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Middle East Technical University AE 172

Spring 2010

Department of Aerospace Engineering Dr. A. Trker Kutay

Sample Problem
1. Consider a general aviation airplane flying horizontally at an altitude of 4,500 m with a constant speed of 60 m/s. The airplane has a rectangular wing made of the NACA 4412 airfoil. The lift curve of this airfoil is given in the figure. The area of the wing is 20 2 and itbs mean chord length is 1.6 . a) If the mass of the airplane is 2,400 , calculate the thrust the engine must provide if the parasite drag coefficient is 0.024 and the span efficiency factor is 0.92. b) What is the angle of attack of the airplane during this flight? c) What is the minimum speed the A/C can fly at (stall speed) that altitude?

1.9 Cl 1.7 1.5 1.3 CL 1.1 0.9 0.7 0.5 0.3 0.1 -0.1 -0.3 -0.5 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 (deg)

101

Solution: Since the A/C is flying horizontally with a constant speed, the net forces acting on the A/C must be zero. This requires = = The thrust must equal the total drag. The total drag coefficient is given by = 0 +
2

Middle East Technical University AE 172

Spring 2010

Department of Aerospace Engineering Dr. A. Trker Kutay

To compute the total drag we first need to find the total drag coefficient from the above relation. 0 and are given, we need to find out and . The wing is rectangular and the total area and the chord length are given from here we can get = 20 = 1.6 = 12.5 is given by 2 2 12.5 = = = = 7.81 1.6

= Next we need to find : =

1 2 = = 2400 9.81 2 2 2400 9.81 = 0.84 0.777 602 20 0.842 = 0.055 0.92 7.81

By using the air density from the atmosphere table given as = 0.777 /3 we get = Then the total drag coefficient becomes = 0.024 + The drag force is then = 1 2 2 1 = 0.777 602 20 0.055 2 = 1538.5 = = 1538.5 b) The lift coefficient of the A/C was computed as = 0.84. From the given data we can read the angle of attack from the curve as 7 c) For the minimum speed must be maximum. From the curve we can read 1.5. The speed that can support the weight of the A/C can be found from

The thrust required equals the drag:

The lift coefficient of the A/C was computed as = 0.84. From the given data we can read the angle of attack from the curve as = 1 2 = = 2400 9.81 2 2 2400 9.81 = 45 / 0.777 20 1.5

Middle East Technical University AE 172

Spring 2010

Department of Aerospace Engineering Dr. A. Trker Kutay

2 2. An A/C has a drag polar of = 0 + with 0 = 0.015 and = 0.05.

a) Find the maximum lift to drag ratio and the associated lift coefficient. b) Find the to maintain a constant value of 0.05 for each of the following values of = 0.75, 0.8, 0.85, and 0.95. Solution: a) Lift to drag ratio is given by 1 2 2 = = = 2 1 2 0.015 + 0.05 2 The lift coefficient that maximizes the lift to drag ratio can be found from
2 2 0.015 + 0.05 2 0.05 = =0 2 2 0.015 + 0.05

= 0.548

The maximum lift to drag ratio is then b) = 1 = 0.05 1 = 0.05 = 8.5 = 8.0 = 7.5 = 6.7 =

0.548 = 18.26 0.015 + 0.05 0.5482

= 0.75 = 0.80 = 0.85 = 0.95