the curve with finite velocity, so as to describe the ... iq equal times, unless the tangent to one of
DE:AB
to or
from S, generally.
Since in making the motion of the body such that it shall describe equal areas in equal times we are only con cerned with the ratio of the velocities, the at any
1.
NOTE
velocity
point
may
162.
NOTE
2.
Or
if
we
;
please
we may suppose
the force at
any point any given force for, in the case of the polygon, the velocity generated by the impulse at B is to the velocity in AB as c C to Be, hence the impulse at B may be of any magnitude
if
we
AB properly.
163.
NOTE
3.
The
ratio
same
at two given points, for all forces tending to a given centre, ynder the action of which the curve can be described.
156
164.
ellipse
NEWTON.
NOTE
4.
under the action of a centripetal force tending to the centre or focus, the force depending only on the distance, since
in these cases the curve
;
symmetrical on opposite sides of any the ellipse, if the forces do not within apse any point depend only on the distance, since no point within an ellipse lies
is
or about
on any tangent.
In the case of an oval, S being an external under the action of point, a body can move with finite velocity a force tending to the point $, in the portion which is concave to
165.
NOTE
5.
is
convex
to $, but not
from one
XX.
If an ellipse be described so that the sum of the areas swept out by radii drawn to the vertices is proportional to the times of describing them, prove that the resultant acceleration will tend to the centre.
1.
2. body is moving in a parabola, and the time from the shew that vertex to any point varies as the cube of the ordinate this motion could be caused by the action of a central force.
;
was moving in a circle, and it was observed that the time of describing any arc from a fixed point varied as the sum of the arc and the perpendicular distance from one extremity of the arc on the diameter through the other shew that the body was acted on by a central force.
3.
;
A body
heavy particle falls from the cusp to the vertex of a whose axis is vertical shew that a particle could describe cycloid, the cycloid in the same manner under the action of a constant force directed to a certain moving point.
4.
;
5. From the centre of a planet a perpendicular is let fall upon the plane of the ecliptic prove that the foot of this perpendicular will move as if it were a particle acted on by a force tending to the
;
sun
s centre,
PROP.
III.
THEOREM
III.
157
PROP. TIL
Every body, which
THEOREM
III.
describes areas proportional to the times of describing them by radii draivn to the centre of another body which is moving in any manner whatever , is acted on
by a force compounded of a centripetal force tending to that other body, and of the ivhole accelerating force which acts upon that other body.
Let the
body be Z, the second T, T moves under the action of some force P, L under the action of
first
At every
which
it acts,
as represented
will continue to describe about T, as before, areas proportional to the times of describing them, and since there is now no force acting on T, is at rest
moves uniformly in a straight line. Therefore, by Theorem II., the resultant of the force F and the force P applied to L tends to T. Hence Pis compounded of a centripetal force tending to T, and of a force equal to that which acts on T. Q.E.D.
or
COR
1.
Hence,
if
body
drawn
to
another body T]
acts upon Z, whether a single force or compounded of several forces, be taken away the whole accelerating
force
which
acts
158
NEWTON.
force,
remaining
COR.
2.
which
acts
other body
T as
if
upon Z,
a centre.
these areas be very nearly proportional to the times of describing them, the remaining force will tend to the other body very nearly.
And
COR.
the remaining force tend very nearly to the other body T, the areas will be very nearly proportional to the times.
3.
And, conversely,
if
COR.
describe areas which are very from being proportional to the times of describing them, by radii drawn to another body T, and that other body T be at rest, or move uniformly in a straight line, then either there will be no centripetal force tending to that other body T, or such centri petal force will be compounded with the action of other very powerful forces, and the whole force com pounded of all the forces, if there be many, may be directed towards some other centre fixed or moving.
4.
If the
body
far
The same
the other body moves in any manner whatever, if the centripetal force spoken of be understood to be that which remains after taking away the whole force acting upon the other body T.
will hold,
when
SCHOLIUM.
Since the equable description of areas is a guide to the centre to which that force tends, by which a body is principally acted on, and by which it is deflected
from rectilinear motion, and retained in its orbit, we may, in what follows, employ the equable description of areas as a guide to the centre, about which all curvilinear motion in free space takes place.
Illustration.
As an illustration of the last propositions and their facts in the corollaries, we may state some of the observed motion of the Moon, Earth, and Sun, and make the deductions
166.
corresponding to them.
PROP.
Ill
THEOREM
III.
159
to
Suppose the Moon s orbit relative to the Earth the Earth. circular, and let ABCD be this orbit,
be nearly
(1)
The
areas described
by the
radii
to the
Earth are nearly proportional to the times of describing hence the resultant force on the Moon tends nearly to E.
(2)
If
ES the
s
Earth
DEB
be perpendicular to
accelerated as the
Moon
CS, the description of areas will be moves from to and from to (7,
A
;
A
to
to
B and
from
C to
in
Moon
the positions
J/2
M^
will
be
to the radii
drawn
E.
these observed facts, we see that when the force, under the action of which moves, is applied to the Moon in the
From
contrary direction, the remaining force tends in the directions of the arrows.
the supposition that the Earth and Moon are acted on by forces tending to the sun, whose distance compared with is very great, and that the differences of the forces on these
By
EM
bodies are not very great, the accelerating effect of the force on the Moon in being greater than that on the Earth, and in
DAB
BCD
the circumstances of the description of areas in the motion of the Moon are accounted for.
less,
160
NEWTON.
PROP.
The
IV.
THEOREM
IV.
centripetal forces on equal bodies, which describe dif ferent circles with uniform velocity, tend 1o the centres of
the circles, and are to each other as the squares of arcs described in the same time, divided by the radii of the
circles.
therefore the arcs described are proportional to the times of describing them and the sectors of circles are proportional to the arcs on which they stand, therefore the areas described by radii drawn to the centres are proportional to the times of describing them ; hence, by Prop. II., the forces tend to the centres of the circles.
;
Again,
let
AB,
tangents at A, a, ACSG, acsg diameters through A, a. Join AB, ab, arid draw BC, be per pendicular to ACr, ag. When the arcs AB, ab are indefinitely diminished, since A C, ac are sagittse of the double of arcs AB, ab described in equal times, they are ultimately, by Prop. I., Cor. 4, as the forces at A and a.
AD, ad
But
AC.AG =
PROP. IV.
.*.
THEOREM
::
IV.
force at
m
force at a
.
AC
.
II
(chd AEJ
r~7v
Ad
tiriies,
.*.
ac ultimately,
j
(didab)*
(arcABJ*
(arcafl)
ag
ae
AG
4
rv
T L*em.
VTT V LL.
ag
Take AE,
then
AE:
ae::
AB
is
in any equal finite ab, since the bodies move also true in the limit 5
:
f
:
AE*
::

a&lt;?
force at a
\
AS
r~
as
Q.E.D.
COR.
Since these arcs are proportional to the velo the bodies, the centripetal forces will be in of cities the ratio compounded of the duplicate ratio of the velocities directly, and the simple ratio of the radii
1.
inversely.
That
is, if
V, v
circles,
R, f
:
the radii,
^,/the
.
.
AE:
ae::
V
F:/::^ R
.
r
v*
COR. 2. And since the circumferences of the circles are described in their periodic times, the velocities are in the ratio compounded of the ratio of the radii directly and the ratio of the periodic times inversely hence the centripetal forces are in the ratio compounded of the ratio of the radii directly, and of the ratio of the squares of the periodic times inversely.
;
If Pj
circles re
spectively,
ZTTT
:
R
::
r
:
v::
~~p
L
~^
p
*
T~* R
P p
TV.i
COR.
periodic times be equal, and there fore the velocities proportional to the radii, the cen radii ; and conversely. tripetal forces will be as the
3.
Hence,
if the
62
NEWTON,
If
P = p,
then F: v
/.
::
r;
2
?;
:
F*
^:/::
_,
r.
if the periodic times be in the subduplicate the ratio of radii, the centripetal forces will be equal. 2 That is, if r, then JP=/, by Cor. 2.
COR.
4.
Also
P /
:
COR.
If the periodic times be as the radii, and therefore the velocities equal, the centripetal forces and conversely. will be reciprocally as the radii
5.
;
COR.
If the periodic times be in the sesquiplicate ratio of the radii, and therefore the velocities recipro cally in the subduplicate ratio of the radii, the cen tripetal forces will be reciprocally as the squares of
6.
;
the radii
and conversely.
2
:
That
is,
ifP :/:: /f
then V
:
r\
R* : :
r*
:
I
:
\
:
P p
T ^
2
n E
r
I
**
F ____///^
v*
"
ft
?*
And, generally, if the periodic times vary as n the velo any power E of the radius R, and, therefore, n~ E as the the power city vary inversely centripetal in force will vary inversely as and conversely. COR. 8. All the same proportions can be proved con cerning the times, velocities, and forces, by which
COR.
7.
l
"
which are similar and have centres of force similarly situated, if the demonstrations be applied to those
cases, uniform description of areas being substituted for uniform velocity, and distances of the bodies from the
centres of force for radii of the circles.
Let AE,
be similar arcs of similar curves described by bodies about forces tending to similarly situated and let AB, ab be small arcs described points $, s
ae
]
PKOP.
IV.
THEOREM
IV.
1G3
In equal times ; BD, subtenses parallel to SA, sa] AV, av chords of curvature at A, a, so that
AV
av
::
AS
as*
y
Then,
force at
A
2
force at
: :
DB
,
db, ultimately,
AB
if F,
AV
^f=
atf
AB*
7^7
aV
sa
av
&A
ultimately:
AB
force at
if
force
ata::
v*
r
:
SA
*a
as Cor. 1,
Again,
Tj
tt
and
arcs
ab be small similar arcs described in times instead of being arcs described in equal times, P, p be the times of describing similar finite
j
A B,
ae,
:
T:
::
area A SB
area
ASEr. vreaasb
aveaase \\t\p\
therefore,
Hence, F:f::
V ^
5 7a
e
atf
:
::
^sa
~~2
ultimately,
^4
~7p^
^^4
~p?
COR.
9. It follows also from the same proposition, that the arc which a body, moving with uniform velocity ina circle under the action of a given centripetal force, describes in any time, is a mean proportional be tween the diameter of the circle, and the space through which the body would fall from rest under the action of the same force and in the same time.
164
NEWTOS.
For, let ALlne the space described from vest in the same time as the arc AJS, then since, if be perpendi cular to the tangent at A, will be ultimately the space described by the body, under the action of the force at 4, in the time in which the body describes the arc AB, and the times are proportional to the arcs ;
BD
BD
..
Z
;
..
AL.AG BD.AG
(&lt;k&AB)*
::
AE*
:
AB*\
ultimately;
::
and
BD.AG =
= (xccAB)\
or
therefore
AL.AG = AE\
AL AE
AE
AG.
Q.E.D.
SCHOLIUM.
The
case of the sixth Corollary holds for the heavenly bodies, and on that account the motion of bodies acted upon by a centripetal force, which decreases in the duplicate ratio of the distance from the centre offeree, is treated of more fully in the following section. Moreover, by the aid of the preceding proposition and its corollaries, the proportion of a centripetal force to any known force, such as gravity, can be obtained. For, if a body revolve in a circle concentric with the earth by the action of its own gravity, this
centripetal force. But, from the falling of heavy bodies, by Cor. 9, both the time of one revolution and the arcs described in any given time are determined.
gravity
is its
And by
propositions of this kind Huygens, in his ex cellent tract, De Horologio Oscillator io, compared the force of gravity with the centrifugal force of re volving bodies.
results
The preceding
may
a body moving with a given velocity along the sides of the polygon be reflected by the circle at each of its angular points, the force with which it impinges on
if
And
PROP. IV.
THEOREM
IV.
1G&lt;3
the circle at each of the reflections will be propor tional to the velocity and therefore the sum of the forces, in a given time, will vary as the velocity and the number of the reflections conjointly. But if the number of sides of the polygon be given, the velo city will vary as the space described in a given time, and the number of reflections in a given time will vary, in different circles, inversely as the radii of the circles, and, in the same circle, directly as the Hence, the sum of the forces exerted in a velocity. given time varies as the space described in that time increased or diminished in the ratio of that space to the radius of the circle that is, as the square of that space divided by the radius, and therefore, if the number of sides be diminished indefinitely so that the polygon coincides with the circle, the sum of the forces varies as the square of the arc described in the given time divided by the radius.
;
;
This
the centrifugal force by which the borly presses against the circle, and to this the opposite force is equal, by which the circle continually repels the body towards the centre.
is
In the statement of the proposition the words arcunra qtiadrata applicata ad radios," in the text of Newton, is rendered
167.
"
by the
radii.
Such expressions as
of lines
(e.g.
AB
^
may
be regarded as representations
this
expression denotes AC] whose lengths are determined by such constructions as the following :
To AG apply a rectangle whose area AB, and let AC be the side adjacent
obtained by applying the square on
of the symbol
is
to
AB to AG.
AG} AC
is
thus
The propriety
AB
r^
is
employed
to represent a line
A C,
assumed
AB
of area in obvious, since the number of units and in the rectangle whose sides are AG,
1G6
NEWTON,
are the same;
lines,
AC
hence,
if
??i, ??,
r be the
number
.
of units of
length in these
m*
= n xr
and
r=
w* n
168.
AW
Cr
be used
in the
same
manner
as a fraction,
we may
either treat
them numerically,
number
AG
as the
number of
units of
AG, and thus apply the rules of Arithmetical Algebra; or we may look upon AB* as the absolute representation of an
length in
area,
and
AG as that
.
would have
no meaning except by interpretation. In this interpretation we are guided by the principles upon which Symbolical Algebra is
applied to any science, the laws of operation by symbols being the same in Arithmetical and Symbolical Algebra, and the symbols being interpreted so that these laws are not contra
dicted.
Thus
if,
in the application to
an area equal to sides are represented by a and b, the assumption that A = ab or ba will imply that ab ba, hence the laws remain the same
be supposed
to denote
^
b] so that the interpretation
is
legitimate, that,
if
A,
169.
lias
equal
make
to
the theorem
correct,
be estimated
momentum
be
would,
"
perhaps,
follows
The
bodies describe different circles with uniform velocity, are centri petal and tend to the centres of the circles, and their accelerating
effect are to
each other,
&c.,"
for
it
is
PROP. IV.
170.
THEOREM
first
IV.
1G7
CORS.
and
9.
The
moving
p
"
7*
=~Li
.
be the velocity, the accelerating effect of the force in any circle, Tthe time of describing any arc, FT will be the length of the arc, \FT* will be the space through which
For,
if
the body would move under the action of the same force con tinued constant, in the same time in which the arc is described,
:
VT::
VT
171.
force
is
move
in
In uniform circular motion the centripetal employed in counteracting the tendency of the body to a straight line, which it would do, according to the first
Scholium.
law of motion, with the uniform velocity which it has at anv point of the circle, if the centripetal force were suddenly to cease This tendency to recede is called a to act. centrifugal force
of a force being to accelerate or retard the motion of a body, or to alter its direction, if the
improperly;
for the
effect
tendency could properly be termed a force and the centripetal force which counteracts it were removed, it would accelerate or
retard the motion of the body, or alter does not.
its
direction,
which
it
sense in which the term centrifugal force can be used with propriety as a force may be obtained by the con
sideration of relative equilibrium, in which, case, if the same centripetal force acted on the body, the centrifugal force would
The only
keep it in equilibrium, supposing the body were at it would appear to be to an observer moving WTU Jt.
Thus,
if
rest
as
a body be supported on the surfcee of the earth, since the body describes a circle about the axis of the earth with uniform velocity, the pressure of the support and the
must have a resultant, whose direction will pass through the centre of this circle, and whose magnitude will be such as would cause the body to describe it; this re
attraction of the earth
sultant
will
be in statical equilibrium.
168
172.
NEWTON.
In
this
is
exerted
its
I.,
if
the direction of
be
isosceles,
at B bisect the angle ABC, the triangle CBc will and BC=Bc = AB therefore the velocities in BC
and
be equal, and the effect of the impulse has been to change the direction without altering the velocity of the body. Hence, the regular polygon inscribed in a circle, centre $, can
will
AB
be described with uniform velocity under the action of impulses tending to the centre ; and, by similar triangles SBC, CBc,
Cc:BC::
BC
BS.
in
And
if
the polygon,
2
the
time in a side
If
BC,
BC=
V. T; therefore Cc
J7
7
*
^fru~
Jbo
of sides be indefinitely increased, Cc will be ultimately twice the space through which the body will be drawn from the tangent by the continuous force, see Art. ]46; the
now
number
Cc
therefore
7^
= V~
2
will
effect
of Circular Motion.
small body is attached by an inelastic string to a point on a smooth horizontal table, to determine the tension of the
(1)
string
when
the
body describes a
circle.
If the body be set in motion by a blow perpendicular to the will remain constantly stretched, and the only string, the string
being in the direction of the fixed point, the areas described round this point will be proportional to the time, and the body will move in a
body
with uniform velocity. Let v be the velocity of projection, and I the length of the effect of the tension of the string string, then the accelerating
circle
v*
is
v
;
j 6
that
is,
is
would be generated
in
an
PROP.
unit of time from rest
2
t;
IV.
THEOREM
IV.
1C9
by the
body
::
g.
Ex.
communicated
lg ::
3x32
::
24,
is
th
.24
the
time of
is
evidently
seconds
=
9*4",
nearly.
(2)
If a
it,
point in cated to
a string of given length to a a rough horizontal plane, and a given velocity be communi
particle be attached by
supposed tight, find the tension of the string at any time, the time in which it will be reduced to rest, and the ichole arc described.
perpendicular
to
the string
Let
Fbe
any time
t.
j
Again,
if
p
fig,
be the
is
which
constant, hence the velocity destroyed in the time t since friction is the only force acting in the direction of the tangent
is
ngt,
and
=V
figt.
Therefore the
describing the arc
particle
p&gt;
comes
to
rest
in
seconds after
*M
,
feet.
t
The
particle
&lt;x
a ^ * I
:
::
t]
\ng
Supposing that
the
of
describes a circle with uniform the Earth as its centre, to find the *atio
Moon
of
of
the
Moon
motion
to
gravity at
170
NEWTON.
Let n
number
of seconds in the
Moon
;
= the
of the
radius of the
is
Moon
s orbit in feet
.
Moon
andl.( nj
is
the force exerted on the Moon, and the measure lerating effect of of the same for gravity at the Earth s surface = 32.2 ; hence, 2 the ratio required is TT*R 32.2/z .
:
(4)
body
is
suspended by a string
the vertical is projected horizontally so as to being drawn out of Find the describe a horizontal circle with uniform velocity.
velocity
and
the tension
of
the string.
Let
A
;
BO the
therefore, the circle being described uniformly, the resultant force on the body tends to the centre B, and the
described
the weight
respectively,
Let T, TFbe the tension of the string and of the body, acting in GA and parallel to AB
CB.
therefore
T: W::
CA AB\
:
also,
if
::
CB AB, Art.
:
171,
..
^ =
a
and,
CD
velocity will
be perpendicular to AC, BC* = AB.BD ; and the be that due to falling through the space \BD.
XXI.
If the cube of the velocity, in circles uniformly described, be law of inversely proportional to the periodic time, shew that the of the radii. the as force will vary inversely square
1.
PROP. IV.
2.
THEOREM
IV.
171
ia the same time by the orbits about the Sun in the centre exerting a force which, varies inversely as the square of the distance.
If the forces by which particles describe circles with uniform velocity vary as the distance, shew that the times of revolution will be the same for all,
3. 4. If the velocity of the Earth s motion were so altered that bodies would have no weight at the equator, find approximately the alteration in the length of a day, assuming that, before the altera tion, the centrifugal force on a body at the equator was to its
weight
288,
5. particle moves uniformly on a smooth horizontal table, being attached to a fixed point by a string, one yard long, and it makes three revolutions in a second. Compare the tension of the string with the weight of tke particle, 6. body moves in a circular groove under the action of a force to the centre, and the pressure on the groove is double the given force on the body to the centre, find the velocity of the body,
7. If a locomotive be passing a curve at the rate of twenty four miles an hour, and the radius of the curve be i I of a mile, prove that the resultant of the forces which retain it on the line, viz. of the action of the rails on the flanges of the wheels, and the horizontal part of the forces which act perpendicular to the inclined road way, will be T? of the weight of the locomotive, nearly,
point in a
body be attached by an extensible string to a fixed smooth horizontal table, find the velocity with which the body must move in order to keep the string constantly stretched
8.
If a
to double its length, If be the weight of the body, and n be the weight which if suspended at the extremity of the string would just double its length, 7 the length of the string, shew that the square of the required
velocity
9.
stands at the North Pole and whirls 24lbs. troy on a smooth horizontal plane by a string a yard long at the weight rate of 100 turns a minute; he finds that the difference of the forces which he has to exert according as he whirls it one way or the opposite is roughly 39 grains find the period of the rotation of
;
A man
the earth,
10. Two equal bodies lie on a rough horizontal table, and are connected by a string which passes through a small ring on the table if the string be stretched, find the greatest velocity with which one of the bodies can be projected in a direction perpendicular to its portion of the string without moving the other body.
;
172
NEWTON.
PEOP.
Having given
V.
PKOBLEM
I.
the velocity with which a bod?/ is moving af three any points of a given orbit, described ly it under the action of forces tending to a common centre, to find that centre.
lines PT, TQ F, VR, touch the in the points P, Q, given orbit respectively, and in meet and F. them let
perpendicular to the tangents, and inversely proportional to the velocities of the body at the points P, Q, R. Through A, B, C draw AJJ, DBE, CE at right angles to PA, QB, R C meeting in and E. Join TD, VE, TD and VE produced, if necessary, shall meet in $the required centre of force.
72 7
For, the perpendiculars SX, SY, let fall from S on the tangents PT, TQ V, are inversely proportional to the velocities at P, Q (Prop. i. Cor. 1), and are therefore as the directly as the perpendiculars AP, BQ, or
PROP. V.
PROBLEM
I.
173
therefore, $, D, T are in the same straight angles line. Similarly S, E, V are in the same straight line, and therefore the centre S is the point of intersection of TD, VE. Q. E.D.
;
DN on the tangents. Join XY, MN, then, since SX :SY:: DM DN and the angles XSY, MDN are equal, therefore the triangles SXY, MDN are similar; therefore SX:DM::XY:MN ::XT:MT, and the angles SXT, DMT are right
perpendiculars
DM,
XXII.
1. If AB, BC, CD, the three sides of a rectangle, be the directions of the motion of a body at three points of a central orbit, and the velocities be proportional to these sides respectively, prove that the centre of force will be in the intersection of the diagonals
of the rectangle.
2. If the velocities at three points of a central orbit be respec tively proportional to the opposite sides of the triangle formed by joining the points, and have their directions parallel to the same sides, prove that the centre of force will be the centre of gravity of
the triangle.
Three tangents are drawn to a given orbit, described by a particle under the action of a central force, one of them being parallel If the to the external bisector of the angle between the other two. be a mean at the this of contact of velocity propor tangent point tional between those at the points of contact of the other two, prove that the centre of the force will lie on the circumference of a
3.
certain circle.
4. If the velocities be inversely proportional to the sides of the triangle formed by the tangents at the three points, the centre of force will be the point of concourse of the straight lines joining each an angular point of this triangle to the intersection of the tangents to its circumscribing circle at the ends of the opposite side.
5. If the velocity of a particle describing an ellipse under the action of a centre of force vary as the diameter parallel to the direction of its motion directly, and as its distance from one of the axes inversely, prove that the centre of force will be at an infinite distance.
174
NEWTON.
PKOP.
VI.
THEOREM
V.
If a body
of force, in any orbit whatever, in a nonresisting medium, and if, at the ex tremity of a vert/ small arc, commencing from any point in the orbit, a subtense of the angle of contact at that point
be
drawn parallel
to
the radius
from
that point
to the
centre offorce, then the force at that point tending to the centre will be ultimately as the subtense directly and the
Let
PQ be
S
9
to
T the time of angle of contact at P, parallel to PS. the accelerating effect of the describing PQ.
leaves P, it would, if not acted on by the central force, move in the direction PR, and if continued constant in magnitude and the force the time T, QR would be the direction
body
by F
^
rr It
y^ac
COR.
1.
PROP. VI.
THEOREM
V.
175
Then area the area described in an unit of time. PSQ = \hT, Prop, i., also, since triangle = SP. QT, and area PSQ = triangle PSQ, ultimately, Lemma VIII., therefore hT = SP.QT, ultimately;
,
.
L
PSQ
_
Jf
hence, ultimately,
2tf ~ = 2 QR T =^
rt
QR
A
COR.
2.
PSQ
hence, ultimately,
COR.
If the orbit have finite curvature at P, and be the chord of the circle of curvature whose direction
3.
PV
passes through
S PV.QR = PQ*, V _
}
"
ultimately;
COR.
4.
If
Fbe
PQ V=jrj
f
and
2QR
2QR
.
(PQ\*
(^j

ultimately
F= 2 V*
J.

or UI
F 2P AL.
2
PV
,
that is, the velocity at any point of a central orbit at which the curvature is finite is that which would be acquired by a body moving from rest under the action of the central force at that point continued
constant, after passing through a space equal to a quarter of the chord of curvature at that point drawn in the direction of the centre of force.
COR.
5.
Hence,
if
the form of
the position of any point S, petal force is continually directed, the law of the centripetal force can be found, by which a body will be deflected from its direction of motion, so as to remain in the curve. Examples of this investiga tion will be given in the following problems.
176
NEWTON.
enunciation of the proposition, the sagitta of the arc, which bisects the chord and is drawn in the direction of the centre of force, is employed instead of the subtense used 173.
s
In Newton
by Art.
90.
The
first
by which Newton expresses the results of the three corollaries are replaced by equations, in order to
variations
in
facilitate the
comparison of the motion of bodies orbits and the forces acting upon them.
174.
different
proof of the proposition is drawn upon supposition that the force is attractive, the orbit being concave to the centre of force ; the same proof will apply
figure
The
employed
in
PQ
be made.
exception, however, should be made, that the method fails in the particular positions in which the body is at the points of contact of tangents drawn from the centre of force to the curve ;
The
does not ultimately meet the tangent at a finite is not a subtense ; the result of the or proposition is there angle further fore not demonstrated for these particular positions. discussion of the case is given on the next proposition.
in such cases
QR
assumed that the body moves ulti mately in the same manner as if the force at Premained constant in magnitude and direction, in which case the body would describe a parabola, whose axis is parallel to PS, and which is evidently the parabola which has at P the same curvature as
175.
In the proof
it
is
the curve.
By
contained in
Cor. 4 can be readily proved. For, since the body moves in a parabola under the action of a constant force in parallel lines,
is that acquired by falling from the directrix the velocity at under the action of the force at P, continued constant, i.e.
through a space equal to the distance of the focus of the parabola, which is equal to a quarter of the chord of curvature
at P,
drawn through
S.
PEOP.
176.
VI.
THEOREM
V.
177
continued constant supposition that the force at in magnitude and direction, causes the body to move in a curve which is ultimately coincident with the path of the body, may be
justified
The
by considering that if PQ be the arc of the parabola described on this supposition in the same time as the arc PQ
Q is due to the change in the actually described, the error magnitude of the forces and the direction of their action in the
two cases ; now, the greatest difference of magnitude varies as the difference of SP and SQ ultimately, and the ratio of the error from this cause to Q R vanishes ultimately also, since L PSQ vanishes ultimately, the ratio of the error, arising from the change of direction, to Q R vanishes ; therefore, Q Q Q R vanishes, and
; :
the curves
177.
may
and of the fourth corollary are true of the resultant of any forces, under the action of which any plane orbit is described, for this resultant may be supposed ultimately constant in direction and magnitude, in which case the curve described is a parabola. Hence, as in
It is evident that the results of the Proposition
Art. 175,
forces,
if
QR
be the accelerating effect of the resultant of the the subtense parallel to the direction of the resultant,
and
^= 2
limit
Homogeneity.
178.
for
obtained in these
corollaries,
it is of great importance to observe the dimensions of the symbols. Thus JiT represents an area and k is of two 2 dimensions in linear space and of  1 in time ; therefore Ji QR
.
Is
2 in time,
is
and SP*.
Q T*
of four
of one dimension in
Oi
(j/
J.
2 in time, and represents either twice the space through which a force would draw a body in an unit of time, or the velocity generated by the force in an unit of time, either of
which
may
;
the force
be taken as the measure of the accelerating effect of moreover, this unit is the same by which the magni
determined.
tude of h
is
AA
178
NEWTON.
Hence, if the actual areas, lines, &c., be represented by the symbols, and not the number of units, as mentioned in Art. 168, every term of an equation or of a sum or difference must be
homogeneous, or of the same number of dimensions, both and time for example, PQ \V.T representing a line,
;
in space
must
be of
dimensions in time.
Tangential and
Normal
Forces.
the
components of the which a describes forces^ of body any plane curve^ taken in the directions of the normal and tangent at any point. Let PQ be a small arc of the curve described under the action of any forces, T the measures of the accelerating effect
179.
To find
of
under
the action
of these forces, in the direction of the tangent and perpendicular to it. be the velocity at P, t the time of describing Then, if PQ, the forces may be supposed ultimately to remain constant ;
therefore,
if
ultimately ratio of T.
QR = %N.t\
t*
:
be perpendicular to PR, we shall have and PR = V.t + \T.t* = V.t since the Vt vanishes ultimately ; hence, if p be the radius
QR
of curvature at P, 2p
= PR = 2V* p ^
2
r
F
ultimately
;
therefore
will
Again,
component
Art. 53,
we
will be ultimately the velocity at Q, of the velocity in the direction therefore, by obtain two measures of the tangential acceleration,
V be the
*
the limits of
V*
(j/
p^ &JL
the
and
V
t
PR
V
.
180.
To find
velocity at
any point of an
orbit described
under
the action
at A and Let Bj and suppose the arc AB divided into a large number of small T the portions, of which PQ is one, v n v l+l velocities at P and Q,
AB
v rH
vS
= 2T.PQ
ultimately,
and v  V*
2
is
sum
of the
PROP. VI.
THEOREM
V.
179
magnitudes
their
ZT.PQ
when
that
number is indefinitely increased. That this is rigidly correct may be shewn by considering
v?
:
vr+
%T.PQ\s
Cor.,
Lemma
ultimately a ratio of equality ; therefore, by IV., or Art. 22, the limiting ratio of the sums is
effect is
F,
+i
 v *=2F.PQcosRPS =
V*
9
ultimately,
whence
v*
if
F depend
To find
force, under
the action
taken in the
point,
components of which a describes body any plane curve, of a radius vector drawn direction of from a fixed
accelerating
effect
the,
of
the
and perpendicular
to
it.
Let
PQ
T"
QEUj
PU
accelerating
to /SP; P, Q the measures of the parallel and perpendicular and a effects of the components in
PS
PU\ PR
tangent at P.
If
be the velocity at P,
&gt;SP,
make PT=V.T,
the arc of a
draw
circle,
TN
perpendicular to
and
let
Qq be
centre S.
may be
magnitude and
direction,
%P.T* = Nn = Nq +
^ ultimately.
180
NEWTOtf.
Let h be twice the area which would be described in an unit of time by radii from S, if the transverse force Q ceased
to
act,
thenQn.SP~TN.SP~h.Ti
;
therefore
be the measure of the accelerating effect ultimately and if of a force, under the action of which the body would move
in
~
PS,
from
2
mately
therefore
PQ P P
at
f
h, the increase of /*, Again, if at Q h correspond to ^, h will be due to the increase of velocity in direction P7, which 2 therefore (/*  h) T= Q.T SP is equal to Q. T ultimately;
.
ultimately; hence
Q^
oyr
ultimately.
Angular
182.
Velocity.
DEF. Angular velocity of a point moving about a fixed the rate at which angles are described by radii drawn
velocity
is
Variable angular velocity is measured by the angle which would be described by a radius in an unit of time, if moving with uniform angular velocity equal to the angular velocity at the time under consideration: this is the limit of the angle, described
in a time T, divided
by
T,
when
T is
indefinitely diminished.
183.
To find
Let
PQ
;
angular velocity in a central orbit. be a small arc described in the time T, draw
the
QN
twice the area to &P, then h. QN.SP perpendicular in circular estimated be supposed ultimately and, if the angles
T=
PSQ=
measure, L
Telocity,
PSQ=
is

ultimately
which
PSO
ultimately,
PROP. VI.
THEOREM
V.
181
184.
To find
the
angular
velocity
of
the
perpendicular on the
Draw
SY perpendicular on
the tangent
PY, and
let
PV
be
SY at P and
:
PVQ; SP 2
: :
SY
PVQ
PSQ
: :
2SQ Q V
.
angular velocity of
SY = pv
Illustrations.
(1)
to the
To find
centre
the tension
of a vertical be the position of the body at any time, CP, CA Let and the lowest point, and let v, u be the radii drawn to
is
attached
velocities at
P and A.
v
Draw
2
PM
perpendicular to
CA.
Then
uz
v*
= 2q.AM y
and ~r
CA
is
Let
;
be the tension of
182
NEWTON.
:
NOTE
1.
In order that the complete circle may be described, must be stretched at the highest point where
for
2 CM, u =
CA
circle
must be written
or
&gt;
bg.CA^ and
if
the
NOTE
the
u*
l
2.
If the
body
oscillate, the
will be given
by the consideration
there
is
arc
of oscillation
otherwise the string would not be stretched, so that the tension at the weight
less
= 2g.AM\
1
and
AM
than
AC,
::
2AM + AC:
(2)
AC.
under
the
Find
the force
action of which
a body
may
The
is
measured by
(3)
(vel.)
f
radius of curvature
=
of
h
z
8P
Art. 128.
Find
the cardioid,
under
the action
of which
Since
PV
$SP, and
(vel.)
= ~K* =
BC
/
is
,
see
page 105,
cc 77=^
.
4^. 2SP
SI*
equal rings P, Q slide on a string which passes round in a smooth horizontal plane / the rings are two fixed pegs A, brought together, and then projected with equal velocities, so as to
(4)
Two
ke
Shew
of
AP.
J)
PROP. VI.
THEOREM
V.
183
The
Let
CR
CR,
is
figure represents the position of the system at any time. bisect and PQ, and let be drawn parallel to so that then is
AB
therefore
DE
EP=PA,
fixed,
DE EPR = AP+PR
PQ
is
and
P moves in
P
Also, the tensions of the string in PA, being equal and inclined to the to s the resultant of these equally tangent path, tensions, which are the only forces acting in the plane of the curve, acts in the normal, hence the rings move with uniform
be the velocity equal to the velocity of projection F, and if measure of the accelerating effect of the the normal, tension,
PG
2TcosAPG=
V*
,
and 2p
cosAPG
= chord
of curvature through
A = PA
2
therefore
F T= 4PA
(5)
cc
PA
the action
of a force tending
the point
any
is
Find
the pressure
where there
from
a given point.
Take
point of starting,
the centre of force, C that of the circle let be the ; a small arc, BD, PAf, ordinates to the
PQ
QN
diameter through the centre of force, Am, Qn perpendicular on let be the measure of the accelerating effect of the fju.PA OP;
force at
P;
and normal
= yL6.PJ/and
p.
AM respectively.
184
2
NEWTON.
at
(vel.)
Q(ve\.y
at
see Art. 179, whence, taking the limit of the summation for a the small arcs in BP, (vel.) at P=2/j,.CP.DM.
"
Also,
TTp
= ft.AMZ
the
accelerating
effect
of the
for the
measure of
its
accelerating effect
;
hence the
at
which point there is no pressure, and inwards from that point to the corresponding one on the opposite side, having its greatest value at A, and the outward pressure at B is half the inward
pressure at A.
a particle be placed at any and be acted on by two forces which tend to the foci and point, the distances from those points, vary inversely as the square of shew that the pressure at any point will vary as the curvature.
(6)
If in a smooth
elliptic tube
Let
the body,
PQ
Q 2]
&lt;y^
QU
,
Take
TTn*
of the tangential
component of force
is
PT PQ
fji(SPSQ} ___
__
At
!
lllTliniTPlV
SP.SQ.PQ
PQ.SQ
PQ.SP
Jc
and
PROP. VI.
THEOREM
V.
185
(
2fJ&gt;
(Vel
at
P fvel V at O  (^
"
2//
"\
2/z
V(HpHQ)"(B(i~Bp)&gt;
HP~ HO
+
a
\
...
80
,
(vel.)
Also,
.
*
at
P=
,
LL
^p
^p J
.
PF p^
if
/&gt;
be the radius
AC.HP
p.SP +
2ft
AC
which
is
__
R
AC^\HO
SO
_ AC*
constant
therefore
XXIII.
1. body is attached to a point by a thread, and is projected so as to describe a vertical circle, prove that, if 2\, be the tensions z of the string at the extremities of any diameter, the arithmetic mean between v 2 is independent of the position of the diameter, and is six times the component of the weight in the direction that TI ~ of the diameter.
T T T
{
capable of sustaining a weight W. less than attached to the other end, oscillates in a vertical plane, find the greatest arc through which the weight can oscillate without breaking the string.
2.
/ is
One end
7F",
3. ring slides on a string hanging over two pegs in the same horizontal line, find the tension of the string at the lowest point, if the ring begin to fall from the point in the horizontal line through the pegs, the string being stretched.
4.
A3f,
AB
is
down
that
If in a central orbit the direction of motion change uniformly, the normal force will vary as the radius of curvature. that prove
5.
BB
18G
NEWTON.
6. Given the Sun s motion in longitude at apogee and perigee and 61 find the eccentricity of the Earth s orbit, be 57 an about the Sun in one of the foci. be to ellipse supposed
to
10"
10"
7.
focus of
8.
Prove that the angular velocity of a projectile about the its path varies inversely as its distance from the focus.
constrained to
A particle,
move on an equiangular
spiral, is
attracted to the pole by a force proportional to the distance, prove that, at whatever point the particle be placed at rest, the times of describing a given angle about the centre of force will be the same.
9.
vertical
body slides down a smooth .cycloidal arc, whose axis is and vertex downwards, find the pressure at any point of the and shew that, if it fall from the highest point, the pressure
be twice the weight of the body.
Find the law of force, tending to the centre, under the of which a lemniscate can be described. action
10.
XXIV.
1.
Two
about A, and
shew that
AB and BC are united at B A B revolves BC about B with the same uniform angular velocity the acceleration on C tends to A and varies as CA*
straight lines
;
2. particle describes an ellipse, the centre of force being Shew that at the point situated at any point within the figure. where the true angular velocity is equal to the mean angular velocity, the radius vector is a mean proportional between the
semiaxes.
3. particle begins to move from any point of a smooth parabolic tube, being attracted to the focus by a force which varies inversely as the square of the distance find the greatest pressure.
;
the perpendicular on the tangent at a point of a centre of about force that described the orbit, S, prove will be equal to the product of the velocities of acceleration at divided by SY. and
4.
If
SY be
an
is placed with its axis vertical and vertex there shew that is a certain portion of the surface upwards, upon which a particle can describe a circle, if properly projected and acted on by gravity and by a force tending to the vertex and
5.
smooth cone
PKOP. VI.
6.
THEOREM
V.
187
Shew
AP A varies as 7^3
^3.J.\
on the
7.
axis.
D
.,
tending
to
any
pp?3 where
,
the position of the particle, the chord through 0, and T)D the diameter parallel to this chord.
is
PP
8. Shew that in the elliptic orbit described under the action of a force tending to a focus, the angular velocity round the other focus varies inversely as the square of the diameter parallel to the direction of motion.
in a circular tube, under the action of a to a point in the tube, and whose accelerating effect varies as the distance, shew that, if the particle begin to move from a point at a distance from the centre of force equal to the
9.
particle
moves
force
which tends
radius, there will be no pressure on the tube at an angular distance from the centre of force equal to !
1
cos"
10. particle moves in a smooth elliptic groove, under the action of two forces tending to the foci and varying inversely as the squares of the distances, the forces being equal at equal distances. Prove that, if the velocity at the extremity of the axis major be to to BC, then the that at the extremity of the axis minor as velocity at any point will vary inversely as the normal; find the pressure on the tube.
AC
Determine the relation between p and X and the velocity of order that an ellipse may be described under the projection, in
11.
action of forces
J^g t frp*
to the foci
and X
CP to
simultaneously.
ai string, and is particle is attached ta a point C by and varies to a tends which a force S, inversely as point by Find the least velocity with the square of the distance from S. which the particle can be projected from a point in CS, or CS pro duced, so as to describe a complete circle. If CS be less than the of the string, prove that the tension will be a maximum at
12.
attracted
length where SI) is perpendicular to CS, and that if a point the length of the string, the two minimum and the tensions will be as 0, 4 and 3 y S.
D&gt;
CS be half maximum
188
KEWTON,
PEOP.
VII.
PROBLEM
II.
"body
circle, to
Let
AP Fbe the circumference of the circle, $the given point to which the centripetal force tends, P V the
drawn through S from P, the body at any time, and VGA the diameter through F. Join PA, and draw SY perpendicular to PY, the tangent to the curve atP,
chord of the
circle
position of the
By
Cor
3, if
AJ
L
J~
and, since the angles SPY, VAP are equal, and also the right angles PYS, APV, the triangles SPY, VAP are similar, and SP V VA;
SY
2h\ VA*
~~
SP\PV*&gt;
therefore,
since
h and
VA
are
inversely as
SP\PV\
given,
varies
PROP. VIT.
PROBLEM
II.
189
COK.
1.
Hence,
if
to
which the
centripetal force tends, be situated on the circum ference of the circle, will coincide with S, and
vary inversely as
Con.
force, under the action of which a body is to the force, under revolves in a circle
2.
The
APTV,
the action of which the same body can revolve in in same circle the same time about any the periodic other centre of force R, as RP\SP to SG\ SG being a straight line drawn from the first centre parallel of the body from the second to the distance centre of force R, to meet PG, a tangent to the circle.
RP
For, by the construction of this proposition, since the periodic times are the same, the areas described in
a given time are the same therefore, h is the same for both centres, hence, if be the chord through RP\PT* the force to R R, the force to S
;
PET
PT
: :
TPV, GSP,
:
force to
RP\SP* SP\SG
:
RP SP
Z
COR.
3.
The
force,
any
under the action of which the same body P can revolve in the same orbit in the same periodic time about any other centre of force R, as
190
3
,
NEWTON.
EP
For, in each case, the body may be supposed for a short time to be moving in the circle of curvature, and the forces are the same as those which would retain the body in the circular orbit; therefore, since the areas described in a given time are equal, the ratio of the forces is RP\SP
:
In the figure employed in the proposition, the force is supposed to be attractive, but the investigation of the law
185.
of force applies also to the case in which the centre of force
exterior to the circle, in which case the force is repulsive through the arc BC, which is convex to the centre offeree, and
S is
contained between the tangents drawn from S to the circle. It is important, however, to observe that this problem
find
is
to
what would be the law of force tending to $, under the action of which a body would be moving, supposing that it
move in the circle, or any portion of the circle, under the action of such a force, but it does not assert the possibility of such a motion, which is considered in Art. 165.
could
PROP. VII.
PROBLEM
II.
191
the complete description of a circle ABC, under the sole action of a central force tending to an external point $, is
In
fact,
impossible, because, as the body approaches the point J?, the remains finite component of the velocity perpendicular to
SB
is
no
force to generate a velocity in the opposite direction, the body on the opposite side. must proceed to describe an arc a to both would be curves, because the velocity in tangent
BU
SB
any finite quantity, as the body approaches B, and therefore the angle between BS and the direction of motion is indefinitely small at B.
direction
That a
finite
SB
PY
i
at
n
perpendicular to
bn
nr&gt;
h
is
*$Y
.
~^y
~~
^
^
B
when
the
body
force at a point indefinitely near to cannot be the method of Prop. VI., because the properly determined by direction of the the force from which the meato lines parallel
186.
The
surcs of the force are obtained are not subtenses, or sagitta?, since they are in this case not inclined at a finite angle to the
tangent.
192
NEWTON.
it
But
Prop.
I,
can be seen in another manner from the polygon of that the force is infinitely great, when the distance from
small.
if
B becomes infinitely
Thus,
CDEF
DE and DS or ES
be a portion of the polygon whose limit S between and E, the angle between may be made as small as we please compared
CD
and
DE, hence
the
velocity
generated by the impulse in the directions become infinitely great compared with the
DS
and
SE
will
velocities in
CD
and E^ whose In the figure, the impulses at directions are denoted by the arrows, have corresponding to them In the limit the forces on opposite sides of the tangent, which
and EF.
187.
COR.
1.
limitation
should be made,
this
when
P is
8A
2
at a finite distance
2 .Z2
,
from 8.
In
case
PV SP
and
circle,
ike possibility of a description of a circle is not asserted, but only the law of force required The complete in case of description of any portion of the circle.
description of the single circle is, in fact, impossible, for, under the action of the force obtained, the body would pass to the other
side of the tangent on arriving at $, then proceed to describe another equal circle, and, on arriving again at $, return into the
original circle.
188.
COR.
3.
The
orbit
being the
and periodic times about 8 the two cases, is the same; also, the force tending to 8 for as that under the the orbit being of the same magnitude at
action of which the circle of curvature would be described, and being the same in the orbit and the circle, h is also SY,
PV
the same, Prop. VI. Cor. 3 ; and, similarly, h is the same in the therefore it is the same in circle and orbit described about ;
and
R R as centres
Cor. 2 applies.
PROP. VII.
PROBLEM
II.
193
Absolute Force.
upon a body placed at any distance from the point S vary inversely as the nth power of that distance, the magnitude of the force, or its ratio to any given force,
189.
If the force
as that of gravity, will be determined when the distance is The measure of the accelerating effect of the force Is given.
SP
is
written
77,
where
/z
an
algebraical
symbol of n
If the
unit of space
= #,
^
is
is
called the
Absolute Force, being the measure of the accelerating effect of the force at an unit of distance x the nth power of that unit.
not the measure of the accelerating effect of any force, unless the symbols be treated numerically, in which case //. is twice the number of units of space through which a
absolute force
is
The
constant force, equal to the force at P^ unit of distance, would draw a body from rest in an unit of time.
Law
190.
The law
may
be expressed
in
terms of the
distance SP, for SD, Sd being the greatest and least distances of the body from , SD.Sd= SP.SV; see figure, page 188.
..
or
according as
~~
circle
If
S be
If
0, therefore
F=
9Ji*
AS*
.
^7,5
to the circle,
SD.Sd= SJ?\
.,
^ r therefore
WAV^.SP 77 F= ~ o\3
Circular
in
the
to
Velocity in the
Orbit.
orbit in the
191.
To find
the
velocity
circular
described
under
the action
of a force tending
any point
plane of
the orbit.
CG
194
.
.
NEWTON..
x
The
velocity at
P=
#p
#r
SP =
VA
Sp
py
circle,
COR. If
and
_
be the accelerating
2tfSA*
P=
li.VA
we may employ
SP
"
~2~
v(\* UJ
&F*
Periodic Time.
192.
To ^AI^
a circular
orbit described
under
the action
of a force tending
a point in
the circumference.
Let
let
P
5
^
of
P) then
h.P= twice
and
fi
= 2AM^ = S^JK
/.
P=
same circle when described under the action of a force tending to a point in the to the centre, of the same Circumference^ and a force tending at a distance equal to the radius magnitude as that of the first force
193.
To compare
of
the circle.
Let
F = p E
2
.
/.
F=
Illustrations.
(1)
tJie
When
the force in
a circular
which
orbit tends to
a point within
is
circle, to
find
the pointat
the true
angular velocity
ejjual to the
mean angular
velocity.
PEOP. VII.
PEOBLEM
~
II.
195

the
mean = ^ =
27?
or the perpendicular from therefore at the required point the required point upon the line joining to the centre of the
SP=Rj
circle bisects
(2)
OS.
circle
A
to
body describes a
tending
a point within
effect at the
under the action of a force measure of whose accelerating it, greatest and least distances SD and Sd are the radius
the
twice the diameter respectively, the unit find the number of seconds in passing from
Q.
and
Sh
3
Sh
.R
D to d =
=
4
XXV.
1. If p. be the absolute force in a circular orbit described under the action of a force tending to a point in the circumference, prove that the time in a quadrant commencing from the extremity of the diameter through the centre of force will be (* + 2) ? (%fj.)~$. In what unit of time is the result expressed ?
A point describes a circle, with an acceleration tending to any within the circle. Prove that, if three points be taken at point which its velocities are in harmonica! progression, the velocities at the other extremities of the diameters, passing through those points, will also be in harmonical progression.
2. 3. In the case of a centre of force S within a circle, if two points be taken, such that LS, make equal angles with the Z, diameter through S, and on the same side of it, then the forces at Z and will be to each other in the inverse ratio of the squares on
MS
OL and
4. The sum of the reciprocals of the velocities at the extremities of any diameter is independent of the position of the centre of force, and varies as the periodic time.
5. Prove that, when a circular orbit is described about an in ternal point, the sum of the square roots of the accelerations at the extremities of any chord passing through that point varies inversely as the square root of the length of the chord.
196
C.
NEWTON.
Prove that, if the law offeree tending to S, a point without a the law of force under which part of the circle can be de be circle, scribed, the body will move near B as if acted on by a force tending to B and varying inversely as the cube of the distance from B.
is a radius perpendicular to the diameter through S in a 7. circular orbit about a central force tending to a point S within the circle, SJ3 an ordinate, perpendicular to OS, shew that, if the force
OE
at
B be
8.
least distances,
at the greatest
and
Prove that, if a circle be described about a force tending to a be a chord parallel to the dia in the circumference, and point meter through that point, the times of describing equal small arcs and Q will differ by a quantity which varies as PQ. near
PQ
describing a circle under the action of a at every instant the angular velocities are the same. circumference in the about all points
9.
When
a particle
is
central force,
shew that
The period in an orbit described under the action of a central n m whose accelerating effect is jur is given to be Xa j ^, a be force, ing a line and X a number, find n.
10.
in Cor. 3, to prove that if under the action of a force tending described orbit in an elliptic to the centre, the force vary as the distance from the centre, then the force tending to the focus will vary inversely as the square of
11.
described.
force at
Shew, by the method of projections, that the centripetal in the axis major any point P tending to a fixed point of an ellipse under which the ellipse can be described, varies as
OQ,
3
PROP. VIII.
PROBLEM
III.
197
PEOP.
VIII.
PROBLEM
III.
under the action of a lady moves in a semicircle force tending to a point S so distant that the lines PS, QS
PQA
drawn from
parallel ;
to
may
be considered
Let CA be a sernidiameter of the semicircle drawn from the centre perpendicular to the direction in which the force acts, cutting P8, QS in and and join CP.
Let PRZ\)Q the tangent at P, ZQT perpendicular to PMS, meeting PRZ in Z and let SXQ meet PRZ in R.
}
Then
the force at
P=
;
by Euclid m.
36,
and, since
PZT,
RQ
is
parallel to
PT
::
ZP ZT CP
:
PJLT;
2PM
G
hence force at
p&gt;
3
J
ultimately
oc
P=
pjr
198
NEWTON.
Aliter.
In
page 190 draw OE a semidiameter perpen dicular to SD, and let the distance SP cut the circle in F, and OE in M, then, by the prefig.
if $ be F= very distant, the ratio PM SM or SO will vanish therefore, SP = SO ultimately, and PV is ulti
ceding proposition,
mately perpendicular to
OE and
equal to
2PM,
SCHOLIUM.
in an ellipse, hyperbola or parabola, under the action of a force tending to a point so situated and so distant that the lines drawn from the body to that point may be considered parallel, and perpendicular to the major axis of the ellipse, the axis of the parabola or the transverse axis of To shew that the force varies the hyperbola. inversely as the cube of the ordinates.
body moves
Let
be the axis to which the direction of the forces may be considered perpendicular, PM, PCr
AMG
O
the
ordinate
and normal,
and
PFthe
PO
PROP. VIII.
PROBLEM
III.
199
^
"
_ ~
PG
if* *~
P
Art. 84.
since
PO*PG\
194.
It
scription of areas
lines,
may,
be replaced by the uniformity of the resolved part of the to that of the forces. In velocity in the direction perpendicular
the proof given in the text, when S is removed to an infinite dis but the expression tance, h and SP are both infinite magnitudes,
^p is
finite, for
area
SPQ
is
ultimately
equal to area SMN, whose base is equal to uT, u being the com ponent of the velocity perpendicular to the direction of the
7 a
forces; therefore
liTuT.SP
=u\
hence
when a body
describes the
77773
195.
lines,
The
may
accelerating effect of the force, acting in parallel be obtained directly from the proposition of Art. 151,
as follows.
Let u be the constant component of the velocity F, perpen dicular to the direction of the force, and let FbQ the accelerating
effect of the force, therefore
2 F = F F= ^^
2
pj&gt;5
also
F. ui\CPiPM\
F= u\ 07*
Extension of Scholium.
196.
When a
to
force tending
drawn from
200
to the
NEWTON.
body
may
"be
considered parallel ;
to
and
AP be any curve, AMG the line to which the forces are perpendicular, PM, PG the ordinate and normal at the point P,
Let
the velocity at
any point.
PFthe
Let
PO
the
be the accelerating
AMG]
also
=
V:u::
PG
2F
Su .PGP
PO _
Zu
.PG3
3
Illustrations.
cycloid is described by a particle, under the action of a force acting in a direction parallel to the axis ; find the accelera tion and the velocity at any point.
(1)
In the cycloid
P0 =
;
4P&lt;2,
and
PM.AB = PG\ AB
u\AB rr 1 ~ 2PM PO
2
^e
being
2u\PG*
PG
PO
"
PIP
and the velocity
(2)
at
P=u.
y
P.M
u. 7^ oc j^.
Per
PO
A particle
acting in vertical lines ; find the accelerating effect of the force and the velocity at any point. the ordinate at the lowest be the directrix, Let
AM
AB
:
point.
Then
PG PM PM AB and PO = 2PG
:
: :
u\PM
and the velocity
at
P= u PG
.
u.
PM r.
or
PM".
PKOP.
VIII.
PEUBLEM
III.
201
XXVI.
1
.
A body is moving in
motion
tending to a point, so distant that the lines drawn from the body to that point may be considered parallel ; if the centre of force be transferred to the centre of the circle, when the direction of the
body
at that point
move
is perpendicular to that of the force, its magnitude being unaltered, prove that the body will continue to
in the circle.
2. If a cycloid be described under the action of forces in the direction of the base, the force at any point will vary inversely as A3.3IQ\ AUT, JIQ being the abscissa and ordinate of the cor responding point of the generating circle.
catenary is described under the action of a horizontal force, prove that the force varies as the distance from the directrix directly, and the cube of the arc from the lowest point inversely.
3.
the same parabola be described by particles when the force tends to the focus, and when it is parallel to the axis, the velocities will be equal at the points at which the forces are equal.
4.
If
and its axis coincident described so as to cut the semicircle in P; prove that, if a body move in the semicircle under the action of a force perpendicular to AS, the time of moving from to will vary as the difference between and the latus rectum. Prove also, that if a second body move from to in the parabola in the same time under the action of a force perpendicular to its be equal, the latus axis, and the velocities in the two curves at rectum of the parabola will be
5.
with
A parabola
having
its
vertex at
is
AB A
DD
202
NEWTON,
PEOP. IX.
If a body
law of
revolve in
PROBLEM
IV.
spiral, required the centripetal force tending to the pole of the spiral.
an equiangular
Draw
the pole of the spiral, perpendicular be the chord of to the tangent PY, and let curvature at P, whose direction passes through S; then F\ the measure of the accelerating effect of
SY from &,
PV
is
2
the force tending to the pole,
a be the angle of the Art. 128;
A"
Trrr^rri/j
but, if
spiral,
SY= SP
sin a
and
PV=2SP,
F_ ~
197.
h*
To find
the velocity
pole.
If
^jj
be the accelerating
J.
.
tending to
F
any arc of
radii,
198.
To find
the
time of describing
the
equi
AL
"~^
SL
2
bounding
P
2
&lt;
the time of
;
Then
2 x area
h
199.
to
SAL ___
SA
~"
 SI? _ ~
.
. tnn
SA
X
~

SL*
LCvll rt
In any
$,
is
orbit, described
under
the action
of a force tending
any point
when
PY
and
the
radius
SP
a a
maximum
or
minimum,
velocity is equal to
the
the velocity in
circle at the
same force
in the centre.
For, the curve, near this point, may be considered an equi a short angular spiral ultimately, since the angle is constant for = 2/SP, and V*=F.SP time; therefore the chord of curvature is
PROP. IX.
PROBLEM
IV.
203
XXVII.
1. In different equiangular spirals, described under the action of forces tending to the poles which are equal at equal distances, shew that the angular velocity varies at any point as the force and the perpendicular on the tangent conjointly.
2.
The angular
on the tangent
is
equal
3. The velocity of approach towards the focus, called the para centric velocity, varies inversely as the distance.
a circle, whose radius is a, with uniform of the a force, whose accelerating effect at action velocity, under
4.
A body is describing
is
any distance r
Prove
motion be
any angle
5. Deduce from the time in an equiangular spiral the time of passing from one point to another, when a body moves along a straight line with a velocity which varies inversely as the distance from a fixed point in that line.
6.
body
describes
an
force tending to the pole ; as the distance and the resistance as the velocity.
equiangular spiral in a resisting velocity under the action of a prove that the force to the pole varies
7. Tsvo particles of equal mass m, and at a distance 2a apart, in the same direction are projected simultaneously with velocity the to the line joining them, only force acting is a perpendicular mutual force of attraction varying inversely as the cube of the distance between the particles, and equal at the distance 2a to mf.
Prove
that, if after a
time \/(V f
stopped and kept at rest, the other will proceed to describe an equiangular spiral about it as pole.
8. Three particles A, B, C start from rest and move with uniform velocities, A always directing its course towards Z?, towards C, and C towards A. Prove that if their velocities be proportional to b~c, ca, a~b, where a, b, c are the initial distances of B from (7, G from A, and A from B respectively, they will describe similar equiangular spirals with a common pole.
204
NEWTON.
PROP. X.
If a body
Let GA,
be revolving in
PROBLEM
an
ellipse,
V.
to
P the position of the body at any time, PC G, DCD conjugate diameters, Q a point near P, QT, PF draw perpendiculars from Q and P on PC, DD a subtense ordinate to an QU POa, QR parallel
CB
be the semiaxes of the
ellipse,
]
to
OP.
7?
Then
But,
F=.
PF*
CP*
nr&gt;i
ultimately.
by
similar triangles
QTU, PFC,
QT
Z
~"
QU
&gt;
QT*
ancl
QU*
CD*
pu.ua
2
OP
ultimately,
2W
r A
QT*
= AC\BC*
3
.
~ ~CP
is
PU=QR^
6y;
"TTrSTTTTfTa
AC\BC ^
h\
CP
PitOP. X.
PROBLEM
V.
205
Aliter.
Let
PV
CY
2 CD*
Art. 79.
V CP * CP AC\BC*
conversely, if the force be as the distance, a body will revolve in an ellipse having its centre in the centre of force, or in a circle, which is a particular kind of ellipse.
And
COR.
the periodic times will be the same in all ellipses described by bodies about the same centre of force.
2.
And
in
any
ellipse
__
_ 2 x area of ellipse
2nA
C BC
.
~&gt;
~7T
forces, at different distances in the same or different ellipses, vary as the distance ; therefore
J\. (/
____= G
Jj
/*
is
the
same
in
different
ellipses,
therefore the
is
periodic
=
SCHOLIUM.
If the centre of an ellipse be supposed at an infinite distance, the ellipse will become a parabola, and the body will move in this parabola and the force, now tending to a centre at an infinite distance, will be constant and act in parallel lines. This theorem is due to Galileo. And, if the parabola be changed into an hyperbola, by the change of inclination of the plane cutting the cone, the body will move in this hyperbola under the action of a
;
206
200.
NEWTON.
To find
the velocity in the elliptic orbit
centre, the
Ihe
velocit
at
P=
h.CD = h
Aliter.
= ~ h.CD
AG BC
rrp
(Vel.)* at
P=F.~=/ji.CP.
a hyperbolic
&gt;
.\ vel. at
P= V/ CD.
the
201.
Tjf
orbit le described
under
action
of
a repulsive force tending from vary as the as the diameter of the distance, and the velocity at any point
the centre, the force will
to the
This
may
of the ellipse,
To find
the time in
any arc of an
elliptic orbit
about a
force tending
If
to the centre.
of the orbit, Q the corresponding point in the area A. CPcc area ACQcc auxiliary circle, time in if $ be the : therefore time in periodic time:: $ 2?r,
AP
&lt;x
LACQ;
AP
circular measure
.
of/.ACQ, and
periodic time
= 2?r
/&gt;
therefore
V/*
time
in
Ar
.
.
a given point, the velocity of a body be known, and the direction of its motion; to determine the curve which the body will describe under the action of a given centripetal the point to which it force, which varies as the distance from
203.
If,
at
tends.
ft
Let Pt be the direction of motion at P, V the velocity at P, CP the measure of the accelerating effect of the force tending
to C.
On PG
produced,
if
necessary, take
PV
equal to four
times the space through which a body must move from rest, continued constant, in order under the action of the force at
F;
so that
PEOP. X.
PROBLEM
a
V.
207
proportional to CP and as semiand let an ellipse be constructed with CP, , is the chord of curvature at conjugate diameters, then
Draw CD
parallel to Pf,
mean
CD
PV
through
(7.
In
this
ellipse
let
force tending to (7, force, see Arts. 160, 162, then, when it arrives at the point P, it will be moving in the direction Pf, also the square of the
a body revolve under the action of a whose magnitude at P is that of the given
= /4.CP4PF=F
is
2
,
V.
Hence
body, in
all
under the same circumstances as the proposed the motion of a body respects which can influence
;
body
A
cally
direct solution of the problem, which is solved syntheti in this Article, is given in pages 78 and 79.
Geometrical construction for the position and magnitude of the axes of the elliptic orbit, described by a body about the centre,
204.
when
the velocity at
a given point
is
known and
j
of motion. Produce
perpendicular to CR, describe a in 0, and with centre meeting the tangent at circle passing through (7, Rj and cutting the tangent in Tand ;
Z7,
CP to R, CD] bisect CR in
making
PR
a third proportional to
CP and
and draw
UC
208
Let
NEWTON.
TO intersect
then
the ellipse in A,
and draw
PM parallel
ACA
::
..
CD*
::
..
hence Ct
is
parallel to
conjugate diameters; but TCt is a right angle, therefore 9 Ct being in the direction of perpendicular conjugate diameters, are the directions of the axes of the ellipse, and if PM, Pm be
CT
upon these directions, the semiaxes are mean proportionals between Q.E.F. CT, and Cm, Ct.
perpendiculars from
CM
CP=R, Fthe
between
Let
CP
and the direction of motion at the given point P. the semiaxes of the ellipse, r the angle which the major axis.
a, b be
CP
6
makes with
2
;
Then V* = p,
CD
...
and CD*
+ CP* = a +
2
a*
+ tf =
s\na.
1 + R* .................. (I),
Also V. R
=h=
sin a
V.R
and, by the properties of the ellipse,
Lv
2 V
cos
CT+
(3)
7^ sin CT
/r\\
1 .................. (3).
The
equations
(1),
(2),
and
determine
a, &,
and
sr,
whence
the magnitude and position of the ellipse is determined. can obtain an equation for OT, immediately in terms of
We
by
(3),
PROP. X.
PROBLEM
V.
209
and
*
y = cosec
*
2
cc
+
(l
,
^ ^^coseca.^jby
,
^p )
by
(I)
(2),
(2),
(?*
) (
P)""*
sncr
^
"
cota
cosec a
1
.*.
cot
2^ = 
tan a
cot a
//
1 f
cosec a.
7?\
J
^^
whence CT
is
the motion.
206.
oj
bj
tzr
will
be
sn a
cosV
;v
sinV
The
direction
may
be
and magnitude of the axes of the hyperbola determined geometrically^ by observing that the
asymptotes are the diagonals of the parallelograms of which the conjugate semi^diameters are sides, and that the axes bisect the
angles between the asymptotes.
207.
When
to
a particle
is
acted on
"by
any number of
forces,
which tend
centres,
to different centres,
and vary as
EE
210
Let
fj&gt;.
&EWTON.
R,
fju
.
distance R, A, the centres to which they tend, of a particle acted on by the forces.
R B
Let Gr be the centre of gravity of two particles at A and whose masses are in the ratio of ^ to ///, join PA, PB, PG.
The components
are
yu,. GA, GA, and those of the force ///. PB, in the directions PG, GB, are p.PG, and p.GB, but p.GA = p. GB, therefore the resultant of the forces tending to A and B is which is a single force of magnitude (// +/i/) R, at ) PG, (/j, +
fj,
PG
PG,
and
/A, yu/
Let
fj!
of particles at C and G, whose masses to the centre of gravity are in the ratio which varies as the distance from //, /JL + //, and whose magnitude at the distance J? is (/* + // + yu/ ) R.
:
fju"
the
generally, the resultant of any number of forces is a single force, tending to the centre of gravity of a system of particles, placed at the different centres, whose masses are
And
proportional to the magnitudes of the forces at the unit distance, and whose magnitude at any distance is the sum of those of the
forces at the
same
distance.
If every particle of a solid of any form attract with a force which varies as the mass of the particle and the distance conjointly, the resultant attraction of the solid upon
1.
208.
COR.
any body
will be the
solid
PROP. X.
collected Into
its
PROBLEM
V.
211
same law.
209. COR. 2, If any of the forces be repulsive, as that whose centre is B, G will lie in AB or BA produced, according
greater or less than p, and the resultant of the forces, and from B, will be (/*  p] from G, or tending to
as
fA
is
PG
towards G.
Illustrations.
(l)
varies as the distance, and tends to the centre of the circle, and the centre of force is suddenly transferred to a point in the radius
which, at the
the
body ;
to
find
the subsequent
Since the force varies as the distance, and orbit will be an ellipse. And, since the force
is
attractive, the
the body will move in the same moment of the change. Also, the velocity will, for the reason, be unaltered at that moment.
same
the
Let
CA
body
at
moment
CB
p.CA
the force
Then V* = fjL.CA.CA = fi.CA*i and if which the force tends, be in CA, let AB be
SA
will be
ellipse, since
is
an
212
apse, and,
NEWTON.
SB being the other, if a body revolved in this ellipse round $, SB would be the square of the velocity at A, that = SB CA\ and therefore SB = CA= CB, hence the is, magnitude and position of the two semiaxes SA and SB are
*
//,.
//,.
fju.
completely determined. The ellipse lies without the circle at A, because, the velocity being unaltered, the force has been diminished in the ratio of
ellipse is
SA
CA, and
produced, as at $ the force would have been increased, and the orbit AB" would be within the circle near A.
If
had been
AC
which the body reaches is in greatest distance from cases the same for this law of force, because the component of is the same at the same distance the force perpendicular to
all
The
CA
CA
from
whatever curve the body moves therefore, in each orbit, the velocity being the same at A^ the velocity perpen is dicular to destroyed by the force at the same distance
in
;
CA
AC
from AC.
describing a circle about a force which varies as the distance and tends to the centre / if the centre to which the force tends be suddenly transferred to a point in the circumference^
(2)
body
is
at an angular distance of 60
from
the position
of
the particle at
any
tirne^ to
The
orbit
an
Let
force
is
P be the
position of the body at the instant the centre of transferred from (7, the centre of the circle, to $, where
BOP is
an equilateral triangle.
PROP. X.
PRORLEM
V.
213
is *//j,.CP= \fp.SP; and, since it is un velocity at altered by the change of the centre of force, the semidiameter
The
conjugate to
SP is equal
to
SP.
perpendicular to CP, meeting it in F, and take SP. Construct an ellipse having SP, SD as equal conjugate semidiameters SA, 5 the semiaxes bisect the angles PSD, PSD. The ellipse so described will be the orbit required.
Draw
DSD
SD = SD =
On CP as diameter describe a circle cutting SD SA, SB are the lengths of the semiaxes. Explain why the orbit is exterior to the circle.
(3)
in .?
Two
m,
to
m
the
under
the action
of a force tending
at the extremities of two conjugate diameters they be at one tune and in this case find the locus of their they will always be so,
centre of gravity.
be their positions at any time, CP, Let the ordinates J/P, semiconjugate diameters.
Let P,
CD
being
ND, meet
the auxiliary circle in Q and R. are always proportional to the Since the angles ACQ, will always be a right angle; therefore the bodies times,
ACE
ECQ
will
A
Let
Join
GH\&gt;Q
Jl
RQ
.
.
and produce
also,
hence
of
CK
G
is
locus of
is
is a circle, and the constant, or the locus of are an ellipse, whose axes proportional to those
APD.
Shew
that the semimajor axis
:
CA
::
(wi*f
ntff
m+m
214
(4)
force,
NEWTON.
composed of matter which attracts with a varying as the distance ; shew that, however a particle be
body
is
tJie
body,
it
will describe
its
orbit in
This
is
varying as the distance ; if the velocity at any point be, slightly increased in the ratio 1 + n : 1, find the consequent changes in the
axes of the
If,
ellipse.
change takes place, the body be at the end of one of the equal conjugate diameters, shew that the eccentricity will be unaltered, and that the apse line will regrede through a small angle^
the
when
7.7
nab
r.
is
a*
b
z .
When V
(1 + n) CD
;
is
let
;
an, J3b
and 7
their squares.
&lt;1
+ a)
V+
(1
.
.
is (1+ri) V, changed to the corresponding changes of a, b and OT be a, ft, j, and n being so small that we may neglect Then by the equations of Art. 205,
changed
to
CD
(1
0)
V=
..
4 n? CD + R*
a*
f
V + 2n CD*
Again
OLa* + 0V = n. CD\ + a)a. (1 + j3)b = (1 + n) CD. J?sina = (I +n)ab= n, and a(a  CD*} = a CD*  b*}, j3
2
4
a.
(3
2 In the particular case 2R = a + 2 .*. a = /3 = Jw, hence, and b being altered in the same proportion, the eccentricity ill be unaltered.
2
Z&gt;
7?
2 2
7?^
Also, Y cos (a CL
,
+ 7) +
.,
TS
sin (BT
.
+ 7) =
+n
and
^1
r&gt;a
cos
sr
p2 X
73
sm
CT
=1
~ S1
PROP. X.
PROBLEM
V.
215
and, since tbe axes bisect the angles between equal conjugate 2 JR diameters, ab siu2w, therefore 7, being expressed in circular
measure,
(6)
nab
2
the
In any position of a particle describing an ellipse, under action of a force tending to the centre, the centre of force is
Find the axes of the new orbit suddenly transferred to the focus. and shew that its majoraxis bisects the angle between the focal
distance
and
the
ellipse.
Employing the equations of Art. 205, if a, /3 be the semiaxes of the new orbit, the position of particle when the centre
s transferred to 8,
the
new
SP
in
d + yS 2 = CD* + SP* = SP. HP+ SP* = 2a. SP, and SY* BC* :: SP HP:: SP* CD*,
2
: :
..
a$=CD.SY=b.SP
2
...
*
)
=4
(a
 V]
,
SP*, and a
2
 j3 = ZaeSP,
2
..
=a
=a
.
&lt;
(1e) SP.
1,
A1 Also
SP*
a
7
SP*
}
COSOT
^
sin
V=
o/j
= (1  e cosV f (14
)
e]
sin
V=
e cos 2
therefore
bisects
2cr
the
majoraxis of the new orbit angle between PS and the majoraxis of the
or
= L PSA,
the
original orbit.
the construction of Art. 204, since is a third proportional to SP and CD, and therefore is equal to HP, the circle which determines Tand t passes through J3T, and the arcs
NOTE.
By
PR
TR
is,
ST
PSA.
XXVH.
same
Shew that the velocity in an ellipse about the centre is the at the points whose conjugate diameters are equal as that in a circle at the same distance.
1.
216
2.
NEWTON.
revolving in a circle under the action of a force law of force at different distances being tending that the force varies as the distance find the orbits described when the circumstances are changed at any point as follows
body
is
i.
The The
1 1
n.
:
ii.
n.
iii.
The
The
force
mag
nitude.
iv.
direction is
changed by an impulse in the direction of by the velocity equal to that in the circle.
3. If a body be projected from an apse, with a velocity double of that in a circle at the same distance, find the position and magnitude of the axes of its orbit.
4. particle is revolving in a circle acted on by a force which varies as the distance ; the centre of force is suddenly transferred to the opposite extremity of the diameter through the particle and becomes repulsive shew that the eccentricity of the hyperbolic orbit = JV5.
;
5. body is moving under the action of a force tending to a The force suddenly fixed centre, and varying as the distance. Prove that ceases, and after an interval commences to act again. the radii of curvature of the orbit at the points where the body ceases and recommences to be attracted are equal.
body moves in an ellipse about a centre of force in the and its velocity is observed when it arrives at its greatest centre, distance, and again after a lapse of onethird of its periodic time. If these velocities be in the ratio of 2 3, prove that the eccentricity of the ellipse will be v^
6.
:
The particles of which a rectangular parallelepiped is com attract with a force which varies as the distance, and a body is posed to describe a curve on one of the faces supposed so as projected
7.
smooth
8.
elastic ball, moving in an ellipse about the centre, on at the extremity of the minor axis strikes directly another arriving ball at rest ; find the orbits described by both bodies.
An
9.
A body
is
projected in a direction
making an angle
1
cos"
with the distance from a point to which a force tends, varying as the distance from it, and the velocity = V x velocity in the circle at the same distance; prove that one axis is double of the other and
that the inclination of the major axis to the distance
is
cos
1
"^.
PROP. X.
PROBLEM
V.
217
10. From points in a line CA between C and particles are projected at right angles to CA with velocities proportional to their distances from A, C being a centre to which the force tends, and force varying as the distance; find the ellipse of greatest area the^ which is described. 11. Two particles are projected in parallel directions from two points in a straight line passing through a centre of force, the acceleration towards which varies as the distance, with velocities Prove that all proportional to their distances from that centre. tangents to the path of the inner cut off, from that of the outer, arcs described in equal times.
12. An hyperbola and its conjugate are described by particles round a force in the centre. They are at an apse at the same instant shew that they will always be at the extremities of con 3 2 3  2= i ). jugate diameters. Also if v, v be their velocities, /z (a
;
e&gt;
An ellipse and an hyperbola have the same centre and foci. are described by particles, under the action of forces in the They centre of equal intensity. If a. a be their semitransverse axes, the square of the velocity of each body at a point where the curves  a 2 ). cut will be ft
13.
1
&lt;r
14.
If any
number
the lapse
of particles be moving in an ellipse about a and the force suddenly cease to act, shew that, of  of the of a
period
complete revolution,
concentric,
and similarly
15. particle is describing an ellipse under the action of a force tending to the centre. Prove that its angular velocity about a focus is inversely proportional to its distance from that focus.
XXVIII.
1. CX, C P are straight lines inclined at any angle, and a force tends to C, and varies as the distance from C. If from various different particles are projected parallel to at the points in same moment, and with the same velocity, they will all arrive at at the same time and plnce; and they will also do so, if the force cease to act for any interval of time.
CY
OX
CX
2. number of particles move in hyperbolas, under the action of the same repulsive force from their common centre. Shew that, if the transverse axes coincide, and the particles start from the vertex at the same instant, they will always lie in a straight line
F F
218
NEWTON.
perpendicular to the majoraxis. If the hyperbolas have all the same asymptotes, shew that the particles will at every instant be in a straight line passing through the centre, if they be so at any given
time.
body is revolving in an ellipse under the action of a force to the centre, and when it arrives at the extremity of the tending majoraxis, the force ceases to act until the body has moved through a distance equal to the semiminor axis, it then acts for a quarter
3.
of the periodic time in the ellipse prove that, if it again cease to act for the same iime as before, the body will have arrived at the other extremity of ^he major axis.
;
4. small bead slides on a smooth wire in the form of an are of a circle, under th e action of a force tending to the other end of the diameter through its middle point and varying as the distance. If the bead be initially situated at the middle of the arc and just displaced, prove that, whatever be the length of the arc, the sum of the squares on the axes of the elliptic orbit, which the bead will describe after leaving the wire, will be equal to the square on tho diameter of the circle.
in an equiangular spiral, its acceleration 8 When it arrives at a point P, the law of acceleration is changed to that of the direct distance, the actual acceleration being unaltered. Prove that the point will then move in an ellipse, whose axes make equal angles with and the
5.
is
A point
moving
always tending
to the pole
SP
tangent where a
to the spiral at P,
is
%a
1,
6. particle is attached by an elastic string to a centre of attractive force of constant intensity, and of such magnitude that
it
would exactly double the length of the elastic string. The string now stretched and the particle projected at right angles to it. Shew that the particle will begin to move in an ellipse but if the velocity of projection be less than the velocity in a circle at the same distance, the ellipse will be deserted after a certain interval of In the latter case find the velocity and direction of motion at time.
is
;
ellipse.
particle is projected from a point P, in a given ellipse, perpendicular to the majoraxis, and is acted on by a force which tends to the centre C, and varies as the distance from it; and the velocity is that in a circle whose radius is C8 prove that the major,
axis of the orbit is equal to that of the given ellipse, and that CP* = the sum of the squares of the semiminor axes of the orbit and of the given ellipse also that the tangents of the inclinations of CP to the majoraxes of the elliptic orbit and of the given are in the duplicate ratio of the minoraxes. ellipse
;
PROP. X.
8.
PROBLEM.
V.
21D
A
;
centre
body describes an ellipse about a centre of force in the prove tbat if r, r be t\vo radii veetores and a the angle
1
=
v&gt;t
sm
rr* sin
frr sin
T \
ct\
J
ab
What
the ellipse
9.
is is
this
time
when
a = %ab,
12 days?
If two particles describe the same ellipse, in opposite rotatory directions with accelerations tending to the centre, prove that the line joining them will move parallel to itself with a velocity proportional to its length.
10.
triangular plate
is
made
which
; particle is projected so that its velocity at each of the angles is proportional to the side also opposite, the time between any two angles being the same that the mean of the squares of these three velocities is also the mean of the squares of the greatest and least velocities in the
;
which varies as its mass x distance. A as to pass through its angular points prove
orbit.
Two ellipses are described by two particles about a common the axes of the two are in the same directions, and the sum centre, of the axes of one is equal to the difference of those of the other prove that, if the particles be at corresponding extremities of the majoraxes at the same moment, and be moving in opposite directions, the line joining them will be of constant length during the motion, and will revolve with uniform angular velocity.
11.
;
of a triangle is a centre of force which distance R. is any particle projected in any direction from B so as to pass through C, shew that the time of passage 1 from to C is /T* (27r;w), where m is the ratio of the area of the triangle to that of the orbit.
12.
is
The angle
pit at
ABC
sin"
13. number of bodies which describe ellipses about the centre of force as centre in the same periodic time, are projected from a given point with a given velocity in different directions in a plane. Prove that their paths will all touch a fixed ellipse with the given point as focus.
SECTION
III.
ON THE MOTION OF BODIES IN CONIC SECTIONS, UNDER THE ACTION OF FORCES TENDING TO A FOCUS.
PROP.
XI.
PROBLEM
ellipse,
ellipse.
to
VI.
body
is
revolving in
to
an
tending
a focus of the
Let
position
body
at
any time,
conjugate diameters, respectively, perpendiculars on SP, DCK, from Q, a tangent at P, QR parallel to SP, Qxv parallel
a point near
PR
to
DCK intersect
Then
PR, meeting SP
in x,
and
PC in
v,
SP,
in E.
P=
QR
"
when ^, ultimately,
PQ
is
inde
finitely diminished.
PFE,
2
~? PJE*
Qv*
QT* ~ _ PF
CD*
,
PF ~~ BC
AC*
Z
2
CD
.Now,
by
ir
PROP. XI.
PROBLEM
VI.
221
and
Pv Pv = CP = by Q R p pE
,
similar triangles
**
Qv* __
~QR"v~G~
CP.AC*
2BC*
if
ellipse
1
L SP
Alitcr.
Since the force tending to the centre of an ellipse, under the action of which the ellipse can be described, varies directly as the distance CP from the centre C] let CE be drawn parallel to the tangent PQ to the ellipse; then if S be any point within the ellipse, and SP, CE intersect in E, force tending to C: force tending to S
r.
CP.
SP PE
:
.. force
tending to
S cc
PE ~
since
PE is
constant.
PROP. XII.
PROBLEM
VII.
"body
is
tending
The
last investigation is exactly the same ns in the proposition, employing the subjoined figure. Also, repulsive force from C oc CP, and by Prop. vn. S Cor. 3, force from C: force to S :: CP.SP" ,
:
PE
whence
force to
S oc
2 ?
since
PE is
constant.
222
NEWTON.
In the same manner as in these propositions, it can be shewn that the repulsive force tending from a focus,
under the action of which the body describes the opposite branch of the hyperbola, varies
as the square of the distance.
inversely
PROP
XIII.
in
PROBLEM
to
VIII.
lody
is
moving
to the
a parabola,
tending
focus.
Let
the
body
at
any
time,
PRY
perpendicular
to
SP,
PY
respectively.
Then
F=
}
QR
r 2
,
ultimately,
when
QP
is
indefi
nitely diminished.
Since
SP Pv make
PROP. XIII.
PROBLEM
VIII.
223
Pxv
SF
and Qv* =
also,
Q$=Qv,
ultimately,
QT*
AS
L
QT
COR.
l.^It follows from the last three propositions, that if any body move from the in any point direction PR, with and be at the any velocity, same time acted on by a centripetal force, which is inversely proportional to the square of the distance, the body will move in some one of the conic sections, having a focus in the centre of force, and
conversely. For when the focus, the point of contact, and the position of the tangent are given, a conic section can be described which will have a given curvature at that point. But when the force is given and the and velocity of the body, the curvature is known
two
one another cannot be described with the same centripetal force, and the same
orbits touching
^
velocity at the point of contact. Cos. 2. If the velocity, with which a body leaves its be such that the body would describe position Pj
224
NEWTON.
in some very small time, and in the small space the same time the centripetal force were able to move the same body through the space RQ, this body will move in some conic section whose latus rectum is the
PR
limit of
QT*
fp
when the
lines
PR, QR
are indefinitely
diminished.
In these corollaries the circle is included as a particular case of an ellipse and the case is excluded in which
;
the
body moves
force.
Observations on the preceding Propositions,
be the absolute force, in any conic section, whose latus rectum L, described under the action of a force tending
210.
If
/A
is
2A
to the focus,
p
is
an(i
/*
is
given, either
when
the force at
any point
are given.
is
given, or
conic section
the velocity at any point in a given and V. or h given, for, in the latter case,
when
SY
the chord of curvature through the focus for any point in an ellipse or hyperbola, we may obtain the law of
force from the expression
21 L If
we assume
F=
2
For,
::
SP
~~
PV= 4SP,
2V V F = AS. SP.PV~~2AS.SI
COR. 1. It is assumed in this corollary that a conic section can be described under the action of a force tending to the
focus: see Art. 164.
PEOP. XIV.
THEOREM
VI.
225
PKOP. XIV.
THEOREM
VI.
If any number of bodies revolve about a common centre, and the centripetal force vary inversely as the square of
the distance, the later a recta will be in the duplicate ratio
of the orbits described of the areas, ivhich the bodies will describe in the same time by radii drawn to the centre of force.
in each orbit the latus
For
rectum
is
QT
is
when
the arc
PQ
made
But
in a given time is ultimately in the different orbits as the centripetal force, that is, reciprocally as the square of the distance SP.
QR
Hence,
ultimately,
is
QT*
oc
QT\ SP*,
or
.
the
latus
in the duplicate ratio of or of described in the given small twice the area area in each orbit is pro since the time, which,
rectum
QT 8P
PSQ
portional to the time, varies as the area described in any given time.
COR.
of the ellipse, and the rectangle under the axes, which is proportional to it, vary in a ratio compounded of the subduplicaie ratio of the latera recta and the ratio of the periodic times.
is
as
QT x SP described
PKOP. XV.
On
THEOREM
the same supposition, the squares of the periodic times in ellipses are proportional to the cubes of the major axes.
For,
by Prop.
xiv.
in
GG
22G
NEWTON.
ellipse,
,
each
as
7
]3C
AC. BC,
which varies
COR.
by QT.SP,
AC*.
periodic times in ellipses are the same as in circles whose diameters are equal to the major axes of the ellipses.
Hence the
Prop. XIV. and Cor. may be also proved as follows. Let /*, li be the double areas described in the unit of time in
212.
orbits,
L,
9// **
L
2
JU
JTT
Li
Li
T&gt;
::
12 n
7 a
5
in
COR. Let P,
orbits.
Then
be the periodic times in any two of the L ^.P. the areas are as hP h ; Z*.
:
213.
the action
To find
an
ellipse described
under
to the
focus.
Let
Pbe
then \h
= IT A C
BC
and
AC.h p = BC*
C A P=2^0., =
ft
Therefore, in different ellipses described about the same centre of force, the squares of the periodic time vary as the cubes
of the major axes.
214.
qrl&gt;it
To find
the time
from an apse to any point of an elliptic action of a force tending to the focus.
THEOREM
VI.,
VII.
227
Let
ASa
be the apsidal
line,
AQa
orbit,
the circle on the major axis as diameter, Q the corresponding point in the circle.
SP
SQ, CQ.
JS~
_U.
A
:
Time
in
AP:
periodic time
::
::
area
IT
ASP
irAC.
BO
QM,
e
area
ASQ
AC*,
andsiresiASQ =
therefore, if
u be the
measure of L
A CQ,
2?r.
and
the
and time
m AP
. .
::
f
smw
i.e.
Pis
AC*
^ (u
+ esinu}.
AC^
T (u
f**
e sin u}.
DEF. LaCQ, from the nearer apse, is called the eccentric anomaly, L aSPthe true anomaly, and the mean anomaly is the angle which would be described in the same time as L aSP
215.
mean angular
216.
To find
mean,
the true,
and
the
eccentric anomalies.
Let m,
v,
Since the
mean angular
*
is 2?r
divided
by
^a.
m = u  e sinw,
Art. 214
228
and,
if
NEWTON.
a be
tlie
.*.
cos
u=
1
Also
217.
/. tan 
_ _ __
cosy V 1+ecosv cosw 16
(1
+ cosv
1
1+ecosv
cosy
cost*
f
1+cosu
.
M
2
/I 1
v tan ,
To find
the time
the vertex^
in a parabolic orbit.
describing the angle draw is 8 and vertex whose focus ; parabolic orbit, perpendicular to the axis ASM, and the tangent
Let
be the time
ASP
}
in
t
PM 8Y PY and let
AM= ASt
.
where,
if /*
be the absolute
=^
A S.
Kepler s Laws.
218.
I.
The
centre In
one focus.
That the areas swept out by the planet to the sun s centre are, in the same
II.
radii
orbit, proportional to
laws, although not rigidly true, are sufficiently near to the truth to have led to the discovery of the law of
219.
Kepler
THEOREM
VI., VII.
229
The deviation solar system. from complete accuracy is due to the facts, that the planets are not of inappreciable mass, that, in consequence, they disturb
of the bodies of the
each other
sun
if
itself,
about the sun, and, by their action on the cause the periodic time of each to be shorter than
s orbits
the sun were a fixed body, in the subduplicate ratio of the mass of the sun to the sum of the masses of the sun and planet ; these errors are appreciable but very small, since the mass
of the largest of the planets, Jupiter,
is
less
sun
mass.
Deductions
220.
from Kepler
Laws.
description
of areas, stated as the second law, it is deduced, by Prop. II., that the forces acting on the planets are centripetal forces tending to the sun s centre. But this law gives no information regarding the
the
From
nature or intensity of the forces. From the elliptic motion of the planets, as asserted in the first law it is deduced, by Prop. XI., that the force which acts
upon each planet varies inversely as the square of the distance from the centre of the sun. From the relation between the periodic times and lengths of
the major axes, stated in the third law^ it is inferred, by Prop. XV., that the planets are acted on by the same centripetal force and
;
that the attraction, being the same for all bodies, independently of their form and substance, is not of the nature of the elective action of chemical or magnetic forces.
221.
for the
motion of the
satellites of
Jupiter, Saturn, and Uranus, and the first two for our moon, their respective primaries taking the place of the sun in the statement of the laws. Hence it is inferred that forces tend to
the centre of the planets, varying according to the same law as the forces tending to the sun.
222.
By
is
rendered
230
force,
NEWTON,
which acts in
the
line
joining
the particles,
and
varies
thus suggested is assumed to be universally true, and calculations are made of the effects of the action of the
bodies of the solar system upon one another in disturbing their elliptic motion 5 and also of the disturbances of the motion of the
The law
due to a want of exact sphericity in the primaries and these calculations have been found to agree with the results
satellites
;
return
of
fulfilled,
founded on the supposition of the truth of the law, and the existence and position of a planet have been recognized, before
discovery by actual observation, from according to this law upon another planet.
its
its
assumed action
of gravitation has satisfied every test which has hitherto been applied to it, and it is so far proved to be true
is
concerned.
PROP. XVI.
THEOREM
velocities
VIII,
On
the
inverse ratio
of the per
tangent pendiculars from the focus recta. ratio the latera of subduplicate
on
the
and
the
v.
COR.
1.
SY SY
"
SY SY
orbits
L ~
The
are
ratio
in the of the
ratio
of
the
Jb
or
Li
Lt
K* n
. :
J.
fi
..
T7a
r
OJL
2
:
&lt;3V"
2 T/ V
C JL Tr o
a
.
COR.
velocities of the bodies, at their greatest and least distances from their common focus, are in the ratio compounded of the ratio of the distances
2.
The
PROP. XVI.
THEOREM
VIII.
231
COR.
therefore the velocity in a conic section, at the greatest or least distance from the focus, is to the velocity in a circle at the same distance from the centre in the subduplicate ratio of the latus rectum to twice that distance.
3.
And
For the
latus therefore if
COR.
4.
The
at
are,
velocities of bodies revolving in ellipses their mean distances from the common
focus, the same as the velocities of bodies revolving in circles at the same distances ; that is (by Cor. 6,
Prop,
iv.),
distances.
For the peip^ndiculars are now the semiaxes minor, that is SY=BC, and the distance SB = AC, therefore
velocity in the ellipse at the mean distance in the circle at the same distance
(2 AC)
:
velocity
BC
COR.
5.
AC
AC
&gt;
having their latera recta equal, the velocity varies inversely as the perpendicular from the focus on the
tangent.
COR.
6.
inverse subduplicate ratio of the distance of the body from the focus, in the ellipse it varies in a greater, and in the hyperbola in a less inverse ratio,
232
ls
EWTON.
in the parabola,
For
(vel.) oc n
HP
oc ~oc
^ 2ACSP.
oc
m
.
fc"
e ellipse.
2AC+SP ~  in
the hyperbola.
COR.
In the parabola, the velocity of the body at any distance from the focus is to the velocity of a body revolving in a circle at the same distance from the centre, in the subduplicate ratio of 2 1 in the ellipse it is less, in the hyperbola greater than
7.
:
in this ratio.
velocity in the
::
V2
_
in the parabola,
.\*
/]
(HP\*
\~Ar)
.
:
ft
ay)
in
ir elapse or hyper
&gt;
bola,
and
HP&lt;2AC in
2 A C in
the hyperbola. Hence also, in the parabola, the velocity is every where equal to the velocity in a circle at half the distance, in the ellipse less, and in the hyperbola
greater.
Con. 8. The velocity of a body revolving in any conic section is to the velocity in a circle at the distance of half the latus rectum, as that distance is to the peprendicular from the focus on the tangent.
For, the velocity in the conic section
\L
the velocity in
: :
U*
:
: :
^^
Si ^L
Prop,
is
T F
\L
8Y.
COR.
9.
6,
of a
body
revolving in a circle
PROP. XVI.
THEOREM
VIII.
233
any other
the distances, the velocity of a body in a conic sec tion will be to the velocity in a circle at the same distance as a mean proportional between that common distance and half the latus rectum to the perpendicular from the focus on the tangent.
For velocity
in a circle at distance
circle at distance
SP
in conic section
\L
::
SP
SP
::($,.
SPf SY.
:
Notes.
223.
the action
To find the velocity in a conic section described under of a force tending to the focus.
HP
a.
CD*
but
and,
HP
HP=2ACSPin
the ellipse,
AC)
In the parabola,
or else,
V^F^PV=
^ oz
.2SP=
224.
The
expression
(2^^) A \j / \
of the
velocity in the ellipse reduces itself to that for the hyperbola under an attractive force by changing the sign of CA, which is measured corresponds to the opposite direction in which
AC
in the hyperbola
it is
HH
234
NEWTON.
a repulsive force by changing the sign of //., which corresponds to changing the direction of the force ; and to that for the,
parabola by making
225.
that in
AC
infinite.
To compare
the,
the velocity in the ellipse or hyperbola with circle at the same distance.
Let
U be
8P*
V*
U*
2 ~
Hodograph.
If from any point lines be drawn representing in direction and magnitude the velocity of a particle describing an orbit under the action of a force tending to a fixed centre,
226.
DEF.
This name,
in his
is
is
the
work on Quaternions*
Since the velocity in a central orbit
227.
is
QF&gt;,
if
SQ
be
taken
in
SY equal
to
op,
the locus of
procal of the orbit with respect to a circle, the square of whose radius is h ; and if it be turned about JS through a right angle
will be the
hodograph of the
orbit.
228.
"force
described under the action of a If a conic section to a the tending focus, hodograph will be a circle.
"be
For, in
the
case
of an
varies inversely as SY, its direction is is a circle. perpendicular, and the locus of And, in the case of a parabola, being the tangent at the
AY
vertex,
AU perpendicular to
SU varies
SY,
which
7 is
a circle
THE HODOGKAPII.
229.
In tht
235
orbit.
General properties of
the
hodojrapli of a central
B or Be and are propor figure of Prop. I., tional to the velocities with which the body moves along
and
BO
AB
it 0a, 0/3 represent these velocities in and magnitude direction, (i) a/3 will be parallel to Cc or Z?, and will represent the velocity generated by the impulse at J3 and if 0y, OS, Oz ... represent the velocities in CD, DE,
BC\
therefore,
EF...J
the impulses at (7, portion of the polygon aSyoz will represent the sum of the velocities generated by all the the cor impulses tending to responding perimeter of the polygon ABODE:, (iii) also the
&gt;Sin
represent the velocities generated by ...; (ii) hence the perimeter of any
resultant
of these
velocities
in
magnitude and
direction.
limit,
is
Proceeding to the
a/^Ss
...
ABCDE.
Hence we
arrive
at the following
graph of a central
(i)
orbit.
The tangent
drawn
to the
hodograph
at
any point
is
parallel to
the radius
(ii)
to the
arc of the hodograph represents the sum of the velocities generated by the central force in the correspond
Any
finite
The chord of the arc represents in magnitude and (iii) direction the resultant of the whole action of the central force in
the passage through the corresponding arc. From Art. 227, it follows that
and /, p be the radius and perpendicular on the tangent corresponding points in the orbit and hodograph = = h rp rp, and the angles between r, p and /, p will be equal. NOTE. In this article and in Art. 227, h represents an area and not a rate of description of areas.
(iv)
If
r,
at
ellipse,
of a force tending
to *.he centre, is
a similar
236
NEWTON.
For
CD
is
parallel
to the direction
The holograph for an hyperbola, described under the action of a force repelling from the, centre, is a hyperbola similar to the
(2)
conjugate hyperbola.
The hodograph for a parabola, described under the action of a constant force parallel to the axis, is a straight line parallel
(3)
to the axis.
velocity cc
the locus of
a horizontal line, therefore, since /Sl^is perpendicular to the direction of motion, and proportional to the velocity, turning
is
the locus
of
is
vertical line.
(4)
If Pi p
be the radii
corresponding radii, p,p the perpendiculars on the tangents, then willpp pp =r*r*. Let PQ, pq be corresponding small arcs, then L PSQ is
of a
central orbit
and
its
hodograph,
equal to the angle between the tangents to the angle between the tangents at P, Q;
.*.
at p, q,
and
Op
= limit PQ oLpSq
PQ, we have
h
~
pq
I
PSQ
77777=; 9
and,
if
in
ultimately
pSq
Ji
r.
PV
PSQ T
r^
r
PQ_ v
T
pq
V.F.PV.r*
If F be
that
it
Vr*
V
the
(5)
of
force in a central
the cc rr.
orbit,
and
which
hodograph by
For ^00
4, pp
cr
FF
NOTE. The motion
orbit,
is
VT
_
i
p
cc
pp
rr.
hodograph considered as a central not generally the same as that of the point which is
in the
PROP. XVII.
PROBLEM
IX.
in
237
the original
orbits,
whose holographs are oho central with accelerations tending to their poles, the motions being
orbits,
same as in
are those in
pole of the P" , corresponding points in the orbit, the hodograph, P, Then the hodograph, and the hodograph of the hodograph. hodograph being a central orbit, the tangent at P" is in the
Let
be
the
the
hence
it
is
parallel to
SP
and therefore to the tangent at P. Also SP" represents and direc velocity, and therefore P s acceleration in magnitude hence SP is a straight line, and the tangents at PP tion
P" ;
P"s
"s
orbit
is
Hence
&gt;SPcc
SP"
oc
acceleration of P.
IX.
Given that the centripetal force is inversely proportional to the square of the distance from the centre, and that the absolute force of the centre is known; it is required to find the curve which ivill be described by a body which is projected from a given point with a given velocity in a
given direction.
Let Fbe the velocity, PFthe direction of projection from P, S the point to which the force tends, and let P7be measured on PS. produced, if necessary, equal to twice the space through which the body must be drawn from rest by the action of the force at P con
tinued constant, in order that the velocity V may be generated; therefore since the absolute force is given, PUis given. Draw perpendicular to PY, and so that HP, or produced, and SP make UG perpendicular to with PG. Draw equal angles
PH
PG HP
Ptfandjpin SG.
*
Tait, R.S.E., 6768.
238
NEWTON.
distinct cases arise
:
Here three
I.
equal to 2SP, S will be the centre of a circle described about PGU, and /_SGP = LSPG
If
PUbe
= LlIPG\
therefore
SG, produced
either
way, will
as focus
parabola whose axis is in the direction SG. Then Z7 is half the chord of curvature at through S. II. If PZ7be less than 2SP, tSGPis greater than tSP G or LHVGj therefore SG produced meets PHiu II.
In
this case,
with
and describe an
H as
foci,
and
P through S.
28 P s_SGP
is less
ellipse,
then
PU\s
half the
If
PZ7be
,
greater than
less
than than
PROP. XVII.
PROBLEM
IX.
239
mH.
G8
produced meets
PH
S and
H as
foci,
and
HP  8P as
PUis
transverse axis, describe an hyperbola, then half the chord of curvature at through S.
In
all these cases, a body may be supposed to revolve in the conic section described, under the action of the force tending to S, Art. 164, and the velocity at is that due to falling through onefourth of the chord of curvature through S, or half the action 7, under of the force at is therefore and supposed constant,
equal to F, the velocity of the projected body also, since 8P and HP, or produced, make equal with 1 is a angles G, tangent, therefore the direction of motion is that of the projected body.
HP
PY
Therefore, the circumstances of the two bodies are the same in all respects which can influence the motion at the point P, and they will therefore describe the same orbits that is, the projected body will describe a conic section of that kind which corresponds to the velocity.
;
The
therefore, will be an ellipse, parabola, or hyperbola, accordingasP is less, equal to, or greater 2 than 2/SP, that is, since V* = F.PU, according as
orbit,
is less, equal to, or greater than 2F.SP, or twice the square of the velocity in a circle whose radius is SP.
240
NEWTON.
COR. 3. Hence if a body move in any conic section, and be disturbed from its orbit by any impulse, the orbit in which it will proceed to move may be discovered. For, by compounding the motion of the body with that motion which the impulse alone would generate, the motion and direction of motion will be found, with which the body will proceed from the point at which the disturbance took place.
COR. 4. And if the body be disturbed by any con tinuous extraneous force, its course can be deter mined, approximately, by calculating the changes which the force produces at certain points, and estimating from analogy the changes which take place at the intermediate points.
SCHOLIUM.
If a
meeting in G the tangent PG to the conic section. Then, by Prop vn. Cor. 3, the force tending to R: the force tending to C::CG* CP.RP\ but the force tending to C varies as CP9 therefore the force tend:
body P move in the perimeter of any conic section, whose centre is (7, under the action of a centripetal force tending to any given point R, and the law of force be required, draw CG parallel to RP and
7? ing to jRac
assumed that if, in conic section, G be the intersection of the axis and normal anv j will at P, and GU, parallel to the tangent, meet SPin U, be half the chord of curvature at P drawn through the focus ;
230.
it
is
PU
this
property
1.
may
be proved as follows.
In the ellipse and hyperbola, let PG meet the conjugate diameter in F\ then CD. PF= AC.BC, and EG* ;
PG PF=
.
PU _PE _ CD PG
PKOP. XVII.
PROBLEM
IX,
241
PU
*
CD
__ ==
PG _ BG _ CD
BC~ PF~ AG
P through
S.
.:
chord of curvature at
GL
=
PL
will be equal to
For f.~
PG
^r,: PE
/.
PL = r^ = half the AC
latus rectum.
2.
In the parabola,
PU
/.
SP and =,
chord of curvature at
P7=2P=half the
through S.
Also,
PL
fG
==
SY
sp
;
.*.
PL =
7TFT
latus rectum.
if the central force vary inversely as the square of the distance^ a ~body, projected from any point in any direction, will describe a conic section.
231.
To shew
that
Let
be the centre of
force,
orbit
produce them
P and SY SY.SQ= $ SQ =h, then SQj SQ represent the velocities at P, P in magnitude, and are perpendicular to their directions hence Q Q represents
PF,
,
described,
PP
an arc described
necessary to
in a small time.
Draw SY,
and
7
SY
PY
at
if
so that
the velocity generated by the force PS, and is perpendicular to PS; that is, the tangent to the locus of Q at Q is perpen
dicular to SP.
the angle described in a given small J time varies inversely as /SP , so also does the velocity generated x. LPSP, and, in the same time; therefore by Lemma IV.,
Now
PSP
arc of the orbit described, QQ^ the cor will vary as the angle P&gt;SP,, , responding arc of the locus of and therefore will vary as the angle between the tangents at
if
t
PP
be any
finite
and Q^ which
locus of
a property peculiar to a circle. Hence, thr is either a circle or a being a circle, that of
is
II
242
NEWTON.
straight line, being the inverse of the locus of Q. Hence, the feet of the perpendiculars from the centre of force on a tangent
to the
body
path
lie
in
which
lines
is
property
of a
conic
section
only,
since straight
drawn
according to a fixed
according as locus of Q.
law can only have one envelope. Therefore, the path will be an ellipse, parabola, or hyperbola
S lies
circular locus of
fA
is
QQ ~ p_ h_ ~ PSP ? 7
"
Geometrical construction for the conic described by a body projected with a given velocity in a given direction.
232.
Let
Fbe
PY the
is
given direction.
if
Draw
Q, so
parallel
SY
that
to
perpendicular to
necessary to
then
to
SQ.SY=h
j
,
given.
Draw
QO
locus of
is its centre and perpendicular to SP, is, by on the axis of the conic described. Draw SZ symmetry, per in Z, then pendicular to SP, meeting perpendicular
PY
ZD
to
SO
is
M,
and
=
p
j
therefore
SO=^h
therefore
is
compounded of
and
perpendicular respectively to
OQor
SP and SO.
Equations for determining the elements of the orbit described by a body projected from a given point with a given velocity in a given direction.
233.
Let SP and
PY the
PROP. XVII.
PROBLEM
IX.
243
T7*
&lt;&gt;
or
=
elliptic
and hyperbolic orbits, let a, 5, L, e be the semiaxes, semilatusrectum, and eccentricity, and let SP=Hj and T/T be the angle PTS between PY and the transverse axis in the figures on pages 238, 239
I.
For the
"
SP.AC~ R
&gt;
Also,
V
/.
(1
&gt;
e)
= VR
2
a
Z
IJL ;
sin a
............. (11).
Draw
then
SY,
2ae
/.
Also,
s,m^
.% e sin\r=
sina:
\a
(
.*.
tan
\!r
\a
tan a
tana
............... (iv).
equations (i) and (ii) determine a, b y and e, and (iv) de termines yjf immediately from the given circumstances of pro a convenient equation for determining the jection, (iii) is also
The
e has been previously found. position of the axes when Instead of (iii) or (iv) we might employ the equation
L
to determine the angle the axes.
VR
2
sin*
ASP^ which
244
NEWTON.
II. For the parabolic orbit, fig. 1, page 238, SY*=SP.AS, and the tangent makes equal angles with the axis and &P; = cc, which determine the position therefore sin*a, and ^ and dimensions of the orbit.
AS=R
To find the, dements of the orbit described under action of a repulsive force varying inversely as the square of distance from the point from which the force tends. Let // be the point from which the force tends, IIP= jft,
234.
~
the
the
._ HP.AC~
UP"
AG
(E _f* ~
R\a
The
revolving in a circle under the action of a force which tends to the centre and varies inversely as the square of the When the body arrives at any point, if the force distance from it.
(1)
"body
is
begin body,
to
to
tend to the point of bisection of the radius through the determine the orbit described by the body.
Let
CA
be the radius,
is finite,
the
new
8
centre of force.
is
the velocity at
orbit.
Also
(vel.)
;
in the circle
^
e
&lt;
^r
ellipse
and
= V =.SA*
a,
by
(ii)
..
;
f and
Instead of equation (ii) we might determine e from the con is one extremity of the major axis ; sideration that
/.
&4 = a(le);
.*.
le = f,
and
= J,
and therefore
is
the
The
is
is
PROP. XVII.
(2)
PROBLEM
IX.
the
245
bisection
to
If
the
new
centre
of force be in
of
the
determine
The
*?
A
,
orbit
must be
elliptic since
CA
=H
&lt;
also
SA = a (1
e)
/.
=$
to S.
and A, in the new orbit, is the nearest point In this case the force, and therefore the
nished, which accounts
(3)
curvature,
is
dimi
particle, acted on
of which velocity
the square
velocity in
1
same distance as
2 with the line joining the point of projection to the fixed point; shew that the eccentricity of the orbit is %, and that the major axis is perpendicular to the distance
:
V5
2,
of projection.
fia (I
therefore a
= $E,
(ii) ;
semilatusrectum,
is
perpendicular to the
major
axis.
Or, since
e cosi/r
= cos a
by
(iii)
..
cos^ =
~=
\/o
sin a
hence,
the angle between the direction of projection and major axis is the complement of that the a, is, major axis is perpendicular to the distance of the of point projection.
(4)
A
to
body revolves in a
the centre
tending
distance.
Find
a point
tance 60
of a force as the inversely square of the the orbit described, if the force suddenly tend to
the action
circle
under
and varying
of
in the circumference
the body.
is
the circle, at
an angular
dis
from
unaltered at
A
;
by the change,
a = 8A.
SA\
..
a J
246
that
is,
NEWTON.
the extremity of the minor axis of the new orbit ; hence the major axis is parallel to the tangent at A, or perpen dicular to CA, and the centre is in the bisection of CA.
is
The curvature
normal force
(5)
is
is
less
circle,
because the
under
the
action
of a
force tending
to
a focus S, has
its
the direction
of
its
motion altered
at a given point oj
determine
the
corresponding
change in
the position
of
the
major axis.
Since the velocity, as well as the distance SP, in the new orbit is the same as in the old, the length of the major axis is
the same
;
therefore
PH
is
the
lies in
a circle
same in the two orbits that is, whose centre is P, and SP, PH
;
make
(6)
new
direction.
orbit a slight alteration
the velocity
To find
may
be
remaining
of
the
major axis
may
be the
same
as before.
direction of the major axis being unaltered, SII must must be at one of the be a tangent to the locus of H, hence
The
extremities of that
centre of force.
(7)
latus
Prove that
rectum
if,
when a body
is
latus
direction of motion be deflected through a small angle, without altering the velocity, the alteration of the eccentricity will be to the
circular measure
of
the angle
of deflection as
BC* AC*.
:
A.
For,
let
1L .11
the position of the body, //// the small arc of the circle described by H, which nearly coincides with the
P be
PROP. XVII.
direction of the
flection,
PROBLEM
1
IX.
major
axis,
^,,
HPH
f
is
and
/.
r^
or
^.1 \j
~,
is
change of eccentricity
deflection of direction
HK HH
2AC 2HP
(8)
::HP:AC::BC*:AC\
ellipse
If a body, moving in an
by an impulse towards the focus ivhen it arrives at the extremity of the latus rectum, the axis major will be unaltered in direction.
For, the force being central, h is unaltered ; therefore, if SL be the semilatusrectum, p.SL is unaltered, or SL is the semilatusrectum of the new orbit, and the axis major is per
pendicular to SL.
(9)
particle
to the
moving in an
ellipse
force tending
=
impressed
upon
it
in
the
direction
By
(6),
is
P LL
constant velocities
j
and
j
respectively perpendicular to
SP
and
ASA.
;
And,
is
towards
/S
is
unaltered
are
7
in the
new
orbit
perpendicular
P
ti
SP
and
is
~
to
the
new
axis
P ii
SM
in
therefore
7
in
direction
PM
the resultant of
7
PM
248
72 LL
NEWTON.
=/&
and
in
PS.
Let L
MSM
e sin or
or,
=n
e^
cosP/SJf,
and
= e + w s mPSM,
sin
n cosPSM,
=n
PSM.
XXIX.
1. The velocity in an ellipse at the greatest distance is half that with which a body would move in a parabola at the same distance; required the eccentricity of the ellipse.
moving in a parabola about a centre of force in the at the vertex with an obstacle w hich diminishes the meets focus, of the velocity by onefourth, without altering the direction square shew that the body will afterwards move in an of the motion axis whose major is equal to the latus rectum of the ellipse
2.
T ;
A body,
parabola.
3. body revolves in an ellipse about a centre of force in the Shew that there is always some determinate point at focus S. which the absolute force may be supposed to change suddenly from ju to ??/*, so that the subsequent path of the body may be a parabola about S in the focus, provided n is not situated beyond  e}. Prove also that the latus rectum the limits (1 + 0) and % (I of the ellipse : that of the parabola :: n : 1.
4.
comes
the
particle, describing an ellipse about a force in the focus, find in what ratio to the point nearest to the centre of force in must then be diminished force order that the absolute
;
particle may proceed to describe a hyperbola, the reciprocal of that of the ellipse.
5.
whose
eccentricity is
The
:
is
18
13
ratio of the axes of the Earth s find the periodic time of Venus.
and Venus
s orbits
6. A body is projected, with a velocity of 100 feet per minute, from a point whose distance from a centre of force, which varies inversely as the square of the distance, is 32 feet, the velocity in a circle at that distance being 80 feet per minute ; find the periodic
time.
If at any point of an ellipse, which is the orbit of a particle moving under the action of a force tending to the focus, the direction of motion be turned through a right angle, the velocity remaining unchanged, prove that the sum of the squares on the minor axis of the new and old orbits wil) be equal to the square on the diameter parallel to the tangent in either the old or new orbit.
7.
PROP. XVII.
PROBLEM
IX.
249
8. If a body be projected with a given velocity about a centre of force which varies inversely as the square of the distance, shew that the minor axis of the orbit described will vary as the perpen dicular from the centre of force upon the direction of projection; and determine the locus of the centre of the orbit described.
in a given hyperbola under the action of S when it arrives at the point P, the force becomes suddenly repulsive, find the position and magnitude of the axes of the new orbit shew that the difference of the squares of the eccentricities of the new and old orbits varies inversely
9.
body
is
moving
as SP.
in a circle of
;
comet moves in a parabola about the Sun and a planet which the radius is half the latus rectum of the para bola shew that the planet will move through about 76 22 of longitude, while the cornet passes from one extremity of the latus rectum to the other.
10.
perihelion distance of a comet moving in a parabolic half the radius of the Earth s orbit, supposed circular. The planes of the orbits coinciding find the time in days from, perihelion to the point of intersection of the orbits.
11.
The
orbit
is
12. body is moving in a given parabola under the action of a force in the focus and, when it comes to a distance from the focus equal to the latus rectum, the force suddenly becomes re pulsive determine the nature, position, and dimensions of the new
; ;
orbit.
13. particle is describing an ellipse under the action of a force tending to the focus if, on arriving at the extremity of the minor axis, the force has its law changed, so that it varies as the distance, the magnitude at that point remaining unchanged, prove that the periodic time will be unaltered, and that the sum of the new axes will be to their difference as the sum of the old axes to the distance between the foci.
;
is perpendicular on the directrix from any point of orbit described by a particle about the focus S, and elliptic the force suddenly tends to when the particle is at instead of S, prove that the new orbit may be a parabola if e and that, in this case, passes through the intersection of the two circles,
14.
PO
an
&gt;
SP
one described on Slf as diameter, and the other with centre radius SA, the shortest focal distance,
S and
15. A particle P is moving in an ellipse about the focus S, and has a normal impulse which generates a velocity equal to the Prove that the particle will velocity at the end of the minor axis. now describe a parabola, and that the angle through which the
o ~p
direction of motion
is
deflected is tan
KK
250
16.
NEWTON*.
from a given point with a given 3 and moves under the action of a force pR velocity prove that there may be two directions of projection for which the direction of the major axis will be the same, and if a be the angle between these directions, e, e the eccentricities of the two orbits,
particle is projected
F",
p
17.
(e
e}
 VR
sin a.
body moves in an ellipse about a focus, and is at the ex of the minor axis when its velocity is doubled. Find the tremity new orbit, and shew that the body will come to an apse after describing a right angle, if the ratio of the axes of the given ellipse be 2 1.
:
18. A body is revolving in an ellipse under the action of a force tending to the focus S, and, when it arrives at the point P, the centre of force is suddenly transposed to the point S in PS pro duced so that P*S is equal to the major axis of the ellipse, and the force becomes repulsive shew that if IIP be produced to II and
Y
;
PIT =
PIT, the length of the transverse axis of the hyperbola will be the other focus. described will be SP,. and
XXX.
1.
Prove that the periodic time of two bodies round each other
is
2ir0 77\l(m +
m)
rr
where 2a
is
their
maximum
units.
distance,
and
m m
}
their
comets moving in the ecliptic in parabolic orbits, the latus rectum of its orbit equal to the diameter of has that which the Earth s orbit will remain within the latter for the longest period, the Earth s orbit being considered circular.
all
&. particle is moving in an ellipse about a centre of force in the focus, arid the centre of force is transferred to one end of the Prove that latus rectum as the particle passes through the other. the eccentricities of the old and new orbits, are connected by
&lt;*
Of
&lt;?,
the relation
4.
3 + 40
described by two particles acted on respectively by forces, one constant, and the other tending to the focus. If they start from the same point, they will reach the vertex in equal times if the difference between their initial velocities is to that of the particle acted on by the constant force as 2TA 3SP, is the point in which the initial direction of motion meets where the axis SA.
orbit
is
:
elastic particles describe the same in opposite directions, one about each period, focus; prove that the major axis of the orbit is a harmonic mean between, those of the orbits they will describe after the impact*
5.
Two
equal perfectly
ellipse, in the
same
PROP. XVII.
PROBLEM
IX.
251
6. Prove that the rate, at which areas are described about the centre of a hyperbolic orbit described by a particle under the action, of a force tending to a focus, is inversely proportional to the distance of the particle from the centre of force.
7. Two ellipses are described by two particles about the same the eccentricities are % and centre of force in the focus V3 respectively, and the major axes are coincident in direction and equal in length. Compare the times which each body spend* within the orbit of the other.
;
8. particle is attracted to a centre of force varying inversely as the square of the distance, and is projected from a fixed point so as to describe a parabola prove that the tangent to the path at the other extremity of the focal chord through the fixed point envelopes a parabola of which that point is the focus.
;
If a number of equal particles be projected from the same with equal velocities so as to describe ellipses in one plane point under a force tending to the common focus, these ellipses will all touch a fixed ellipse which has one focus at the centre of force and
9.
11. particle is describing an ellipse about a centre offeree in the focus, and the absolute force is suddenly diminished one half; shew that the chance of the particle s new orbit being a hyperbola is TT  20 2?r, all instants of time being supposed equally probable for the change.
:
Two particles are revolving in the same direction in an the action of a force tending to the focus under prove that ellipse the direction of the motion of one as it appears to the other is parallel to the line bisecting the angle between their distances from
12.
;
the focus.
force tends to the centre of a given circle, and varies in 13. versely as the squnre of the distance; prove that all elliptic orbits which can be inscribed in any triangle inscribed in the circle will be described by a particle, under the action of the force, in the same periodic time.
252
NEWTON.
14. Two equal particles are revolving in the same direction in the same ellipse, under the action of a force tending to a focus shew that if they become rigidly connected when they are at the extremities of a focal chord, they will afterwards move about their centre of gravity with an angular velocity which varies inversely as the length of the chord, and that, wherever this takes place, the initial velocity of the centre of gravity will be the same.
;
15. body revolves in an ellipse about the focus from nearer to farther apse, and the angle which its direction makes with the focal distance is constantly being increased without altering the shew that the motion of the apse line will change from velocity progression to regression, when the true anomaly of the instantaneous
;
orbit is
16.
?r
f
tan"
^,
comes
particle is describing an ellipse about the focus ; when it to the extremity of the minor axis the absolute force is
diminished by onethird. Determine the position and dimensions of the new orbit, and prove that the distance between its focus and its centre bisects and is bisected by the semiminoraxis of the
original orbit.
17.
elliptic
When
the earth
is
at
n x sun Prove also that the apse line where cos \ is the excentricity of the earth
orbit, a small meteor fails into the sun, s mass, prove that the year is diminished
s orbit.
an end of the minor axis of its whose mass is by 2n of itself. turns through the angle n tan \,
18. body is describing an ellipse about a centre of force in the focus, and when its radius vector is half the latus rectum it receives a blow which causes it to move towards the other focus with a momentum equal to that of the blow. Shew that, a the the f?r, angle between the tangent and radius vector being  cot 2a, ratio of the eccentricity of the new elliptic orbit will be 2 old and new major axes= cot 2a  1 cot 2 a  1, and that these axes *Hre in the same line.
&lt;
19. If a small velocity be communicated when a body moving in an ellipse about the focus is at the extremity of the latus rectum, in a direction parallel to the axis, shew that the change of the
eccentricity will
be 2/m
41
will
be turned =
If at any point of the elliptic orbit of a body, moving under the action of a force tending to the focus, the force cease to act for a given very short time, find the angle through which the line of apses will have turned and the change of eccentricity, and shew that they will vary as the components of the force respectively parallel and perpendicular to the line of apses.
20.
APPENDIX.
SECTION
VII.
ON RECTILINEAR MOTION.
PROP. XXXII. AND PROP. XXXVI.
To find
of motion and the velocity acquired when a body falls through a given space from rest, under the action of a force ivhich varies inversely as the square of the distance from a fixed point.
the time
^
Let
be the centre of
force,
the
body begins
to
fall.
Let
APA
a
major
MPQ
ASA AQA
j
is
common
common
and join CP, CQ, SP, SQ. If a body revolve in the ellipse under the action of the force tending to S, the measure of whose accelerating
centre,
effect at a distance
SP
*
is
a 7
time in AP time in
:
APA
area
ASQ
67@
:
::
sector
AOQ +
triangle
QA semicircle,4 QA
:
semicircled
254
NEWTON.
^
This
is
IT
AC*
it is
2JBC*
AC
.
= 0,
that is, the elliptic motion ultimately degenerates to a recti linear motion in which the body starts from rest at A.
at
;
Also, since
AS.SA = BO\ SA
ultimately
0;
.T
*.
n
IDP is
A n AJ
L/
.
~
./
&gt;
e and, when the minor axis is indefinitely diminish d, the velocity at M, in the rectilinear motion of the body,
COR.
directly towards or from a centre, to which a force tends which varies inversely as the square of the distance, the time and velocity acquired in a given space may be determined by
If a
body be projected
of an ellipse, parabola, or hyperbola, whose latus rectum is indefinitely diminished, so con structed that at the point of projection the velocity is properly represented.
Notes.
means
must not be supposed that the motion will be repre sented throughout by the ultimate motion in an ellipse, whose axis minor is indefinitely diminished, in which case the body
235.
It
would return
to
for,
since in this
case
the
ellipse
passes
through $, we are precluded from applying the results of the second and third sections in determining the motion of the body
after arriving at
$; but we may correctly apply these determine the motion before arriving at S.
results to
APPENDIX.
255
In order to determine tne motion after arriving at $, we must observe that at S the force is zero, since its direction is
indeterminate, although, when the body is at any point very near to $, there will be a very great force tending towards $; on approaching $, therefore, the velocity will continually in
and the body will pass through S with very great but the motion will be retarded, according to the same velocity as law, rapidly as it was generated, and the body will proceed
crease,
;
to a distance equal to
SA
PROP XXXVIII.
To find
the velocity acquired zvhen a lody falls through a given space from rest, under the action of a force which varies as the distance from a
the time
of motion and
fixed point.
Let
be the centre of force, A the place from which the and on ASA body begins to move make SA =
;
SA&gt;
as
major
circle
AQA
A PA
MPQ
P
Suppose a body to revolve in the ellipse, under the action of the force tending to the measure of whoso
,
accelerating effect at
oc
is
AP
area J./SP
oc
sector .4$ $
therefore time in
AP
time in
ABA
::
arcAQ
x
irAS,
and time
in
AP =
arcAQ ~
256
NEWTON.
is
the minor axis is indefi nitely diminished, in which case the velocity at A vanishes, since the diameter of curvature vanishes. Therefore the elliptic motion is reduced to the recti linear motion of a body originally at rest at A, and aro A is thus shewn to be the time in x  r^
true
when
AM
V/"
AS
P
motion
= *Jlj,.SD, =
where
&gt;SD
is
conjugate to JSP
in the rectilinear
^ (AS*
SMJ =
8=
57,
COR.
Time from A
to
S is
SECTION
PKOP. XL.
Jf
VIII.
THEOEEM
XIIL
the velocities of two bodies, one of which is falling directly towards a centre of force and the other describing a curve about that centre, be equal at any equal distances they
will always be equal at equal distances, if the force only on the distance.
depend
let
moving
APS,
curve AQq.
Suppose the
velocities at
P, Q
to
be
APPENDIX.
257
equal, and let Qq be an arc of the curve described in a short time. With centre S and radii SQ, Sq describe circular arcs QP, qP, let SQ meet pq in m,
to Qq.
Since the centripetal forces at equal distances are equal, and Q, and Pp, Qm may represent they will be so at
Pp is wholly effective in accelerating P, Qn the only effective part of Qm on Q, the component nm being employed in retaining the body in the curve. and Q the Also, since the velocities are equal at times of describing Pp, Qq are ultimately proportional to Pp, Qq, when the time is indefinitely diminished.
;
them
is
Hence
force at
in
PS
:
:
force at
Q
: :
in
Qq
:
::
Pp
Qn,
and time
.
.
in
Pp
time in Qq
Pp
:
:
Qq,
:
vel.
acquired
vel.
at^&gt;
acquired at q
but
therefore the velocities added in Pp and Qqare equal, and the actual velocities at p and q are equal. By proceeding in the same way through any number of small times, the proposition is proved.
XXXI.
1. If a particle slide along a chord of a circle, under the action of a force tending to any fixed point, and varying as the dis tance, the time will be the same for all chords, provided they ter minate at either extremity of the diameter which passes through centre of force.
2. If the velocity of the earth in its orbit were suddenly de stroyed, find the time in which it would reach the sun.
3 particle moves from any point in the directrix of a conic section, in a straight line towards a centre of force, which varies inversely as the square of the distance, in the corresponding focus. Prove that when it arrives at the conic section, if I/ be the latus
rectum, the velocity will be (~) \z/ /
.
LL
258
4.
NEWTON.
If three centres of force reside in the three angles of a a force whose accelerating effect is triangle, attracting with the intersection of in a that ii x distance, prove particle, placed P drawn through OO line the in oscillate will the perpendiculars, = $ in a centre of the circle, where O
the
circumscribing
27T
time
in an ellipse about a centre of force at 5 particle revolves If PU, PU" be the spaces through which one of the foci S, S a particle, falling from any point P, of the curve, would have to move in order to acquire the velocity at P, according as S or ig the centre of force, prove that
&
PU:
6.
PU
::
2SP + S P 25 P
:
+ SP.
towards a centre of when it has force varying inversely as the square of the distance, and so as to move fallen half the distance it is reflected by a plane, an angle a with its former direction; shew in a direction
A perfectly
from
rest
making
is
cos a.
to each of two equal and similar elastic particle is attached are fixed at points whose distance apart ends other wiiose strings, of the strings; is greater than the sum of the natural lengths at rest between the fixed points and in the initially the particle is and one of the strings is just unstraight line joining them, motion, and the velocity of Determine the
7.
ball falls from a distance a towards a perfectly elastic When it has described a distance. the as iorce of centre varying of 45 on a plane and is reflected. space \a it impinges at an angle Shew that the semiaxes of the orbit subsequently described will be a cos 60 and a sin 60. Suppose that the ball again impinges on the opposite side of the same fixed reflecting plane, shew that it at will be reflected to the centre, and that the time of arriving it. to of fulling directly the centre will be five times the time
8.
e to be the elasticity of the ball in the last problem, = tan V*, the subsequent the angle of incidence prove that, in which orbit will have its axis major or minor in the direction the from distance the the ball was originally falling, according as than less or centre C to the point of impact is greater
9.
Suppose
if
\/r
GENERAL PROBLEMS.
XXXII.
1.
when n
iz
indefinitely increased.
2.
ABCD
is
a quadrilateral, which
is
the position abCD in its own plane, remaining fixed; prove that the small angular displacements of the sides DA, AB,
CD
EG
are ultimately in the inverse ratio of the perpendiculars upon the drawn from the points side being the point E, Cj and CB. of intersection of
AB
Z&gt;,
DA
P
move
and
so that the product of its distances a fixed straight line is constant, and
the polar subtangent, and the tangent meets the fixed will be bisected in P. line in V, prove that
ST be
4.
TV
particle describes
an
elliptic
orbit
about a centre of
of two conjugate will be invariable
ends P,
(
V.
SPf f V. SDf
body
is
in
at
the
its
centre,
and
velocity
is
observed
when
it
arrives
greatest distance, and again after a lapse of one third of its periodic time. If these velocities be in the ratio of 2 3, prove that the eccentricity of the ellipse will be \/f
:
velocity and direction at two central orbit, find the locus of the centre of force.
6.
Given the
points
of a
260
7.
NEWTON.
that in the elliptic orbit described under the action of a force tending to a focus, the angular velocity round the other focus varies inversely as the square of the diameter parallel
to the direction of motion. particle slides down the arc of a vertical circle, starting from rest at a given point ; find the point where it will leave the curve.
8.
Shew
9.
If at
any point of an
:
ellipse,
of a force tending to the focus, the velocity be increased in the ratio n 1, prove that the latus rectum will be increased
in the ratio n
10.
2
:
1.
Supposing the major axis of an ellipse = 200 = and the periodic time 10 days eccentricity
feet,
the
find
the
number
vector in
11.
by the radius
a body describes a parabola about the focus, the intersection of its direction with the axis of the parabola moves
When
is
at the
Shew how
to
find
the
body describes a hyperbola under a repulsive force tending from the farther focus, and when the body arrives at shew that, if the vertex, the force suddenly becomes attractive
13.
;
the
new
;
=3
orbit be a parabola, e the eccentricity of the hyperbola e if the new orbit be an ellipse of eccentricity 6, e 2.
point of an ellipse particles are projected in the direction of the tangent with velocities such that, when
14.
From every
acted upon by a centre of force cc D~* to one of the foci of the ellipse, they proceed to describe parabolas. Shew that the directrices of these parabolas all touch one or other of two fixed
circles,
ellipse.
whose
GENERAL PROBLEMS.
2G1
XXXIII.
are two rightangled triangle?, the angle at C Prove that, being a right angle, and their perimeters are equal. as ab moves up to AB, the distance of the point of ultimate
1.
ABC, abC
intersection of
and ab from the middle point of the difference between CA and CB.
2.
AB
AB
is
half
P,
two neighbouring points on the outer of two tangents to the inner, TP, TQ, T P, being points which coincide when T moves up to T.
TQ
PF QQ
:
::
TP
TQ\
that
if
In a parabola described under a force to the focus shew the direction of motion meet the directrix in F, then the
velocity of
vary inversely as the abscissa of the corre on the curve. sponding point
will
parabola, whose vertex is A, is described by a body under the action of a force in its focus S. If, with S as centre
4.
and
in
SA
the
as radius, a circle be described cutting the axis again will represent in Q, prove that and the radius vector velocity at P, and hence find the law of force in the
SP
BQ
parabolic path.
a body describe an ellipse of very small a focus, the eccentricity under the action of a force tending to will be focus very nearly uniform. angular velocity about the other
5.
Shew
that
if
6.
Shew
pendulum,
that the intersection of the string of a cycloidal which makes complete oscillations, with the base of
to
keep it stretched tightly, shew that the tension of the string will have two minimum values, and that they will be inversely cases. proportional to the free lengths of the string in the two
2G2
8.
NEWTON.
The
latus
rectum of a comet
s
parabolic orbit
;
is
orbit
supposed circular
if
Low long
latus
9.
the comet
will take to
of the
rectum
to the other.
a particle moves from rest in a smooth equiangular from the spiral tube under the action of a constant force tending pole, starting from the pole, shew that the pressure on the
When
curve
10.
is
constant.
body moving in an ellipse about a force in the centre are 4 and 9 per hour at the extremities of the major and minor axes respectively; find the
velocities of a
The angular
periodic time.
11.
the resultant
attraction of a uniform rod upon it may pass through a given of the rodj the law of point, equidistant from the extremities
attraction being that of the inverse square.
12.
Prove that
described
velocity at any point of an ellipse about a centre of force in the focus be resolved at
if
the
and the axis major, the greater of these velocities will be the actual velocity in the orbit at a point where the direction of motion makes an angle with the axis major
to the focal distance
whose
13.
sine
is \e.
acted upon by two forces, tending to the foci of an ellipse whose major axis is 2a and varying according
particle
/
is
Q~*K
3 a
/
to tbe
law
//,
f\
Oc*
it
Shew
that, if
ellipse freely,
and
its velocity, in
/
7
,a
focal
distances r,
r, will
be n
_j_
rrf
;
_j_
,
2x
1
.
1
yrr
J
5 to
ellipse
under a force
GENERAL PROBLEMS.
XXXIV.
1.
PQ
and
is
Prove that the area of an ellipse cut off by any chord \ab (0 sin$), where #, b are the semiaxes of the ellipse, is the angle subtended at the centre by the points on
P
_
Q.
Deduce from
,
this
2
on by any chord
or a
(I
sin#)
parabola
is
?T~^i
the length of the chord, 6 its inclination to the axis the latus rectum. of the parabola, and
where
is
and parabola whose axes are parallel have the if the same curvature at a point P and cut one another in in meet the axis of P the at T, prove that parabola tangent
2.
An
ellipse
PQ
will
PT.
3.
i
Having given
i
rad. of earth
i
= 4000
cos X\
.
X= CM( 1
s~i
289
,
.
11
heavy
point in the vertical, the velocity being that due to the height above a given horizontal plane of the point of projection, find the form of the surface so that the particle may always remain in the horizontal
particle is projected horizontally from any interior of a surface of revolution, whose axis is
plane of projection.
5.
body describes a
which
it
is
connected by a string; it is attracted to a point in the circum ference by a force varying as the distance shew that, if the string be always kept stretched, the greatest and least velocities
;
1.
6.
Find,
if
which,
when possible, the point in an elliptical orbit at the centre of force were transferred to the empty
Prove that such a point focus, the orbit would be a parabola. cannot exist unless the eccentricity of the elliptical orbit be
greater than
\i&gt;
2.
2G4
7.
NEWTON.
particle describes
an
ellipse
in the focus,
and another
upon the
per pendicular to the axis. Also shew that the velocity at any point in the circle will be inversely proportional to corresponding focal distance in the
*
major axis about another force in the same point in the same If the particles start simultaneously from the periodic time. vertex, prove that the line joining them will be always
ellipse.
8.
body moves
rr
in elliptic
varying as
Ta
dicular to the plane of the orbits; shew that those arcs are portions of similar ellipses whose major axes are equally inclined to the elastic plane, and that the time between the first and third
impact
9.
is
projected about a centre of force cc (dist.)~* perpendicular to the distance ; shew that as the velocity of projection is increased, the centre of the curve moves through
body
is
the centre of force to infinity, then suddenly starts back toinfinity on the other side of the point of projection and returns But when the force cc dist. the nearer focus moves to to it.
its
previous direction.
10.
A
it
when
and y describing an ellipse about the focus arrives at the mean distance, the force is doubled ;
body
is
line of apses passes through the foot of the from the other focus upon the tangent. perpendicular
about the focus, when a particle is at a distance r from the focus, the direction of motion is turned
11.
In an
elliptic orbit
&x,
1
(
e"
Clj
and
the eccentricity.
GENERAL PROBLEMS.
12.
265
Prove tliat, neglecting the disturbances produced by the planets on each others orbits, the statement of Kepler s third The cubes of the mean distances of law should be amended to as the squares of the periodic times from sun are the the planets multiplied into the sum of the masses of the sun and the planet.
"
Prove that, when the distance between the centres of the sun and the earth is r, the attraction between them is
13.
^
~
~,
2 ,
where
is
the mass of
is
of the earth, in astronomical units, and a the sun, distance between the centres.
14.
the
mean
orbit elliptic
Prove that the periodic time of a body describing an under an attraction to a fixed point within the
9
^
ellipse
is
V /*
where
is
P*
penlicular from the body on the polar of 0.
XXXV.
any point of a catenary, prove that when the area of the triangle formed by these straight lines and the directrix is the greatest possible, the distance of the point from the directrix is twice the length of the arc measured from the point to the vertex.
1.
tangent
at
traced out by a point in a straight line of given length, which moves with its extremities in the arc of an ellipse ; shew that the area included between the ellipse
2.
is
curve
and the locus of P is TTCC c and from the extremities of the line.
,
3.
If a circle touch
two
coils of
an equiangular
spiral,
one
internally, the other externally, the line joining the pole to the centre of the circle will bisect the angle between the radii
drawn
MM
266
4.
NEWTON.
the highest point, JSP intersects the horizontal diameter in $, and B, C are the Prove that the square of Q a velocity extremities of Q s path.
oscillates in
circle,
is
of which
varies as
5.
BQ.QC.SQ\
moves
in
A particle
an
elliptic
of a material line joining the foci, each element of which attracts with a force varying inversely as the square of the distance.
that the velocity tube when the particle
Shew
is
is
constant; and find the pressure on the at the extremity of the minor axis.
6.
An
TT&gt;
^ 2
(dist.)
if
^
1
it
end of
/
v&gt;
a.b.e bein
the semi
2/
A body
is
a repulsive force
r&lt;//*
= ya (dist.).
8.
body moves
in
an
ellipse
prove that
is
PL
varies as
y^i,
where
to
the point
which
OP
that
passing
through P.
9.
it is
An
its
elastic
string just
;
fits
of
natural length
it is
a fixed straight tube when fixed at one end, and pulled out
;
so as to double its length the free end, is then projected at right at the
other,
which it along a smooth horizontal plane with the velocity would acquire in falling freely, under the action of gravity,
that through a space equal to the length of the tube; prove
GENERAL PROBLEMS.
tre
267
weight of the particle must be f or f of that which would double the length of the string, in order that it may describe an
ellipse
is ^.
10.
hodograph of an orbit
be proportional to the angular velocity of the corresponding point in the orbit about the centre of attraction, the orbit will
be an
11.
ellipse
particle
of gravity;
when
is
describing a parabola under the action at one extremity of the latus rectum,
gravity is replaced by a force tending to the other extremity of the latus rectum and varying as the distance, such that the
accelerating effort in that position is equal to that of gravity. Shew that the ratios of the axes of the ellipse described to the
latus
\/2
cos^r and 2
the nearer apse, the body, and a small velocity u be applied to the body at right P, prove that the change in the direction of the angles to
12.
be the centre of
force,
SPs mASPy
where
the eccentricity of the orbit and h twice the rate of description of area about
e
is
If an imperfectly elastic particle fall from an infinite distance, under the action of a central force varying inversely
13.
as the square of the distance, and impinge, before arriving at the centre of force, on a small plane area inclined to the direc
tion of
motion, shew that, if the orbit after the first impact be a circle, the elasticity will be j and shew that after an
its
of impacts, twice the major axis of the final orbit will be three times the distance of the plane area from the
infinite
number
centre of force.
I.
1.
Limits are
b.
in
(1), co
in
(2),
a
6.
in
(3).
2.
and
\.
3.
4.
/.
its
5.
PCc
shew
equal;
PB PC
: :
::
PC
:
Pb.
Triangles PBb,
section,
R
.
that
.
:BR
9. AB AP APQ, Q, meeting PQ in M\ PM.MQ = AM.MB = P M.MQ whence P M= QM. 10. CN.NT=QN* = A N.NA, QN being ordinate of aux = %CNu\t 11. R the point of inter iliary circle, and A fl
RS PB R C: BR
ultimate position.
::
::
RC
Draw RS, QT parallel to PB, EG, ult., and QT:RS::BC QT: PB :: AC: AB. 7. By result
to
RU
its
RM* = PM\
and
UM
B
QN
II.
subtract.
PM
RU*
f
UM*
must be
 CN* r.V  TM* :: A C  CM* PW A C* BC Also TM, deduce that C3F AC*&lt;AO* AC* + BC*. a +5 Shew that a  x* f ?/ y* deduce that 4. tf, a 2  x* + a* x* b and that c? thence x + f if V, y* y* = & 2 5. ABC, AB C be two inscribed triangles BCB C = BB cosA+ CC cos A, BB cosC=AB  AB, &c. 6 CV PU.QU parallel to BU, CT: CV::AT:AV, CT=CVu\t. SR :: C8 7. 8 T QT.PT:: BU* CT* :: AB* AC\ : CR, S T =SR ult. AT.BT: AT .BT :: PT* S T :: CT.RT: SR* and CT.RT= CR RTuh. = PR* = SR\
..
B A A B A, A, equality A BB A whence shew that A B. 2. PS parallel to BC, shew that PS: BQ :: 2BC AC. 3. As in I. 11, shew that A C*  CM 2 AC* CN* :: RT* + TM* R + TN
1.
If
tend
to
&gt;
&gt;
CM
: :
PM&gt;
: :
OAB
sin
into
AB
the position
Gab, the
9.
PQ
SPQ
pq
and
Sqp
:
tangents intersect in
SQ
::
Sp,
PQ, pq being
;
ultimately
::
in the directrix
/.
.
:Sp.pD
PD*
PQ
pq
10.
SP.PD
ABC
pD*
SP.Pp: Sp
triangle
dicular to
be intersect in
is
Pp.
P; BD,
CD
269
Ad
common
= PR MAB,
.
that of circle about Abe, is the perpendicular to chord. Bb PN, perpendicular AB, C, = sin : sin Cc, and Cc C, &c. ; ..
AM
PR
Dd
hence L
MAB = LPAC.
Dd
MA
A PN PR
: :
PN MA G
.
III.
3.
Pn =
2
KL x
p. 25, vol.
by Pn round
n
10.
KL =
(l
\
TT
L?n
 Ln*) Pm
T n
n = irmn
1 AL.
.
5.
2Lm
ultimately
TT
::
=&gt;rrAL.2
 \AL.
nj
LK.
Vol. round
(AHPm}\mn.
n
PIT* AM. AM. irPM*.MNnrBK\AH :2AC + AH hence hyperboloid cylinder (2AC+AH] * n \ J n
:
::AC+AH:2AC+AH.
IV.
1.
PV diameter bisecting
QSq.
QVac
SPx SY*
m
2. Mass is to that of a homogeneous circle, den of that 4 2. 4. Let sity given circle at circumference, as 2 : w be the number of squares, each straight of the serrated portion
cc
SY*.
QV.SY
j 4 (7T
ing r divisions
IT \
r
Sn in number.
5.
AM contain6.
4&gt;i/
=r2
and
MN= (2r
AH
f
1)
5
a a small
area near P, PJ/, perpendicular to the axis of revolution, 2 (2?rPJ/.a) =27rCHx area of ellipse. 7. m inscribed paral/ I r^!5 ,1 TT^^ZA sin 1  cos lelogram ^^, and the sum r^) cc ^
(75"
*
2u
ultimately
cc
FH 
GF.
8.
area^C=If
AT)
A.JJ J o T?p
and
F
7?
\
.
9&gt;
(0
1.
O^e
J
and n
n
(e
1)
= a,
V.
sect.
iilt.
Fig.
p. 34, sect. ^1
(7Pcc
^ (7(? cc L A CO.
the
.
2
Prove
parallel
P N.
QN
made by
same plane
::
Moments with
5.
gravity coincide.
cc Vol. by area are equal; /. centres of JAVcc Fig. p. 26 (4) mass of ILVcc
PN
respect to
AL
AM*
270
vol.
NEWTON.
Mass of ATI= Ox cone. If pAAP be generated by PN. 7. (M5, density at If, prove that n = C.7r tan a. the sector and square revolving about CB. PQ a small arc, on on Vol. PM, CA, perp. Pm, Qn, by Pn vol. 2
by
GADB
:
PN
QN
^1Z&gt;.
: :
CA* 1
:
CM mn
)
ult,
: :
PM.mn
2CM.MN::
1.
2.
VI.
Vol.
ft 53.
by PNcc moment
In
T
^^=sm A An QN an jj ordinate near PJ/, take AP an arc of a circle, radius AC= AM, P Q ^MN, P M perp. to AC, PM. J/iVcc P M P Q oc surface generated by P Q cc M N Hence area APM= C.A M = A (7(1 cos j^ and to determine the constant C, when
a curve
of sines
let
,
TT O V. 3.
1
f
PM
\j
AM
L/
(7.
is
indefinitely small,
J^If.JfP. 0.40.2.
Z&gt;
"
ult.;
Let P (2 correspond to P, $, D on the P CD P Q CP 4. P CD PQ Q auxiliary circle, P N perp. from P near P; then area PJf = m area PZV volumes are as MM PI/ 2J\W. PiV. PJ/= m 2. 5. ^^^1
..
C=BC.
3.
::
::
flf
,
,
the semicircle, centre 0, Ci? perp. to AA\ , perp. to tangent at A, cutting off small arcs PQ, Q surface = 4?r. AC. PQ then generated by these =277 (I/P+JfP ) Z see p. 38 (8). 6. A"CA major axis of exterior ellipse, 2 1 oo PG\ : BC*::A M.A"M:A C .:P M*&lt;x SP.HPvz ; surface generated by P^oc .MNaz M. MN. on its conju 7. P, JP adjacent points on the hyperbola, in intersect the P, r, QRN^ gate PMjtnn perp. asymptote
&lt;,
MPP NQQ P
CD P
PQ
PM
PQ.PM* PG
:
BO
QN AC BC Nn
::
:
::
Mm.
VII.
the same, produce SP to Q, is the is same, triangle is In that the Shew 4. equiangular. equiangular. base take bisected by the centre 0, describe a square and let meet the semicircle in P, is an of the the centre of any 5. angle square required. circle touching the lines AB, drawn through the ,
making PQ = PH.
ellipses
make
:
PSH
SH 8Q SPH
SQH
AB D
ABCD
OD
given point
meets
this circle in
0"
the centres of the circles required. PO, QO , of a is made cone Surface 8. right up of an infinite number of triangles of equal mass, which may be collected in their centres of gravity and redistributed uniformly over a circle, \vhose centre is the centre of gravity of the surface. In the
meet
AO in
AC AD P, Q\ DO
DO"
parallel to
271
oblique cone the triangles are of unequal mass and the centre of gravity of the circle is not its centre.
VIII.
1.
2.
ST.SPac SY*cc
:
3.
AD to a finite distance. 4. Shew that QNPM. ON 0J/ PM 30M ult. 5. The fixed line the directrix. 6. PJ/
:
:
perpendicular to ult,
is
AB, AT. TB = PT =
2
MT
TO, T31=*2AT,
7.
.
SPF Q
8.
Pp, Qq
intersect in
the diameter
bisecting the chords, prove the tri CQq equal. 9. perpendicular to vertical down are as : I : 2. PA, (vel.)*
PM
MA MT::
perpendicular to
PF
and
SP SP=PP
IX.
ultimately normal
PG
is
sinSPG.
1.
Circles on
common
chord.
secutive radii,
PJ/:: Nn
::
SP, SP have perpendicular to PP for is the pedal. 2. OPQ, Opq con Envelope PJ/, QR perp. to Opq, Nn to OPQ, ult. pl[
:
SY
nP,
/.
OQ: OP;
the vertex, T, are in semicircle on TT\ and bisects Normal to locus of of ellipse. 4. Chord joining perp fixed line,
::
nQ :nP::
PJ/
PM,P M = SP (PMP M
and
TT is the chord of contact ult. TT and passes through centre P P ult. passes through S\ SD,
PN
AD
),
SP.PJI=SP .SN;
perp.
SD, (SP
. .
of circle round
2PJI=PUj
^ n cos FC.
centre of circle
is
in the fixed
line.
7.
eb
an ordiuate near
EB,

BU subtangent
^ Prove
8.
, ,
at JE,
_,
ebEB = =r Inn. ^
Eb
and
AD
:
TT :_
AD
jy
that /?.
=P(7
cos
/SP
:
:
/S
P. Z P/S4
constant.
9.
circular measure,
:
ST SP
:
..
ST
constant.
272
NEWTON.
X.
is a line 1. In the construction of Art. 57, the locus of 4. As (2) p. 76. 5. In tig. p. 67, produce parallel to GAB. draw 110 to Hj so that a, 1, perpendicular to
KA
AH
HAK=
,
the curve
is
a parabola, vertex
0, latus rectum
2
3
passing
6. Velocity Space in time t = \a (3 + ). through A. curve is a parabola AP, time measured on the axis, acceleration
oc
PM: 2AM,
Art. 54.
7.
Acceleration
oc
2AM:
PJlocPl/,
Art. 54.
XT.
corresponding, the acceleration changes discontinuously. point of inflexion implies that the ac celeration passes a maximum or minimum values. 2. If the accelerations the forces on be the of IJL /SP, iJt! S particle at P, that of the resultant force will be (fi + yu/) 6rP, Time is centre of gravity of p at S, and p at S where = TT (fj, + ft 3. Curve described as in Art. 57 is a parabola. 4. Curve of Art. 57 is a straight line inclined at tan /* to 2 2 2 a ). 5. AP, the line of motion; (vel.) at distance x fj, (x Uniform op their velocity curves ; draw chords AP, ap.
1.
At
the
time
)"*.
acceleration which
if L
constant, therefore therefore, be a similar. arcs are i.e. : also 6. Let AP, ap ap, towards force point at which the two forces are equal., whole comes to on the particle at Pec CP. 7. After impact
is
AP
PAM=Lpam, AM: am
PM
is
tanPAM;
B8+ SA + A
rest,
M gains
A* a
=M
BSB
wi s
m s time in time in 8A ;
XII.
.
= 8 4SA
.
3
..
&gt;SP
= 644 S
3.
hence a*+b*
..
= 30IP&gt;ab*.
5.
CP=CD.
6.
They
PF:AC:
CP, and
CP=CD.
7.
9.
Chord
parallel
= 3P.
P(? and
10.
2SP=2SP.
11.
CP are
P&lt;2
273
cos 2
PGP
as a
common
chord.
and
A C* = CP
.
COB2PG4.
12. Portion
CP= PQ proposed =
2
PC A,
40
n
in
13.
Diameter of curvature
ellipse,
all
&gt;S",
=I
is
same
14. In
fig. p.
both
.
.
AC.BC
hyperbola and
is
and
PF
the
constant for
produce
UA,
EA
the ellipses.
to
/
,
making
AU
both; 104
=AU* AS = AS
is
the directrix,
fixed.
XIII.
1.
Chord through
at
.4
A = 4*P.
of
.
3.
Normal
= radius
curvature
cos 6^
2
GG
BivG
*m*G
= semilatusrectura. PP smG = MM = GG
1
Chords
in direction 7.
2
PQ are
2
.
as
PT
sin
TPQ QT
:
siuTQP::
PT
2
:
QT.
&lt;?CM
:AC
9.
8.
^P^ tangent
asymptotes
both.
^
11^
j
in T, t;
PT=CD
PQ
common
corresponding points in auxiliary circle. Q i:pq:p q. Prove that Q P 20  ITT; .P Q = 2AQ sin 20. bisects radius CA, 10. chord perp. to the sub OS to AB. is S the tenses, perp. focus, SA the semilatus
Q P\
t
at the point of contact meets both curves, and PPis the same chord, pq diameter parallel to
in
P(&gt;,
qi
C=
PQ
AB
rectum.
.V*
11.
y=x
is
the tangent,
2 PQ* = x + i/
2
(J^
 
polar of P for confocal PQ QPF=RPF=a. HPF = SPF=0, QIIP = PHRtouching = 6, QSP=PSR=6 Produce SQ to JET, so that QH = QH. By
.
.
sm_(a
~~"
^)
1
SQ
8in~0~"
P
2a
5
sin (a
""
_
1
"
a
5
""Bind
sm(a/3)
sin
PR
274
NEWTON.
X1Y.
1.
 ABD.
Complete
2.
nit.
BT CT ult. 4. a, b diameters of curvature of AP, A Q at A, APQ chord through A, R P PR parallel to tangent AT. PM, QN perpendicular to AT: AP AQ AM AN
and
:
= 4 (?M
ADBF.
ACBF=%ADBF,
ACBE~ABD
..
::
AM* AN*
pv&gt;
"TiTF
b ::
PP
is
2
:
RR
:
~.
5.
Inscribe n rectangles
in
A CB of
,
which
.
PMNQ
..
.
one
n
tor the
2 (PJ/)
=
b.
Ab S (PM MN)
.
4v&gt;
bumlarly
tangent,
Any
.
small arc
PQ
of
AB
lie
which
2SZ.PV
SY"
lies between the circles of curvature at one entirely within the other. 7. SP
SP= SY  SY*
2
and Q, SZ = SY*,
(Art. 86)
2SP.SZ_
PV
) /
PV~
/.
=p
&lt;)
area
or
= JSyu.*
P&4,
a
(
f
TSP 4 rF ~ = At
"
SY =
2 2
/.
(a
+ a^ + J^
2
)(/&gt;.
9.
r5^ = iP/SU PP
,
radius of curvature
=2
pp&gt;
,
or
^
10.
sider
S=&SP or /SP parabola or cardioid. ABGDE the pentagon, BM, CN perpendicular to AE. Con
chord through
3
that
11.
Bm :BC:: PM CM
:
BM=%CN, Bm parallel
:
C.
Prove
:
AM=MN
to
Ab
;
meets
/.
OP
in
:
m.
be
.
be
BG
Pb
:
/.
be
be
/.
::
Pb.PMi
1. AM: 12. Sesr. AP=\ tri A TP, A TRB = seg. APB + } seg. ^P + J Keg P, angle ATHB ^1P5 n\ seg. AP seg. BP :: (m + nf seg, = A O* + n B0 APB + (m n)\ 13. (m + n)* + % (m + seg.
case 3;
be.
PM
:
PM AB AC
: .
QN"
by
Lemma
.
XI.,
m"
BO
page 9
(3);
AO^ZOC.ATult.
*
OQ*+ OQ =
OQ
XV.
QOQ
P, ^, 72 consecutive angles of the polygon, A P$/2= A tangent at Q parallel to PR. ^; on ^P, on BC, a rcct. inscribed in .^50,
1.
.
.
.
Q
.
near
P&lt;2
perp.
BO
meets
in
/f,
rcct.
E EFGH
EFG EFGII
on
rect,
275
meet
3.
in
Let
K EH D^KEHD,
are
KE,
HE
a
rectangles
..
equal
and
about
is
diagonal
DL
,
:
max.
Shew
that
axis,
P being
and tangent at P make equal angles with the major an angle of the rectangle. 4. PQRS minimum
parallelogram,
shew that PQ and RS are bisected by the points of contact. OA .P 5. Prove for the auxiliary circle. OQQ near
&lt;9PP
,
PQ.RS shifted
slightly so that
PQRS=P Q E S
AB
7.
= (c
+ a?) (x
fixed,
/.
 x) = 2c PO,
^1Z&gt;
(x
to
+ ax]
^&gt;
/.
x f x =
0,
a.
6.
intersect
,
about 0;
1
OCD= A O0
"
OA.DD =OB.CC
Suppose
:
OZ) turns
or
TJ a PP =QQ
small arc, tangents to interior oval, , radii of curvature are inversely as L L 8. PU\V, inter equal common chords through P, , and each other in F, triangles secting the major axis in Z7, are isosceles, Art. 85. Q, Q in aux. circle, cor C/Pr,
&lt;3
TP
OA.OD=OB.OC.
PU
W
;
TPT
TQT
UPT
in
respond to P,
intersect
P F
join
QU, QT, Q
L
then
UQ,
T
U Q W
/.
TFF=3PF.
TFTF
T
PP
.
cosa= TFIF
cosyS
and
^*
ABC,AB C consecutive positions; BC, B G intersect mD,BD = DC ult. GHK triangle formed by the tangents, prove that BB
WV
;
tan^ = 3tana.
9.
is
= GC.HA.KB.
at
"
10
POP QOQ
,
normals at P,
PP, QC
bisects
;
PP PC
,
&lt;?,
tangent
;
bisects
If P6r, be perpendicular normals intersecting in an axis, perp. normals through Q , and $, cutting the axis in 6r , G", P"G" normal at near = area by (9 = area by near P, area cut off by G", (7 and are on opposite sides of PGj .*. the and required normals are inclined at 45 to the axes.
J^
??
cut
into^p, &c.
qc and ^c perp. to
equal areas.
QG
pp\ qq
P"
^"
P" G"
XVI.
1.
Prove that
3.
it is ult.
PJ/: QJI::
=TT
QJf+AQ: QM ::
g
.
1.
2.
Art. 115.
nir
9 V/
\ 9 S1U 30
4.
Fig. p. 115.
276
NEWTON.
cuts circle on diameter
5.
PO
= JBS.
P the generating point, A its initial position A Q, tangent at Q bisects AP at right angles. Shew that PIf perp. QR touches circle through A of twice the diameter of the fixed circle. 7. PO radius of curvature touches the evolute, L SOP= a, PD the diameter, A PDS of constant
point of contact Q, on the fixed circle
is
in p, shew that Epicycloid degenerates to a cycloid, length Sb, or ^ira. see Art. 120; and ?z.27r& diameter through the 6.
08
&rcpS=arcRP
QR
form.
stant
8. straight line
S moves
AP.
10.
9.
perp.
to
SP,
at a constant
= AO.
angle to the
XVII.
= 2pm.mn.
arc
epicycloid
Lptm = L QAq L QBq, ultimately p Pp ::Pp :2pm::pt:pm:: BQ\ Qn, and Pp = 2Qn. 2. Fig. p. 117. PV=PV constant, difference of areas = 2 (Pp .W. L Pp F). 3. Pp, Qq intersect in R, PR = ^pR, pB diameter of rolling = circle,pPP and pCm are similar, PQqp SpqR = 4pR.pq cosBpP
Bq,
AQ
Pp, Qq corresponding
cut
in
n,
pm
perp. Pt,
:
AM of
4. Fig. p. 123.
circle
c centre of
on
Ac
as diameter
5.
= arc AQ^
AO.
APE,
touched by cQ.
6.
oc
In Art. 120,
perp.

for b gives
EP: GP.
oc
is
OR cc A
constant.
Fig. p. 123.
CR
at
FO.
$P,
7.
Force
consecutive positions of r, intersect , has SP turned to S in 0. p j through an angle equal cd PP =  ; the between .*. at the to tangents ; angle P,
8.
SP
in
PA
oc
PR
Tangential force
and
PA PR
:
SO
= = r 9. po, p q consecutive radii of T ^ p sm(p r paint/) curvature touch the spiral at qq LpSq is a right angle, area = 2 (\pf x pqp) = 2 (%Sp? cosec a x pSp) = ^$P* tana cosec2 a, Art. 127. 10. AC, tangents at A, P; OC, If 7 perp. PT, Art. 133, consecutive posi and If, = PP cosT= A CC O smCC CO tions of P, M, C,
.*.
PT
OC=PM,
AC=AP,
MM\
XVIII.
2. Curvature changed, 1. A = F. /SPsin/SPFoc sinfi^r. but not direction. 3. Time oc ^IPJ/oc AM. MP. 4. Normal
;2
cc

+
6.
5,
2
Velocity
U
(7D
than
BC.
(7Z&gt;
+ (7P
constant.
7.
277
aux. circle L
T ,n L CA=\rr,
4
1
area A
is
bL
2
=
+
a
ae.
:
8.
Area
AB S
area Vel. at
:
AB
8:: \TTC?
at
a.ae:
^rra
9.
Pxvel.
POP
V
t
1
a diameter.
constant.
$(HZ+SY)u constant. 11. Fig. p. 99. LYY P = L YSP = L SPO. YY cos YY P PP SY PO ult. /. vel, of Yx \PV= vel. of P x SY= constant. 12. SZ, SY,
and
1
10.
V
:
t ,
oc
HZ, 8Y,
;
perp. in
::
F ^
;
to tangents
,
at P,
Z"
YZ
;
8Zj
since
vel.
compounded with
that of
Pec
F^
777
ofr.
con
stant
XIX.
1.
Vel. perp.
PG
SG = ~.
JrfjT
DO
=
3.
2AS
YeLatPo0 ^^ Sam
perp. to
&gt;SPcc
CZ&gt;.
x .HZ+
/SToc
PF
Component
&gt;,.
If ^ be inclination of
P and D x a
sin 0.
sin
&lt;
cos
+5
c
sin&lt;
4.
T,
^
TT
+2e =?/?
 e cc
I
^
1
ult.
\
A
SY"
_A[_
7V
t+t
hence
7.
(n
*

+ l)AS=SP, AM=n.AS.
see
Am=~A8. n
oc
Vel. of
Foe
XVIII.
7
,
11
..
PFoc
SZ, and p
7
SY.
CM: CTis constant = sin 20 1 If they move in angles of P^P the intersection of PI and tangent
2
: ; .
in (7Z bisects PP Tangents intersect in T P (? and 7, and PQ, and /. P^7; .. vels. at and Q are as rCT": TQ 9. CD, CD parallel to TP, TP T(7 bisects in J/, 2CJ/ and reversed vel. of P, and represents resultant of vel. of
8.
PT
DZ&gt;
2$
A T for a minimum angle RST. P moving towards A, PSA ESA = ESA  ASQi P moving towards A QSA + RSA = PSA + A SR and A SR+MSA = QSA+A SQ; 2BSA=PSA tA SQ. 11. AP half the string, P begins to move with vel. v relative to A, and
=.
,
;
. .
through
Ct will
10.
PS&gt;QS,
278
force on
NEWTON.
P tends to A
moving uniformly,
rolls
therefore
line
P moves
in
circle
perp. tangent 7
velocities
PY
Op
::
intersects
PD PD
on a
PQ
SY
othe Take PD SP SP
o:
vel. perp.
:
SP is
constant,
and
PZ = e
. .
SP.
draw SU,
constant;
ZN
.*.
PZ, triangles PSD, PZS are similar; SY.SZ= SN.SP, 8N"i* perp. PD, SP. 1)17= e. SN is constant, .*. is PD perp. fixed,
DM
and SP=e.PD.
13.
(7) p. 105.
14:.
Art. 139.
1.
In auxiliary
circle
XX. A QQ +
AQQ
2 sector
QGQ
3.
2.
seg.
APcc
AS,
ocPl/
3
.
P^T
2 A /SOP. 4. Fig. p. 115, (vel.) at Poc BMcc SP vel. at P, perp. SP, has equal components perp. OS and OP; /. constant
perp. to
APM
2 seg.
QQ =
ATM AGP
force tends to 0.
5.
Projections of areas
&lt;x
areas
cc times.
XXI.
2.
^
jfi
oc
JL
./i"
J2
VT*
R*
8.
^
jfi
P,
^
"V
constant.
4.
y=
T
.
:
^5.
_
i
27TP27TJ?
288
:
7jB
:
"289
7;
F
is
Ju*
32.2,
y=187r,
ratio
feet in
51^:10.1.
=
r
9.
7.
=
)
the
number of
a mile.
ft)
= angular
x 39
gr.
Mg
;
77
=
I lag
two cases 3 (y
= 32.2
I
velocity of the earth, tension of the string in the a x mass of 24lbs. .. 4077 & x 24 x 5760 gr. 7r&&gt;)
10.
the
coefficient
of
friction,
v*
= /u/y,
length of
moving
part.
XXII.
1. Perp. from the intersection are inversely proportional to the sides. 2. DCE, EAF, parallel to AB, BC, CA, S intersection of CF. in the lies three 3. AB, AC, AD, BE, = AC, a point in a circle touching AB, at tangents, on if a, /#, 7, be perp. from shew that 0, BC, CA, AB, B, centre of circle circumscribing A BC; BA, CA, a* = /3y. 4.
FBD
AB
BC
AC
OB, OC; shew that perps. from A on AB, AC are as AB S lies in AA. 5. PT, AC inversely as the velocities, BT tangents at P and B, PT, CB intersect in TU parallel to
perp. to
:
.*.
t,
279
Ct
oc

BC meets DC mU, UZpcrp. FT, vel. at Pec TU UZ:: vel. at P: vel at P, /. centre of of P. pcrp. A C) for all positions
:
CD
TU
TU
j^cc
force lies in
XXIII.
1.
2.
4.
5.
:
No
o)
pressure at
Pthe
point of leaving,
in
g.
BQ = =
.
^
=
e)*
change of direction
::
time t.p
ult.
=
CO
6. (1
ef
Ct)t
(1
57
I
10"
Gl
10".
e=
016905.
.
7.
about
T7 sin
7 P$
^TTT
Angular
velocity
8.
lang.
time depends only on the ratio of the bounding radii. 9. DE, from starting point and at any time. Pressure at PJ/perp.
AB
::
10.
Z
**
XXIV.
1.
Ace. of
of
relative to
to
is
AB.co\
in
rel.
B
2.
as
and
&gt;
B rel.
A, and equal
to
direction
CA.
vertex,
SP
(6)
per. time
p.
3.
At
the
in
184,
2/i
^
,
^i
2/u
j
pressure
=W
K"
O^ 2
JL
4.
As
T
in
XVIII
11,
V
R
^7
V:
SY JPK
:
and
F.\PV
.
V\
is
5.
the resultant of
n and
r since
pressure;
.*.
pr
F g cosa=
and
yur
cosa
=E
sina&gt;
0,
280
NEWTON.
lies
,\ yur
1/00
AY*.PV*
7.
P&lt;9
^ AY*
CQ
2
.
PF
__ __ CT~ CT~
=
~
6.
PFcc
CD*. . p ,
AY
cc ^4JV.
meets
conjugate to
CP in M.
to
;
Pec ^
.
PM
AC
/ oc (
PJf oc
.
PJV ordinate
round
44(7,
a
CD P3f C2V=
"
2CN = PP
9.
8.
p.
2
Ang.
vel.
.ffcc
cc
p.
(6),
1
In
(5),
183, 41?
at
C3/=j4C7.
10. As in
;
p. 184,
/
(vel.)
A
(vel.)
at
P=4a
..
u(i ^L)
^afju
/.
(vel.)
at
b \
4x^1
^J
= 4a/z
(I
^
=
*
l\
^j

^
+
cc
^
2
,
ace. effect
of pressure on tube x p
11.
SP.HP
also tbat
2
2a
Prove tbat v
vt
^ + X5 a
2 y
+
:
^ CD
/.
2 ) ;
 X. (7P
r r
 =
p
*
v*=
+ \CD* = CD be described
ace. effect
if
^ .(4a 2r/J
^ +X a
r/
2
(a
+ &  CP
12. v. = vel. at P, 21 the a of the tension, AS, P/Sthe least and greatest distances
= Xa*^.
m+ = a 71
2
a
,
2/j,
\a
c
2
 1 ~ =21 + 3 cos/SP(9, a r
, 1
rj
\
/3
\r
*/*
&lt;
a c r
;
2
.
is
maximum
when
or
=a c
2
and
.
Ta
T
,
least vel. is at
when
Ta = 0,
^
(a
c)
(a
c)
Tr If
c
v b least.
XXV.
^ T=\TrR*\ E*. 2. Sum of Express h in terms of /LI. is constant. intersects dia on 3. parallel tangents perps. the same meters through 8 in 0, OL OM:: SL SM;
1.
LM
x
PV
.
f for
T L
and
J/.
4.
5.
,.
,.
periodic
time.
SP*.
PQ
3
}
and the
281
3
,
sum named
Art. 190.
QC f
:sp
4 ^\ __OCy
^.
6.
Force
cc
(SPSB)~
;
7.
2
f6&gt;S
=
).
+ FT
7
=
,
2
2(&lt;9"
8.
is
the same at
*=&!.& P and /.
,
Toe
vel. at
Prove that
about&lt;?=
= 0.
Ang.
,iisofn + l
dimensions,
/.
m4
SG
(n
12. Alitcr, p. 221. parallel to the axis, being infinite is = SP. 13. Project the ellipse into a circle constant, and described in the same periodic time, p, q projections of P, $, small arcs PR.pr are described in same time, forces at P, p are
as the subtenses parallel to
RP
1)
11.
See Prop.
XL,
Prob. VI.,
OP, Op,
i.e.
::
OP:
Op,
force
Up .pq
XXVI.
u*
1.
CP*
u*
2.
Fig. p. 115,

J)
and

PM* PF pcosPGM* ~GM~ GV.PU* 4. ^ the ace. at P in both cases. V*= 2F. SP
:
AM.MQ
in both cases.
5.
PJ/
the
common
is
ordinate.
AM.MB=PM***L,AM.u
or
the
same
in both, therefore at
if
be the centre,
XXVII.
li
.
1.
UL=
n
constant;
.*.
is
sin a
o^is
&gt;SP
SJL
TTTTS
.
oP
2.
/.Pol being
T_
Being Fcosa.
/^ is
Since the vel. vV ? is that the spiral angle, and time to the centre
4.
=a
time from
to
L=
6.
2
i?
,
5.
In a spiral of angle
.
a, vel.
=
is
which
is
true
cos a
finitely
diminished.
cc
r,
Angular velocity
i/
=
P)
(r
when a
,
inde
.*.
cc
r.
F sin a =
P
and
(Pcosa
sec a, ult.,
00
282
.Fcosa
3s, 2s
,
NEWTON.
Jftxv.
1
7.
Vj
(,
3
velocities
ult.
of approach at distances
3
t/
v =2 ^ 6
ult.
&lt;)
=/
,J7 ( \S 5
\
(s
S SJ
_ 3 =yy x
)
75 S
5)
S J
v*
=fa
\S
2)
a
J
1
Draw PJ/
v
ordinate to semi
circle
on 2a,
the centre,
CM=s,
= *J(fa)
PM
jrrf
ult 2
"
"
Time
in
MM
, ,
/I/
"
PM
PJlf
.
._
"
//a /I
I
/a
F 2
2
V
.
flj
4
.
F2
m
A
K*  of)
{
_
is
~
vi/a)
I
7~:r\
=P
M PM
"/TIM"?
2
time to
3
/7
.
&lt;r
a,
F 2a/

/a
F a/) =
let
=
4Jbo
veL )
In
equiangular
spiral.
.
8.
, ,
triangle, velocities
Aa.
5c
m J3b
b
, 1
=
&lt;p
z.
Bb y, 7 Bab = lab
sin
c
if
T\
ad
:
7,
::
hence
:
similar to
ABC;
Bab,
Aa
ab
AB, hence
angle 0,
will
SA _ ~"
^

if Aa, ad subtend at S the same be the focus of the spiral described by let
BmjfH^) _
J
/. JT
Sa
ab
=1+6 cotB+
and
..
^^ =T\ =6(cot^l+cot(7), ac .: SAB= SBC= SCA, and the subtending at AB, BC^ CA the
,
 
supplements of B^ G, A.
XXVII.
2
bis.
I.
= ftc
ft
(VeL)
,
in
circle
(3),
*
=fiCF* = nCD*.
c
(2)
is
2.
(Vcl.)
in
circle
in
(1),
is
(2),
c"
a semiaxis;
(3) c*.
2
semiaxis
=
c",
(1)
w,
wV,
In orbit
2c*=
2
&lt;7Z&gt;
a = 2c, 6 1 = J. Semiaxes are c and 2c. 4. y^c = 3 = radius of curvature CD *J ft + h. 5. A and 6V) are unchanged, 2 2 = = Sb 2 is 9 6. ecc. angle of JTT, fa* + J&* ^ 4, 3a 7. ^ = attraction of unit mass at unit distance, m = mass of parallelepiped, Gil perp. from centre of gravity on the smooth
3.
/*&",
a, b
(V5
=\
tan
1
2.
C/&gt;
H
,
at
w=
.
P^m.HP^
%t*R
10.
Vy""&lt;3)
em
7/1
+W +^=
rtZ&gt;,
^ = uCD ^ n2
P
7 h
771

283
CD
CP=AP. CD CP
,
:&gt;
circles.
12.
V/*
CD,
Dx P
P
CP
acquired
is
P
.
.
at
DD
1
}
P,
= Jn.CP.T = ve\.
2
at
T, and the
at
P,
particle in the conj. hyperbola is at Z) when thin if once at extremities of conj. diams. they will
v*
13. At the point of intersection (vel.) = ^CD* = pSP.HP in both. 2 =  V* 4 GUP = a* + b*  CD\ also a2  = CS 2 = a"+&". at the end of the 14. Distance described by a particle at of will be at the it the C angle opposite parallelogram given time CPED, the theorem follows by the aux. circle. 15. Vel. perp. sin V/* CD.PFr PE, constant.
be always, and
a"
 v*
= p CD*
(
CP = /* (a V P=CD,
ft").
SP=
V/"
CD
SPY=
XXVIII.
directions of conj. diameter, and all pass a quarter of the periodic time, which is the same for all, *J/jt,.CD being the vel. of projection. Resolving vel. and ace. in CX, CY, all are equally accelerated parallel to lie at any time in a line parallel to CY, whether the CX, ace. cease or not ; hence the tangents to their paths at any time 2. (i) Ace. perp. conj. pass through the same point in CX. axis is the same for all, and initial vel. is zero, (ii) Hyperbolas
1.
CY are D in CX in through
CX,
.
are similar,
/.
r* = ^,*
CB,
vel. at
3.
AP
equal
and
parallel to
J
P=\f/j,.CB, CP,
.
CB
are semiconj.
diameters of the quarter ellipse described in the second period. Time from to A = time from Vel. at B=^f i. CP= t/p.BA = the arc, (vel.) at to P. 4. 8 the centre of force, 2 = p (SA* 2SB ), SA* SB* (\ diara.) conj. to 8B. 5. In the = /. in the elliptic orbit spiral F and SP* sina = a&. 6. / the ace. effect of the
BAB
51
51
/*P^SP=//P.SP;
= natural
length
constant force, c
total central
of
string;
= c f 1f T\
&gt;
V,
force
T f = \fr* J
m
c
= initial
length, (vel.)
&lt;
mjj f 2 2 =Z&gt;
vel. in a, b are axes of the ellipse, b&lt;c, i.e., vel. of projection circle at distance equal to length of unstretched string ;* the
ellipse
is
deserted
when
= c,
the
string
becoming
slack,
284
8
NEWTON.
(vel.)
f =(a
c
f b*
),
of
motion
1
cot"
ab
/.
7.
a, /3
semiaxes of orbit
2
?^F^
M\
a (a
+ ff  a = oW,
2
)
of
6"
CP
to
"
tan
a
,
clinations of r
^^ / r to
,
^
axis,
sin
/3 /3
V
1
major
extremities.
r
/3
/3
V/*
[p
1
^)
.
=
TT
1

(r sin
^ r cos ^
,
ab VA6 6 Vf* time at the any moving in directions TP, P, Q particles s vel., Q s vel. rel. with vels. which are as TP: TQ, reversing to P is in PQj and if Q be the corresponding chord in the revolve with equal vel., aux. circle, since GP\ Q and moves parallel to itself. .*. 10. C centre of gravity of
9.
r sin 0)
a*
= rr
sina

^ Time = 7
TQ
P GQ
G.
4.
PQ
: :
to
PG
=
biseots
(7Z&gt;"
: :
vf
A
/.
.*.
times from
^PG^to
2
QR
in p.
pR
CD*
equal.
i
i(V + ^ + O=iAt(aH//). 11. 4 PA ^ P 5 the two inclined at 6 to GA. ellipses, PP joining the two particles
P/f + PQ* + 2
&lt;3^
= %QR* +
of
2/&gt;
Corresponding
Reverse
rel.
ace.
P=/tPP
time.
= vel.
in a circle,
PP =
.
of orbit;
B\
1
x
T..
,
A = y^ (& 4 V)
12.
cos#,
//.PP sinfl
\//^
(a a)
axis
24a major
1
B,
(7.
time
in
BC = a~^ x
..
z.
jB 4
C =
s*,,
area ot circle
= /z~ J
CD,
sin
DQP) D Q P consecutive
(2irm).
t
13.
Vf6
GD
&lt;?^
vel.
CD
in
t,
and
i
CP in
. .
orbits,
common
T;
G F, C
is
equal,
utt.
normal
CP =
/.
hence
T:
P V::PT:
PY,
^P G
CP,
XXIX.
He
~
HP
aU+e)
2nj,
HP
..
..
lS
unaltered
285
Li
C
c/
V
\Jv
~~
r
A
(1
 e) = a
7.
(e
1),
 e.
5.
6.
About
40".
In both orbits V*
2
,
=8.
V*SF
sin
a
2
= /*a
: :
F SP
&gt;
cos*a
= IL a
4
fr
6"
SP. //P.
BC*
is
SY
HP
HP
is
a 9.
=^ a H
*
2
+ , a
,
a circle,

e =
10.
O7T
p
Time
:
Pfl
4a
+A
a year
::
R.R
time
39
days nearly.
12
HP
parallel
,
to
and
.:e
= *j3.
/#
Cv
2
.
,=n a,
(7Z)
=;
conj.
a,
the
semiaxe.?,
+ & = 2a*,
15.
2a/3
= a6.
14.
2
\
A.&gt;/
&gt;Jr
or
= le.
F*+
g
i
*
is
the
angle,
tan&gt;
~
H
^P
in
Locus of
a &
OL
circle,
two points H,
2a
lie
,1
TTrtTT ^HPH,
+
a.
=
2a
. .
HP Sin X
is
produced =2a,
18.
and
if
= 26,
SPH = GO\
H P HP H SP=90.
in
XXX.
1.
centre of gravity of
7?Z
P and P
\
,
r
771
=
77Z
77Z
771
Force on P=s = ^rt towards G fixed. 2. 2c. 4a f r z +?/z / CrP the diameter and latus rectum II =/JL 2a, prove that \/(ca)(c+2a) is a maximum, two nearly equal values a, a make the time the 2 a +*2af (c + 2a) (c (a ^ = 4 (c + a f a] .. c H 2a / = ~^same, /. ca c a a a = 4(c rt) and c = 2a. 3. Prove that in the old and new orbit h = 2h and a a 1 e*. 4. u, v init. vel., prove that e?
.,
77Z
Tft
286
&gt;
(iAMSM)PM
!_
__ _ _
v.bY m and m
f for
~
NEWTON.
v
It
PM
~TPM&gt;
u cos
u
M
9
_
3SP
A*
,
SP+2AS
It
VPI
of
round
S
i
.
.*.
m8
,
new
orbit
.
 a r
2/*
IJL
I 
arr
cc
(rr
j
r).
. 6.
_
Kate
PQ.CZ
rSir
CZ
cc
ult.
.
I
_
7.
Ecc.
angles in the two aux. circles of the point of intersection are 30 and 60, periodic times are equal, times proposed are as
P intersect
goes round
the
/.
V3
(27T4 3)
9.
8.
O&Pthe
PZ,
.
in
SZ
and
perp. CS.
CQZ Z,
foci
t
hence
PZ CQ CS = CZ
9.
C
b
fixed.
H,
in
PH=PH
empty
of two
P,
SP+PC= SC+2CH
=\ Gt
constant.
10.
SP=5AS, PSQ=*SP, h =
%h,
is
an hyperbola if SP&lt;AC, chance is area BAB S: area ot 12. Resolve as in (6), p. 147, and ellipse =7r 2e:27r. s h ve reversed to P. Vel. of P re I. to Q is resultant apply $
QH= 2 ^JbPQ.
Prove that 90
+ P8Y= HQP.
11.
New
orbit
SP
and SQ.
13.
ABC
an inscribed
5^
AD
CA
intersect in
// the empty
all
and the
tSQ and
ellipses.
BC
circle intersect in Q,
6LL
in P,
SQ=SP+PJfj
LL
perp. to the
axis,
is
=
^^.
15
Change takes
place
when the body is at the extremity of the latus rectum through H, a (1  e*) tan SPH= 2ae, ASP = %7r + 2 tan~V 16. a = 2a, BE = 3BS, bisects EH .: CK parallel to 8H\ 3tf = V\ SE meets BCB in G, GC = $BC, SG Gil :: SB: BE
= GC
x [2
\
axis
is
1
.
2ae
17.
=
a
1
:

a/
= 1 + n.
.
1:1
.HH  mBSH =
s
~y=
n tanX.
/.
18.
Old
vel.
=2
cos ax
new
vel,
and h unaltered,
2S7
(l 4. e
8
)
8
7
4e*(le
19.
l^?
e
anc*
e cos
xjr
=  cos 2a
cot2a&lt;l.
impressed
e/j,
vel.
TO
fL
fj,
?
j
it,
~v A
~z,
~J7 h
20.
ft /*
..
_ = h h = uh h
e e e
fju
6t
/
5
(//
fc)
+ a = 2.
PP = of,
SP
/*
unaltered,
P SP=
6
/3
=
"
,
resolve parallel to
and ^S,
sin
=
cos 0,
/,
(e
sn(
ear cos
=
9
sin(^/S)+
sin ^, e
 e)
1.
sin
= /3 
=^
or, /. es
e = {3
sin ^.
XXXI.
point, AP tends to B and varies as the distance time depends on AB: AP a constant ratio. 2. Ahout 64J days. 3. (vel.)* at P from Q^pPQ+SP.SQ. SD=SQcosO, e.SD=SP(l+eco80). 4. O Q, VHiAODperv.&C] BE BQ BD $ (ccosB+ a) \a ccosjft, hence HQ DH, and 00 = 30 G. Force tends y^.^ P n s e 2 At.P/7 ^ rr = to hannonic, 5.
^4
Pa
chord from
^1,
05
force in
::
^motion
(vel)2
SMP*
4f )
PU
6P./S"P
%Cl&&gt;
SP^&
=
~AS
sin a.
2
fs
7.
2
(
4,
= * AS and ^ a ^ 
^=
P the
}
AD
the natural
length, and
bisects
,
AB, nx weight
ace.
, towards
/i particle at
~
any time,
C=
nn J
(BPAD
(
AD AD
)2
= modulus,
APAD\
)
on
reflectlon
2
)
(a i i reflection
/*
Time
i
direct to centre
= 2vr
= ^TT= \//z,
time added by
perp.
CM =e (AC* CM*).
Limit
L
is
= e cot (vel.f at M= ^(AC*  CM*}, after re O  (7J/*) (sin*# + e cos*0), square on semiaxis
(9,
V//.
9.
6,^jr
XXX IT.
1.
\.
:
2
AB
PM
revolves round
perp. AB.
ADa
A Ma (= L AEa) ::AE: AD
to ab,
::
SP
pm
PM
TU perp.
ult.
EM
EM,
:
DX
DN.
J/P, prove
and
PU= PM.
288
F.
NEWTON.
4.
Poc
angle of
^ cos SPY x CD cosDCA oc CN. 5. Ecc. CD* = ^ + JZ/ = $b\ 6. A straight line P=~. o
TJ. 2
.
np
.,
whose
8.
it
sina
oc

7.
~p
Starting a given distance from the horizontal diameter, leaves at twothirds of that disrance. 9 h is increased in the ratio 72:!. Vel. of Toe vel. in 10 faJU. 11.
1
AY PM
13
SP
,_
!&lt;
of
a planet,
M
c"
72,
^ocrs. n
&lt;r
mean
a
/
= ^ e TVT +1
2^
(e
a(l
e)
=a
is
+ 1)^
.
or
/N
(
/^
le
and
"i
(e
centre
ellipse.
the
14. The directrices touch the circle whose 1). other focus and radius the major axis of the
XXXIII.
that Bb Aa AB + AC AB + 7? (7, also 1. Prove PB.BC: PA, AC, lience PAPB PA+PB :: AB(BCAC] + jB(7  ^ 6 ^15 (A C f ^C) AB\ PAPB=BCAC. 2. Radii of curv. at P, $ are as TP TQ and TP, TQ are TP.L TPT = TQ.LTQT equally inclined to the tangent TT ult. 3. /ST, SP have equal angular vcls., vel. of V x s\i\SVD
:
: : :
::
ri2
f
..
:
/SFoc
P 2
5Fmn^Kl&gt;
= 2^fi
J
/.
vel.
of
Foe
oc
4 BCperp.4G.
Force*
6.
P^:
p.
/SPoc
.
.
ig.
117.
5Q ^Y ER PP
2
:
oc
:
:
AB
2
:
SP*. 5
PS
PP
7.
::
vel. of
pegs, bead P describes two portions of ellipses with uniform vel., on same or opposite sides of of which B* C are foci, A and
Pec BQ,
vel.
of
constant.
A, B,
the three
EG.
::
T?PJTension oc 777?,
:
(&lt;p
i
j
^o D
when
2
BP = CP
A
8.
/S
Time
4?T
a.2a
2
.
78 days.
9.
SPcoseca.
periodic time
rod,
^r,
10
(Vel.) 9?T
2/cosa.
P seca,
/o
=
i,
7 in hours
/i
= 2j
days nearly.
H. A~B
the
on
attraction point in a circle about ACJ3 7 bisects JlPZ? and passes through C. 12 P2 tangent and
fixed point;
289
PU
perp.
SP
meet majoraxis
:
in
:
T,
U;
.
PM perp. TU must
.:
bisect
TPU,
*:
::
PT 2PM

PU,
2PM=e.PU.
^Jcos/SP&lt;2,
2
13.
If no pressure at P,
2
= /*
j rr
(^
\
f
^+
/A
hence
(vel.)
at
P= ^ a
/*
/rr
\4a
a
i 4a 2rr
4 a
(4a ,
rr
,
)* ;
4rr
n*.
+ r?
(r* l
"t.^LL
also(vel.)
2
I
=
8a
+r ~
*
2
is
e*)}
the
same
r a (I \r as in the above.
2/i
,
of which
e*}J
XXXIV.
1.
ty
= inclination
tan \Jr
.
Area
.*.
PCQ=
sector pCq.
= =
tan0,
tan^Jr
2b
j tan^,
ijr
^?r ult.
sin
J^&gt;
when
. .
&lt;^&gt;
=00
2#
sin
J(/&gt;,
sin^
=  pq
sini/r
= 25
ult.,
vanishes
ult.
Area
z 3 ult.= ^ (I sin#) 2. Common chord ab$ 12 62o of circle of curvature and either conic is inclined to the axis at the same angle as PT, and is .*. PQ. Tang, at Q meets PTin the parabola in P, and meets U bisects diam. PQ Z7, through is tang, at E. 3. rad. of earth = 4000 x 1760 x 3 in feet = a, o) = ang. vel. = 27rr (24 x 60 x 60). QJ/perp. the
.
PCQ =
ET
QCE=\
s circular path; a cosX.o^, ace. axis CP. Qlf.co is vel. in in 6Y and^ ^ 2 =6r 2 +2 racos\.o&gt; 2 COS(TT X) to J/, is resultant of 4 2 aw* cos*X. 4. PJ/ radius (acosX.a/*) ; neglecting ,
&lt;2
of circle described
tang,
to
by
9= G P; (vel) = 2#
o&gt;
^O/;
P&lt;2,
PI
normal and
surface,
r.
PM
.
MG,
5.
= TM.MG,
at/S;
2
F = vel.
2 atP, v
T^
 ^,  =
2
::
f
&lt;
at 3 :
A
1.
6.
PP
290
7.
::
NEWTON.
PP, QSQ
Trab
;
and
circle.
ASP: ASQ
oc
.
ird
z
.*.
,
PQ is perp.
I
AS.
Vel. in circle oc
~^
O /Y
Z&gt;
PP
impact
of
2
first
and second
PEP m
QC
R, second arc will be the reflection complete ellipse the plane as a mirror. the point of projection, 9.
h}perbola. ^jrf j^ C on same side as $, then changes from \SA to co on the opposite side. Force QC dist. SA diminishes from oc , is one semiaxis, the other QC vel. 10. a the new mean
(velV
21 _ a
.,
PQP
r ellipse,
and
cc ~
21
,
for
AC
distance.
^=
a
(2 V
.,
} a/
7?,
,.
,
=
:
*,
:
ZT Jf JIZ:
change
m
.
the
apsidal
line
coiSPH = HH = ~=
2
8M: SH.
 11.

2ae
ae 13.
ae
,
e )}.
12. See
XXX.
1
1.
r distances of
is
of
which
at
rest
or
moves
uniformly.
.
S=
r*
S .= (E + Sf
3
E and
$.
r*
betwecn
= CQ.OT.
(}/j
V
77^
C/D
to
CY*
T
7
a
&lt;9^
=:
"
~OP~ OT~&gt;
acc
a 6 \^
XXXV.
Fig. p. 131. entre of curvature A
1.
QT QG tangent TPG= A T QG
, ,
..
at
GPQG
Q,
ult.
has revolved through TT, tion of the line, Rp = QP, when and p trace the whole curve, let comes to p, bisect $72, let turn through a small angle to Q about 0, , , jt?
4P0760
QR
.PM=&lt;2PU=2AP.
2! Take
OP
QPR\ny
posU
the
new
positions
of P,
(7,
p, corresponding
area
betweea
291
 OP + OR*  0*) x / = locus of P and Q* ellipse = i (00 + CQ)  2 (CP4 x A whole aria = TT {2 the centre of the circle 3. J (c + c)* 4 (c  c) = TTCC
2
6&gt;C*)j
.1
&lt;9&lt;2,
q. pT, tangents, p Qq = Sp T= SPT= Pq Q, Pq, pQ parallel, and bisects pSP. 4. P Q consecutive positions of P, Q. vertical diam. meeting BO in 0. SP.SQ=SO.SA.
Pand^&gt;,
&lt;),
touching at
circle in
PT
..
flt at
pPvel.of^
,
and
SQ
at
See
SPH, and
6
5=
2/
"
CBH
^
pre ssure at
1
^
(vd.}
/JM"
2 ae\
y
l"^
P=
MM
unwound
v* ri o **
iJ / )
PP^ \W fV ^ W
Prove, as in
;
T~J
PP/
a sma11 arc
&gt;
^PJ/ C P J/
)
ordi
(6), p.
184 that
time
in
A and 2
"&lt;$,.f
i"".
^
string at
7D /O
4
0. 4.
tlmc to
A
B=
_ /*
_
timot=arcAQ
.
(aV + 20) of
**")
i) FQ the
It
PL
w 2 2
if
"
PL.PF*
"
PL
=2u$CA
tiraes
t.
Up*
the
n
length
c= OC
rf
of the
tube.
..
Tension in
CP=
= }c
OP.
2
;
00,
in
2^c
=
^&lt;f,
cp
o
or c
&lt;x
..
=&
10.
ace.
orbit oc
vel. in
hodograph
;
rectum
conj.
L LD, S D
2
11. LSS the latus ang. vel. oc (dist.)" tangents at Z, 8 intersect in directrix at
right angles.
t*.AS=g.
equal
diameters
iS
(a5) = 2Z
;
(Vel.)* at
and
2
.
tt
+J
tsr
L = 2g = 2Z1
the
.Z&gt;S=fj,.
,
(1A8)*.
ajrri sinjw,
(
(cosj7rsinj7r)
12.
change in direc
tion
h  k
=u
.
&gt;SP,
 ^] x
siuASP,
sm^=u
ASP,
ev=u+^ u.Sp
292
2
7^
NEWTON.
and
the vel.
^
n
=l + ecosJP.
13.
of striking ; v sin 6 = vel. parallel plane b If impact. perp. plane after n impact, e v cos
orbit
every be
circle, /
,
tan 6
=e
cot 0, v (sin \
*
+
1
cos 0)
*
= ei/
.*.
, *
2yL6 e.  A*
=
,
///
^*
and/.
=i
i
rf
2
Ifn=co,
"
(vel.)
^A*
sin
z /)
0=
A*
(2
\
)
"
14
THE END.
CURVE TRACING
BY
PERCIYAL FROST,
FORMERLY FELLOW OF
ST.
M.A.,
JOHN
COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE,
S
COLLEGE.
THE
a view
the
Author has
work with
who
is
ordinary
processes
of
Algebraical
which he must undergo in some form, if he wishes It would be to become an accomplished mathematician.
training in
difficult
another subject which requires so limited an extent of reading, and which yet foreshadows so many
to
find
processes which
are
employed
in
all
departments of the
higher branches of Mathematics, Pure or Applied. Espe manner the cially the student will acquire in an agreeable
power of discriminating the different orders of magnitude of large and small quantities, which will be of avail at the
outset of his
more advanced
studies.
MACMILLAN
&
Co.
SOLID GEOMETRY
BY
PERCIVAL FROST,
FORMERLY FELLOW OF
ST.
M.A.,
JOHN
COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE,
A\_$EW EDITION,
FOE
in
to
have
one volume
Geometry which
Physical I^.could without
I
of
would be
subjects,
useful
them
the
in
their
I have
endeavoured, as far as
material
sidered
departure
best
for
from
arrangement which
all
con
the
subject, to
include in the
first
volume nearly
MACMILLAN
&
Co.
RETURN
6423381
FORM NO. DD
3, 13171,676
II
003754514^
ONCIRCULATING BOOK
UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA
UBRARY
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