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# Botkin & Keller: Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet 8th Edition

## Guided Reading Assignment: Energy Unit- Chapters 14-15

Name: _________________________________________________________
Chapter #14- Energy: Some Basics
1: How does the energy crisis in Ancient Greece and Rome compare to the oil crisis today?
Explain.
Energy Basics
2: What is work? Definition and mathematical equation.
Define the following:
* Chemical Energy:
* Kinetic Energy:
* Heat Energy:
* Potential Energy:
3: What is the first law of thermodynamics?
4: What does it mean to have a higher quality of energy?
5: What is the second law of thermodynamics?
They are compare because of the wood supply, they are reaching the edge of the oil and gas use.
For over distance. force x distance = Work.
Energy stored in chemicals compounds.
Energy associated with movement.
Energy of friction that slows down movement.
Potential energy it involves movement.
Energy most be conserved.
Energy easily converted to work.
The energy con go from higher to lower when you use it.
Energy Efficiency
6: Define: First-Law Efficiency
7: Define: Second-Law Efficiency
Energy Units
8: What is the fundamental energy unit in the Metric System? How is it defined?
9: What is POWER? How is it expressed?
10: What is thermal efficiency?
11: What is electrical resistivity? What does it cause?
Energy Sources and Consumption
12: What percentage of the energy in the United States is derived from fossil fuels?
13: What percentage of the energy use in the United States is used efficiently?
Energy Conservation, Increased Efficiency and Cogeneration
Define the following:
14: Conservation:
15: Cogeneration (define and give an example):
16: In the United States, space heating and cooling of homes and offices, water heating,
industrial processes and automobiles account for nearly ______% of the total energy use
Building Design
17: What is a passive solar energy system? Give examples.
The amount of energy without taking into account quality of availability.
Energy compared to the source.
Joule, dene as a newton over distance 1m.
Rate of ow of energy, work over time.
The maximum possible efciency of a heat engine.
Measure of how material are strong or how they ow.
It causes energy to convert to heat energy.
85%.
50%.
Using less energy and minimizing to meet needs.
Process to measure wasted heat.. Natural gas combined
with power plant.
60
Solar heat without moving parts. Widows positioned to from solar light, to keep the buildings cool.
18: What are some ways that older homes can be modified to be more energy efficient?
Industrial Energy
19: U.S. Industry consumes about _______ of the energy produced.
Values, Choices and Energy Conservation
20: Name 3 ways that people could modify their behavior to help save energy
21: What is the concept of Integrated, Sustainable Energy Management?
Micropower
22: What is the concept of micropower?
Critical Thinking Issue: Use of Energy Today and in 2030
23: How much energy in exajoules, did the world use in 2010 and what would you project global
energy use to be in 2030?
24: The average person emits as heat 100 watts of power. If we assume that 25% of it is emitted
by the brain, how much energy does your brain emit as heat in a year?
25: Can the world supply one-third more energy by 2030 without unacceptable environmental
damage? How?
26: In what specific ways could energy be used more efficiently in the United States?
Improve insolation, create passive solar systems.
1/3
Carpools, buying hybrid cars. Turning off the light when leaving a room.
Mixture of energy sources that are reliable and sustainable.
Smaller distributed energy.
25O joules, and the world would use more because of the growing population.
No, because of the growing population, it would require more energy and a longer process.
100 X .25 X 365 = 912 Watts.
Educating the public and encouraging them in use less energy, nding other ways to use
energy more efcient.
Chapter #15: Fossil Fuels and the Environment
1: What is Peak Oil? What is predicted to happen when we reach peak oil?
Fossil Fuels
2: How were fossil fuels created?
3: The major fossil fuels- crude oil, natural gas and coal- are our primary energy sources; they
provide approximately _______ of the energy consumed worldwide.
Crude Oil and Natural Gas
4: Where were crude oil and natural gas deposits created?
5: Why do we not find oil and gas in geologically old rocks?
6: What the favorable rock structure to trap oil and gas deposits?
Petroleum Production
7: How much oil can be recovered from wells by primary production?
8: What are enhanced recovery techniques of oil and gas deposits?
9: Where are 60% of the total known reserves found?
10: When will world oil production likely to peak?
Natural Gas
11: How is natural gas primarily transported?
Time when we reach half of Earth-energy supply, and its predicted that it would change our environment and
life style.

Formed by debris plants years ago, they got their energy from the sun.
90%
Marines or lake sediments called deposits basins.
It would take a long time and it would evaporate.
Anticline.
25%.
Steam, water and other chemicals are injected to make it easy to extract.
Middle eat.
Pipelines.
12: Why is natural gas considered to be a clean fuel?
Coal-Bed Methane
13: What is coal-bed methane and how much is estimated to exist? (How many years does this
represent?)
14: What are the PROS and CONS of drilling for and using coal-bed methane?
Black Shale Natural Gas
15: What are some of the concerns of hydrologic fracturing for black shale natural gas?
Methane Hydrates
16: What are methane hydrates composed of? How were they formed?
17: Where do methane hydrates form?
The Environmental Effects of Oil and Natural Gas
18: What are some of the environmental effects of recovery of oil and gas?
19: What are some of the environmental effects of refining of oil and gas?
It produces less pollutants.
Methane stored in organic matter of coal, estimated 20 trillion cubics. Around 5 years.
Pros: promising energy source, combustion produces less methane.
Cons: Expensive if it goes wrong, methane might migrate away from well sites.
Water contaminated or polluted.
Like ice compounds, made of methane. In the sediment of seaoor.
Text
Low temperatures, deep waters.
Pollution of groundwater and air.
Spill, or leaks of gasoline.
20: What are some of the environmental effects of delivery and use of oil and gas?
21: What are some arguments FOR and AGAINST drilling in the ANWR (Alaskan National
Wildlife Refuge)?
Coal
22: What is COAL? How is it created?
23: Which type of coal has the greatest energy content? Which type has the lowest?
Coal Mining and the Environment
24: What is strip mining?
25: What are some of the environmental impacts of strip mining?
Mountaintop Removal
26: What are some of the environmental impacts of mountaintop removal?
27: What does the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 require?
Spill.
For: more jobs, new exploration tools, the need of oil.
AgainstL: it can be dangerous, spill, it can scar the ground.
Brittle, solid, carbonaceous rock, created when decomposed vegetation is buried in a
sedimentary environment.
Greatest anthracite and the lowest is in lignite.
Mining process were a layer of soil if taken off in order to extract coal.
Acid rain, water pollution, damage of resources and habitats.
Flood increases, lung diseases, pollution.
Mina land to be restore.
Underground Mining
28: Underground Mining accounts for approximately _____% of the coal mined in the United
States
29: What are the dangers to miners in underground mining?
30: What are the environmental impacts of underground mining?
Transporting Coal
31: How is most of the coal transported in the United States?
The Future of Coal
32: The burning of coal produces nearly ____% of the electricity used and about ____% of the
total energy consumed in the United States today
33: How much air emissions are created using coal to create electricity in the U.S.?
34: What did the Clean Air Amendment of 1990 mandate?
Oil Shale and Tar Sands
36: What is oil shale? How is it created and where is it found?
40.
Explosions, collapse, eruptions. Diseases.
Acid mine drainage, land subsidence and coal res.
By train.
25 50
70% Sulfur nitrogen.
35% Carbon.
30% Nitrogen.
To the emissions of coal, and sulfur dioxide to be reduce to a 70 to 90%.
An approach to managing U.S coal resources and reducing pollution.
Fine-grained sedimentary rock. US green river, and middle east.
37: What are the environmental impacts of developing oil shale?
Tar Sands
38: Why cant petroleum be recovered from tar sands from conventional methods?
39: How are tar sands processed?
Water waste, it can become larger than it original volume.
Hard oow, and thick.
Oil in tar sands is recovered by mining the sands then wash out with water.
It takes two tons of tar sand to produce one barrel of oil.